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Sample records for 1-v law

  1. Main: 1V08 [RPSD[Archive

    Full Text Available 1V08 トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Beta-Glucosidase, Chloroplast Precursor Name=Glu1; Zea...EGLKDLLMIMKNKYGNPPIYITENGIGDVDTKETPLPMEAALNDYKRLDYIQRHIATLKESIDLGSNVQGYFAWSLLDNFEWFAGFTERYGIVYVDRNNNCTRYMKESAKWLKEFNTAKKPSKKILTPA corn_1V08.jpg ...

  2. Main: 1V3H [RPSD[Archive

    Full Text Available 1V3H 大豆 Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill Beta-Amylase Name=Bmy1; Glycine Max Molecule: Beta-Amylase; Chai... 495 AA, Molecular weight: 56011 Da ATSDSNMLLNYVPVYVMLPLGVVNVDNVFEDPDGLKEQLLQLRAAGVDGVMVDVWWGIIELKGPKQYDWRAYRSLFQLVQECGLTLQAI...MSFHQCGGNVGDIVNIPIPQWVLDIGESNHDIFYTNRSGTRNKEYLTVGVDNEPIFHGRTAIEIYSDYMKSFRENMSDFLESGLIIDIEVG...FLTWYSNKLLNHGDQILDEANKAFLGCKVKLAIKVSGIHWWYKVENHAAELTAGYYNLNDRDGYRPIARMLSRHHAILNFTCLEMRDSEQPSDAKSGPQELVQQVLSG...GWREDIRVAGENALPRYDATAYNQIILNAKPQGVNNNGPPKLSMFGVTYLRLSDDLLQKSNFNIFKKFVLKMHADQDYCANPQKYNHAITPLKPSAPKIPIEVLLEATKPTLPFPWLPETDMKVDG soybean_1V3H.jpg ...

  3. Main: 1V3I [RPSD[Archive

    Full Text Available 1V3I 大豆 Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill Beta-Amylase Name=Bmy1; Glycine Max Molecule: Beta-Amylase; Chai... 495 AA, Molecular weight: 56011 Da ATSDSNMLLNYVPVYVMLPLGVVNVDNVFEDPDGLKEQLLQLRAAGVDGVMVDVWWGIIELKGPKQYDWRAYRSLFQLVQECGLTLQAI...MSFHQCGGNVGDIVNIPIPQWVLDIGESNHDIFYTNRSGTRNKEYLTVGVDNEPIFHGRTAIEIYSDYMKSFRENMSDFLESGLIIDIEVG...FLTWYSNKLLNHGDQILDEANKAFLGCKVKLAIKVSGIHWWYKVENHAAELTAGYYNLNDRDGYRPIARMLSRHHAILNFTCLEMRDSEQPSDAKSGPQELVQQVLSG...GWREDIRVAGENALPRYDATAYNQIILNAKPQGVNNNGPPKLSMFGVTYLRLSDDLLQKSNFNIFKKFVLKMHADQDYCANPQKYNHAITPLKPSAPKIPIEVLLEATKPTLPFPWLPETDMKVDG soybean_1V3I.jpg ...

  4. Law without Law

    Sidharth, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a model for spacetime in which there is an ubiquitous background Dark Energy which is the Zero Point Field. This is further modeled in terms of a Weiner process that leads to a Random or Brownian characterization. Nevertheless we are able to recover meaningful physics, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's Law without Law, that is laws emerging from an underpinning of lawlessness.

  5. Business Law

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract l......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  6. Environmental law

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST)

  7. Main: 1V0H [RPSD[Archive

    Full Text Available 1V0H 大豆 Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill Ascorbate Peroxidase Name=Apx1; Glycine Max Molecule: ... xidoreductase 1.11.1.11 (Ascorbate Peroxidase) K.H.Sharp , E.L.Raven, P.C.E.Moody K.H.Sharp , P.C.E.Moody, K. ...

  8. Criminal Law

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law.......<> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  9. Environmental law

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH)

  10. World law

    Harold J. Berman; Robert W. Woodruff; James Barr Ames

    1999-01-01

    In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the ...

  11. Statute law or case law?

    Anderlini, Luca; Felli, Leonardo; RIBONI, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    In a Case Law regime Courts have more flexibility than in a Statute Law regime. Since Statutes are inevitably incomplete, this confers an advantage to the Statute Law regime over the Case Law one. However, all Courts rule ex-post, after most economic decisions are already taken. Therefore, the advantage of flexibility for Case Law is unavoidably paired with the potential for time-inconsistency. Under Case Law, Courts may be tempted to behave myopically and neglect ex-ante welfare because, ex-...

  12. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law. (fast track communication)

  13. Energy Law

    The author is trying very hard to present a systematic and compact description of the energy law as a whole. For reasons metioned in the first chapter, the energy law confines itself to the law relating to energy supplied by means of pipelines and transmission lines. Energy law and the law relating supplied by means of pipelines are therefore synonyms. There is no special energy law except the one relating to energy supplied by means of pipelines. The book - intended to be read by experts and undergraduates - discusses the subject and systematics of energy law, energy control, price regulations for electricity supply industry and for the gas supply industry, the law relating to pipe-laying, licence fees and law on cartels, supply obligations of the electricity supply utilities, legal issues of energy supply contracts, liability for supply disruptions, the legal nature of public energy supply, planning law, the relating to plant licensing, atomic law, legal protection in plant licensing procedures, the current structure of industry supplying energy by means of pipelines and, finally, reform demands. (orig.)

  14. Environmental law

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST)

  15. law 575 courses / law575helpdotcom

    law 575

    2015-01-01

    FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT www.law575help.com LAW 575 Week 1 Discussion Questions LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 2 LT Reflection Formative Assesement LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 2 Business Organization and ADR LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 3 Formative Assessment, Learning Team Reflection LAW 575 Week 4 Reflect...

  16. Laws Editorial

    Lawrence O. Gostin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available My life’s work has positioned me in two diverse worlds’ one in science and one in law [1]. I publish in both fields, and the traditions are very different. Law journals typically have narrow readerships, principally those in the legal academy. The law review tradition, particularly in North America, is student edited, non-peer reviewed, and characteristically long and detailed. Law libraries often spend large portions of their budgets on journal subscriptions, which they store in scarce space. [...

  17. Law 302.

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  18. Case - Case-Law - Law

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  19. Nuclear Law

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA)

  20. Nuclear law

    Different laws on use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes in Bulgaria and Italy are given here: civil liability, nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste, nuclear facilities, decommissioning, health and environment protection. (N.C.)

  1. Islamic Law

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-01-01

    The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-...

  2. Secrets Law

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  3. LAW 531 Uop Material - law531dotcom

    honey

    2015-01-01

    LAW 531 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.law531.com   LAW 531 Week 1 Quiz (Knowledge Check) LAW 531 Week 1 DQ 1 LAW 531 Week 1 DQ 2 LAW 531 Week 1 Individual Assignment The Legal System and ADR Analysis LAW 531 Week 2 Quiz (Knowledge Check) LAW 531 Week 2 DQ 1 LAW 531 Week 2 DQ 2 LAW 531 Week 2 Individual Business Forms Worksheet LAW 531 Week 2 Learning Team Reflection IRAC Brief LAW 531 Week 3 Quiz (Knowledge Check) ...

  4. Secrets Law

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  5. Recent publications on environmental law

    The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP)

  6. Recent publications on environmental law

    The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.)

  7. Case law

    This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel

  8. Islamic Law

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  9. Criminal law

    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.)

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DNA OF A NONOCCLUDED BACULOVIRUS, HZ-1V

    The DNA of the nonoccluded baculovirus (Hz-1V) obtained from the IMC-Hz-1 cell line was characterized by physicochemical and restriction endonuclease techniques. Hz-1V DNA isolated from purified virus had buoyant densities of 1.58 and 1.54 g/ml in CsC1-ethidium bromide density gr...

  11. Case law

    This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain

  12. Case law

    Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

  13. Nuclear law

    The preclusion of objections made a legal norm in Sect. 3 para. 1 of the Ordinance concerning the Procedure for Licensing Installations (Sect. 7 para 1 (2) of Procedural Rules under the Atomic Energy Law) does also cover the court proceedings. The non-availability for public inspection of detailed drawings of those parts of the building which are important for its safety is harmless if there is the danger that the publication of these technical details will provide technical information likely to facilitate potential acts of sabotage. Procedural rules must not be interpreted in such a way as to give rise to inconsistency between the aims of the procedure and the purpose of the conditions to be met before a licence under substantive law is granted. Taking the necessary preventive measures against potential acts of sabotage must not be complicated by the way in which the procedure is organized, and its efficiency must not be jeopardized. Lueneburg Supreme Administrative Court - 7 OVG B 88/77 - Decision of February 5, 1981. (orig.)

  14. Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.

    Strauss, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

  15. Case law

    This section of the Bulletin brings together the texts of the following case laws: Canada: - Judgment of the Federal Court of Canada sending back to a joint review panel for reconsideration the environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario. France : - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 358882); - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 362001). Slovak Republic: - Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; - Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. United States: - Initial Decision of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Ruling in Favour of Nuclear Innovation North America, LLC (NINA) Regarding Foreign Ownership, Control or Domination

  16. Nuclear Law

    We find in this report two studies, one about the compensation regimes applicable to radiation workers in OECD countries, the second one about Tokai-mura accident (Japan): third party liability and compensation aspects. Then, come the case law and administrative decisions, national legislative and regulation activities, international regulatory activities, bilateral agreements, multilateral agreements. Among these different parts are to notice: judgement in the public civil action concerning the Goiania radiological accident (2000,Brazil), judgement of the Council of State confirming the definitive shut-down of Superphenix (2000, France), decision relative to the DOE 's obligation to accept spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive wastes (HLRW) from nuclear power plants (NPPs) (2000, Usa), decision concerning the construction of a permanent repository for spent nuclear fuel (2000, Finland). (N.C.)

  17. Case Law

    Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism

  18. Case Law

    This section treats of the following case laws sorted by country: 1 - Germany: Federal Administrative Court confirms the judgments of the Higher Administrative Court of the Land Hesse: The shutdown of nuclear power plant Biblis blocks A and B based on a 'moratorium' imposed by the Government was unlawful; List of lawsuits in the nuclear field. 2 - Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. 3 - United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission resuming the licensing process for the Department of Energy's construction authorisation application for the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository; Judgment of the Licensing Board in favour of Shaw AREVA MOX Services regarding the material control and accounting system at the proposed MOX Facility; Dismissal by US District Court Judge of lawsuit brought by US military personnel against Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in connection with the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

  19. Case law

    This article reviews the judgements and law decisions concerning nuclear activities throughout the world during the end of 1999 and the first semester 2000. In Belgium a judgement has allowed the return of nuclear waste from France. In France the Council of State confirmed the repeal of an authorization order of an installation dedicated to the storage of uranium sesquioxide, on the basis of an insufficient risk analysis. In France too, the criminal chamber of the French Supreme Court ruled that the production in excess of that authorized in the licence can be compared to carrying out operations without a licence. In Japan the Fukui district court rejected a lawsuit filed by local residents calling for the permanent closure, on safety grounds, of the Monju reactor. In the Netherlands, the Council of State ruled that the Dutch government had no legal basis for limiting in time the operating licence of the Borssele plant. In Usa a district court has rejected a request to ban MOX fuel shipment. (A.C.)

  20. Case law

    This section reports on 7 case laws from 4 countries: - France: Conseil d'Etat decision, 28 June 2013, refusing to suspend operation of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; - Slovak Republic: New developments including the Supreme Court's judgment in a matter involving Greenpeace Slovakia's claims regarding the Mochovce nuclear power plant; New developments in the matter involving Greenpeace's demands for information under the Freedom of Information Act; - Switzerland: Judgment of the Federal Supreme Court in the matter of the Departement federal de l'environnement, des transports, de l'energie et de la communication (DETEC) against Ursula Balmer-Schafroth and others on consideration of admissibility of a request to withdraw the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant; - United States: Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit granting petition for writ of mandamus ordering US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to resume Yucca Mountain licensing; Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit invalidating two Vermont statutes as preempted by the Atomic Energy Act; Judgment of the NRC on transferring Shieldalloy site to New Jersey's jurisdiction

  1. Recent publications on environmental law

    The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP)

  2. Case law

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant

  3. Economic Analysis of Law

    Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

    1999-01-01

    This is a survey of the field of economic analysis of law, focusing on the work of economists. The survey covers the three central areas of civil law liability for accidents (tort law), property law, and contracts as well as the litigation process and public enforcement of law.

  4. Economic Analysis of Law

    Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

    1999-01-01

    This entry for the forthcoming The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (Second Edition) surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law.

  5. Teaching Global Law.

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

  6. Law Enforcement Locations

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  7. Tenancy Law Denmark

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  8. [Influenza A H1N1v treated with extra-corporal membrane oxygenation.

    Jensen, Reinhold; Severinsen, Inge Krogh; Terp, Kim; Boyko, Yuliya; Storgaard, Merete

    2010-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with body mass index > 30 was admitted to hospital with severe pneumonia due to H1N1v. Thoracic X-ray showed bilateral, diffuse infiltrates. There was no sign of complicating bacterial infection and all microbiological tests of tracheal secretion, blood and urine were negative....... Polymerase chain reaction test for H1N1v was positive until day ten. No mutations were found in the virus. The patient was given oseltamivir tablets and inhalable zanamivir as well as antibiotics. The patient was treated with extra-corporal membrane oxygenation (EcmO) for 12 days followed by ventilator...

  9. Manipulation of magnetic and magneto-transport properties of amorphous CoO1-v films

    Cao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-huan; Tian, Yu-feng; Yan, Shi-shen; Xiao, Shu-qin; Chen, Yan-xue; Kang, Shi-shou; Liu, Guo-lei; Mei, Liang-mo

    2015-04-01

    The magnetic and magneto-transport properties of amorphous CoO1-v films have been systematically studied and manipulated by changing the concentration of oxygen vacancies. A giant exchange bias field HE≈4380 Oe and a large coercivity HC≈8500 Oe are observed at 5 K for the composite films. And, a metal to insulator transition has been demonstrated in CoO1-v films by decreasing the concentration of oxygen vacancies. Moreover, a remarkable decrease of the exchange bias and a slight increase of the saturation magnetization can be obtained by modifying the microstructures through post-thermal annealing.

  10. Case law

    The first point concerns the judgement of the federal Administration Court on the standing of third parties regarding attacks at interim storage facilities (2008). In its judgement handed down on 10. april 2008, the german Federal Administrative Court overrules a decision of a Higher Regional Administrative Court and declares that residents in the vicinity of an interim storage facility may challenge the licence for that facility on the grounds that the necessary protection has not been provided against disruptive action or other interference by third parties. The second point concerns the judgement of the European Court of justice of a member State to fulfill obligations under directive 96/29 EURATOM (2007): the united kingdom imposed to intervene only if a situation of radioactive contamination results from a present or past activity for the exercise of which a licence was granted. The national legislation does not oblige the authorities to take measures in circumstances in which radioactive contamination results from a past practice which was not the subject of a such licence. The United Kingdom Government admitted the validity of the Commission claims adding that further legislation to transpose that article (article 53) into national laws is in the process of being drawn up. The third point is relative to judgement of the US court of Appeals on licensing of the L.E.S. uranium enrichment facility (2007), on appeal to the Federal Court of Appeals for the district of Columbia, the joint petitioners objected to the Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) issuing to the Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (L.E.S.) Uranium enrichment Facility in New Mexico on several grounds: the NRC violated the Atomic Energy Act by supplementing the environmental impact statement after hearing closed; the NRC violated the National Environmental Policy Act by insufficiently analysing the environmental impact of depleted uranium waste from the L.E.S. facility; the NRC violated the Atomic

  11. [Teaching about Family Law].

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family" (Mary Ann Lamanna); and Michael Grossberg's…

  12. AN UNPRECEDENTED LAW

    2007-01-01

    On the eve of the 10th anniversary of Hong Kong’s return to China and the implementation of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Beijing Review reporter Li Li spoke to Professor Xu Chongde from the Law School of Renmin University of China, a Basic Law drafter, about how the law was created and its spirit.

  13. Relativistic Hubble's law

    Ko, Yongkyu

    2003-01-01

    Considering the hyperbolic nature of the universe, the Hubble's law and the inverse square laws such as, the Coulomb's law and Newton's gravitational law, should be modified in accordance with the special theory of relativity. Consequently there is no the Hubble's length, which might be the observable boundary of our universe, does not appear in point of view of the special theory of relativity, and the Newton's third law still hold in the special theory of relativity. Recent astronomical obs...

  14. EU Labour Law

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  15. The Power of Law

    2009-01-01

    China’s draft Energy Law is now under consideration China’s draft Energy Law has been submitted to the State Council’s Legislative Affairs Office and will be considered at this year’s executive meeting, said a key member of the expert panel drafting the law. If the law makes it through the council, the National People’s Congress (NPC), China’s supreme law-making body, will vote on it.

  16. International Private Law and Communitarian Law

    Abelardo Posso Serrano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Private international law is justified at a time when the legal systems of nation states seeking a way to extend their areas and competencies. This desire led to the conflict between national laws, which grew smaller as did the novel concept of "international community", but did not suppress national relativism. A new law began to settle, then, with the progress of the integration process. Community laws have mechanisms to be applied, even when states would try to ignore them or to fulfill a relative way.

  17. A New 1-V Second-Order Temperature-Compensated Current Reference

    YI Jun; ZHANG Bo; FANG Jian; LI Zhaoji

    2004-01-01

    A new bipolar temperature-compensated current reference is proposed.The first-order temperature compensation is achieved by the idea of self temperature-compensation configuration exploiting the temperature coefficient of a combined resistor.The second-order compensation employs a VBE-tracking thermal-startup technique to obtain improved temperature performance.The proposed circuit can operate down to a 1-V supply.A temperature coefficient of 46.6 ×10-6/ ℃ [0,100 ℃] at a 1-V supply and a supply regulation of 0.036%/V at 25 ℃ are achieved.Compared with present works,the proposed circuit shows better results of the temperature coefficient and supply regulation.The current matching issue frequently encountered in current references is also discussed in detail.

  18. 技术手册:prb 1v3技术分析

    Lucid; Dreaming

    2005-01-01

    Cpl_Mill A炸点左侧通道,从来都是兵家必争之地,狭长的地形对选手的个人能力提出了极高的要求,在Tearn9与SK.swe比赛的关键局中,Team9的新人prb就在这个位置上演了一出精彩的1v3,使得Team9拿下了这个关键局,把SK.swe在上半场的经济打入谷底,为最终的胜利奠定了良好的基础。下面我们就从技术角度来分析一下这个1v3。(由于比赛的hltv录像质量原因,为了让读者更好地看到这次1v3的精髓,小编们亲自上阵做了一次示意图。)

  19. Structures of HIV-1-Env V1V2 with broadly neutralizing antibodies reveal commonalities that enable vaccine design

    Gorman, Jason; Soto, Cinque; Yang, Max M.; Davenport, Thaddeus M.; Guttman, Miklos; Robert T Bailer; Chambers, Michael; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; DeKosky, Brandon J.; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Druz, Aliaksandr; Ernandes, Michael J.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Jarosinski, Marissa C.; Joyce, M. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1-Env V1V2 arise in multiple donors. However, atomic-level interactions had only been determined with antibodies from a single donor, making commonalities in recognition uncertain. Here we report the co-crystal structure of V1V2 with antibody CH03 from a second donor and model Env interactions of antibody CAP256-VRC26 from a third. These V1V2-directed bNAbs utilized strand-strand interactions between a protruding antibody loop and a V1V2 str...

  20. Civil Law Glossary.

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  1. Factorisations of distributive laws

    Kraehmer, Ulrich; Slevin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Boehm and Stefan constructed duplicial (paracyclic) objects from distributive laws between (co)monads. Here we define the category of factorisations of a distributive law, show that it acts on this construction, and give some explicit examples.

  2. A Healthy Law

    2008-01-01

    The National People’s Congress(NPC)published China’s new draft Food Safety Law on April 20 for public discussion.The draft law covers food safety evaluation,monitoring, and recall and information release.

  3. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

  4. Environmental protection law; Umweltschutzrecht

    Kloepfer, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The author of the book under consideration reports on the entire environmental protection law in a systematic survey. The book attaches great importance to the presentation of the legal fundaments, the European legal background, to the constitutional law and considers the ministerial draft bill to the environmental law book. The book under consideration is addressed to students of the law as well as junior lawyers. It is suitable for the preparation on the examination.

  5. Law of Demand

    Michael Jerison; John K.-H. Quah

    2006-01-01

    We formulate several laws of individual and market demand and describe their relationship to neoclassical demand theory. The laws have implications for comparative statics and stability of competitive equilibrium. We survey results that offer interpretable sufficient conditions for the laws to hold and we refer to related empirical evidence. The laws for market demand are more likely to be satisfied if commodities are more substitutable. Certain kinds of heterogeneity across individuals make ...

  6. Theorising international environmental law

    Humphreys, Stephen; Otomo, Yoriko

    2014-01-01

    From The Oxford Handbook of International Legal Theory (Florian Hoffmann and Anne Orford, eds, Oxford UP, forthcoming 2014). --- This paper, part of a larger work on international law theory, sketches some early lines of inquiry towards a theoretical understanding of international environmental law. As the body of international law regulating human interaction with the natural world, one might expect this branch of law to be a cornerstone of the international system. Yet in practice,...

  7. Behavioral Law and Economics

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  8. Flow characteristics in stepped spillways with 1V: 0,75H slope; Caracterizacao do escoamento sobre vertedouros em degraus de declividade 1V: 0,75H

    Sanagiotto, Daniela Guzzon; Marques, Marcelo Giulian [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental. Centro de Tecnologia], E-mail: dsanagiotto@gmail.com

    2011-07-15

    Stepped spillways are structures characterized by the significant resistance imposed to the flow and by the increase in the energy dissipation associated with the friction inserted by the steps. Stepped chutes conduct to economical designs of downstream protection structures in comparison to the ones required in conventional chute spillways (smooth chute). In this work measurements were carried out in physical models of spillways with 1V: 0.75H (53,13 deg) slope and steps height of (1) 0.03 m; (2) 0.06 m and (3) 0.09 m and in a smooth chute with the same slope. The models were installed in a channel with 0.40 m wide and 2.44 m height, evaluating specific discharges between 0.027 and 0.700 m{sup 3}/s/m, that, for a 1:10 scale, corresponds to discharges between 0.8 and 22.1 m{sup 3}/s/m in prototype. According to the results, a methodology was defined for the evaluation of the inception point of air entrainment, the friction factor and the energy dissipation along the flume. (author)

  9. Stochastic Conservation Laws?

    Sidharth, B G

    1998-01-01

    We examine conservation laws, typically the conservation of linear momentum, in the light of a recent successful formulation of fermions as Kerr-Newman type Black Holes, which are created fluctuationally from a background Zero Point Field. We conclude that these conservation laws are to be taken in the spirit of thermodynamic laws.

  10. The Constitutional Law Sessions

    White, Daniel O.

    1972-01-01

    Teachers, attorneys, and law educators met to evaluate 1971 workshops in law education and to plan improved learning experiences at future workshops. Coordination between substantive law sessions and teaching methodology sessions was cited as a major necessity. Teachers were encouraged to develop their own material. (JB)

  11. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  12. Education on Environmental Law.

    Cano, Guillermo J.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that environmental law, as part of legal science, should be taught at universities; discusses the development of environmental law and its relationship to other sciences; and proposes a framework for studying environmental law as a university course for study. (DC)

  13. European tax law

    B.J.M. Terra; P.J. Wattel

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC T

  14. Environmental law in Denmark

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  15. Law of Empires.

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

  16. Basic Law and Atomic Energy Law

    The author avails himself of the by now controversial jurisdiction on partial licences issued for nuclear power plants to argue relevant provisions of the Basic Law and to include facts which are related to the Basic Law. This is also necessary for reasons of social policy, since such a juridicial decision produces an effect which spreads far beyond the litigants. In a constitutional state that has to stand the test in the conflict arising between human rights and technical progress, the controversy on basic rights has to form a part of the trial and of the opinion. There are two sides to the rule of law: The citizen's obligation not to use violence, and his right to be strictly protected by the Basic Law. (HSCH)

  17. A 1V Phase Frequency Detector (PFD) with 180nm CMOS Technology

    N . K . Kaphungkui

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, designing of a Phase frequency detector with 180nm CMOS technology is presented. The main objective of the designed circuit is to reduce the power dissipation with a low voltage supply of 1V. Phase frequency detector has a wide range of applications but one of the main application is in modern day phased locked loop, it serve as a main building block. PFD (Phase Frequency Detector) is a circuit that measures the phase and frequency difference between two signals, and has two ou...

  18. t-channel factorization description of γγ->V1V2

    A t-channel factorization model is used to estimate cross sections for the processes γγ->V1V2. Whenever V=rho, the width of the rho has been included in the calculations. The channels γγ->rho0rho0, rho0phi, phiphi, ωω, rho0ω and rho+rho- are calculated for two quasi-real photons. Predictions are also given for the process γsup(*)γ->rho0rho0 for virtual photon mass squared Q22. Our results are consistent with all available experimental data. (orig.)

  19. A 1 V supercapacitor device with nanostructured graphene oxide/polyaniline composite materials

    Deepak Kumar; Anjan Banerjee; Satish Patil; Ashok K Shukla

    2015-10-01

    Polyaniline and graphene oxide composite on activated carbon cum reduced graphene oxide-supported supercapacitor electrodes are fabricated and electrochemically characterized in a three-electrode cell assembly. Attractive supercapacitor performance, namely high-power capability and cycling stability for graphene oxide/polyaniline composite, is observed owing to the layered and porous-polymeric-structured electrodes. Based on the materials characterization data in a three-electrode cell assembly, 1 V supercapacitor devices are developed and performance tested. A comparative study has also been conducted for polyaniline and graphene oxide/polyaniline composite-based 1 V supercapacitors for comprehending the synergic effect of graphene oxide and polyaniline. Graphene oxide/polyaniline composite-based capacitor that exhibits about 100 F g−1 specific capacitance with faradaic efficiency in excess of 90% has its energy and power density values of 14 Wh kg−1 and 72 kW kg−1, respectively. Cycle-life data for over 1000 cycles reflect 10% capacitance degradation for graphene oxide/polyaniline composite supercapacitor.

  20. Water, law, science

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  1. The rule of law

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  2. Statistical laws in linguistics

    Altmann, Eduardo G

    2015-01-01

    Zipf's law is just one out of many universal laws proposed to describe statistical regularities in language. Here we review and critically discuss how these laws can be statistically interpreted, fitted, and tested (falsified). The modern availability of large databases of written text allows for tests with an unprecedent statistical accuracy and also a characterization of the fluctuations around the typical behavior. We find that fluctuations are usually much larger than expected based on simplifying statistical assumptions (e.g., independence and lack of correlations between observations).These simplifications appear also in usual statistical tests so that the large fluctuations can be erroneously interpreted as a falsification of the law. Instead, here we argue that linguistic laws are only meaningful (falsifiable) if accompanied by a model for which the fluctuations can be computed (e.g., a generative model of the text). The large fluctuations we report show that the constraints imposed by linguistic laws...

  3. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  4. Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy

    Visser, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  5. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  6. The Functions of Law

    Green, L

    1998-01-01

    We often think of law as fulfilling certain social functions; for instance, it is said to guide behaviour, maintain order, settle disputes, and provide benefits and services. In the social sciences, more general claims are also made that law stabilizes the dominant mode of production, promotes economic efficiency, secures patriarchy, and so on. 1 What do these claims mean, and what do they contribute to our understanding of law as a social institution? Those are the questions I want to explor...

  7. Environmental law: Course

    Малярчук, Назар Вікторович

    2013-01-01

    In this course we tried to shed some light on the most important issues of the environmental law: notion, subject, method, system and sources of environmental law, we revealed the context of government management in the field of the protection of environment, legal regulation of conducting environmental examination. The separate subjects determines legal regime of each environmental law objects: lands, water, mineral wealth, forests, air, flora and fauna, natural protection fund of Ukraine. ...

  8. Law and Medical Ethics

    Frenkel, D A

    1984-01-01

    Summarising the interrelationship between law and medical ethics, I would say that in cases which do not touch the patient's body or integrity, such as professional secrecy, statutory law may take precedence over rules of medical ethics. But in cases where the human subject becomes a victim because of domestic statutory laws which are in contradiction with medical ethics, the medical practitioners should insist on adhering to their professional standards in such a way that the legislators wil...

  9. CONSTANT ASPECTS OF LAW

    ELENA ANGHEL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "Are we watching, in the succession of history, the appearance and disappearance of legal systems or assisting, in a greater or lesser extent, to what might be considered, in a sense, an evolution of those systems?"1 Law, indissolubly linked to the general evolution of society, has recorded a number of differences in time and space, both in terms of content of various types and positive law systems, and also in terms of forms that take the rules of law, authorities who have the ability to edict it or the procedure to be followed.Indeed, there is no law for all times and all places, as law is not an abstract product of our reason, it comes from the human experience, it is a product of history and that is why institutions of each society can only be different from one society to another.2 But, as in reality there are not quantities of history - many, little or very little - but just history3, we can say that in typology there is not socialist law absolutely different from bourgeois, feudal or slave law, so there is just law. By this approach, I wanted to bring back into question the existence of some factors of constancy in law, those "legal permanencies” investigated by Edmond Picard, believing that "there is something in the legal relationship that necessarily subsist anywhere”.4

  10. On Newton's Third Law

    Pinheiro, Mario J.

    2009-01-01

    The law of action-reaction is thoroughly used in textbooks to derive the conservation laws of linear and angular momentum, and it was considered by Ernst Mach the the cornerstone of physics. We give here a background survey of several questions raised by the action-reaction law, and in particular, the role of the physical vacuum is shown to provide an appropriate framework to clarify the occurrence of possible violations of the action-reaction law. It is also obtained an expression for the ge...

  11. Mutagenesis in yam, Discorea rotundata: Clonal evaluation of M1V3 yam plants

    Ten thousand plants of M1V3 population of the white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, were evaluated. There was no consistent trends in variations in plant height, number of branches, branching heights and number of leaves of the treated tubers. However, plant height were lower in the irradiated than in the control. The coefficients of variations (C.V.) were higher in the irradiated than in the control populations, indicating wider variations in the former population. Based on yield performance, 110 tubers were selected for preliminary yield trials, Considering that diplontic selection may occur in the irradiated micro-tubers, the experiment will also be carried out using nodal cultures in vitro. (author). 2 tabs

  12. 25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning.

    Li, Guoliang; Zheng, Xuezhe; Yao, Jin; Thacker, Hiren; Shubin, Ivan; Luo, Ying; Raj, Kannan; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V

    2011-10-10

    We report a high-speed ring modulator that fits many of the ideal qualities for optical interconnect in future exascale supercomputers. The device was fabricated in a 130 nm SOI CMOS process, with 7.5 μm ring radius. Its high-speed section, employing PN junction that works at carrier-depletion mode, enables 25 Gb/s modulation and an extinction ratio >5 dB with only 1V peak-to-peak driving. Its thermal tuning section allows the device to work in broad wavelength range, with a tuning efficiency of 0.19 nm/mW. Based on microwave characterization and circuit modeling, the modulation energy is estimated ~7 fJ/bit. The whole device fits in a compact 400 μm2 footprint. PMID:21997052

  13. Thinking law: thinking law in motion

    Laura Beth Nielsen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that one way to “think law” is to think “law in motion”. I will argue that a “law in motion” perspective embodies four core elements or ‘multiplicities’ which are: (1 multiple methodologies; (2 multiple perspectives; (3 multiple vocalities; and (4 multiple media including objects. As will become evident by the number of inspiring colleagues that have articulated rationales and perspectives for each of these multiplicities, these are not original ideas for which I can claim credit. And yet, the attempt to put them together in a comprehensive schema with consideration for all four of the multiplicities in the same project, demonstrates that a law in motion perspective can bear new fruit. To do this, my article combines analysis of some of the research in Law & Society that exemplifies these trends and my own research on employment civil rights litigation to interrogate the necessity of a “multiple” approach for our “multiple futures.”

  14. Structure of HIV-1 gp120 V1/V2 domain with broadly neutralizing antibody PG9

    McLellan, Jason S.; Pancera, Marie; Carrico, Chris; Gorman, Jason; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Khayat, Reza; Louder, Robert; Pejchal, Robert; Sastry, Mallika; Dai, Kaifan; O’Dell, Sijy; Patel, Nikita; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhou, Tongqing; Zhu, Jiang; Boyington, Jeffrey C.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Diwanji, Devan; Georgiev, Ivelin; Kwon, Young Do; Lee, Doyung; Louder, Mark K.; Moquin, Stephanie; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Bonsignori, Mattia; Crump, John A.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sam, Noel E.; Haynes, Barton F.; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Walker, Laura M.; Phogat, Sanjay; Wyatt, Richard; Orwenyo, Jared; Wang, Lai-Xi; Arthos, James; Bewley, Carole A.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Schief, William R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Kwong, Peter D. (UWASH); (NIH); (Scripps); (Duke); (IAVI); (Maryland-MED)

    2012-12-13

    Variable regions 1 and 2 (V1/V2) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein are critical for viral evasion of antibody neutralization, and are themselves protected by extraordinary sequence diversity and N-linked glycosylation. Human antibodies such as PG9 nonetheless engage V1/V2 and neutralize 80% of HIV-1 isolates. Here we report the structure of V1/V2 in complex with PG9. V1/V2 forms a four-stranded {beta}-sheet domain, in which sequence diversity and glycosylation are largely segregated to strand-connecting loops. PG9 recognition involves electrostatic, sequence-independent and glycan interactions: the latter account for over half the interactive surface but are of sufficiently weak affinity to avoid autoreactivity. The structures of V1/V2-directed antibodies CH04 and PGT145 indicate that they share a common mode of glycan penetration by extended anionic loops. In addition to structurally defining V1/V2, the results thus identify a paradigm of antibody recognition for highly glycosylated antigens, which - with PG9 - involves a site of vulnerability comprising just two glycans and a strand.

  15. Structures of HIV-1-Env V1V2 with broadly neutralizing antibodies reveal commonalities that enable vaccine design

    Gorman, Jason; Soto, Cinque; Yang, Max M.; Davenport, Thaddeus M.; Guttman, Miklos; Bailer, Robert T.; Chambers, Michael; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; DeKosky, Brandon J.; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Druz, Aliaksandr; Ernandes, Michael J.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Jarosinski, Marissa C.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Lemmin, Thomas M.; Leung, Sherman; Louder, Mark K.; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Narpala, Sandeep; Pancera, Marie; Stuckey, Jonathan; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhou, Tongqing; Mullikin, James C.; Baxa, Ulrich; Georgiou, George; McDermott, Adrian B.; Bonsignori, Mattia; Haynes, Barton F.; Moore, Penny L.; Morris, Lynn; Lee, Kelly K.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1-Env V1V2 arise in multiple donors. However, atomic-level interactions had only been determined with antibodies from a single donor, making commonalities in recognition uncertain. Here we report the co-crystal structure of V1V2 with antibody CH03 from a second donor and model Env interactions of antibody CAP256-VRC26 from a third. These V1V2-directed bNAbs utilized strand-strand interactions between a protruding antibody loop and a V1V2 strand, but differed in their N-glycan recognition. Ontogeny analysis indicated protruding loops to develop early, with glycan interactions maturing over time. Altogether, the multidonor information suggested V1V2-directed bNAbs to form an ‘extended class’, for which we engineered ontogeny-specific antigens: Env trimers with chimeric V1V2s that interacted with inferred ancestor and intermediate antibodies. The ontogeny-based design of vaccine antigens described here may provide a general means for eliciting antibodies of a desired class. PMID:26689967

  16. Pop Goes the Law

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school applicants has dropped from…

  17. Law before Gratian

    ' of the later twelfth century. Seeking to broaden our view of what constituted law in this period, the articles examine these earlier developments in their own right and provide new insights into the variety and complexity of early and high medieval approaches to law and jurisprudence. Contributors to...

  18. Nanotechnology and the Law

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  19. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  20. Essay on nuclear law

    This book is divided in seven parts, covering international organizations in nuclear energy. agreements, nuclear laws and environment, national legislation program and Uruguayan legislation. The texts of the nuclear laws in Uruguay are reproduced, and several aspects on nuclear energy are discussed

  1. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  2. Introduction to planning law

    The author surveys the planning law in the Federal Republic of Germany. He deals with general regulations of the administrative procedure and land-use planning procedure and the main special rules of planning law, according to the Atomic Energy Act, the Nuclear Installation Ordinance and the Federal Act on the Protection against Nuisances. (WG)

  3. EU Food Law Handbook

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and prac

  4. The nuclear law

    We find here a digest of nuclear law. From historical aspect to the different agencies such EURATOM, Iea, IAEA, in passing by the law of fuel cycle and the nuclear trade. The ideas of safety and major risks are also reviewed. (N.C.)

  5. Unilateralism in International Law

    Hartmann, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    international law. This note considers when and how a State or a regional organisation may legitimately take unilateral measures to protect the environment. The note will does not consider the legality of including foreign aircraft within the ETS, which has been dealt with elsewhere. Instead, it will focus on...... the legality and importance of unilateral acts for the development of international law....

  6. Law-Abiding Games

    2006-01-01

    Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating

  7. F-rough law and the discovery of rough law

    Qiu Jinming; Shi Kaiquan

    2009-01-01

    By using function one direction S-rough sets (function one direction singular rough sets), this article presents the concepts of F-law, F-rough law, and the relation metric of rough law; by using these concepts, this article puts forward the theorem of F-law relation metric, two orders theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the attribute theorem of F-rough law band, the extremum theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the discovery principle of F-rough law and the application of F-rough law.

  8. Laws of nature

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The book is concerned with the laws of nature and in particular with the laws of physics. The authors discuss three important questions: First, whether the observed regularities are based on strict "laws of nature" that hold rigorously and without any exception. Second, what we call a "law of nature" is studied by comparing this concept with invariance principles, causality principles, teleological principles and means of predicting future events. Finally, on the basis of these investigations the authors treat the ambitious and intricate third question, why the laws of nature hold. Are there rational reasons for this largely unexplained phenomenon? This book addresses students as well as researchers. It will be an excellent reference for those interested in the philosophical foundations of the natural sciences.

  9. Creating EU law judges

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data...

  10. Child Labor Laws in Mississippi.

    Robbins, Jerry H.

    Child labor laws have not attracted much attention in recent years. Much of the basic legislation and the case law dates from the early part of the 20th century. This paper discusses the Mississippi statutory law on the subject, compares that law with legislation in five other States, and discusses case law in Mississippi and in other States.…

  11. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  12. The Practice of Transnational Law

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

  13. Ceteris Paribus Laws and Minutis Rectis Laws

    Fenton-Glynn, L.

    2016-01-01

    Special science generalizations admit of exceptions. Among the class of non-exceptionless special sciencegeneralizations, I distinguish (what I will call) minutis rectis (mr) generalizations from the more familiarcategory of ceteris paribus (cp) generalizations. I argue that the challenges involved in showing that mrgeneralizations can play the law role are underappreciated, and quite different from those involved inshowing that cp generalizations can do so. I outline a strategy for meeting t...

  14. Law on Atomic Energy

    The Law defines the legislative foundation and concepts for peaceful uses of atomic energy in Vietnam. The Law, including 11 chapters, 93 articles and coming into force on the 1 Jan 2009, regulates utilization of atomic energy and assurance of safety and security. The Law contains issues: general provisions; measures to promote development and application of atomic energy for peaceful purposes; radiation safety, nuclear safety and security of radioactive sources, nuclear material and facilities; exploration, exploitation and processing radioactive ores; transportation, import and export of radioactive materials and nuclear equipment; atomic energy application services; declaration and licensing; response to radiation or nuclear incidents and compensation for damage caused by these incidents. (VAEC)

  15. Anomalous law of cooling

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics

  16. Retrospectives: Say's Law

    Baumol, William J.

    1999-01-01

    What is perhaps most curious about 'Say's law' is the continuing disagreement on its substance and to whom it should be credited. John Maynard Keynes summarized the law as 'supply creates its own demand' but it is now generally agreed that Keynes did not get it quite right. The author has been unable to ascertain who coined the term 'Say's law' but it appears to be a twentieth century appellation, preceding Keynes's use. John-Baptiste Say was certainly among the earlier writers to discuss the...

  17. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  18. Anomalous law of cooling

    Lapas, Luciano C., E-mail: luciano.lapas@unila.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Caixa Postal 2067, 85867-970 Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná (Brazil); Ferreira, Rogelma M. S., E-mail: rogelma.maria@gmail.com [Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, Bahia (Brazil); Rubí, J. Miguel, E-mail: mrubi@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, Fernando A., E-mail: fernando.oliveira@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Física and Centro Internacional de Física da Matéria Condensada, Universidade de Brasília, Caixa Postal 04513, 70919-970 Brasília, Distrito Federal (Brazil)

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  19. Business Law, Europe

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    This book is a must-have for any business advisor that operates on a cross-border level in the European Union, EU. Regardless of whether you already have solid knowledge about doing business in the EU or you are just taking your first steps on this corporate scene, Business Law, Europe should...... be the book within your reach. We call it “Our Corporate Bible”. In an easily comprehendible way we address some of the most essential issues of business law, and provide guidelines and clarity for understanding and proper application of the legal provisions that govern business law in Europe....

  20. Anomalous law of cooling

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  1. F-generation law and recognition of system law

    Shi Kaiquan; Yao Bingxue

    2007-01-01

    If a system is not disturbed (or invaded) by some law, there is no doubt that each system will move according to the expected law and keep stable. Although such a fact often appears, some unknown law breaks into the system and leads it into turbulence. Using function one direction S-rough sets, this article gives the concept of the F-generation law in the system, the generation model of the F-generation law and the recognition method of the system law. Function one direction singular rough sets is a new theory and method in recognizing the disturbance law existing in the system and recognizing the system law.

  2. Robust Supersolidity in the V1- V2 Extended Bose-Hubbard Model

    Greene, Nicole; Pixley, Jedediah

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by ultra-cold atomic gases with long-range interactions in an optical lattice we study the effects of the next-nearest neighbor interaction on the extended Bose-Hubbard model on a square lattice. Using the variational Gutzwiller approach with a four-site unit cell we determine the ground state phase diagrams as a function of the model parameters. We focus on the interplay of each interaction between the nearest neighbor (V1) , the next-nearest neighbor (V2) , and the onsite repulsion (U). We find various super-solid phases that can be described by one of the ordering wave-vectors (π, 0), (0, π) , and (π, π) . In the limits V1, V2 U we find phases reminiscent of the limit V2 = 0 but with a richer super solid structure. For V1 qualitatively new super solid phase that is quite stable and occupies a large region of the phase diagram. For sufficiently strong interactions we find various Mott and charge density wave (CDW) insulating phases that can be understood in the classical limit (i.e. no inter-site tunneling). We characterize the nature of each quantum phase transition between Mott/CDW to super-solid to superfluid at the mean field level.

  3. A 1V Phase Frequency Detector (PFD with 180nm CMOS Technology

    N . K . Kaphungkui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, designing of a Phase frequency detector with 180nm CMOS technology is presented. The main objective of the designed circuit is to reduce the power dissipation with a low voltage supply of 1V. Phase frequency detector has a wide range of applications but one of the main application is in modern day phased locked loop, it serve as a main building block. PFD (Phase Frequency Detector is a circuit that measures the phase and frequency difference between two signals, and has two outputs UP and DOWN which are signalled according to the phase and frequency difference of the two input signals. The designed circuit shows a satisfactory result with the low supply voltage. The detection of phase difference occurs only at the rising edge of the two clock signal. The total power dissipation from the circuit is only 3.88uW which is considerably low. In the field of IC design power dissipation of the circuit is always an important factor. The lower the power dissipation the longer the service time of the battery powered electronics circuit

  4. Development of a one-dimensional atmospheric model (PHYD1V3)

    A one-dimensional atmospheric model PHYD1V3 was developed in the study of high performance SPEEDI development. This report contains description of the model and methods of numerical solution as well as description and usage of the model code. The present model covers the atmospheric layer with the vertical spatial scale of several kilometers and the temporal scale of one day. The objective items of the model are the horizontal wind velocity, the potential temperature and turbulence quantities as well as the relative quantities such as the atmospheric stability and the turbulence diffusivity. The model consists f prognostic equations for the wind velocity and the potential temperature, a second-order turbulence closure model by Mellor-Yamada, a ground surface heat budget equation, a soil layer heat conduction equation and models of solar radiation and atmospheric radiation. The solution method employed for the prognostic equations is Crank-Nicolson implicit method. Model calculations can be performed only by setting relevant values to a parameter file. This usage has certain limitation. To perform calculations beyond the limitation, slight modification of the code is necessary. Explanations of code modification for possible model calculations were presented. (author)

  5. Robust Supersolidity in the V1- V2 Extended Bose-Hubbard Model

    Greene, Nicole; Pixley, Jedediah

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by ultra-cold atomic gases with long-range interactions in an optical lattice we study the effects of the next-nearest neighbor interaction on the extended Bose-Hubbard model on a square lattice. Using the variational Gutzwiller approach with a four-site unit cell we determine the ground state phase diagrams as a function of the model parameters. We focus on the interplay of each interaction between the nearest neighbor (V1) , the next-nearest neighbor (V2) , and the onsite repulsion (U). We find various super-solid phases that can be described by one of the ordering wave-vectors (π, 0), (0, π) , and (π, π) . In the limits V1, V2 U we find phases reminiscent of the limit V2 = 0 but with a richer super solid structure. For V1

  6. The LSU Law Center -- Canada Bijuralism Conference. Introduction: Global Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    Costonis, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces papers from a conference focused on the bijural programs of Louisiana State University Law Center and McGill University Faculty of Law. The programs educate all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  7. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  8. Law and technology

    The book presents the lectures and discussions of a symposium held in November 1984. The main themes of the lectures deal with the legal regulations for technological subjects, and their effects on the economy and society. Some papers discuss the legal provisions of this kind within the German law system, summarizing the regulations in force, and critically evaluating their efficiency. Others investigate the potentials and constraints of efforts towards harmonizing the variety of indefinite legal terms or concepts in the legal regulations of technological safety, and the problems created by such indefinite legal concepts with regard to constitutional law and legislation, or application of the law. Another main subject is the question of how technical safety regulations can be made more concrete, or the European law and its relevant regulations concerning technological subjects. Separate subject analyses of four papers have been made for the database. (HSCH)

  9. Teaching Criminal Law.

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  10. Law Enforcement Plan

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides...

  11. Law And Economics In Germany

    Kirstein, Roland

    1997-01-01

    Law and economics in Germany was dominated by regulation, competition, and ?German Ordnungspolitik? until the early 1970s. Since then, German scholars have published a broad body of work in German and in the English language, covering fields like contract law, environmental law, labor law, public law, bankruptcy law, constitutional economics and legal procedure. Also in the 1970s, teaching activities were started at German universities. In addition to this, several (bi)annual conferences on l...

  12. Law and individuality

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2007-01-01

    The main contours of the history of philosophical and scientific conceptions of law and individuality are portrayed. This includes an account of perspectives and views found in ancient Greece, the Graeco-Roman world, the medieval speculation and, via the Renaissance, in early modern developments that were continued in the Enlightenment era, in Romanticism and historicism, and were eventually manifested in the linguistic turn. What is important for a proper understanding of modern law concepti...

  13. Conventional Constitutional Law

    2015-01-01

    Judges share conventional understandings about what the Constitution requires, both of themselves and of other constitutional actors. These informal conventions lead to formal decisions, which are then centrally enforced by the state in the same manner as all other judicial decisions. This recognition of conventional constitutional law has three critical implications for our understanding, critique and reform of constitutional law. First, it is unlikely that judges will refer e...

  14. Free Bessel laws

    Banica, Teodor; Belinschi, Serban; Capitaine, Mireille; Collins, Benoit

    2007-01-01

    We introduce and study a remarkable family of real probability measures $\\pi_{st}$, that we call free Bessel laws. These are related to the free Poisson law $\\pi$ via the formulae $\\pi_{s1}=\\pi^{\\boxtimes s}$ and $\\pi_{1t}=\\pi^{\\boxplus t}$. Our study includes: definition and basic properties, analytic aspects (supports, atoms, densities), combinatorial aspects (functional transforms, moments, partitions), and a discussion of the relation with random matrices and quantum groups.

  15. The rule of law

    Besnik Murati; Elmi Morina

    2015-01-01

    The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment...

  16. Artificial Inteligence and Law

    Fuková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Submitted diploma work Artificial Intelligence and Law deals with the rule of law and its position in the process of new advanced technologies in computer cybernetics and further scientific disciplines related with artificial intelligence and its creation. The first part of the work introduces the history of the first imagines about artificial intelligence and concerns with its birth. This chapter presents main theoretical knowledge and hypotheses defined artificial intelligence and progre...

  17. Enjoying the Law

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2005-01-01

    of Morals, of the obligation of citizens of a state to subject themselves unconditionally to the sovereign in power, must be seen in connection with his earlier moral writings in order to maintain a proper Kantian conception of the relation between legality and morality. To this end, Kant's use of...... moral law. In this case, the positive law not only sustains our enjoyment (by securing basic liberties), but also comes to function as an object of enjoyment itself....

  18. Environmental Law Survey 2013

    2014-01-01

    Within the EGP Project “The Capacity Building of Environmental Justice and Guarding Environmental Rights in Western China”, the scholars of the University of Bologna, partner of the China University of Political Science and Law (CUPL) and its Center for Legal Assistance to Pollution Victims (CLAPV), have worked on an Environmental Law Survey so as to provide to the interested public –in particular, Chinese judges, lawyers, academics, and civil society as a whole – with the most interesting an...

  19. Environmental Law Survey 2014

    2014-01-01

    Within the EGP Project “The Capacity Building of Environmental Justice and Guarding Environmental Rights in Western China”, the scholars of the University of Bologna, partner of the China University of Political Science and Law (CUPL) and its Center for Legal Assistance to Pollution Victims (CLAPV), have worked on an Environmental Law Survey so as to provide to the interested public – in particular, Chinese judges, lawyers, academics, and civil society as a whole – with the most interesting a...

  20. Modernizing Italy's Bankruptcy Law

    Vietti, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Reforming bankruptcy laws is difficult for many reasons. First of all, attitudes in Italy toward bankruptcy make it a difficult subject to generate support for. Secondly, bankruptcy reforms are complex and lengthy. They require changes not only to the bankruptcy law but also to other important parts of the legal framework, such as the codes of civil procedures and, in the case of Italy, the ...

  1. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

  2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  3. Pandemic A/H1N1v influenza 2009 in hospitalized children: a multicenter Belgian survey

    Blumental Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1v pandemic, children were identified as a specific "at risk" group. We conducted a multicentric study to describe pattern of influenza A/H1N1v infection among hospitalized children in Brussels, Belgium. Methods From July 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010, we collected epidemiological and clinical data of all proven (positive H1N1v PCR and probable (positive influenza A antigen or culture pediatric cases of influenza A/H1N1v infections, hospitalized in four tertiary centers. Results During the epidemic period, an excess of 18% of pediatric outpatients and emergency department visits was registered. 215 children were hospitalized with proven/probable influenza A/H1N1v infection. Median age was 31 months. 47% had ≥ 1 comorbid conditions. Febrile respiratory illness was the most common presentation. 36% presented with initial gastrointestinal symptoms and 10% with neurological manifestations. 34% had pneumonia. Only 24% of the patients received oseltamivir but 57% received antibiotics. 10% of children were admitted to PICU, seven of whom with ARDS. Case fatality-rate was 5/215 (2%, concerning only children suffering from chronic neurological disorders. Children over 2 years of age showed a higher propensity to be admitted to PICU (16% vs 1%, p = 0.002 and a higher mortality rate (4% vs 0%, p = 0.06. Infants less than 3 months old showed a milder course of infection, with few respiratory and neurological complications. Conclusion Although influenza A/H1N1v infections were generally self-limited, pediatric burden of disease was significant. Compared to other countries experiencing different health care systems, our Belgian cohort was younger and received less frequently antiviral therapy; disease course and mortality were however similar.

  4. Detection of influenza A(H1N1)v virus by real-time RT-PCR.

    Hollmann, B.; Wenzel, J. J.; Eis-hü binger, Am; Olschlä ger, S.; Huzly, D.; Drosten, C.; Panning, M.; Gu; nther, S.; Niller, H H; Becker, S.; Monazahian, M.; Matz, B.

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A(H1N1)v virus was first identified in April 2009. A novel real-time RT-PCR for influenza A(H1N1)v virus was set up ad hoc and validated following industry-standard criteria. The lower limit of detection of the assay was 384 copies of viral RNA per ml of viral transport medium (95% confidence interval: 273-876 RNA copies/ml). Specificity was 100% as assessed on a panel of reference samples including seasonal human influenza A virus H1N1 and H3N2, highly pathogenic avian influenza A ...

  5. A Law and Economics View on Harmonization of Procedural Law

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Even though there exists an extensive Law and Economics literature on the topics of procedural law and harmonization of law, very little has been written on harmonization of procedural law as such. In this paper I first provide a brief overview of the economic approach to legal

  6. Handbook on nuclear law

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle; (b) The security principle; (c) The responsibility principle; (d) The permission principle; (e) The continuous control principle; (f) The compensation principle; (g) The sustainable development principle; (h) The compliance principle; (i) The independence principle; (j) The transparency principle; (k) The international co-operation principle

  7. Handbook on nuclear law

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  8. A new German law

    A new law about the production of electricity came into effect last april in Germany. A renewable energy expert presents this law and its consequences to the electricity market. The previous EFL (electricity feed-in law, 1991) has greatly contributed to the development of wind energy during the last decade but a new law was necessary to comply with European regulations about free electricity market and with European Commission 's aim of doubling the contribution of renewable energies to the European energy balance by 2010. This law sets the purchase prices of electricity by delivery companies according to the renewable energy (wind, photovoltaic,biomass, biogas, mine gas and geothermal) and a compensation system has been thoroughly elaborated. At the end the customer will have to pay the bill but the price is reasonable, the extra-cost is expected to be somewhere between 35 and 70 French francs a year for each electricity consumer but with the perspective of a doubling of the contribution of renewable energies to the German electricity market between 1995 and 2010. (A.C.)

  9. Environmental Law or Environmental Protection Law? A Comparative Legal Analysis

    Rakoczy, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The problem of environmental law and environmental protection law is not only a terminology issue. Using either of the two terms, the lawmaker reveals its vision of regulating environmental issues in the system of law. In environmental protection law the protective nature of a legal norm is emphasized, and at the same time the control and supervisory powers of public administration authorities are increased. In the case of environmental protection law the confrontation element is in the foreg...

  10. Nurturing Respect for the Law.

    Ioffe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the content and methodology of elective courses which expand Soviet student's understanding of the Soviet state and the courts, the structure of power, and the basic rights and duties of the citizen. Courses in labor law, love and family law, criminal law, and constitutional law expand the current social studies curriculum. (KC)

  11. Towards a European contract law

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII. The Const

  12. Online Law Dictionaries

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Online dictionaries that assist users in writing legal texts in English as a foreign language are important lexicographic tools. They can help law students bridge the factual and linguistic gaps between the two legal universes involved. However, existing online law dictionaries with English as the...... English as a foreign language. The function theory of lexicography offers an appropriate basis as it focuses on three key concepts: user needs, user competences, and user situations. It is proposed that online dictionaries should be designed to satisfy the lexicographically relevant user needs by...... containing the types of data that can best satisfy the needs of students at the three stages of legal text production: draft writing, revising and editing. The theoretical aspects discussed are supported by examples from the online CISG Dictionary, which is a lexicographic tool developed to help Danish law...

  13. 76 FR 13082 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-1, V-7, V-11 and V-20; Kona, HI

    2011-03-10

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-1, V-7,...

  14. Li(V0.5Ti0.5)S2 as a 1 V lithium intercalation electrode

    Clark, Steve J.; Wang, Da; Armstrong, A. Robert; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-03-01

    Graphite, the dominant anode in rechargeable lithium batteries, operates at ~0.1 V versus Li+/Li and can result in lithium plating on the graphite surface, raising safety concerns. Titanates, for example, Li4Ti5O12, intercalate lithium at~1.6 V versus Li+/Li, avoiding problematic lithium plating at the expense of reduced cell voltage. There is interest in 1 V anodes, as this voltage is sufficiently high to avoid lithium plating while not significantly reducing cell potential. The sulfides, LiVS2 and LiTiS2, have been investigated as possible 1 V intercalation electrodes but suffer from capacity fading, large 1st cycle irreversible capacity or polarization. Here we report that the 50/50 solid solution, Li1+x(V0.5Ti0.5)S2, delivers a reversible capacity to store charge of 220 mAhg-1 (at 0.9 V), 99% of theoretical, at a rate of C/2, retaining 205 mAhg-1 at C-rate (92% of theoretical). Rate capability is excellent with 200 mAhg-1 at 3C. C-rate is discharge in 1 h. Polarization is low, 100 mV at C/2. To the best of our knowledge, the properties/performances of Li(V0.5Ti0.5)S2 exceed all previous 1 V electrodes.

  15. Technical rules in law

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.)

  16. Transport and conservation laws

    Zotos, X.; F. Naef; Prelovsek, P.

    1996-01-01

    We study the lowest order conservation laws in one-dimensional (1D) integrable quantum many-body models (IQM) as the Heisenberg spin 1/2 chain, the Hubbard and t-J model. We show that the energy current is closely related to the first conservation law in these models and therefore the thermal transport coefficients are anomalous. Using an inequality on the time decay of current correlations we show how the existence of conserved quantities implies a finite charge stiffness (weight of the zero...

  17. EU Food Health Law

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat to...... adoption of harmonising measures that could facilitate a better consumer protection from non-safety health risks at the EU level. The EU legislature should use this legislative competence to fill in the regulatory grey area. Two possible ways forward to better integrate food health into the EU food law...

  18. Detection of influenza A(H1N1)v virus by real-time RT-PCR.

    Panning, M; Eickmann, M; Landt, O; Monazahian, M; Olschläger, S; Baumgarte, S; Reischl, U; Wenzel, J J; Niller, H H; Günther, S; Hollmann, B; Huzly, D; Drexler, J F; Helmer, A; Becker, S; Matz, B; Eis-Hübinger, Am; Drosten, C

    2009-09-10

    Influenza A(H1N1)v virus was first identified in April 2009. A novel real-time RT-PCR for influenza A(H1N1)v virus was set up ad hoc and validated following industry-standard criteria. The lower limit of detection of the assay was 384 copies of viral RNA per ml of viral transport medium (95% confidence interval: 273-876 RNA copies/ml). Specificity was 100% as assessed on a panel of reference samples including seasonal human influenza A virus H1N1 and H3N2, highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 and porcine influenza A virus H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 samples. The real-time RT-PCR assay for the influenza A matrix gene recommended in 2007 by the World Health Organization was modified to work under the same reaction conditions as the influenza A(H1N1)v virus-specific test. Both assays were equally sensitive. Clinical applicability of both assays was demonstrated by screening of almost 2,000 suspected influenza (H1N1)v specimens, which included samples from the first cases of pandemic H1N1 influenza imported to Germany. Measuring influenza A(H1N1)v virus concentrations in 144 laboratory-confirmed samples yielded a median of 4.6 log RNA copies/ml. The new methodology proved its principle and might assist public health laboratories in the upcoming influenza pandemic. PMID:19758541

  19. Free movement of companies under company law, tax law and EU law

    Neville, Mette; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    Free movement of companies whereby they either transfers their de facto head office or their registered office from one member state to another is regulated by both company law, tax law and EU law. The interplay between these areas of law are analysed to determine whether such transfers are posible....

  20. Systematization of Financial Law – Tax Law as a Branch of Law?

    Czudek Damian

    2015-01-01

    This contribution deals with the question of place of the fax law in the system of financial law. The author shows and analyses different point of views of authors in the Central European region at the problem of systematization of financial law. "This is a targeted publication on the one topic (Financial Law). It has been requested for inclusion in WOS."

  1. Evolution and the Law

    Mayer, William V.

    1973-01-01

    Some court cases and legislative bills have been filed in states to legalize the use of the creationist view (of life forms on earth) in biology textbooks superseding the organic theory of evolution. The law has not yet accepted the religious viewpoint. (PS)

  2. Panarchy and the Law

    J. B. Ruhl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Panarchy theory focuses on improving theories of change in natural and social systems to improve the design of policy responses. Its central thesis is that successfully working with the dynamic forces of complex adaptive natural and social systems demands an active adaptive management regime that eschews optimization approaches that seek stability. This is a new approach to resources management, and yet no new theory of how to do things in environmental and natural resources management, particularly one challenging entrenched ways of doing things and the interests aligned around them, is likely to gain traction in practice if it cannot gain traction in the form of endorsement and implementation through specific laws and regulations. At some point, that bridge must be crossed or the enterprise of putting panarchy theory into panarchy practice will stall. Any effort to operationalize panarchy theory through law thus comes up against the mission of law to provide social stability and the nature of law itself as a complex adaptive system. To state the problem in another way, putting panarchy theory into practice will require adaptively managing the complex adaptive legal system to adaptively manage other complex adaptive natural and social systems, all in a way that maintains some level of social order. Panarchy theorists have yet to develop an agenda for doing so. It is time for lawyers to join the team.

  3. Law and individuality

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main contours of the history of philosophical and scientific conceptions of law and individuality are portrayed. This includes an account of perspectives and views found in ancient Greece, the Graeco-Roman world, the medieval speculation and, via the Renaissance, in early modern developments that were continued in the Enlightenment era, in Romanticism and historicism, and were eventually manifested in the linguistic turn. What is important for a proper understanding of modern law conceptions is an acknowledgement of the all-pervading influence of modern nominalism. This orientation was characterised by employing two related distinctions, namely the distinction between conceptual knowledge and concept-transcending knowledge, and that between rationalism and irrationalism. From a systematic point of view, various aspectual terms provide a frame of reference for the idea of a law of nature as a compound basic concept of science. Special attention is given to the nature of normative principles and physical laws. In the last part of the article, these perspectives are applied to a brief assessment of differences and similarities in the thought of Dooyeweerd and Vollenhoven.

  4. Constitutionalization of environmental law

    Luis Huerta Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how Environmental Law can take intoconsideration some of fundamental rights study categories, by a constitutional point of view, particularly the right to a balanced and appropriate environment recognized in article 2, paragraph 22 of the 1993 Peruvian Constitution in order to develop policies oriented to implementation of constitutional legal status for environment rights and property.

  5. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  6. International institutional law

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  7. Law and the Consumer.

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    One of eleven modules developed for secondary school consumer education, this document emphasizes the need of the consumer, especially the disadvantaged consumer, to understand the law and the protection it can offer. The material is presented in three columns: understandings (usually formulated as questions followed by commentary), suggested…

  8. Protective Policy Laws.

    Gehrin, Donald D.

    1994-01-01

    Offers ways to help student affairs administrators understand protective policy laws and regulations. Looks at how such federal guidelines affect campus policies, practices, and procedures. Examines the Buckley Amendment, student consumer information, student right-to-know, campus security, and the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act. (Includes…

  9. Environmental Law II.

    Continuing Legal Education in Colorado, Inc., Denver.

    Presented are papers delivered at a 1976 Colorado environmental law conference. Included in the publication are the conference schedule, the text of nine papers, background information on authors, and bibliography listings for each paper. Titles and topics of the papers are the following: (1) Water Resources Development and the Environment…

  10. Nuclear law in progress

    The 21. AIDN / INLA Congress was organized by the International Nuclear Law Association, in Buenos Aires, between the October 20 and 23, 2014. In this event, were presented almost 50 papers about these subjects: radioactive sources, safety and licensing, radioactive waste management, radiation protection, nuclear transport, security and non-proliferation, nuclear liability and insurance, etc.

  11. Energy and Environmental Law

    The importance of a comprehensive, efficient and safe electric power supply is beyond question. The energy issue represents, particularly in Europe which is poor in natural resources, one of the central challenges of this young century. It undoubtedly has to be solved, but not independent of other geopolitical challenges like especially environmental problems. In view of ongoing climate change, melting ice caps and expansion of desert areas , an energy policy can not be operated (any more) without regard to environmental law aspects. Based on the available network of the different jurisdictions and the increasing number of environmentally relevant energy standards an integrative approach is obvious. Even in the development of the electricity industry it can be seen that the trend in Europe is characterized by a growing environmental awareness. Accompanying this, the liberalization of energy markets and the growing demand in the energy sector led to a realignment of the global energy market. At union legal level the development of an independent environmental law took place in the recent years. Be it the Alpine Convention, Natura 2000 or the Water Framework Directive: all are detached from a purely economic point of view and concerned with the protection of the environment. The claim for the future is a sustainable energy supply. This paper attempts to present a comprehensive system of energy environmental law. The guiding question was therefore the question of whether or to what extent there is a coherent system of energy environmental law. (Kancsar)

  12. Introduction to environmental law

    The author outlines the environmental law in the Federal Republic of Germany and surveys the main legal regulations in the field of environmental protection. Inter alia he deals with problems of installations subject to permission and with legal questions of transfrontier environmental pollution and of compensation according to sec. 38 Atomic Energy Act. (WG)

  13. [Epilepsy and Canon Law].

    Bonduelle, M

    1987-01-01

    The Canon Law (Codex Iuris Canonici), promulgated in 1917, was a classification of laws and jurisprudence which ruled the early Church, governed the ecclesiastical condition of Roman Church until its reorganisation in 1983. It forbade to be ordained or to exercise orders already received to "those who are or were epileptics either not quite in their right mind or possessed by the Evil One". All the context and in particular the paragraph which treated of bodily lacks, indicated that between these three conditions, there was juxtaposition and no confusion. The texts specified the foundations of these dispositions, not in a malefic view of epilepsy inherited from Morbus Sacer of Antiquity, but in decency and on account of risk incured by Eucharist in case of fit. Some derogations could attenuate the severity of these dispositions--as jurisprudence had taken progresses of Epileptology and therapeutics into consideration. In the new Code of Canon Law (1983) physical disabilities were removed from the text and also possessed evil and epilepsy, the only impediment being "insanity or other psychic defect" appreciation of which is done by experts. Concerning poorly controlled epilepsies, we believe that experts will be allowed to express their opinion and a new jurisprudence will make up for the silence of the law. PMID:3310183

  14. Law... For what?

    Rodrigo Merino Barros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the work “El Derecho... ¿para qué?” of Jaime Baquero de la Calle. The overview analyzes the sources, the type of documents and examples that are used in it. Includes an explanation of the structure of the document, emphasizing the utility that provides this publication for students of law.

  15. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    -of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples...

  16. Modification of Fick's law

    In the presence of long-time memory effects, Fick's law must be modified by replacing the diffusion coefficient by a convolution over time of the velocity autocorrelation function. This leads to a convergent Chapman-Enskog expansion in a fluid provided the proper reference frame is taken in the presence of hydrodynamic motion

  17. Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.

    Fricker, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

  18. Environmental law. 3. rev. ed.

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (orig.)

  19. Discrete power law with exponential cutoff and Lotka's Law

    Smolinsky, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The first bibliometric law appeared in Alfred J. Lotka's 1926 examination of author productivity in chemistry and physics. The result is that the productivity distribution is thought to be described by a power law. In this paper, Lotka's original data on author productivity in chemistry is reconsidered by comparing the fit of the data to both a discrete power law and a discrete power law with exponential cutoff.

  20. LAW 575 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    roster

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   LAW 575 Week 1 Discussion Questions LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 2 LT Reflection Formative Assesement LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 2 Business Organization and ADR LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 3 Formative Assessment, Learning Team Reflection ...

  1. LAW 575 UOP Course Tutorial/Tutorialrank

    badhrinara

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A     LAW 575 Week 1 Discussion Questions LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 2 LT Reflection Formative Assesement LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 2 Business Organization and ADR LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week...

  2. LAW 575 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A     LAW 575 Week 1 Discussion Questions LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 1 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 2 LT Reflection Formative Assesement LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 2 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week 2 Business Organization and ADR LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 1 LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 2 LAW 575 Week 3 DQ 3 LAW 575 Week...

  3. A 1-V TSPC Dual Modulus Prescaler with Speed Scalability Using Forward Body Biasing in 0.18µm CMOS

    Shin, Hyunchol

    The operating speed scalability is demonstrated by using the forward body biasing method for a 1-V 0.18-µm CMOS true single-phase clocking (TSPC) dual-modulus prescaler. With the forward body bias voltage varying between 0 and 0.4V, the maximum operating speed changes by about 40-50% and the maximum input sensitivity frequency changes by about 400%. This speed scalability is achieved with less than 0.5-dB phase noise degradation. This demonstration indicates that the forward body biasing method is instrumental to build a cost-saving power-efficient 1-V 0.18-µm CMOS radio for low-power WBAN and WSN applications.

  4. Law Behind Second Law of Thermodynamics --Unification with Cosmology--

    Nielsen, Holger B.; Ninomiya, Masao

    2006-01-01

    In an abstract setting of a general classical mechanical system as a model for the universe we set up a general formalism for a law behind the second law of thermodynamics, i.e. really for "initial conditions". We propose a unification with the other laws by requiring similar symmetry and locality properties.

  5. Teaching "Law and Education" Outside the Law School.

    Simpson, Robert J., Ed.

    A symposium discussion is presented on the topic, "Teaching 'Law and Education' Outside the Law School." The participants were: Walter J. McCann of Harvard Graduate School of Education; E. Edmund Reutter, Jr., of Teachers College of Columbia University; Robert J. Simpson of University of Miami Center for Policy and Law in Education; Tyll Van Geel…

  6. The Teaching of Constitutional Law in American Law Schools.

    Haimbaugh, George D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the teaching of constitutional law used questionnaires sent to the dean of every law school approved by the Association of American Law Schools or the American Bar Association. Responses describe the basic course, advanced courses and seminars, teachers, goals, and examinations. (MLW)

  7. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  8. The criminal law responsibility of officials under environmental criminal law

    The legal application of environmental criminal law has attributed to office-bearers of the environmental administration a determining function in the field of criminal protection of legal objects. Criminal law shall prevent the misuse of official authority. In this connection law has to observe the limits of admissible procedure of the administration. (CW)

  9. European Asylum Law : and its Relation to International Law

    Battjes, H.

    2006-01-01

    In Chapter 1 I introduce the question of enquiry, the relation between Community and international law on asylum. Further, I sketch the content of the Refugee Convention, other relevant international law, the historical background of current Community asylum law (i.e. the asylum acquis from before 2

  10. Criminal Law in Denmark

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    -trial proceedings, trial stage, and legal remedies. A final part describes the execution of sentences and orders, the prison system, and the extinction of custodial sanctions or sentences. Its succinct yet scholarly nature, as well as the practical quality of the information it provides, make this book a valuable......Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds to a...... detailed examination of the grounds for criminal liability, the justification of criminal offences, the defences that diminish or excuse criminal liability, the classification of criminal offences, and the sanctions system. Coverage of criminal procedure focuses on the organization of investigations, pre...

  11. Protective Immunity in Mice Achieved with Dry Powder Formulation and Alternative Delivery of Plague F1-V Vaccine▿

    Huang, Joanne; D'Souza, Ajit J.; Alarcon, Jason B.; Mikszta, John A.; Ford, Brandi M.; Ferriter, Matthew S.; Evans, Michelle; Stewart, Todd; Amemiya, Kei; Ulrich, Robert G.; Sullivan, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    The potential use of Yersinia pestis as a bioterror agent is a great concern. Development of a stable powder vaccine against Y. pestis and administration of the vaccine by minimally invasive methods could provide an alternative to the traditional liquid formulation and intramuscular injection. We evaluated a spray-freeze-dried powder vaccine containing a recombinant F1-V fusion protein of Y. pestis for vaccination against plaque in a mouse model. Mice were immunized with reconstituted spray-f...

  12. Discrete anomaly and dynamical mass in 2+1 dimension U(1)v x U(1)A model

    The authors note that in (2+1)-dimensional gauge theories with even number of massless fermions, there is anomalous Z2 symmetry if theory is regularized in a parity-invariant way. They then consider a parity invariant U(1)v x U(1)A model, which induces a mutual Chern-Simons term in the effective action due to Z2 anomaly. The effect of the discrete anomaly is studied in the induced spin and in the dynamical fermion mass

  13. The generalized distributive law

    Aji, Srinivas M.; McEliece, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss a general message passing algorithm, which we call the generalized distributive law (GDL). The GDL is a synthesis of the work of many authors in information theory, digital communications, signal processing, statistics, and artificial intelligence. It includes as special cases the Baum-Welch algorithm, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) on any finite Abelian group, the Gallager-Tanner-Wiberg decoding algorithm, Viterbi's algorithm, the BCJR algorithm, Pearl's “belief propagation” alg...

  14. Public Enforcement of Law

    A. Mitchell Polinsky; Steven Shavell

    2006-01-01

    This entry for the forthcoming The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (Second Edition) surveys the economic analysis of public enforcement of law — the use of public agents (inspectors, tax auditors, police, prosecutors) to detect and to sanction violators of legal rules. We first discuss the basic elements of the theory: the probability of imposition of sanctions, the magnitude and form of sanctions (fines, imprisonment), and the rule of liability. We then examine a variety of extensions, ...

  15. Form of growth law

    Tringelová M.

    2007-01-01

    Our aim in future is to computer simulate the mechanical stimulated postnatal heart development (normal growth, heart hypertrophy, etc.). We are now interested in the study of the form of growth law [1], which we could use for the simulation. We follow the theory of volumetric growth in [1]. This theory is based on the theory of generalized continuum [2] and describes the volumetric growth of tissue from macroscopic point of view.

  16. Labor Law Renewal

    Sachs, Benjamin Ian

    2007-01-01

    This essay challenges the conventional wisdom that American labor law has reached a dead end. I argue that the dysfunctionality of the National Labor Relations Act has led not to "ossification" - as many believe - but to a hydraulic effect: unable to find an outlet through the NLRA, the continuing demand for collective action has forced open alternative legal channels. The essay outlines three examples to illustrate these emerging trends. The first involves the ability of several thousand ...

  17. Form of growth law

    Tringelová M.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in future is to computer simulate the mechanical stimulated postnatal heart development (normal growth, heart hypertrophy, etc.. We are now interested in the study of the form of growth law [1], which we could use for the simulation. We follow the theory of volumetric growth in [1]. This theory is based on the theory of generalized continuum [2] and describes the volumetric growth of tissue from macroscopic point of view.

  18. Behavioral Law & Economics

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  19. Corporate Law's Limits.

    Roe, Mark J.

    2002-01-01

    A strong theory has emerged that the quality of corporate law in protecting distant shareholders primarily determines whether ownership and control separate. The theory helps to convincingly explain why separation is weak in transition and developing nations. But in several rich nations, although legal structures as measured protect shareholders well, separation is shallow. Something else has impeded separation. Separation should be narrow if shareholders face high managerial agency costs if ...

  20. Sexuality and the law.

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  1. [Abortion law in Italy].

    Havránek, F

    1979-04-01

    On May 28, 1978, the Italian senate passed a law legalizing abortions. The law, passed against the will of the Christian Democrat party and the Vatican, is the most liberal in Western Europe. Any woman 18 or older is free to seek an abortion at a private or public institution during the first 90 days of pregnancy. Abortions can be sought on health, economic, social, family, or psychological grounds. A woman requests an abortion at a hospital or clinic, or from a physician. If termination is deemed urgent, the procedure may be performed immediately. If a request is denied, a woman may make another request 7 days later. Second trimester abortions are permitted only if grave danger to the woman or deformation of the fetus is suspected. Women under 18 meed the permission of their parents or legal guardians; a court may also grant permission. Passage of the law has facilitated open debate on the legal and medical aspects of abortion. It has also guaranteed women access to abortions. Physicians, who on grounds of conscience feel they can't perform abortions, may register to be exempt from having to perform them. They may not, however, deny a woman care before and after her abortion, and if they perform the procedure even once, their name is removed from the exempt register. Additionally, all physicians are bound to attempt to preserve the life of all women as well as any fetus which shows life outside the womb. PMID:445601

  2. Sovereignty in International Law

    Jana MAFTEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at highlighting in this paper, after analyzing the transformations that took place in the international society, the importance of a particularly sensitive and current topic for public international law, namely the sovereignty. A political and legal concept at the same time, the state sovereignty remains permanently into the attention of researchers in an attempt to determine its role in international relations governed by the international law. The concept of sovereignty is complex, it can be analyzed in terms of the national law, but as a member of international society, a State participates in international relations on the basis of sovereign equality principle, which causes another meaning of sovereignty, which completes the one specific to the internal life. We have analyzed the evolution of the concept of sovereignty and we have identified the causes that led to changes in its characteristics, in order to predict the tendencies in its development. We have highlighted the aspects of the exercise of sovereignty as a result of limiting the powers of state in the favor of international bodies. In preparing this article we have used as research methods the analysis of the problems generated by mentioned subject with reference to the doctrinal views expressed in specialized papers, documentary research, and interpretation of legal norms in the field.

  3. Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles.

    Kimbrough, Doris R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Henry's Law which describes the relationship between the pressure of gas and the concentration of that gas in a solution. Presents an application of Henry's Law to the cracking of knuckles. (CCM)

  4. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  5. Law and technology security standard

    Kitahara, Munenori

    2012-01-01

    The author will deal with the relationship between law and technology from the viewpoint of technology security standard. One of the relationships can be found in that law has been providing a security level of technology. They have been saying that law would often follow technology. Law is too slow to adapt the changing technology through the advancement of technology. Above all, information technology has an electronic rapidity and a legislation technology has a paper one. There might be a ...

  6. Law and Investment in Africa

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to mainstream consensus on the dominance of English common law countries in investment prospects, this paper sets a new tone in the legal origins debate by providing empirical validity on the dominance of French civil-law countries in private investment. The assessment is based on 38 African countries for the period 1996-2007. The law mechanisms of regulation quality and rule of law are used to investigate how legal origins (French, English, French sub-Saharan, Portuguese and North A...

  7. Choice of Law: New Foundations

    Guzman, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    This Article develops a new approach to choice of law. Founded on economic principles rather than the notions of sovereignty that are typically used by choice of law scholars, it seeks to build new foundations for choice of law scholarship. The analysis in the Article makes it possible to discuss alternative choice of law rules in terms of their impact on the well-being of individuals. In other words, it makes it possible to consider questions of efficie...

  8. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  9. Tax Breaks for Law Students.

    Button, Alan L.

    1981-01-01

    A guide to federal income tax law as it affects law students is presented. Some costs that may constitute valuable above-the-line deductions are identified: moving expenses, educational expenses, job-seeking expenses, and income averaging. Available from Washington and Lee University School of Law, Lexington, VA 24450, $5.50 sc) (MLW)

  10. MOND laws of galactic dynamics

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2012-01-01

    MOND predicts a number of laws that galactic systems should obey irrespective of their complicated, haphazard, and mostly unknowable histories -- as Kepler's laws are obeyed by planetary systems. The main purpose of this work is to show how, and to what extent, these MOND laws follow from only the paradigm's basic tenets: departure from standard dynamics at accelerations a

  11. Scaling Laws in Gravitational Collapse

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Run-Qiu(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two interesting scaling laws, which relate some critical exponents in the critical behavior of spherically symmetric gravitational collapses. These scaling laws are independent of the details of gravity theory under consideration and share similar forms as those in thermodynamic and geometrical phase transitions in condensed matter system. The properties of the scaling laws are discussed and some numerical checks are given.

  12. Internationalization of law globalization, international law and complexity

    Dias Varella, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an overview of how international law is today constructed through diverse macro and microprocesses that expand its traditional subjects and sources, with the attribution of sovereign capacity and power to the international plane (moving the international toward the national). Simultaneously, national laws approximate laws of other nations (moving among nations or moving the national toward the international) and new sources of legal norms emerge, independent of states and international organisations. This expansion occurs in many subject areas, with specific structures: commercial, environmental, human rights, humanitarian, financial, criminal and labor law contribute to the formation of post national law with different modes of functioning, different actors and different sources of law that should be understood as a new complexity of law.

  13. Russian contract law for foreigners

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1), is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invali...

  14. Data law, a special regulation

    Ochoa, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    I noticed during the last years of my research that when it comes to data law, people are only interested into data protection, human rights etc.As a result, data law is often reduced as data protection law or, even worse, as “privacy law”. Such a point of view is not wrong because data law do protect – or at least genuinely tries to protect – privacy, human rights etc. But by doing so, one is likely to refer only to a small part of data law and, what is worse, not to the essential part of it...

  15. Zipf's law unzipped

    Why does Zipf's law give a good description of data from seemingly completely unrelated phenomena? Here it is argued that the reason is that they can all be described as outcomes of a ubiquitous random group division: the elements can be citizens of a country and the groups family names, or the elements can be all the words making up a novel and the groups the unique words, or the elements could be inhabitants and the groups the cities in a country and so on. A random group formation (RGF) is presented from which a Bayesian estimate is obtained based on minimal information: it provides the best prediction for the number of groups with k elements, given the total number of elements, groups and the number of elements in the largest group. For each specification of these three values, the RGF predicts a unique group distribution N(k)∼exp(-bk)/kγ, where the power-law index γ is a unique function of the same three values. The universality of the result is made possible by the fact that no system-specific assumptions are made about the mechanism responsible for the group division. The direct relation between γ and the total number of elements, groups and the number of elements in the largest group is calculated. The predictive power of the RGF model is demonstrated by direct comparison with data from a variety of systems. It is shown that γ usually takes values in the interval 1≤γ≤2 and that the value for a given phenomenon depends in a systematic way on the total size of the dataset. The results are put in the context of earlier discussions on Zipf's and Gibrat's laws, N(k)∼k-2 and the connection between growth models and RGF is elucidated.

  16. International and European Security Law

    Jonathan Herbach

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Security law, or more comprehensively conflict and security law, on the international level represents the intersection of three distinct but interrelated fields: international humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict, jus in bello, the law of collective security (most identified with the United Nations (UN system, jus ad bellum and arms control law (including non-proliferation. Security in this sense is multifaceted - interest security, military security and, as is often referred to in the context of the EU, human security. As such, the law covers a wide range of specific topics with respect to conflict, encompassing the use of force, including choice of weapons and fighting techniques, extending to the rules applicable in peacekeeping and peace enforcement, and yet also dictating obligations outside the context of conflict, such as safeguarding and securing dual-use materials (those with both peaceful and military applications to prevent malicious use.

  17. Evolution of Law

    Pflimpfel, Stepan

    2011-01-01

    In this Bachelor thesis I would like to present to the reader a comprehensive and adequately in-depth review of what chronological development modern world’s legal systems have undergone up to current time being. The aim is to take the evolution of law step by step and project it on the most significant eras in the history of human civilization. The first - theoretical part is a historical revision of what I consider the crucial points in civilization time line valuable in respect to the...

  18. Essentials of EU law

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  19. Violence or law

    Bloody demonstrations, occupations of houses and airports, violence against things and persons make the citizens feel that the protection of life and property is no longer in a good state in the F.R. of Germany. How can a further erosion of the sense of justice be met. What can the citizens do to strengthen the sense of justice and to help making the respect of law grow again as a condition for the peaceful coexistence of people. The contributions from a meeting of the Evangelische Akademie Bad Herrenalb deal with these problems. (orig./HP)

  20. Spatiality of environmental law

    Baaner, Lasse; Hvingel, Line

    2015-01-01

    determine the interplay between geographic data and technology in the fields of environmental legislation, environmental policy and environmental management. This article examines the legal regulation of spatial information as established by the inspire directive, on one hand, and on the other hand......, examines legal regulation as spatial information. It aims to deepen the understanding of spatiality as a core element of environmental law, and to connect it to the basic concept of representation used in giscience. It concludes that the future path for e-Government demands a shift in legal paradigm, from...

  1. Law and family planning.

    Gerber, P

    1984-03-17

    The decision in the Gillick case confirms that oral contraceptives (OCS) may be prescribed for adolescents under age 16 without their parent's knowlege or consent. And it is probable that to convey the information to parents will render the doctor guilty of professional miscnduct. This is true incases where the adolescent has reached the age of 16 and thus attained the age of consent, notwithstanding the decision in the Browne case. In that case, an elderly Birmingham general practitioner, Dr. Robert Browne, was chaged, on the information of a local family planning clinc, with serious professional misconduct when he told the father of a girl who had been his patient since birth that she was taking OCS. The girl had consulted a local family planning clinic, which had put her on OCS and conveyed the information to Dr. Browne in a confidential letter. Dr Browne had decided that her parents were the best people to counsel her, and since the information had been supplied by the clinic, "I could not accept from a third party a unilateral imposition of confidential information." The latter proposition is specious; the former is not a good defense at law. The decision of the General Medical Council's Disciplinary Committee in favor of Dr. Browne rests on tenuous reasoning. It was most likely wrong when it was handed down in 1971 and would almost certainly not be followed today. There is something in the Gillick case to infuriate every family doctor. At 1 level, the decision points the finger at as sensitive area of family medicine most often ignored by medical practitioners -- the provision of timely counseling, particularly in the area of sexual relations. The point has been reached where a family planning clinic's judgment can be lawfully substituted for that of parents on issues involving the moral and emotional development of their children. A doctor's obligation to maintain confidentiality does not come about by default, nor can it gan moral reinforcement as a result

  2. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  3. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  4. Environmental law and nuclear law: a growing symbiosis

    This article is divided in two parts. The first part deals with the interrelationship between environmental law and nuclear law. It specifically addresses selective topics which the author considers as substantial proof that environmental law is in evidence in the nuclear field. These topics are access to nuclear information, public participation in nuclear decision-making and prevention and compensation of environmental damage caused by nuclear incidents. Environmental law will be considered in its narrow sense, meaning the law that seeks to protect nature such as soil, water, air and biodiversity. The position of the author is that the importance of environmental law for nuclear activities is increasing and may lead to a growing symbiosis with nuclear law. Environmental law and nuclear law share the same objectives: protection against mitigation of and compensation for damage to the environment. In the second part a specific problem that touches upon the extra-territorial effect of environmental legislation in the nuclear field will be examined. At the beginning of the 21. century, it can be expected that vendors of nuclear facilities will spare no efforts in trying to enter new markets all over the world. Countries with more developed environmental requirements on the construction of nuclear facilities by their national vendors in customer countries. This part of the article will analyse whether public international laws to the construction of nuclear facilities abroad. The author believes that there may well be a legal basis under customary international law justifying the application of national environmental law to the construction of nuclear facilities and the performance of work on nuclear facilities in foreign countries, but there would appear to be none permitting the enforcement of these laws in the absence of an agreement with the foreign country. (N.C.)

  5. Generalized Kirchhoff law

    Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Brucoli, Giovanni; Sakat, Emilie; Marquier, François

    2016-01-01

    Thermal emission can be conveniently described using Kirchhoff law which states that the emissivity is equal to the absorptivity for isothermal bodies. For a finite size system, absorptivity is replaced by an absorption cross section. Here, we study the link between thermal emission and absorption by a finite size object which is not isothermal. We define a local absorption rate for a given incident plane wave and we prove that it is equal to the local emissivity rate. Hence, Kirchhoff law can be extended to anisothermal media. A practical consequence is the possibility of analysing thermal radiation by a variety of non-equilibrium systems such as microwave radiation in geophysical remote sensing or X-UV radiation by plasmas. This result provides a theoretical framework to analyse thermal emission by hot electrons in quantum wells, tunnel junctions or graphene. It paves the way to the design of a new generation of incandescent emitters made of subwavelength hot emitters coupled to cold antennas. The antennas ...

  6. Telemedicine and the law

    Full text: Aim: To identify the legal and ethical obstacles to the development of tele (nuclear) medicine, and to propose solutions. Material and method: Lessons have been drawn from 4 years practice of telemedicine between Luxemburg and 5 European centres. Problems so raised have been confronted with the US and EU literature. Results: Academic applications (web sites, teaching, hospital networks) are yet functional and are not dealt with here. Difficulties arise in case of 1st reading (e.g. 24 hour service), 2nd reading (expert advice) or distant reading (locum, service in remote places). In most applications, the relation is doctor to doctor; patient issues like quality of content, freedom of choice are minor. A body of laws, rules and directives apply to other issues. Confidentiality is ruled by the EU Directives on the Protection of Individuals and on Data Protection. Data are commonly encrypted/anonymized. Consent and free choice are ruled by the law of medicine. A doctor requiring 2nd advice stays in charge of the patient (no need to consent). Remote reading or 1st reading is usually based on prior agreement between doctors (like after hours service), and information or consent is recommended. Registration and accreditation are ruled by the Directives of the European Internal Market for Services. No obstacle to the delivery of services across the EU would remain if it is perceived that a tele-patient consults abroad rather than a tele-doctor practices abroad. (author)

  7. Integrable viscous conservation laws

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    We propose an extension of the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative approach to the study of normal forms for non-Hamiltonian integrable scalar conservation laws. The explicit computation of the first few corrections leads to the conjecture that such normal forms are parameterized by one single functional parameter, named the viscous central invariant. A constant valued viscous central invariant corresponds to the well-known Burgers hierarchy. The case of a linear viscous central invariant provides a viscous analog of the Camassa-Holm equation, that formerly appeared as a reduction of two-component Hamiltonian integrable systems. We write explicitly the negative and positive hierarchy associated with this equation and prove the integrability showing that they can be mapped respectively into the heat hierarchy and its negative counterpart, named the Klein-Gordon hierarchy. A local well-posedness theorem for periodic initial data is also proven. We show how transport equations can be used to effectively construct asymptotic solutions via an extension of the quasi-Miura map that preserves the initial datum. The method is alternative to the method of the string equation for Hamiltonian conservation laws and naturally extends to the viscous case. Using these tools we derive the viscous analog of the Painlevé I2 equation that describes the universal behaviour of the solution at the critical point of gradient catastrophe.

  8. Reflections on nuclear law

    Despite contradictory public attitudes to nuclear power, this source of energy is bound to be used all over the world because of exhaustible other energy sources and increasing energy needs. The role of nuclear law is analysed in this context. Innovative legislation in this field has kept in step with the constant evolution of nuclear technology and has fixed new criteria of liability, financial coverage and specific standards for users of nuclear power, and set administrative measures to be complied with. It has fixed a barrier of protection mechanisms, i.e. licences, exemptions, controls, to keep an acceptable balance between economic advantages and social needs. In Italy, apart from ratification of international nuclear conventions, an increasing number of laws and decrees are made touching the various aspects of nuclear energy, thus providing a detailed, expanding legal framework for nuclear activities. Finally, existing legislation should be still further refined as regards emergency plans and measures to ensure maximum protection in the event, however remote, of a major nuclear incident. (NEA)

  9. Environmental law. 2. rev. ed.; Umweltrecht

    Meyerholt, Ulrich

    2007-07-01

    The author of the book under consideration describes the environment law in a well readable and systematic form. By means of this book the reader is to be able to understand and arrange environmental-legal questions. The book consists of the following sections: (a) Denotation of the environment law; (b) Fundamentals of the legal order and the application of law; (c) Environmental constitutional law; (d) Principles of the environment law; (e) Instruments in the environment law; (f) Environmental private law; (g) Environmental criminal law; (h) Legal protection questions in the public environment law; (i) Environmental European right; (j) Environmental international law; (k) Pollution control law; (l) Water legislation; (m)Soil conservation law; (n) Recycling law and waste management law; (o) Nature conservation law; (p) Law of hazardous materials.

  10. LAW 531 UOP Tutorial Courses/ Uoptutorial

    kalam1

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   LAW 531 Week 1 Quiz (Knowledge Check) LAW 531 Week 1 DQ 1 LAW 531 Week 1 DQ 2 LAW 531 Week 1 Individual Assignment The Legal System and ADR Analysis LAW 531 Week 2 Quiz (Knowledge Check) LAW 531 Week 2 DQ 1 LAW 531 Week 2 DQ 2 LAW 531 Week 2 Individual Business Forms Worksheet LAW 531 Week 2 Learning Team Reflection IRAC Brief LAW 531 Week 3 Quiz (Knowledge Check) LAW 531 Week 3 Lea...

  11. LAW 421 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    roster

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   LAW 421 Week 1 Discussion Question 1 (UOP) LAW 421 Week 1 Discussion Question 2 (UOP) LAW 421 Week 1 Individual Assignment Role and Functions of Law Paper 1 (UOP) LAW 421 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 (UOP) LAW 421 Week 2 Discussion Question 2 (UOP) LAW 421 Week 2 Individual Assignment Addressing International Legal and Ethical Issues Simulation Analysis (UOP) LAW 421 Week 2 Learning Team...

  12. Nuclear law and law of the sea - a synthesis

    The general idea behind the work of the Paris Colloqium on Nuclear Law and Law of the Sea was that of an agreement and sometimes opposition between two specificities, that of the law of the maritime and, in particular, ocean environment, and that of the law of nuclear techniques. These relationships were studied notably in the perspective of the problems of transport of nuclear materials and their liability insurance, as well as from the viewpoint of the operation of nuclear powered ships. Another problem studied in this context is that of radioactive marine pollution. (N.E.A.)

  13. INDIRECT INFLUENCE OF COMMUNITY LAW OVER NATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of influence of Community law over national criminal law is difficult to be solved even now, because criminal law is very closely related to state sovereignty. However, at European level it is a series of unifying trends in the field of criminal law. This includes: the Corpus Juris Project to develop a number of guiding principles on the protection through criminal law of financial interests of EU, within the European judiciary space; the project of founding a European Prosecutor , which would have extended jurisdiction over the entire European judicial area; at the doctrinaire level the project called ”The Criminal Code of the European Union ” result of encoding the provisions relevant for the Community criminal law and published likewise. Romanian criminal law could not remain outside these trends and this paper reveal some internal acts that reflect the trends observed at European level. Some of this acts have a direct influence, and some of them an indirect influence. An example is represented by art. 3022 of the Romanian Penal Code, which, in the basic variant, besides any operations regarding the import of wastes and residue of any kind or other dangerous goods for public health and environment, incriminates the placing or transit operations on the country without observing the laws. In this text, the phrase "without observing the laws" must be reported to both national regulations and international legal instruments.

  14. Zipf law: an extreme perspective

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-04-01

    Extreme value theory (EVT) asserts that the Fréchet law emerges universally from linearly scaled maxima of collections of independent and identically distributed random variables that are positive-valued. Observations of many real-world sizes, e.g. city-sizes, give rise to the Zipf law: if we rank the sizes decreasingly, and plot the log-sizes versus the log-ranks, then an affine line emerges. In this paper we present an EVT approach to the Zipf law. Specifically, we establish that whenever the Fréchet law emerges from the EVT setting, then the Zipf law follows. The EVT generation of the Zipf law, its universality, and its associated phase transition, are analyzed and described in detail.

  15. Zipf law: an extreme perspective

    Extreme value theory (EVT) asserts that the Fréchet law emerges universally from linearly scaled maxima of collections of independent and identically distributed random variables that are positive-valued. Observations of many real-world sizes, e.g. city-sizes, give rise to the Zipf law: if we rank the sizes decreasingly, and plot the log-sizes versus the log-ranks, then an affine line emerges. In this paper we present an EVT approach to the Zipf law. Specifically, we establish that whenever the Fréchet law emerges from the EVT setting, then the Zipf law follows. The EVT generation of the Zipf law, its universality, and its associated phase transition, are analyzed and described in detail. (letter)

  16. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author)

  17. Informational constraints on interceptive actions of elite football goalkeepers in 1v1 dyads during competitive performance.

    Shafizadeh, Mohsen; Davids, Keith; Correia, Vanda; Wheat, Jonathan; Hizan, Hazuan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether perceptual variables can provide informational constraints for the goalkeepers to intercept the ball successfully in 1v1 dyads. Video images of 42 actions (1v1 in direct shots) were selected randomly from different matches and divided into conceded goals (n = 20) and saved actions (n = 22) to investigate interceptive actions of 20 goalkeepers in the English Premier League in season 2013-2014. Time to Contact (TTC) of the closing distance gap between shooter and goalkeeper was obtained by digitising actions in the 18-yard penalty box. Statistical analyses revealed that, in sequences of play resulting in an intercepted shot at goal, goalkeepers closed down outfield players in the X axis, whereas when a goal was conceded, there was a significantly delayed movement by goalkeepers toward the shooters in this plane. The results of canonical correlations showed that a decreasing distance between a shooter and goalkeeper, and accompanied reduction in relative interpersonal velocity followed a temporal pattern. Findings of this study showed how perception of key informational constraints on dyadic system relations, such as TTC, interpersonal distance and relative velocity, constrain elite goalkeepers' interceptive actions, playing an important role in successful performance. PMID:26652039

  18. Protection against lethal subcutaneous challenge of virulent Y. pestis strain 141 using an F1-V subunit vaccine

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we designed and engineered a two-component recombinant fusion protein antigen as a vaccine candidate against the possible biological threat of Yersinia pestis. The recombinant F1-V protein was formulated with Alhydrogel. A four-time injection with a dosage of 10, 20 and 50 μg/mouse in about two months was adopted for vaccination. Serum antibodies and subclass of T helper cells were measured and analyzed. After the final vaccination, the mice were challenged by 141 strain with 25―600 LD50. In conclusion, the recombinant vaccine was capable of inducing protective immunity against subcutaneous challenge. The level of serum IgG was supposed to be a main factor that affected the final protection of challenge. 20 μg recombinant protein could induce an endpoint titre of serum IgG as high as 51200, which was enough to afford 100% protection against 400 LD50 virulent 141 challenge. The antibody isotype analysis showed that the vaccine induced predominantly an IgG1 rather than IgG2a response. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Alhydrogel significantly helped induce a stronger humoral immunity instead of CTL cellular response. These findings suggested that the plague F1-V subunit vaccine is promising for the next plague vaccine.

  19. Estimating time to onset of swine influenza symptoms after initial novel A(H1N1v) viral infection.

    Tom, B D M; Van Hoek, A J; Pebody, R; McMenamin, J; Robertson, C; Catchpole, M; De Angelis, D

    2011-09-01

    Characterization of the incubation time from infection to onset is important for understanding the natural history of infectious diseases. Attempts to estimate the incubation time distribution for novel A(H1N1v) have been, up to now, based on limited data or peculiar samples. We characterized this distribution for a generic group of symptomatic cases using laboratory-confirmed swine influenza case-information. Estimates of the incubation distribution for the pandemic influenza were derived through parametric time-to-event analyses of data on onset of symptoms and exposure dates, accounting for interval censoring. We estimated a mean of about 1·6-1·7 days with a standard deviation of 2 days for the incubation time distribution in those who became symptomatic after infection with the A(H1N1v) virus strain. Separate analyses for the <15 years and ≥ 15 years age groups showed a significant (P<0·02) difference with a longer mean incubation time in the older age group. PMID:21087539

  20. Law Tackling Administrative Monopolies

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ The long-anticipated anti-monopoly law needs to better address the crucial distinction between administrative and economic monopolies The first five months of 2oo6 saw a surge in the profits achieved by key State enterprises, especially in the eight sectors including petroleum, telecommunication and electricity, which achieved 285 billion yuan (US$36 billion) in profits, accounting for about 86 percent of the total, according to a July report. From the Stateowned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State (SASAC). This news was both heartening and disquieting, for the most profitable sectors happen to be monopolistic enterprises, mostly upstream the production chain, who achieve their profitability at the expense of those companies further downstream. For years these sectors have been at the centre of the "bust-the-trust" storm.

  1. Labour Law in Denmark

    Hasselbalch, Ole

    Falling on a Normal Working Day and Leave Schemes Chapter 4. Remuneration and Benefits Chapter 5. Incapacity to Work Chapter 6. Job Security Chapter 7. Protection of Certain Categories of Employee and against Discrimination in Employment Chapter 8. Covenants of Non-competition and Non-solicitation Chapter...... 9. Inventions by Employees Chapter 10. Settlement of Disputes Part II. Collective Labour Relations Chapter 1. Trade Union Freedom Chapter 2. Trade Unions and Employers’ Associations Chapter 3. Institutionalised Relations between Employers and Employees Chapter 4. Collective Bargaining Chapter 5....... Strikes, Lock-outs and Other Legal Forms of Industrial Action Chapter 6. Settlement of Industrial Disputes of Interest and Protection of Vital Needs Chapter 7. Disputes of Rights Introductory Remarks Part I. Implementation into National Law Chapter 1. Legal Sources Chapter 2. Objective and Scope Chapter 3...

  2. Extraterritorial Courts for Corporate Law

    Henry Hansmann; Jens Dammann

    2005-01-01

    A central goal in devising a system of courts is to make judicial services easily accessible. As a consequence, justice is usually administered in a geographically decentralized fashion: trial courts are distributed across the territory in which the jurisdiction's law is applied. Corporate law, however, does not fit this pattern: courts are often located far away from the companies subject to their jurisdiction. In particular, Delaware law governs most publicly traded firms in the U.S., and i...

  3. Morality, care, and international law

    Held, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Whether we should respect international law is in dispute. In the United States, international law is dismissed by the left as merely promoting the interests of powerful states. It is attacked by the right as irrelevant and an interference with the interests and mission of the United States. And it follows from the arguments of many liberals that in the absence of world government the world is in a Hobbesian state of nature and international law inapplicable. This article reviews the thinking...

  4. Behavioral Economics and the Law

    Jolls, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This monograph describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the endowment effect and other features of behavioral economics feature prominently and have been applied to many important legal questions.

  5. The Law of Other States

    Eric A. Posner; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2006-01-01

    The question whether courts should consult the laws of "other states" has produced intense controversy. But in some ways, this practice is entirely routine; within the United States, state courts regularly consult the decisions of other state courts in deciding on the common law, the interpretation of statutory law, and even on the meaning of state constitutions. A formal argument in defense of such consultation stems from the Condorcet Jury Theorem, which says that under certain conditions, ...

  6. Zipf's Law in Gene Expression

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2002-01-01

    Using data from gene expression databases on various organisms and tissues, including yeast, nematodes, human normal and cancer tissues, and embryonic stem cells, we found that the abundances of expressed genes exhibit a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1, i.e., they obey Zipf's law. Furthermore, by simulations of a simple model with an intra-cellular reaction network, we found that Zipf's law of chemical abundance is a universal feature of cells where such a network optimize...

  7. Criminal law in the Bible

    Pikov, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Old Testament criminal law, especially its moralizing attitude to state and private violence, crime and punishment, can be ranked among the most important sources of Medieval and Modern jurisprudence. The article analyses basic cultural preconditions of the formation and evolution of Judeo-Christian legal theory, peculiarities of criminological thinking in Judaism and Christianity, causes and effects of the fundamental ties between religion and law in traditional societies, and possible convergence of Mosaic and Modern criminal law.

  8. Legal method in danish law

    Blume, Peter Erik

    furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined and...

  9. The Law Of Environmental Preservation

    This book deals with preservation regulation on environment, which includes the meaning of environmental law, foundation of environmental law and development, characteristic of the law, the right of environment, the method and the case of lawmaking of environment, formation of environmental law in Korea, organization of administration, explanation of environmental regulation with term and definition, exclusion of application, safety of nature, supervision of air and water, discharge facilities and prevention facility, air pollution, discharge facility business, management of industrial waste substance and grievance mediation and compensation for the lost.

  10. History of Law and Economics

    Gelter, Martin; Grechenig, Kristoffel

    2014-01-01

    The roots of law & economics lie in late 19th century continental Europe. However, this early movement did not persist, having been cut off in the 1930s. After World War II, modern law & economics was (re-)invented in the United States and subsequently grew into a major field of research at U.S. law schools. In continental Europe, law & economics was re-imported as a discipline within economics, driven by economists interested in legal issues rather than by legal scholars. Hence, the European...