1 - Description of program or function: PARTISN (Parallel, Time-Dependent SN) is the evolutionary successor to CCC-0547/DANTSYS. User input and cross section formats are very similar to that of DANTSYS. The linear Boltzmann transport equation is solved for neutral particles using the deterministic (SN) method. Both the static (fixed source or eigenvalue) and time-dependent forms of the transport equation are solved in forward or adjoint mode. Vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, or inhomogeneous boundary conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering and inhomogeneous sources are permitted. PARTISN solves the transport equation on orthogonal (single level or block-structured AMR) grids in 1-D (slab, two-angle slab, cylindrical, or spherical), 2-D (X-Y, R-Z, or R-T) and 3-D (X-Y-Z or R-Z-T) geometries. 2 - Methods:PARTISN numerically solves the multigroup form of the neutral-particle Boltzmann transport equation. The discrete-ordinates form of approximation is used for treating the angular variation of the particle distribution. For curvilinear geometries, diamond differencing is used for angular discretization. The spatial discretizations may be either low-order (diamond difference or Adaptive Weighted Diamond Difference (AWDD)) or higher-order (linear discontinuous or exponential discontinuous). Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to-zero-and-correct algorithm for the diamond case (DD/STZ). Time differencing is Crank-Nicholson (diamond), also with a set-to-zero fix-up scheme. Both inner and outer iterations can be accelerated using the diffusion synthetic acceleration method, or transport synthetic acceleration can be used to accelerate the inner iterations. The diffusion solver uses either the conjugate gradient or multigrid method. Chebyshev acceleration of the fission source is used. The angular source terms may be treated either via standard PN expansions or Galerkin scattering. An option is provided for strictly positive scattering sources
Tominaga, Nozomu; Blinnikov, Sergei I
2015-01-01
We develop a time-dependent multi-group multidimensional relativistic radiative transfer code, which is required to numerically investigate radiation from relativistic fluids involved in, e.g., gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei. The code is based on the spherical harmonic discrete ordinate method (SHDOM) that evaluates a source function including anisotropic scattering in spherical harmonics and implicitly solves the static radiative transfer equation with a ray tracing in discrete ordinates. We implement treatments of time dependence, multi-frequency bins, Lorentz transformation, and elastic Thomson and inelastic Compton scattering to the publicly available SHDOM code. Our code adopts a mixed frame approach; the source function is evaluated in the comoving frame whereas the radiative transfer equation is solved in the laboratory frame. This implementation is validated with various test problems and comparisons with results of a relativistic Monte Carlo code. These validations confirm that the code ...
Hill, T.R.; Reed, W.H.
1976-01-01
TIMEX solves the time-dependent, one-dimensional multigroup transport equation with delayed neutrons in plane, cylindrical, spherical, and two-angle plane geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, albedo or inhomogeneous boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. The discrete ordinates approximation for the angular variable is used with the diamond (central) difference approximation for the angular extrapolation in curved geometries. A linear discontinuous finite element representation for the angular flux in each spatial mesh cell is used. The time variable is differenced by an explicit technique that is unconditionally stable so that arbitrarily large time steps can be taken. Because no iteration is performed the method is exceptionally fast in terms of computing time per time step. Two acceleration methods, exponential extrapolation and rebalance, are utilized to improve the accuracy of the time differencing scheme. Variable dimensioning is used so that any combination of problem parameters leading to a container array less than MAXCOR can be accommodated. The running time for TIMEX is highly problem-dependent, but varies almost linearly with the total number of unknowns and time steps. Provision is made for creation of standard interface output files for angular fluxes and angle-integrated fluxes. Five interface units (use of interface units is optional), five output units, and two system input/output units are required. A large bulk memory is desirable, but may be replaced by disk, drum, or tape storage. 13 tables, 9 figures. (auth)
TIMEX solves the time-dependent, one-dimensional multigroup transport equation with delayed neutrons in plane, cylindrical, spherical, and two-angle plane geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, albedo or inhomogeneous boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. The discrete ordinates approximation for the angular variable is used with the diamond (central) difference approximation for the angular extrapolation in curved geometries. A linear discontinuous finite element representation for the angular flux in each spatial mesh cell is used. The time variable is differenced by an explicit technique that is unconditionally stable so that arbitrarily large time steps can be taken. Because no iteration is performed the method is exceptionally fast in terms of computing time per time step. Two acceleration methods, exponential extrapolation and rebalance, are utilized to improve the accuracy of the time differencing scheme. Variable dimensioning is used so that any combination of problem parameters leading to a container array less than MAXCOR can be accommodated. The running time for TIMEX is highly problem-dependent, but varies almost linearly with the total number of unknowns and time steps. Provision is made for creation of standard interface output files for angular fluxes and angle-integrated fluxes. Five interface units (use of interface units is optional), five output units, and two system input/output units are required. A large bulk memory is desirable, but may be replaced by disk, drum, or tape storage. 13 tables, 9 figures
HCT, Time Dependent 1-D Gas Hydrodynamics, Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Transport
1 - Description of program or function: HCT is a general program for calculating time-dependent problems involving one-dimensional gas hydrodynamics, transport, and detailed chemical kinetics. It is capable of modeling in detail one-dimensional time-dependent combustion phenomena of gases. The physical processes modeled are chemical reactions, thermal conduction, species diffusion, and hydrodynamics. Problem initialization is by input deck; output available includes a complete set of general line printer edits. The basic difference equations allow one to efficiently calculate stiff kinetics systems and systems evolving slowly compared to sound transit times. Hydrodynamics calculation may be done in either a Lagrange or Eulerian framework. An option gives a variable spatial mesh with high resolution in areas of high-temperature gradients. 2 - Method of solution: For maximum robustness, the implicitly differenced hydrodynamics, transport, and kinetics equations are solved simultaneously using a generalized Newton iteration scheme. This method requires the inversion of a block tridiagonal matrix with block size proportional to the number of species. Optimized assembly language matrix-manipulation routines which take advantage of the CDC7600 pipeline architecture are included
APPLE, Plot of 1-D Multigroup Neutron Flux and Gamma Flux and Reaction Rates from ANISN
A - Description of problem or function: The APPLE-2 code has the following functions: (1) It plots multi-group energy spectra of neutron and/or gamma ray fluxes calculated by ANISN, DOT-3.5, and MORSE. (2) It gives an overview plot of multi-group neutron fluxes calculated by ANISN and DOT-3.5. The scalar neutron flux phi(r,E) is plotted with the spatial parameter r linear along the Y-axis, logE along the X-axis and log phi(r,E) in the Z direction. (3) It calculates the spatial distribution and region volume integrated values of reaction rates using the scalar flux calculated with ANISN and DOT-3.5. (4) Reaction rate distribution along the R or Z direction may be plotted. (5) An overview plot of reaction rates or scalar fluxes summed over specified groups may be plotted. R(ri,zi) or phi(ri,zi) is plotted with spatial parameters r and z along the X- and Y-axes in an orthogonal coordinate system. (6) Angular flux calculated by ANISN is rearranged and a shell source at any specified spatial mesh point may be punched out in FIDO format. The shell source obtained may be employed in solving deep penetration problems with ANISN, when the entire reactor system is divided into two or more parts and the neutron fluxes in two adjoining parts are connected by using the shell source. B - Method of solution: (a) The input data specification is made as simple as possible by making use of the input data required in the radiation transport code. For example, geometry related data in ANISN and DOT are transmitted to APPLE-2 along with scalar flux data so as to reduce duplicity and errors in reproducing these data. (b) Most the input data follow the free form FIDO format developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and used in the ANISN code. Furthermore, the mixture specifying method used in ANISN is also employed by APPLE-2. (c) Libraries for some standard response functions required in fusion reactor design have been prepared and are made available to users of the 42-group neutron
Guasti, M Fernandez [Depto de Fisica, CBI, Universidad A Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico, DF, Apdo Postal 55-534 (Mexico); Moya-Cessa, H [INAOE, Coordinacion de Optica, Apdo Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)
2003-02-28
An extension of the classical orthogonal functions invariant to the quantum domain is presented. This invariant is expressed in terms of the Hamiltonian. Unitary transformations which involve the auxiliary function of this quantum invariant are used to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a harmonic oscillator with time-dependent parameter. The solution thus obtained is in agreement with the results derived using other methods which invoke the Lewis invariant in their procedures.
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: TDA (Time-Dependent ANISN) solves the one-dimensional time- dependent Boltzmann transport equation for neutrons and/or gamma- rays in slab, sphere or cylindrical geometries. Delayed neutron and other time-dependent effects are not considered in the present version. A choice of two types of sources and one initial condition specification is given (A. Space and energy distributed source with a step function time distribution. B. Analytical first collision source). 2 - Method of solution: TDA is based on the steady-state SN code ANISN for reasons of stability and generality. The weighted difference equations are used. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Limited only by available main storage
Wilcox, T. P.
1973-09-20
The code ANISN-L solves the one-dimensional, multigroup, time-independent Boltzmann transport equation by the method of discrete ordinates. In problems involving a fissionable system, it can calculate the system multiplication or alpha. In such cases, it is also capable of determining isotopic concentrations, radii, zone widths, or buckling in order to achieve a given multiplication or alpha. The code may also calculate fluxes caused by a specified fixed source. Neutron, gamma, and coupled neutron--gamma problems may be solved in either the forward or adjoint (backward) modes. Cross sections describing upscatter, as well as the usual downscatter, may be employed. This report describes the use of ANISN-L; this is a revised version of ANISN which handles both large and small problems efficiently on CDC-7600 computers. (RWR)
Petersen, Claudio Z. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capao do Leao (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Barros, Ricardo C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico
2014-12-15
In the present work we solve in analytical representation the three dimensional neutron kinetic diffusion problem in rectangular Cartesian geometry for homogeneous and bounded domains for any number of energy groups and precursor concentrations. The solution in analytical representation is constructed using a hierarchical procedure, i.e. the original problem is reduced to a problem previously solved by the authors making use of a combination of the spectral method and a recursive decomposition approach. Time dependent absorption cross sections of the thermal energy group are considered with step, ramp and Chebyshev polynomial variations. For these three cases, we present numerical results and discuss convergence properties and compare our results to those available in the literature.
Axness, Carl L.; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM)
2011-04-01
Circuit simulation tools (e.g., SPICE) have become invaluable in the development and design of electronic circuits in radiation environments. These codes are often employed to study the effect of many thousands of devices under transient current conditions. Device-scale simulation tools (e.g., MEDICI) are commonly used in the design of individual semiconductor components, but require computing resources that make their incorporation into a circuit code impossible for large-scale circuits. Analytic solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation, an approximation to the carrier transport equations, may be used to characterize the transient currents at nodes within a circuit simulator. We present new transient 1D excess carrier density and photocurrent density solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation for low-level radiation pulses that take into account a finite device geometry, ohmic fields outside the depleted region, and an arbitrary change in the carrier lifetime due to neutron irradiation or other effects. The solutions are specifically evaluated for the case of an abrupt change in the carrier lifetime during or after, a step, square, or piecewise linear radiation pulse. Noting slow convergence of the raw Fourier series for certain parameter sets, we use closed-form formulas for some of the infinite sums to produce 'partial closed-form' solutions for the above three cases. These 'partial closed-form' solutions converge with only a few tens of terms, which enables efficient large-scale circuit simulations.
Benchmark calculations in multigroup and multidimensional time-dependent transport
It is widely recognized that reliable benchmarks are essential in many technical fields in order to assess the response of any approximation to the physics of the problem to be treated and to verify the performance of the numerical methods used. The best possible benchmarks are analytical solutions to paradigmatic problems where no approximations are actually introduced and the only error encountered is connected to the limitations of computational algorithms. Another major advantage of analytical solutions is that they allow a deeper understanding of the physical features of the model, which is essential for the intelligent use of complicated codes. In neutron transport theory, the need for benchmarks is particularly great. In this paper, the authors propose to establish accurate numerical solutions to some problems concerning the migration of neutron pulses. Use will be made of the space asymptotic theory, coupled with a Laplace transformation inverted by a numerical technique directly evaluating the inversion integral
Selected neutron reaction nuclear data libraries and photon-atomic interaction cross section libraries for elements of interest to the IAEA's program on Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) have been processed into MATXSR format using the NJOY system on the VAX4000 computer of the IAEA. This document lists the resulting multigroup data libraries. All the multigroup data generated are available cost-free upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author). 9 refs
A 3D coarse-mesh time dependent code for nuclear reactor kinetic calculations
A course-mesh code for time-dependent multigroup neutron diffusion calculation based on a direct integration scheme for the time dependence and a low order nodal flux expansion approximation for the space variables has been implemented as a fast tool for transient analysis. (Author)
Time Dependent Resonance Theory
Soffer, A.; Weinstein, M. I.
1998-01-01
An important class of resonance problems involves the study of perturbations of systems having embedded eigenvalues in their continuous spectrum. Problems with this mathematical structure arise in the study of many physical systems, e.g. the coupling of an atom or molecule to a photon-radiation field, and Auger states of the helium atom, as well as in spectral geometry and number theory. We present a dynamic (time-dependent) theory of such quantum resonances. The key hypotheses are (i) a reso...
MINARET: Towards a time-dependent neutron transport parallel solver
We present the newly developed time-dependent 3D multigroup discrete ordinates neutron transport solver that has recently been implemented in the MINARET code. The solver is the support for a study about computing acceleration techniques that involve parallel architectures. In this work, we will focus on the parallelization of two of the variables involved in our equation: the angular directions and the time. This last variable has been parallelized by a (time) domain decomposition method called the para-real in time algorithm. (authors)
Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case
In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)
Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case; Acoplamiento de Nod1D y HOTCHANNEL: caso estatico
Gomez T, A.M. [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ovando C, R. [IIE-Gcia. de Energia Nuclear, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx
2003-07-01
In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)
Ioannidou, Theodora
2016-01-01
An extended version of the BPS Skyrme model that admits time-dependent solutions is discussed. Initially, by introducing a power law at the original potential term of the BPS Skyrme model the existence, stability and structure of the corresponding solutions is investigated. Then, the frequencies and half-lifes of the radial oscillations of the constructed time-dependent solutions are determined.
The spatial eigenfunction expansion method is used to solve the multigroup time-dependent diffusion equation when the absorption cross-section in the thermal group is a function of time. An expression for the multi region reactor transfer function is obtained. Some numerical results for two energy groups are also presented. (author)
Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures
Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The same argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions
Time dependence of immersion freezing
A. Welti
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The time dependence of immersion freezing was studied for temperatures between 236 K and 243 K. Droplets with single immersed, size-selected 400 nm and 800 nm kaolinite particles were produced at 300 K, cooled down to supercooled temperatures typical for mixed-phase cloud conditions, and the fraction of frozen droplets with increasing residence time was detected. To simulate the conditions of immersion freezing in mixed-phase clouds we used the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC and its vertical extension, the Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (IMCA. We observed that the frozen fraction of droplets increased with increasing residence time in the chamber. This suggests that there is a time dependence of immersion freezing and supports the importance of a stochastic component in the ice nucleation process. The rate at which droplets freeze was observed to decrease towards higher temperatures and smaller particle sizes. Comparison of the laboratory data with four different ice nucleation models, three based on classical nucleation theory with different representations of the particle surface properties and one singular, suggest that the classical, stochastic approach combined with a distribution of contact angles is able to reproduce the ice nucleation observed in these experiments most accurately. Using the models to calculate the increase in frozen fraction at typical mixed-phase cloud temperatures over an extended period of time, yields an equivalent effect of −1 K temperature shift and an increase in time scale by a factor of ~10.
Network-timing-dependent plasticity
Vincent eDelattre
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP. In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD, with STDP-induced long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding.
Multigroup representation of fusion product orbits in a plasma column
A method is derived for describing the time-depending behavior of α particles produced in a radially nonuniform slender plasma column as a distribution function among the possible orbits. A multigroup numerical approximation is introduced to analyze the development of the distribution function and its moments. Results are presented of calculations of the time-dependent α-particle energy spectrum and radial density, energy, and electron heating profiles in plasma columns with radii comparable to the α Larmor radius. This technique allows calculation of the α particle history at much more rapid rates than allowed by Monte Carlo technuques: The characteristic time scale is the α-electron slowing-down time rather than the cyclotron period
Procedure to Generate the MPACT Multigroup Library
Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-12-17
The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the light water reactor. The objective of this document is focused on reviewing the current procedure to generate the MPACT multigroup library. Detailed methodologies and procedures are included in this document for further discussion to improve the MPACT multigroup library.
Procedure to Generate the MPACT Multigroup Library
The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the light water reactor. The objective of this document is focused on reviewing the current procedure to generate the MPACT multigroup library. Detailed methodologies and procedures are included in this document for further discussion to improve the MPACT multigroup library.
Three-dimensional multigroup diffusion code ANDEX based on nodal method for cartesian geometry
An analytic polynomial nodal method using partial currents has been derived for the solution of multigroup neutron diffusion equations in three-dimensional (3-D) cartesian geometry. This method is characterized by expressing the source and leakage terms in an auxiliary 1-D diffusion equation by quadratic polynomials and solving it analytically. Based on this method, we have developed a 3-D multigroup diffusion code ANDEX, and applied to 2-D LWR and 3-D FBR models. The results of keff, power distributions and computing time have been compared with those of finite difference method calculations. (author)
Supersymmetric intersecting branes in time-dependent backgrounds
We construct a family of supersymmetric solutions in time-dependent backgrounds in supergravity theories. One class of the solutions are intersecting brane solutions and another class are brane solutions in pp-wave backgrounds, and their intersection rules are also given. The relation to existing literature is also discussed. An example of D1-D5 with linear null dilaton together with its possible dual theory is briefly discussed
Neutron Scattering in Hydrogenous Moderators, Studied by Time Dependent Reaction Rate Method
The moderation and absorption of a neutron burst in water, poisoned with the non-1/v absorbers cadmium and gadolinium, has been followed on the time scale by multigroup calculations, using scattering kernels for the proton gas and the Nelkin model. The time dependent reaction rate curves for each absorber display clear differences for the two models, and the separation between the curves does not depend much on the absorber concentration. An experimental method for the measurement of infinite medium reaction rate curves in a limited geometry has been investigated. This method makes the measurement of the time dependent reaction rate generally useful for thermalization studies in a small geometry of a liquid hydrogenous moderator, provided that the experiment is coupled to programs for the calculation of scattering kernels and time dependent neutron spectra. Good agreement has been found between the reaction rate curve, measured with cadmium in water, and a calculated curve, where the Haywood kernel has been used
Competing risks and time-dependent covariates
Cortese, Giuliana; Andersen, Per K
2010-01-01
classified by Kalbfleisch and Prentice [The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data, Wiley, New York, 2002] with the intent of clarifying their role and emphasizing the limitations in standard survival models and in the competing risks setting. If random (internal) time-dependent covariates are to be......Time-dependent covariates are frequently encountered in regression analysis for event history data and competing risks. They are often essential predictors, which cannot be substituted by time-fixed covariates. This study briefly recalls the different types of time-dependent covariates, as...
Solution of the 1D kinetic diffusion equations using a reduced nodal cubic scheme
In this work it is described a novel method to solve the multi-group time-dependent diffusion equations based on a nodal cubic space interpolation in addition to the application of quadrature rules simplifying the stiffness and mass matrices arising in a finite element procedure. Numerical results for a well known benchmark problem are also provided. (authors)
Cosmology with a time dependent cosmological constant
In the context of the scalar-tensor theories we consider cosmological models with a time dependent cosmological constant. Several toy models are obtained among them there are solutions without singularity and accelerating. (Author)
Topic 5: Time-Dependent Behavior
This chapter is a report of the material presented at the International Workshop on Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete, Session 4 -- Time Dependent Behavior, held at Columbia University, New York on June 3--6, 1991. Dr. P.A. Pfeiffer presented recent developments in time-dependent behavior of concrete and Professor T. Tanabe presented a review of research in Japan on time-dependent behavior of concrete. The chapter discusses the recent research of time-dependent behavior of concrete in the past few years in both the USA-European and Japanese communities. The author appreciates the valuable information provided by Zdenek P. Bazant in preparing the USA-European Research section
Onsager equations and time dependent neutron transport
The diffusion of neutrons following an abrupt, localized temperature fluctuation can be conducted in the framework of Onsager-type transport equations. Considering Onsager equations as a generalized Fick's law, time-dependent particle and energy 'generalized diffusion equations' can be obtained. Aim of the present paper is to obtain the time-dependent diffusion Onsager-type equations for the diffusion of neutrons and to apply them to simple trial cases to gain a feeling for their behaviour. (author)
Time dependent modeling of non-LTE plasmas: Final report
During the period of performance of this contract Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) has aided Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the development of an unclassified modeling tool for studying time evolution of high temperature ionizing and recombining plasmas. This report covers the numerical code developed, (D)ynamic (D)etailed (C)onfiguration (A)ccounting (DDCA), which was written to run on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center (NMFECC) network as well as the classified Livermore Computer Center (OCTOPUS) network. DDCA is a One-Dimensional (1D) time dependent hydrodynamic model which makes use of the non-LTE detailed atomic physics ionization model DCA. 5 refs
Steps in the exact time-dependent potential energy surface
Abedi, Ali; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Gross, E K U
2013-01-01
We study the exact Time-Dependent Potential Energy Surface (TDPES) in the presence of strong non-adiabatic coupling between the electronic and nuclear motion. The concept of the TDPES emerges from the exact factorization of the full electron-nuclear wave-function [A. Abedi, N. T. Maitra, and E. K. U. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{105}, 123002 (2010)]. Employing a 1D model-system, we show that the TDPES exhibits a dynamical step that bridges between piecewise adiabatic shapes. We analytically investigate the position of the steps and the nature of the switching between the adiabatic pieces of the TDPES.
A numerical model for multigroup radiation hydrodynamics
We present in this paper a multigroup model for radiation hydrodynamics to account for variations of the gas opacity as a function of frequency. The entropy closure model (M1) is applied to multigroup radiation transfer in a radiation hydrodynamics code. In difference from the previous grey model, we are able to reproduce the crucial effects of frequency-variable gas opacities, a situation omnipresent in physics and astrophysics. We also account for the energy exchange between neighbouring groups which is important in flows with strong velocity divergence. These terms were computed using a finite volume method in the frequency domain. The radiative transfer aspect of the method was first tested separately for global consistency (reversion to grey model) and against a well-established kinetic model through Marshak wave tests with frequency-dependent opacities. Very good agreement between the multigroup M1 and kinetic models was observed in all tests. The successful coupling of the multigroup radiative transfer to the hydrodynamics was then confirmed through a second series of tests. Finally, the model was linked to a database of opacities for a Xe gas in order to simulate realistic multigroup radiative shocks in Xe. The differences with the previous grey models are discussed.
Time-Dependent Transport in Nanoscale Devices
CHEN Zhi-Dong; ZHANG Jin-Yu; YU Zhi-Ping
2009-01-01
A method for simulating ballistic time-dependent device transport,which solves the time-dependent SchrSdinger equation using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method together with Poisson's equation,is described in detail The effective mass SchrSdinger equation is solved. The continuous energy spectrum of the system is discretized using adaptive mesh,resulting in energy levels that sample the density-of-states.By calculating time evolution of wavefunctions at sampled energies,time-dependent transport characteristics such as current and charge density distributions are obtained.Simulation results in a uanowire and a coaxially gated carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) are presented.Transient effects,e.g.,finite rising time,are investigated in these devices.
Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking
Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J
2002-09-30
The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.
Constitutive model with time-dependent deformations
Krogsbøll, Anette
1998-01-01
common in time as well as size. This problem is adressed by means of a new constitutive model for soils. It is able to describe the behavior of soils at different deformation rates. The model defines time-dependent and stress-related deformations separately. They are related to each other and they occur...
Stability for time-dependent inverse transport
Bal, Guillaume; Jollivet, Alexandre
2008-01-01
This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from full knowledge of the albedo operator at the boundary of a bounded domain of interest. We present optimal stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters for a given error in the measured albedo operator.
Time-dependent, finite, rotating universes
Three new classes of finite, homogeneous and nonsingular solutions of Einstein's equations which have time-dependent expansion, shear and rotation are presented. The t-constant sections are of Bianchi type IX. The source of these geometries is a fluid which has not been thermalized. (Author)
Time-dependent transition density matrix
Research highlights: ► A time-dependent generalization of the transition density matrix (TDM) is proposed. ► The time-dependent TDM is approximately calculated using Kohn–Sham wave functions. ► Numerical examples on one-dimensional lattices illustrate how the TDM works. ► Rapid formation and spreading of electron-hole pairs is observed. ► Here, electron interaction effects are less important than quantum confinement. - Abstract: The transition density matrix (TDM) is a useful tool for analyzing and interpreting electronic excitation processes in molecular systems. For any transition between two eigenstates of a many-body system, the TDM provides a characteristic spatial map which indicates the distribution of the associated electron–hole pairs and allows one to identify their delocalization and coherence lengths. This is particularly useful for characterizing charge-transfer excitations in large molecular chains or light-harvesting molecules. We here extend these concepts into the real-time domain and define the time-dependent TDM and discuss it in the context of TDDFT. An approximation is proposed in terms of the Kohn–Sham Slater determinants. This provides a new tool for the real-time visualization of electronic excitation processes such as exciton formation, diffusion, recombination, or charge separation. We illustrate the time-dependent TDM for simple one-dimensional lattice systems with two spinless electrons which are either noninteracting of fully interacting.
BETA-S, Multi-Group Beta-Ray Spectra
1 - Description of program or function: BETA-S calculates beta-decay source terms and energy spectra in multigroup format for time-dependent radionuclide inventories of actinides, fission products, and activation products. Multigroup spectra may be calculated in any arbitrary energy-group structure. The code also calculates the total beta energy release rate from the sum of the average beta-ray energies as determined from the spectral distributions. BETA-S also provides users with an option to determine principal beta-decaying radionuclides contributing to each energy group. The CCC-545/SCALE 4.3 (or SCALE4.2) code system must be installed on the computer before installing BETA-S, which requires the SCALE subroutine library and nuclide-inventory generation from the ORIGEN-S code. 2 - Methods:Well-established models for beta-energy distributions are used to explicitly represent allowed, and 1., 2. - and 3. -forbidden transition types. Forbidden non-unique transitions are assumed to have a spectral shape of allowed transitions. The multigroup energy spectra are calculated by numerically integrating the energy distribution functions using an adaptive Simpson's Rule algorithm. Nuclide inventories are obtained from a binary interface produced by the ORIGEN-S code. BETA-S calculates the spectra for all isotopes on the binary interface that have associated beta-decay transition data in the ENSDF-95 library, developed for the BETA-S code. This library was generated from ENSDF data and contains 715 materials, representing approximately 8500 individual beta transition branches. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The algorithms do not treat positron decay transitions or internal conversion electrons. The neglect of positron transitions in inconsequential for most applications involving aggregate fission products, since most of the decay modes are via electrons. The neglect of internal conversion electrons may impact on the accuracy of the spectrum in the low
Time-dependent convection at high latitudes
D. W. Idenden
Full Text Available A fully time-dependent ionospheric convection model, in which electric potentials are derived by an analytic solution of Laplace's equation, is described. This model has been developed to replace the empirically derived average convection patterns currently used routinely in the Sheffield/SEL/UCL coupled thermosphere/ionosphere/plasmasphere model (CTIP for modelling disturbed periods. Illustrative studies of such periods indicate that, for the electric field pulsation periods imposed, long-term averages of parameters such as Joule heating and plasma density have significantly different values in a time-dependent model compared to those derived under the same mean conditions in a steady-state model. These differences are indicative of the highly non-linear nature of the processes involved.
Time-dependent warping, fluxes, and NCYM
We describe the supergravity solutions dual to D6-branes with both time-dependent and time-independent B-fields. These backgrounds generalize the Taub-NUT metric in two key ways: they have asymmetric warp factors and background fluxes. In the time-dependent case, the warping takes a novel form. Kaluza-Klein reduction in these backgrounds is unusual, and we explore some of the new features. In particular, we describe how a localized gauge-field emerges with an analogue of the open string metric and coupling. We also describe a gravitational analogue of the Seiberg-Witten map. This provides a framework in supergravity both for studying non-commutative gauge theories, and for constructing novel warped backgrounds. (author)
Strings in a Time-Dependent Orbifold
Liu, Hong; Moore, Gregory; Seiberg, Nathan
2002-01-01
We consider string theory in a time dependent orbifold with a null singularity. The singularity separates a contracting universe from an expanding universe, thus constituting a big crunch followed by a big bang. We quantize the theory both in light-cone gauge and covariantly. We also compute some tree and one loop amplitudes which exhibit interesting behavior near the singularity. Our results are compatible with the possibility that strings can pass through the singularity from the contractin...
Time-Dependent Nanomechanics of Cartilage
Han, Lin; Frank, Eliot H.; Greene, Jacqueline J.; Lee, Hsu-Yi; Hung, Han-Hwa K.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Ortiz, Christine
2011-01-01
In this study, atomic force microscopy-based dynamic oscillatory and force-relaxation indentation was employed to quantify the time-dependent nanomechanics of native (untreated) and proteoglycan (PG)-depleted cartilage disks, including indentation modulus Eind, force-relaxation time constant τ, magnitude of dynamic complex modulus |E∗|, phase angle δ between force and indentation depth, storage modulus E′, and loss modulus E″. At ∼2 nm dynamic deformation amplitude, |E∗| increased significant...
Time-dependent oral absorption models
Higaki, K.; Yamashita, S.; Amidon, G. L.
2001-01-01
The plasma concentration-time profiles following oral administration of drugs are often irregular and cannot be interpreted easily with conventional models based on first- or zero-order absorption kinetics and lag time. Six new models were developed using a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), wherein the time dependency was varied to account for the dynamic processes such as changes in fluid absorption or secretion, in absorption surface area, and in motility with time, in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the plasma concentration profiles of propranolol obtained in human subjects following oral dosing were analyzed using the newly derived models based on mass balance and compared with the conventional models. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that the conventional compartment model including lag time (CLAG model) could not predict the rapid initial increase in plasma concentration after dosing and the predicted Cmax values were much lower than that observed. On the other hand, all models with the time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), were superior to the CLAG model in predicting plasma concentration profiles. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), the fluid absorption model without lag time (FA model) exhibited the best overall fit to the data. The two-phase model including lag time, TPLAG model was also found to be a good model judging from the values of sum of squares. This model also described the irregular profiles of plasma concentration with time and frequently predicted Cmax values satisfactorily. A comparison of the absorption rate profiles also suggested that the TPLAG model is better at prediction of irregular absorption kinetics than the FA model. In conclusion, the incorporation of a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient ka(t) allows the prediction of nonlinear absorption characteristics in a more reliable manner.
Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport
Bal, Guillaume; Jollivet, Alexandre
2009-01-01
This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured al...
Time-dependent problems and difference methods
Gustafsson, Bertil; Oliger, Joseph
2013-01-01
Praise for the First Edition "". . . fills a considerable gap in the numerical analysis literature by providing a self-contained treatment . . . this is an important work written in a clear style . . . warmly recommended to any graduate student or researcher in the field of the numerical solution of partial differential equations."" -SIAM Review Time-Dependent Problems and Difference Methods, Second Edition continues to provide guidance for the analysis of difference methods for computing approximate solutions to partial differential equations for time-de
Time-Dependent Dilatonic Domain Walls
La, H S
1992-01-01
Time-dependent domain wall solutions with infinitesimal thickness are obtained in the theory of a scalar field coupled to gravity with the dilaton, i.e. the Jordan-Brans-Dicke gravity. The value of the dilaton is determined in terms of the Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega$. In particular, the solutions exist for any $\\omega>0$ and as $\\omega\\to\\infty$ we obtain new solutions in general relativity. They have horizons whose sizes depend on $\\omega$.
Time-dependent Dyson orbital theory.
Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J
2016-08-21
Although time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has become the tool of choice for real-time propagation of the electron density ρ(N)(t) of N-electron systems, it also encounters problems in this application. The first problem is the neglect of memory effects stemming from the, in TDDFT virtually unavoidable, adiabatic approximation, the second problem is the reliable evaluation of the probabilities P(n)(t) of multiple photoinduced ionization, while the third problem (which TDDFT shares with other approaches) is the reliable description of continuum states of the electrons ejected in the process of ionization. In this paper time-dependent Dyson orbital theory (TDDOT) is proposed. Exact TDDOT equations of motion (EOMs) for time-dependent Dyson orbitals are derived, which are linear differential equations with just static, feasible potentials of the electron-electron interaction. No adiabatic approximation is used, which formally resolves the first TDDFT problem. TDDOT offers formally exact expressions for the complete evolution in time of the wavefunction of the outgoing electron. This leads to the correlated probability of single ionization P(1)(t) as well as the probabilities of no ionization (P(0)(t)) and multiple ionization of n electrons, P(n)(t), which formally solves the second problem of TDDFT. For two-electron systems a proper description of the required continuum states appears to be rather straightforward, and both P(1)(t) and P(2)(t) can be calculated. Because of the exact formulation, TDDOT is expected to reproduce a notorious memory effect, the "knee structure" of the non-sequential double ionization of the He atom. PMID:26987972
Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport
This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. Such measurement settings find applications in medical and geophysical imaging. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain
Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport
Bal, Guillaume
2009-01-01
This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.
Solar Magnetic Flux Tube Simulations with Time-Dependent Ionization
Fawzy, Diaa E; Rammacher, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
In the present work we expand the study of time-dependent ionization previously identified to be of pivotal importance for acoustic waves in solar magnetic flux tube simulations. We focus on longitudinal tube waves (LTW) known to be an important heating agent of solar magnetic regions. Our models also consider new results of wave energy generation as well as an updated determination of the mixing length of convection now identified as 1.8 scale heights in the upper solar convective layers. We present 1-D wave simulations for the solar chromosphere by studying tubes of different spreading as function of height aimed at representing tubes in environments of different magnetic filling factors. Multi-level radiative transfer has been applied to correctly represent the total chromospheric emission function. The effects of time-dependent ionization are significant in all models studied. They are most pronounced behind strong shocks and in low density regions, i.e., the middle and high chromosphere. Concerning our m...
Time-dependent studies of multiphoton processes
Interest in intense-field laser-atom interactions has undergone very rapid growth over the past decade due to a number of very surprising observations made during short-pulse (much-lt 1 ns) excitation of atoms and molecules. Extensive results have been reported for electron and photon emission from atoms subject to high-intensity lasers. This wealth of data has greatly increased our detailed knowledge of the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the electrons in these systems. The richness of these results has encouraged the development of new theoretical methods to provide an understanding of the observations. This paper reports that one of the major techniques being used to study the dynamics of excitation and ionization is the direct solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for an atom or molecule in a pulse laser field. The time-dependent methods allow the exact calculation of above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra for real (three-dimensional) hydrogenic systems and of photon emission from atoms excited by lasers. Recently the possibility of high-frequency, high-intensity suppression of ionization has also been addressed
Distinguished trajectories in time-dependent flows
Jiménez Madrid, José Antonio; Mancho, Ana Maria
2007-11-01
The theory of dynamical systems has provided recently a good framework to describe transport in time dependent aperiodic flows. It was first applied to Lagrangian transport in the context of 2D time-periodic flows and stationary 3D flows. Recently these techniques have been extended to describe aperiodic flows. Mathematical theory for aperiodic time dependent flows is far from being completely developed. In the context of stationary flows the idea of fixed point is a keystone to describe geometrically the solutions. It is extended to time periodic flows, as periodic orbits become fixed points on the Poincar'e map. Recent articles by Ide et al. and Ju et al. provide an important step-forwards to extend the concept of hyperbolic fixed point to aperiodic dynamical systems. Following these ideas, we propose a new formal definition of Distinguished trajectory (DT) in aperiodic flows. We numerically test this definition in forced Duffing type flows with known exact distinguished trajectories. The definition accurately locates these trajectories. We also check the defintion for examples of aperiodic flows in oceanographic contexts and we find that it overcomes some technical difficulties of former approaches.
Pseudospectral time-dependent density functional theory
Ko, Chaehyuk; Malick, David K.; Braden, Dale A.; Friesner, Richard A.; Martínez, Todd J.
2008-03-01
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is implemented within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) using a pseudospectral approach to evaluate two-electron repulsion integrals. The pseudospectral approximation uses a split representation with both spectral basis functions and a physical space grid to achieve a reduction in the scaling behavior of electronic structure methods. We demonstrate here that exceptionally sparse grids may be used in the excitation energy calculation, following earlier work employing the pseudospectral approximation for determining correlation energies in wavefunction-based methods with similar conclusions. The pseudospectral TDA-TDDFT method is shown to be up to ten times faster than a conventional algorithm for hybrid functionals without sacrificing chemical accuracy.
Time Dependence of Operational Intervention Levels
Main goal for nuclear emergency preparedness development is the reduction of nuclear accident consequences. Bases of such systems are countermeasures for public protection. Efficiency and timing are the most important factors of every undertaken countermeasure. To fulfill that task, decision-making system based on intervention levels for implementing countermeasures is developed. Intervention level is the level of avertable dose at which a specific countermeasure or remedial action is taken in an emergency exposure situation or a chronic exposure situation. Avertable doses can't be measured directly and because of that operational intervention levels are defined. Operational intervention levels are derived from interventional levels and set of additional assumptions. They are directly comparable with results of field measurements. In this article time dependence of predefined operation intervention level for iodine prophylaxis is analyzed. Simple analytic model is developed and implemented for that purpose. (author)
Cosmologies with a time dependent vacuum
The idea that the cosmological term Λ should be a time dependent quantity in cosmology is a most natural one. It is difficult to conceive an expanding universe with a strictly constant vacuum energy density, ρΛ = Λ/(8π G), namely one that has remained immutable since the origin of time. A smoothly evolving vacuum energy density ρΛ = ρΛ(ξ(t)) that inherits its time-dependence from cosmological functions ξ = ξ(t), such as the Hubble rate H(t) or the scale factor a(t), is not only a qualitatively more plausible and intuitive idea, but is also suggested by fundamental physics, in particular by quantum field theory (QFT) in curved space-time. To implement this notion, is not strictly necessary to resort to ad hoc scalar fields, as usually done in the literature (e.g. in quintessence formulations and the like). A 'running' Λ term can be expected on very similar grounds as one expects (and observes) the running of couplings and masses with a physical energy scale in QFT. Furthermore, the experimental evidence that the equation of state (EOS) of the dark energy (DE) could be evolving with time/redshift (including the possibility that it might currently behave phantom-like) suggests that a time-variable Λ = Λ(t) term (possibly accompanied by a variable Newton's gravitational coupling too, G = G(t)) could account in a natural way for all these features. Remarkably enough, a class of these models (the 'new cosmon') could even be the clue for solving the old cosmological constant problem, including the coincidence problem.
Establishment of multi-groups atomic parametric database
A method is given to establish multi-groups atomic parametric database for multi-groups radiation transport equation. The equation can be used in calculating the X-ray radiation from plasma. Several methods to check the calculation of the multi-groups database is also given. A 20 groups atomic parametric database of Au element with grid of 20 (plasma density) x 20 (electron temperature) x 20 (photon temperature) is given too
Time-dependent nanomechanics of cartilage.
Han, Lin; Frank, Eliot H; Greene, Jacqueline J; Lee, Hsu-Yi; Hung, Han-Hwa K; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Ortiz, Christine
2011-04-01
In this study, atomic force microscopy-based dynamic oscillatory and force-relaxation indentation was employed to quantify the time-dependent nanomechanics of native (untreated) and proteoglycan (PG)-depleted cartilage disks, including indentation modulus E(ind), force-relaxation time constant τ, magnitude of dynamic complex modulus |E(∗)|, phase angle δ between force and indentation depth, storage modulus E', and loss modulus E″. At ∼2 nm dynamic deformation amplitude, |E(∗)| increased significantly with frequency from 0.22 ± 0.02 MPa (1 Hz) to 0.77 ± 0.10 MPa (316 Hz), accompanied by an increase in δ (energy dissipation). At this length scale, the energy dissipation mechanisms were deconvoluted: the dynamic frequency dependence was primarily governed by the fluid-flow-induced poroelasticity, whereas the long-time force relaxation reflected flow-independent viscoelasticity. After PG depletion, the change in the frequency response of |E(∗)| and δ was consistent with an increase in cartilage local hydraulic permeability. Although untreated disks showed only slight dynamic amplitude-dependent behavior, PG-depleted disks showed great amplitude-enhanced energy dissipation, possibly due to additional viscoelastic mechanisms. Hence, in addition to functioning as a primary determinant of cartilage compressive stiffness and hydraulic permeability, the presence of aggrecan minimized the amplitude dependence of |E(∗)| at nanometer-scale deformation. PMID:21463599
Deformation aspects of time dependent fracture
For all metallic materials, particularly at elevated temperatures, deformation plays an important role in fracture. On the macro-continuum level, the inelastic deformation behavior of the material determines how stress is distributed in the body and thus determines the driving force for fracture. At the micro-continuum level, inelastic deformation alters the elastic stress singularity at the crack tip and so determines the local environment in which crack advance takes place. At the microscopic and mechanistic level, there are many possibilities for the mechanisms of deformation to be related to those for crack initiation and growth. At elevated temperatures, inelastic deformation in metallic systems is time dependent so that the distribution of stress in a body will vary with time, affecting conditions for crack initiation and propagation. Creep deformation can reduce the tendency for fracture by relaxing the stresses at geometric stress concentrations. It can also, under suitable constraints, cause a concentration of stresses at specific loading points as a result of relaxation elsewhere in the body. A combination of deformation and unequal heating, as in welding, can generate large residual stress which cannot be predicted from the external loads on the body. Acceleration of deformation by raising the temperature can be an effective way to relieve such residual stresses
Time dependent friction in a free gas
Fanelli, Cristiano; Sisti, Francesco; Stagno, Gabriele V.
2016-03-01
We consider a body moving in a perfect gas, described by the mean-field approximation and interacting elastically with the body, we study the friction exerted by the gas on the body fixed at constant velocities. The time evolution of the body in this setting was studied in Caprino et al. [Math. Phys. 264, 167-189 (2006)], Caprino et al. [Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 17, 1369-1403 (2007)], and Cavallaro [Rend. Mat. Appl. 27, 123-145 (2007)] for object with simple shape; the first study where a simple kind of concavity was considered was in Sisti and Ricciuti [SIAM J. Math. Anal. 46, 3759-3611 (2014)], showing new features in the dynamic but not in the friction term. The case of more general shape of the body was left out for further difficulties, and we believe indeed that there are actually non-trivial issues to be faced for these more general cases. To show this and in the spirit of getting a more realistic perspective in the study of friction problems, in this paper, we focused our attention on the friction term itself, studying its behavior on a body with a more general kind of concavity and fixed at constant velocities. We derive the expression of the friction term for constant velocities, we show how it is time dependent, and we give its exact estimate in time. Finally, we use this result to show the absence of a constant velocity in the actual dynamic of such a body.
Time-dependent correlations in electricity markets
In the last years, many electricity markets were subjected to deregulated operation where prices are set by the action of market participants. In this form, producers and consumers rely on demand and price forecasts to decide their bidding strategies, allocate assets, negotiate bilateral contracts, hedge risks, and plan facility investments. A basic feature of efficient market hypothesis is the absence of correlations between price increments over any time scale leading to random walk-type behavior of prices, so arbitrage is not possible. However, recent studies have suggested that this is not the case and correlations are present in the behavior of diverse electricity markets. In this paper, a temporal quantification of electricity market correlations is made by means of detrended fluctuation and Allan analyses. The approach is applied to two Canadian electricity markets, Ontario and Alberta. The results show the existence of correlations in both demand and prices, exhibiting complex time-dependent behavior with lower correlations in winter while higher in summer. Relatively steady annual cycles in demand but unstable cycles in prices are detected. On the other hand, the more significant nonlinear effects (measured in terms of a multifractality index) are found for winter months, while the converse behavior is displayed during the summer period. In terms of forecasting models, our results suggest that nonlinear recursive models (e.g., feedback NNs) should be used for accurate day-ahead price estimation. In contrast, linear models can suffice for demand forecasting purposes. (author)
System reliability time-dependent models
A probabilistic methodology for safety system technical specification evaluation was developed. The method for Surveillance Test Interval (S.T.I.) evaluation basically means an optimization of S.T.I. of most important system's periodically tested components. For Allowed Outage Time (A.O.T.) calculations, the method uses system reliability time-dependent models (A computer code called FRANTIC III). A new approximation, which was called Independent Minimal Cut Sets (A.C.I.), to compute system unavailability was also developed. This approximation is better than Rare Event Approximation (A.E.R.) and the extra computing cost is neglectible. A.C.I. was joined to FRANTIC III to replace A.E.R. on future applications. The case study evaluations verified that this methodology provides a useful probabilistic assessment of surveillance test intervals and allowed outage times for many plant components. The studied system is a typical configuration of nuclear power plant safety systems (two of three logic). Because of the good results, these procedures will be used by the Argentine nuclear regulatory authorities in evaluation of technical specification of Atucha I and Embalse nuclear power plant safety systems. (Author)
Time-dependent Effects in Photospheric-Phase Type II Supernova Spectra
Dessart, Luc
2007-01-01
Spectroscopic modeling of Type II supernovae (SNe) generally assumes steady-state. Following the recent suggestion of Utrobin & Chugai, but using the 1D non-LTE line-blanketed model atmosphere code CMFGEN, we investigate the effects of including time-dependent terms that appear in the statistical and radiative equilibrium equations. We base our discussion on the ejecta properties and the spectroscopic signatures obtained from time-dependent simulations, investigating different ejecta configurations, and covering their evolution from one day to six weeks after shock breakout. Compared to equivalent steady-state models, our time-dependent models produce SN ejecta that are systematically over-ionized, affecting helium at one week after explosion, but ultimately affecting all ions after a few weeks. While the continuum remains essentially unchanged, time-dependence effects on observed spectral lines are large. At the recombination epoch, HI lines and NaID are considerably stronger and broader than in equivale...
Studies of Spuriously Time-dependent Resonances in Time-dependent Density Functional Theory
Luo, Kai; Maitra, Neepa T
2016-01-01
Adiabatic approximations in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) will in general yield unphysical time-dependent shifts in the resonance positions of a system driven far from its ground-state. This spurious time-dependence is rationalized in [J. I. Fuks, K. Luo, E. D. Sandoval and N. T. Maitra, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 114}, 183002 (2015)] in terms of the violation of an exact condition by the non-equilibrium exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT. Here we give details on the derivation and discuss reformulations of the exact condition that apply in special cases. In its most general form, the condition states that when a system is left in an arbitrary state, in the absence of time-dependent external fields nor ionic motion, the TDDFT resonance position for a given transition is independent of the state. Special cases include the invariance of TDDFT resonances computed with respect to any reference interacting stationary state of a fixed potential, and with respect to any choice of appropriate stationa...
Time dependence of Hawking radiation entropy
If a black hole starts in a pure quantum state and evaporates completely by a unitary process, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation initially increases and then decreases back to zero when the black hole has disappeared. Here numerical results are given for an approximation to the time dependence of the radiation entropy under an assumption of fast scrambling, for large nonrotating black holes that emit essentially only photons and gravitons. The maximum of the von Neumann entropy then occurs after about 53.81% of the evaporation time, when the black hole has lost about 40.25% of its original Bekenstein-Hawking (BH) entropy (an upper bound for its von Neumann entropy) and then has a BH entropy that equals the entropy in the radiation, which is about 59.75% of the original BH entropy 4πM02, or about 7.509M02 ≈ 6.268 × 1076(M0/Msun)2, using my 1976 calculations that the photon and graviton emission process into empty space gives about 1.4847 times the BH entropy loss of the black hole. Results are also given for black holes in initially impure states. If the black hole starts in a maximally mixed state, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation increases from zero up to a maximum of about 119.51% of the original BH entropy, or about 15.018M02 ≈ 1.254 × 1077(M0/Msun)2, and then decreases back down to 4πM02 = 1.049 × 1077(M0/Msun)2
Cross section probability tables in multi-group transport calculations
The use of cross section probability tables in multigroup transport calculations is presented. Emphasis is placed on how probability table parameters are generated in a multigroup cross section processor and how existing transport codes must be modifed to use them. In order to illustrate the accuracy obtained by using probability tables, results are presented for a variety of neutron and photon transport problems
A Note on Multigroup Comparisons Using SAS PROC CALIS
Jones-Farmer, L. Allison; Pitts, Jennifer P.; Rainer, R. Kelly
2008-01-01
Although SAS PROC CALIS is not designed to perform multigroup comparisons, it is believed that SAS can be "tricked" into doing so for groups of equal size. At present, there are no comprehensive examples of the steps involved in performing a multigroup comparison in SAS. The purpose of this article is to illustrate these steps. We demonstrate…
In multigroup calculations of reactivity and sensitivity coefficients, methodical errors can appear if the interdependence of multigroup constants is not taken into account. For this effect to be taken into account, so-called implicit components of the aforementioned values are introduced. A simple technique for computing these values is proposed. It is based on the use of subgroup parameters.
Multigroup neutron dose calculations for proton therapy
We have developed tools for the preparation of coupled multigroup proton/neutron cross section libraries. Our method is to use NJOY to process evaluated nuclear data files for incident particles below 150 MeV and MCNPX to produce data for higher energies. We modified the XSEX3 program of the MCNPX code system to produce Legendre expansions of scattering matrices generated by sampling the physics models that are comparable to the output of the GROUPR routine of NJOY. Our code combines the low and high energy scattering data with user input stopping powers and energy deposition cross sections that we also calculated using MCNPX. Our code also calculates momentum transfer coefficients for the library and optionally applies an energy straggling model to the scattering cross sections and stopping powers. The motivation was initially for deterministic solution of space radiation shielding calculations using Attila, but noting that proton therapy treatment planning may neglect secondary neutron dose assessments because of difficulty and expense, we have also investigated the feasibility of multi group methods for this application. We have shown that multigroup MCNPX solutions for secondary neutron dose compare well with continuous energy solutions and are obtainable with less than half computational cost. This efficiency comparison neglects the cost of preparing the library data, but this becomes negligible when distributed over many multi group calculations. Our deterministic calculations illustrate recognized obstacles that may have to be overcome before discrete ordinates methods can be efficient alternatives for proton therapy neutron dose calculations
Multigroup neutron dose calculations for proton therapy
Kelsey Iv, Charles T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prinja, Anil K [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
We have developed tools for the preparation of coupled multigroup proton/neutron cross section libraries. Our method is to use NJOY to process evaluated nuclear data files for incident particles below 150 MeV and MCNPX to produce data for higher energies. We modified the XSEX3 program of the MCNPX code system to produce Legendre expansions of scattering matrices generated by sampling the physics models that are comparable to the output of the GROUPR routine of NJOY. Our code combines the low and high energy scattering data with user input stopping powers and energy deposition cross sections that we also calculated using MCNPX. Our code also calculates momentum transfer coefficients for the library and optionally applies an energy straggling model to the scattering cross sections and stopping powers. The motivation was initially for deterministic solution of space radiation shielding calculations using Attila, but noting that proton therapy treatment planning may neglect secondary neutron dose assessments because of difficulty and expense, we have also investigated the feasibility of multi group methods for this application. We have shown that multigroup MCNPX solutions for secondary neutron dose compare well with continuous energy solutions and are obtainable with less than half computational cost. This efficiency comparison neglects the cost of preparing the library data, but this becomes negligible when distributed over many multi group calculations. Our deterministic calculations illustrate recognized obstacles that may have to be overcome before discrete ordinates methods can be efficient alternatives for proton therapy neutron dose calculations.
Time-dependent constrained Hamiltonian systems and Dirac brackets
In this paper the canonical Dirac formalism for time-dependent constrained Hamiltonian systems is globalized. A time-dependent Dirac bracket which reduces to the usual one for time-independent systems is introduced. (author)
Quasi coherent states for time dependent harmonic oscillators
Full text: (author)In this study, first it is discussed the duality between the time dependent hydrogen atom problem and time dependent harmonic oscillators. Second, it is generalized the holomorphic coordinates for the time dependent harmonic oscillators and reduce the solution of the Schrodinger equation into Riccati equation. It is found the solution of Riccati equation for time dependent harmonic oscillators in some special cases and discuss the uncertainties
Converged accelerated finite difference scheme for the multigroup neutron diffusion equation
Computer codes involving neutron transport theory for nuclear engineering applications always require verification to assess improvement. Generally, analytical and semi-analytical benchmarks are desirable, since they are capable of high precision solutions to provide accurate standards of comparison. However, these benchmarks often involve relatively simple problems, usually assuming a certain degree of abstract modeling. In the present work, we show how semi-analytical equivalent benchmarks can be numerically generated using convergence acceleration. Specifically, we investigate the error behavior of a 1D spatial finite difference scheme for the multigroup (MG) steady-state neutron diffusion equation in plane geometry. Since solutions depending on subsequent discretization can be envisioned as terms of an infinite sequence converging to the true solution, extrapolation methods can accelerate an iterative process to obtain the limit before numerical instability sets in. The obtained results have been compared to the analytical solution to the 1D multigroup diffusion equation when available, using FORTRAN as the computational language. Finally, a slowing down problem has been solved using a cascading source update, showing how a finite difference scheme performs for ultra-fine groups (104 groups) in a reasonable computational time using convergence acceleration. (authors)
A code called COMESH based on corner mesh finite difference scheme has been developed to solve multigroup diffusion theory equations. One can solve 1-D, 2-D or 3-D problems in Cartesian geometry and 1-D (r) or 2-D (r-z) problem in cylindrical geometry. On external boundary one can use either homogeneous Dirichlet (θ-specified) or Neumann (∇θ specified) type boundary conditions or a linear combination of the two. Internal boundaries for control absorber simulations are also tackled by COMESH. Many an acceleration schemes like successive line over-relaxation, two parameter Chebyschev acceleration for fission source, generalised coarse mesh rebalancing etc., render the code COMESH a very fast one for estimating eigenvalue and flux/power profiles in any type of reactor core configuration. 6 refs. (author)
Multigroup Free-atom Doppler-broadening Approximation. Theory
Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-11-06
Multigroup cross sections at a one target temperature can be Doppler-broadened to multigroup cross sections at a higher target temperature by matrix multiplication if the group structure suf- ficiently resolves the original temperature continuous energy cross section. Matrix elements are the higher temperature group weighted averages of the integral over the lower temperature group boundaries of the free-atom Doppler-broadening kernel. The results match theory for constant and 1/v multigroup cross sections at 618 lanl group structure resolution.
Modelling and simulations of macroscopic multi-group pedestrian flow
Mahato, Naveen K; Tiwari, Sudarshan
2016-01-01
We consider a multi-group microscopic model for pedestrian flow describing the behaviour of large groups. It is based on an interacting particle system coupled to an eikonal equation. Hydrodynamic multi-group models are derived from the underlying particle system as well as scalar multi-group models. The eikonal equation is used to compute optimal paths for the pedestrians. Particle methods are used to solve the macroscopic equations. Numerical test cases are investigated and the models and, in particular, the resulting evacuation times are compared for a wide range of different parameters.
Multigroup fast fission factor treatment in a thermal reactor lattice
A multigroup procedure for the studies of the fast fission effects in the thermal reactor lattice and the calculation of the fast fission factor was developed. The Monte Carlo method and the multigroup procedure were combined to calculate the fast neutron interaction and backscattering effects in a reactor lattice. A set of probabilities calculated by the Monte Carlo method gives a multigroup spectrum of neutrons coming from the moderator and entering the fuel element. Thus, the assumptions adopted so far in defining and calculating the fast fission factor has been avoided, and a new definition including the backscattering and interaction effects in a reactor lattice have been given. (author)
Multigroup cross section library; WIMS library
The WIMS library has been extensively used in thermal reactor calculations. This multigroup constants library was originally developed from the UKNDL in the late 60's and has been updated in 1986. This library has been distributed with the WIMS-D code by NEA data bank. The references to WIMS library in literature are the 'old' which is the original as developed by the AEA Winfrith and the 'new' which is the current 1986 WIMS library. IAEA has organised a CRP where a new and fully updated WIMS library will soon be available. This paper gives an overview of the definitions of the group constants that go into any basic nuclear data library used for reactor calculations. This paper also outlines the contents of the WIMS library and some of its shortcomings
A multigroup treatment of radiation transport
A multi-group radiation package is outlined which will accurately handle radiation transfer problems in laser-produced plasmas. Bremsstrahlung, recombination and line radiation are included as well as fast electron Bremsstrahlung radiation. The entire radiation field is divided into a large number of groups (typically 20), which diffuse radiation energy in real space as well as in energy space, the latter occurring via electron-radiation interaction. Using this model a radiation transport code will be developed to be incorporated into MEDUSA. This modified version of MEDUSA will be used to study radiative preheat effects in laser-compression experiments at the Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Laboratory. The model is also relevant to heavy ion fusion studies. (author)
Multi-group neutron transport theory
Multi-group neutron transport theory. In the paper the general theory of the application of the K. M. Case method to N-group neutron transport theory in plane geometry is given. The eigenfunctions (distributions) for the system of Boltzmann equations have been derived and the completeness theorem has been proved. By means of general solution two examples important for reactor and shielding calculations are given: the solution of a critical and albedo problem for a slab. In both cases the system of singular integral equations for expansion coefficients into a full set of eigenfunction distributions has been reduced to the system of Fredholm-type integral equations. Some results can be applied also to some spherical problems. (author)
A code to calculate multigroup constants for fast neutron reactor
KQCS-2 code is a new improved version of KQCS code, which was designed to calculate multigroup constants for fast neutron reactor. The changes and improvements on KQCS are described in this paper. (author)
Verley, Jason C.; Axness, Carl L.; Hembree, Charles Edward; Keiter, Eric Richard; Kerr, Bert (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM)
2012-04-01
Photocurrent generated by ionizing radiation represents a threat to microelectronics in radiation environments. Circuit simulation tools such as SPICE [1] can be used to analyze these threats, and typically rely on compact models for individual electrical components such as transistors and diodes. Compact models consist of a handful of differential and/or algebraic equations, and are derived by making simplifying assumptions to any of the many semiconductor transport equations. Historically, many photocurrent compact models have suffered from accuracy issues due to the use of qualitative approximation, rather than mathematically correct solutions to the ambipolar diffusion equation. A practical consequence of this inaccuracy is that a given model calibration is trustworthy over only a narrow range of operating conditions. This report describes work to produce improved compact models for photocurrent. Specifically, an analytic model is developed for epitaxial diode structures that have a highly doped subcollector. The analytic model is compared with both numerical TCAD calculations, as well as the compact model described in reference [2]. The new analytic model compares well against TCAD over a wide range of operating conditions, and is shown to be superior to the compact model from reference [2].
Introduction to numerical methods for time dependent differential equations
Kreiss, Heinz-Otto
2014-01-01
Introduces both the fundamentals of time dependent differential equations and their numerical solutions Introduction to Numerical Methods for Time Dependent Differential Equations delves into the underlying mathematical theory needed to solve time dependent differential equations numerically. Written as a self-contained introduction, the book is divided into two parts to emphasize both ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs). Beginning with ODEs and their approximations, the authors provide a crucial presentation of fundamental notions, such as the t
Time-dependent Displaced and Squeezed Number States
Kim, S P
2004-01-01
We generalize the wave functions of the displaced and squeezed number states, found by Nieto, to a time-dependent harmonic oscillator with variable mass and frequency. These time-dependent displaced and squeezed number states are obtained by first squeezing and then displacing the exact number states and are exact solutions of the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. Further, these wave functions are the time-dependent squeezed harmonic-oscillator wave functions centered at classical trajectories.
Finite difference solution of the time dependent neutron group diffusion equations
In this thesis two unrelated topics of reactor physics are examined: the prompt jump approximation and alternating direction checkerboard methods. In the prompt jump approximation it is assumed that the prompt and delayed neutrons in a nuclear reactor may be described mathematically as being instantaneously in equilibrium with each other. This approximation is applied to the spatially dependent neutron diffusion theory reactor kinetics model. Alternating direction checkerboard methods are a family of finite difference alternating direction methods which may be used to solve the multigroup, multidimension, time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. The reactor mesh grid is not swept line by line or point by point as in implicit or explicit alternating direction methods; instead, the reactor mesh grid may be thought of as a checkerboard in which all the ''red squares'' and '' black squares'' are treated successively. Two members of this family of methods, the ADC and NSADC methods, are at least as good as other alternating direction methods. It has been found that the accuracy of implicit and explicit alternating direction methods can be greatly improved by the application of an exponential transformation. This transformation is incompatible with checkerboard methods. Therefore, a new formulation of the exponential transformation has been developed which is compatible with checkerboard methods and at least as good as the former transformation for other alternating direction methods
Random Time Dependent Resistance Analysis on Reinforced Concrete Structures
GUAN Chang-sheng; WU Ling
2002-01-01
The analysis method on random time dependence of reinforced concrete material is introduced,the effect mechanism on reinforced concrete are discussed, and the random time dependence resistance of reinforced concrete is studied. Furthermore, the corrosion of steel bar in reinforced concrete structures is analyzed. A practical statistical method of evaluating the random time dependent resistance, which includes material, structural size and calculation influence, is also established. In addition, an example of predicting random time dependent resistance of reinforced concrete structural element is given.
The multigroup neutronics model of NuStar's 3D core code EGRET
As a key component of NuStar's core analysis system for PWR application, EGRET is designed to perform steady-state coupled neutronic/hydraulic analysis of PWRs. This paper presents EGRET's unique 3D nodal diffusion model and 2D pin power reconstruction (PPR) model. Unlike the practice in most of today's production codes that iteratively solves the global 3D coarse-mesh problem and the local axially 1D fine-mesh problem to handle the axial heterogeneity within a node caused by fuel grid and partially-inserted control rod, EGRET resolves the issue by inventing a new nodal technology and introducing the adaptive meshing technique to follow the movement of control rod tip. The new nodal method employs fine-mesh heterogeneous calculation with coarse-mesh transverse coupling such that the axial heterogeneous nodes can be explicitly modeled in exact geometry and directly incorporated into the scheme of transversely coupled coarse-mesh nodal methods. Each axial channel can have its own fine-mesh division without the need of dividing the whole core into radially coupled fine-meshes. There is no need to do 1D fine-mesh and 3D coarse-mesh iteration either. While for the PPR model, EGRET adopts a group-decoupled direct fitting method, which avoids both the complication of constructing 2D analytic multigroup flux solution and any group-coupled iteration. Another unique feature of the PPR model is that it fully utilizes all the information available from 3D core calculation into the downstream PPR process. Particularly, for the first time, the 1D profiles of transversely-integrated fluxes are utilized as the additional conditions to reconstruct pin power. Numerical results of series of benchmark problems verify the good performance of EGRET's unique multi-group neutronics model. (author)
Perishable Inventory Model with Time Dependent Demand and Partial Backlogging
Kapil Mehrotra
2014-07-01
Full Text Available An Inventory Model For Decaying Items Under Inflation Has Been Developed. Demand Rate Is Taken As Linear Time Dependent. Holding Cost Is Also Taken As Time Dependent. We Have Developed The Two Cases: In The First Case Shortages Are Not Allowed And In The Second Case Partially Backlogged Shortages Are Allowed. Cost Minimization Technique Is Used In This Study.
Nonlinear RR Lyrae models with time dependent convection
Results of convective, nonlinear RR Lyrae models are presented. The standard mixing length theory has been used with time dependence being introduced through the convective velocity phase lag technique. Turbulent pressure and turbulent viscosity are also included. Results are compared with those of other time dependent convection theories. 9 refs., 2 figs
Harmonic oscillator with time - dependent mass and frequency
A general treatment of the quantal harmonic oscillator with time-dependent mass and frequency is presented. The treatment is based on the use of some time-dependent transformations in the method of invariants of Lewis and Riesenfeld. Exact coherent states for such a system are also constructed. (A.C.A.S.)
Holography and string dynamics in time-dependent backgrounds
We study the dynamics of D-branes in a smooth time-dependent background. The theory on the branes is a time-dependent noncommutative field theory. We find the metric and fluxes that determine the dual holographic closed string theory. This provides a concrete example of holography in a cosmological setting
Time-dependent harmonic oscillators and squeezed states
Utilizing time-dependent operators whose associated states are squeezed states, it is shown that the general time-dependent harmonic-oscillator Hamiltonian belongs to the class of quadratic Hamiltonians that generate squeezed states. An illustrative example is also considered. (Author)
Time-dependent Hypercritical Accretion onto Black Holes
Zampieri, Luca
1996-01-01
Results are presented from a time-dependent, numerical investigation of super-Eddington spherical accretion onto black holes with different initial conditions. We have studied the stability of stationary solutions, the non-linear evolution of shocked models and the time-dependent accretion from an expanding medium.
AMPX-77, Modular System for Coupled Neutron-Gamma Multigroup Cross-Sections from ENDF/B-5
1 - Description of program or function: The AMPX system is a system of computer programs (modules) capable of producing coupled multigroup neutron-gamma-ray cross section sets. The system is one of the standards for producing multigroup neutron, gamma-ray production, gamma-ray interaction, and coupled neutron-gamma cross-section sets from ENDF data. AMPX-produced cross sections can be used directly with a variety of diffusion theory, discrete ordinates, and Monte Carlo radiation transport computer codes. A one-dimensional Sn calculation capability is provided for general use and for cross section collapsing. Treatments are included for resonance self-shielding effects. 2 - Method of solution: The system includes a full range of features needed to: (1) produce multigroup neutron, gamma-ray production, and/or gamma-ray interaction cross-section data, (2) resonance self-shield, (3) spectrally collapse, (4) convert cross-section libraries from one format to another format, (5) execute a one- dimensional (1-D) discrete-ordinates calculation, and (6) perform miscellaneous cross section-operations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The principal restriction is the availability of adequate core storage. All large modules are variably dimensioned. Certain modules will automatically use external storage (disk,tape), if in-core storage is inadequate. While these procedures are of little consequence on today's large computers with 'virtual memory' capabilities, they can be important when small-core PC's or workstations are used
Hoffman, Adam J.; Lee, John C.
2016-02-01
A new time-dependent Method of Characteristics (MOC) formulation for nuclear reactor kinetics was developed utilizing angular flux time-derivative propagation. This method avoids the requirement of storing the angular flux at previous points in time to represent a discretized time derivative; instead, an equation for the angular flux time derivative along 1D spatial characteristics is derived and solved concurrently with the 1D transport characteristic equation. This approach allows the angular flux time derivative to be recast principally in terms of the neutron source time derivatives, which are approximated to high-order accuracy using the backward differentiation formula (BDF). This approach, called Source Derivative Propagation (SDP), drastically reduces the memory requirements of time-dependent MOC relative to methods that require storing the angular flux. An SDP method was developed for 2D and 3D applications and implemented in the computer code DeCART in 2D. DeCART was used to model two reactor transient benchmarks: a modified TWIGL problem and a C5G7 transient. The SDP method accurately and efficiently replicated the solution of the conventional time-dependent MOC method using two orders of magnitude less memory.
Petruk, Oleh
2016-01-01
Three approaches are considered to solve the equation which describes the time-dependent diffusive shock acceleration of test particles at the non-relativistic shocks. At first, the solution of Drury (1983) for the particle distribution function at the shock is generalized to any relation between the acceleration time-scales upstream and downstream and for the time-dependent injection efficiency. Three alternative solutions for the spatial dependence of the distribution function are derived. Then, the two other approaches to solve the time-dependent equation are presented, one of which does not require the Laplace transform. At the end, our more general solution is discussed, with a particular attention to the time-dependent injection in supernova remnants. It is shown that, comparing to the case with the dominant upstream acceleration time-scale, the maximum momentum of accelerated particles shifts toward the smaller momenta with increase of the downstream acceleration time-scale. The time-dependent injectio...
Time-dependent behavior of positrons in noble gases
Both equilibrium and nonequilibrium behaviors of positrons in several noble gases are reviewed. Our novel procedure for obtaining the time-dependent behavior of various swarm parameters -- such as the positron drift velocity, average positron energy, positron annihilation rate (or equivalently Zeff) etc. -- for positrons in pure ambient gases subjected to external electrostatic fields is described. Summaries of time-dependent as well as electric field-dependent results for positron swarms in various noble gases are presented. New time-dependent results for positron swarms in neon are also described in detail. 36 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs
Exact factorization of the time-dependent electron-nuclear wavefunction
Abedi, Ali; Agostini, Federica; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Gross, E.K.U. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (Germany)
2013-07-01
Non-adiabatic couplings between electronic and nuclear motion play a prominent role in many photo-induced processes. As a first step towards a full ab-initio treatment of the coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, we deduce an exact decomposition of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom and derive a set of coupled equations of motion for the electrons and nuclei that describe the evolution of the complete electron-nuclear system. These exact equations lead to a rigorous definition of time-dependent potential energy surfaces as well as time-dependent vector potentials. Employing a 1D model-system, we show that the TDPES exhibits a dynamical step that bridges between piecewise adiabatic shapes. We analytically investigate the position of steps and the nature of the switching between the adiabatic pieces of the TDPES.
Exact factorization of the time-dependent electron-nuclear wavefunction
Non-adiabatic couplings between electronic and nuclear motion play a prominent role in many photo-induced processes. As a first step towards a full ab-initio treatment of the coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, we deduce an exact decomposition of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom and derive a set of coupled equations of motion for the electrons and nuclei that describe the evolution of the complete electron-nuclear system. These exact equations lead to a rigorous definition of time-dependent potential energy surfaces as well as time-dependent vector potentials. Employing a 1D model-system, we show that the TDPES exhibits a dynamical step that bridges between piecewise adiabatic shapes. We analytically investigate the position of steps and the nature of the switching between the adiabatic pieces of the TDPES.
Time-dependent pseudo-reciprocity relations in neutronics
Earlier, certain reciprocity-like relations have been shown to hold in some restricted steady state cases in neutron diffusion and transport theories. Here, the possibility of existence of similar relations in time-dependent situations is investigated
Memory loss for time-dependent dynamical systems
Ott, William; Young, Lai-Sang; Stenlund, Mikko
2012-01-01
This paper discusses the evolution of probability distributions for certain time-dependent dynamical systems. Exponential loss of memory is proved for expanding maps and for one-dimensional piecewise expanding maps with slowly varying parameters.
Ambiguities in the Lagrangians formalism: the time-dependent case
An intrinsic formulation of the equivalence problem for time-dependent Lagrangians is given. A new demostration of a theorem derived by Henneaux (1982) is obtained. The relationship to transformation groups is discussed. (Author)
Entanglement Entropy for time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor
Mazhari, N S; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, R
2016-01-01
We studied entanglement entropy for a time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor. We showed that the conserved charge of the system plays the role of the critical parameter to have condensation.
Time-dependent rheological behaviour of bacterial cellulose hydrogel.
Gao, Xing; Shi, Zhijun; Kuśmierczyk, Piotr; Liu, Changqing; Yang, Guang; Sevostianov, Igor; Silberschmidt, Vadim V
2016-01-01
This work focuses on time-dependent rheological behaviour of bacterial cellulose (BC) hydrogel. Due to its ideal biocompatibility, BC hydrogel could be employed in biomedical applications. Considering the complexity of loading conditions in human body environment, time-dependent behaviour under relevant conditions should be understood. BC specimens are produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 53582 at static-culture conditions. Time-dependent behaviour of specimens at several stress levels is experimentally determined by uniaxial tensile creep tests. We use fraction-exponential operators to model the rheological behaviour. Such a representation allows combination of good accuracy in analytical description of viscoelastic behaviour of real materials and simplicity in solving boundary value problems. The obtained material parameters allow us to identify time-dependent behaviour of BC hydrogel at high stress level with sufficient accuracy. PMID:26478298
The Suppression of Energy Discretization Errors in Multigroup Transport Calculations
Larsen, Edward
2013-06-17
The Objective of this project is to develop, implement, and test new deterministric methods to solve, as efficiently as possible, multigroup neutron transport problems having an extremely large number of groups. Our approach was to (i) use the standard CMFD method to "coarsen" the space-angle grid, yielding a multigroup diffusion equation, and (ii) use a new multigrid-in-space-and-energy technique to efficiently solve the multigroup diffusion problem. The overall strategy of (i) how to coarsen the spatial and energy grids, and (ii) how to navigate through the various grids, has the goal of minimizing the overall computational effort. This approach yields not only the fine-grid solution, but also coarse-group flux-weighted cross sections that can be used for other related problems.
The Suppression of Energy Discretization Errors in Multigroup Transport Calculations
The Objective of this project is to develop, implement, and test new deterministric methods to solve, as efficiently as possible, multigroup neutron transport problems having an extremely large number of groups. Our approach was to (i) use the standard CMFD method to 'coarsen' the space-angle grid, yielding a multigroup diffusion equation, and (ii) use a new multigrid-in-space-and-energy technique to efficiently solve the multigroup diffusion problem. The overall strategy of (i) how to coarsen the spatial an energy grids, and (ii) how to navigate through the various grids, has the goal of minimizing the overall computational effort. This approach yields not only the fine-grid solution, but also coarse-group flux-weighted cross sections that can be used for other related problems.
A general multigroup formulation of the analytic nodal method
In this paper the theoretical description of an alternative approach to the Analytic Nodal Method is given, in which a full multigroup formulations is developed. This approach differs from the well known QUANDRY approach in three aspects. Firstly, a notation which is more widely used in Quantum Mechanics has been adopted to enable a clear and concise presentation of this multigroup approach. A basis transformation is then used to reduce the directional equations to a scalar form and finally, Green's secondary identity is used to rewrite each of the resulting scalar equations in a form which eventually leads to a response matrix, as opposed to using classical methods to actually solve the coupled multigroup directional equations
An analytically solvable time dependent Jaynes Cummings model
Das-Gupta, A
1998-01-01
Using the underlying su(2) algebra of the Jaynes-Cummings Model (JCM), we construct a time dependent interaction term that allows analytical solution for even off-resonance conditions. Exact solutions for the time evolution of any state has been found. The effect of detuning on the Rabi oscillations and the collapse and revival of inversion is indicated. It is also shown that at resonance, the time dependent JCM is analytically solvable for an arbitrary interaction term.
Spike timing-dependent plasticity induces complexity in the brain
Borges, Rafael R.; Borges, Fernando S.; Lameu, Ewandson L.; Batista, Antonio Marcos; Iarosz, Kelly C.; Caldas, Iberê L.; Antonopoulos, Chris G.; Baptista, Murilo S.
2016-01-01
To study neuroplasticity, the capacity of neurons and neural networks to change temporarily or permanently their connections and behavior, we investigate the effects of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) on synchronization in Hodgkin-Huxley neural networks. We consider spike timing-dependent plasticity of excitatory and inhibitory synapses according to the known Hebbian rules for synaptic plasticity. With regard to network architecture, initially the network presents an all-to-all topol...
Jet-Ricci Geometry of Time-Dependent Human Biomechanics
Ivancevic, Tijana T.
2009-01-01
We propose the time-dependent generalization of an `ordinary' autonomous human biomechanics, in which total mechanical + biochemical energy is not conserved. We introduce a general framework for time-dependent biomechanics in terms of jet manifolds derived from the extended musculo-skeletal configuration manifold. The corresponding Riemannian geometrical evolution follows the Ricci flow diffusion. In particular, we show that the exponential-like decay of total biomechanical energy (due to exh...
Jet Methods in Time-Dependent Lagrangian Biomechanics
Ivancevic, Tijana T.
2009-01-01
In this paper we propose the time-dependent generalization of an `ordinary' autonomous human biomechanics, in which total mechanical + biochemical energy is not conserved. We introduce a general framework for time-dependent biomechanics in terms of jet manifolds associated to the extended musculo-skeletal configuration manifold, called the configuration bundle. We start with an ordinary configuration manifold of human body motion, given as a set of its all active degrees of freedom (DOF) for ...
Optimal Control Theory for Time-Dependent Quantum Transport
Zhang, Yu
2015-01-01
Optical techniques have been employed to coherently control the quantum transport through nanojunctions. Conventional works on optical control of quantum transport usually applied a tailored electrical pulses to perform specific tasks. In this work, an opposite way is employed and a time-dependent driving field is searched to force the system behave in desired pattern. In order to achieve the goal, an optimal control theory for time-dependent quantum transport is developed. The theory provide...
Unitary relations in time-dependent harmonic oscillators
Song, Dae-Yup
1998-01-01
For a harmonic oscillator with time-dependent (positive) mass and frequency, an unitary operator is shown to transform the quantum states of the system to those of a harmonic oscillator system of unit mass and time-dependent frequency, as well as operators. For a driven harmonic oscillator, it is also shown that, there are unitary transformations which give the driven system from the system of same mass and frequency without driving force. The transformation for a driven oscillator depends on...
An algorithm for Monte-Carlo time-dependent radiation transfer
Harries, Tim J.
2011-01-01
A new Monte-Carlo algorithm for calculating time-dependent radiative-transfer under the assumption of LTE is presented. Unlike flux-limited diffusion the method is polychromatic, includes scattering, and is able to treat the optically thick and free-streaming regimes simultaneously. The algorithm is tested on a variety of 1-d and 2-d problems, and good agreement with benchmark solutions is found. The method is used to calculate the time-varying spectral energy distribution from a circumstella...
Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Locating the Invariant Referent Sets
French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes
2008-01-01
Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) is a popular method for the examination of measurement invariance and specifically, factor invariance. Recent research has begun to focus on using MCFA to detect invariance for test items. MCFA requires certain parameters (e.g., factor loadings) to be constrained for model identification, which are…
Jet Methods in Time-Dependent Lagrangian Biomechanics
Ivancevic, Tijana T
2009-01-01
In this paper we propose the time-dependent generalization of an `ordinary' autonomous human biomechanics, in which total mechanical + biochemical energy is not conserved. We introduce a general framework for time-dependent biomechanics in terms of jet manifolds associated to the extended musculo-skeletal configuration manifold, called the configuration bundle. We start with an ordinary configuration manifold of human body motion, given as a set of its all active degrees of freedom (DOF) for a particular movement. This is a Riemannian manifold with a material metric tensor given by the total mass-inertia matrix of the human body segments. This is the base manifold for standard autonomous biomechanics. To make its time-dependent generalization, we need to extend it with a real time axis. By this extension, using techniques from fibre bundles, we defined the biomechanical configuration bundle. On the biomechanical bundle we define vector-fields, differential forms and affine connections, as well as the associat...
Time-dependent CP asymmetries in D and B decays
Bevan, Adrian
2011-01-01
The measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries in charm decays can provide a unique insight into the flavor changing structure of the Standard Model. We examine a number of different CP eigenstate decays of D mesons and describe a method that can be used to measure time-dependent CP asymmetries at existing and future experiments, with a preliminary assessment, based on statistical considerations, of their various capabilities. Any asymmetry observed in time-dependent analysis of neutral D mesons could signify new physics. We discuss the measurements required to perform direct and indirect tests of the charm unitarity triangle and the relationship between this and the B_d unitarity triangle. We also highlight that current experimental bounds on DeltaGamma(B_d) translate into a significant systematic uncertainty on the measurement of beta from b to c c-bar s decays.
Computational complexity of time-dependent density functional theory
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is rapidly emerging as a premier method for solving dynamical many-body problems in physics and chemistry. The mathematical foundations of TDDFT are established through the formal existence of a fictitious non-interacting system (known as the Kohn–Sham system), which can reproduce the one-electron reduced probability density of the actual system. We build upon these works and show that on the interior of the domain of existence, the Kohn–Sham system can be efficiently obtained given the time-dependent density. We introduce a V-representability parameter which diverges at the boundary of the existence domain and serves to quantify the numerical difficulty of constructing the Kohn-Sham potential. For bounded values of V-representability, we present a polynomial time quantum algorithm to generate the time-dependent Kohn–Sham potential with controllable error bounds. (paper)
Time-dependent density functional theory for quantum transport
Zheng, Xiao; Mo, Yan; Koo, SiuKong; Tian, Heng; Yam, ChiYung; Yan, YiJing
2010-01-01
Based on our earlier works [Phys. Rev. B 75, 195127 (2007) & J. Chem. Phys. 128, 234703 (2008)], we propose a formally exact and numerically convenient approach to simulate time-dependent quantum transport from first-principles. The proposed approach combines time-dependent density functional theory with quantum dissipation theory, and results in a useful tool for studying transient dynamics of electronic systems. Within the proposed exact theoretical framework, we construct a number of practical schemes for simulating realistic systems such as nanoscopic electronic devices. Computational cost of each scheme is analyzed, with the expected level of accuracy discussed. As a demonstration, a simulation based on the adiabatic wide-band limit approximation scheme is carried out to characterize the transient current response of a carbon nanotube based electronic device under time-dependent external voltages.
Error growth in the time-dependent logistic equation
Sancho, Pedro [GPV de Valladolid, Centro Zonal en Castilla y Leon, Orion 1, 47014, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: psancho@inm.es
2008-01-15
In order to analyze the impact of time-dependent forcings in the behavior of the error growth we study a non-autonomous logistic equation. The sign of the Lyapunov exponent of the system depends on the frequency of the forcing. For finite initial errors, at initial stages the growth occurs in sub- and super-exponential ways, and finally oscillates around the saturation level. The form of the errors of the autonomous case is recovered when we average over many initial times, showing the importance of this parameter in time-dependent systems.
Time-dependent fracture of early age concrete
Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes
2002-01-01
fracture energy or the stress crack opening relationship as defined in the fictitious crack model by Hillerborg. The setup is designed in a way that eliminates self weight loading of the fracture process region and allows for determination of the time-dependent crack mouth opening displacement for a......An experimental method suitable for the determination of the time-dependent tension softening response of early age concrete is presented. The method is based on the wedge splitting test by Tschegg, which is well known to be suited for the determination of fracture mechanical parameters, i.e. the...
Evaluation of Time-Dependent Behavior of Soils
Augustesen, Anders; Liingaard, Morten; Lade, Poul V.
2004-01-01
The time-dependent behavior of soils has been investigated extensively through one-dimensional and triaxial test conditions. Most of the observations in literature have focused on the determination of the time-dependent behavior of clayey soils, whereas the reported experimental studies of granular...... materials are few. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the various observed time- and rate-dependent phenomena that are known to exist for both clay and sand. The description is carried out separately for creep, stress relaxation, rate dependency, and structuration in laboratory experiments. All of...
Time dependent Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator and its decomposition
Kuwabara, H; Harada, H
2015-01-01
The Pais-Uhlenbeck(PU) oscillator is the simplest model with higher time derivatives. Its properties were studied for a long time. In this paper, we extend the 4th order free PU oscillator to a more non-trivial case, dubbed the 4th order time dependent PU oscillator, which has time dependent frequencies. We show that this model cannot be decomposed into two harmonic oscillators in contrast to the original PU oscillator. An interaction is added by the coordinate transformation of Smilga.
Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin
2016-08-01
Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)
A time-dependent Fleck factor to enhance the accuracy of the Implicit Monte Carlo equations
In the derivation of the Fleck and Cummings Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) equations, an approximation is made that equates the time-averaged values of two unknowns with their 'instantaneous' values. We demonstrate how this approximation can be avoided, thereby improving the accuracy of the resulting IMC equations and eliminating the need for defining the numerical parameter a. This leads to IMC equations that contain a time-dependent Fleck factor fn(t) instead of the traditional constant Fleck factor fn during the nth time step. We refer to the resulting equations as the IMC-TDF equations (IMC equations with a time-dependent Fleck factor). These equations May be solved using a Monte Carlo procedure that is comparable to the standard IMC procedure except for 'extra' calculations to account for the time-dependence in fn(t). For linear problems, the IMC-TDF equations are second-order accurate with regard to reductions of the time step size (as are the IMC equations with α=0.5, although in practice most users set α=1 for stability considerations). For larger time steps, the IMC-TDF method behaves more like IMC with α=1. Numerical results are presented for 1-D, nonlinear gray and frequency-dependent problems. These demonstrate that computational solutions of the IMC-TDF equations are comparable in expense for small or moderate time steps, but can be more expensive than the IMC equations for large time steps. (authors)
Advances in time-dependent methods for multiphoton processes
This paper discusses recent theoretical results on above threshold ionization harmonic generation and high-frequency, high intensity suppression of ionization. These studies of multiphoton processes in atoms and molecules for short, intense pulsed optical lasers have been carried out using techniques which involve the explicit solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. 43 refs., 5 figs
Separation of Variable Treatment for Solving Time-Dependent Potentials
QIAN Shang-Wu; GU Zhi-Yu; XIE Guo-Qiang
2001-01-01
We use the separation of variable treatment to treat some time-dependent systems, and point out that the condition of separability is the same as the condition of existence of invariant, and the separation of variable treatment is interrelated with the quantum-invariant method and the propagator method. We directly use the separation of potential.
Time-dependent density functional theory for open spin chains
D. De Falco; D. Tamascelli
2011-01-01
The application of methods of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to systems of qubits provided the interesting possibility of simulating an assigned Hamiltonian evolution by means of an auxiliary Hamiltonian having different two-qubit interactions and hence a possibly simpler wave function evolution. In this note we extend these methods to some instances of Lindblad evolution of a spin chain.
Time-dependent effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory
Roig, Marc; Thomas, Richard; Mang, Cameron S;
2016-01-01
We present new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory can be regulated in a time-dependent manner. When the exercise stimulus is temporally coupled with specific phases of the memory formation process, a single bout of cardiovascular exercise may be...
A Time Dependent Version of the Quantum WKB Approximation
Bracken, Paul
2006-01-01
The phenomenon of quantum tunneling is reviewed and an overview of applying approximate methods for studying this effect is given. An approach to a time-dependent formalism is proposed in one dimension and generalized to higher dimensions. Some physical examples involving the resulting wavefunction which is determined are presented.
The time-dependent prize-collecting arc routing problem
Black, Dan; Eglese, Richard; Wøhlk, Sanne
2013-01-01
A new problem is introduced named the Time-Dependent Prize-Collecting Arc Routing Problem (TD-PARP). It is particularly relevant to situations where a transport manager has to choose between a number of full truck load pick-ups and deliveries on a road network where travel times change with the...
Linear-response thermal time-dependent density functional theory
Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Burke, Kieron
2015-01-01
The van Leeuwen proof of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is generalized to thermal ensembles. This allows generalization to finite temperatures of the Gross-Kohn relation, the exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT, and fluctuation dissipation theorem for DFT. This produces a natural method for generating new thermal exchange-correlation (XC) approximations.
Student Understanding of Time Dependence in Quantum Mechanics
Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.
2015-01-01
The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing…
Effect of loading history on time dependent deformation of rockfill
Romero Morales, Enrique Edgar; Alonso Pérez de Agreda, Eduardo; Alvarado, Clara; Wacker, F
2012-01-01
The paper explores the time-dependent compressibility of coarse crushed quartzitic slate, focusing on the effects of the previous loading history. Large diameter oedometer tests were performed at different relative humidity (or total suctions) and different overconsolidation ratios (OCR). Preliminary results suggested that pre-compressing the rockfill material at increasing OCRs lead to the progressive vanishing of rockfill delayed deformations.
Spike-timing-dependent BDNF secretion and synaptic plasticity.
Lu, Hui; Park, Hyungju; Poo, Mu-Ming
2014-01-01
In acute hippocampal slices, we found that the presence of extracellular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for the induction of spike-timing-dependent long-term potentiation (tLTP). To determine whether BDNF could be secreted from postsynaptic dendrites in a spike-timing-dependent manner, we used a reduced system of dissociated hippocampal neurons in culture. Repetitive pairing of iontophoretically applied glutamate pulses at the dendrite with neuronal spikes could induce persistent alterations of glutamate-induced responses at the same dendritic site in a manner that mimics spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP)-the glutamate-induced responses were potentiated and depressed when the glutamate pulses were applied 20 ms before and after neuronal spiking, respectively. By monitoring changes in the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence at the dendrite of hippocampal neurons expressing GFP-tagged BDNF, we found that pairing of iontophoretic glutamate pulses with neuronal spiking resulted in BDNF secretion from the dendrite at the iontophoretic site only when the glutamate pulses were applied within a time window of approximately 40 ms prior to neuronal spiking, consistent with the timing requirement of synaptic potentiation via STDP. Thus, BDNF is required for tLTP and BDNF secretion could be triggered in a spike-timing-dependent manner from the postsynaptic dendrite. PMID:24298135
On the Time Dependence of Adiabatic Particle Number
Dabrowski, Robert
2016-01-01
We consider quantum field theoretic systems subject to a time-dependent perturbation, and discuss the question of defining a time dependent particle number not just at asymptotic early and late times, but also during the perturbation. Naively, this is not a well-defined notion for such a non-equilibrium process, as the particle number at intermediate times depends on a basis choice of reference states with respect to which particles and anti-particles are defined, even though the final late-time particle number is independent of this basis choice. The basis choice is associated with a particular truncation of the adiabatic expansion. The adiabatic expansion is divergent, and we show that if this divergent expansion is truncated at its optimal order, a universal time dependence is obtained, confirming a general result of Dingle and Berry. This optimally truncated particle number provides a clear picture of quantum interference effects for perturbations with non-trivial temporal sub-structure. We illustrate the...
Simulation of compressible viscous flow in time-dependent domains
Česenek, J.; Feistauer, M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Kučera, V.; Prokopova, J.
2013-01-01
Roč. 219, č. 13 (2013), s. 7139-7150. ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : time dependent domain * ALE method * semi-implicit time discretization * shock indicator Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.600, year: 2013
Dynamic structure evolution of time-dependent network
Zhang, Beibei; Zhou, Yadong; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dai; Guan, Xiaohong
2016-08-01
In this paper, we research the long-voided problem of formulating the time-dependent network structure evolution scheme, it focus not only on finding new emerging vertices in evolving communities and new emerging communities over the specified time range but also formulating the complex network structure evolution schematic. Previous approaches basically applied to community detection on time static networks and thus failed to consider the potentially crucial and useful information latently embedded in the dynamic structure evolution process of time-dependent network. To address these problems and to tackle the network non-scalability dilemma, we propose the dynamic hierarchical method for detecting and revealing structure evolution schematic of the time-dependent network. In practice and specificity, we propose an explicit hierarchical network evolution uncovering algorithm framework originated from and widely expanded from time-dependent and dynamic spectral optimization theory. Our method yields preferable results compared with previous approaches on a vast variety of test network data, including both real on-line networks and computer generated complex networks.
We witnessed an initial hyped period and enthusiasm on carbon nano tubes in the 1990s later went through a significant expansion into nano tubes of other materials (metal di chalcogenides, boron nitride, etc.) as well as various nano wires and nano rods. While much of the hype might have gone, the research on one-dimensional (1D) nano materials has matured as one of the most active research areas within the nano science and nano technology community, flourishing with ample, exciting, and new research opportunities. Just like any other research frontier, researchers working in the 1D nano materials field are constantly striving to develop new fundamental science as well as potential applications. It remains a common belief that versatility and tunability of 1D nano materials would challenge many new rising tasks coming from our resource and energy demanding modern society. The traditional semiconductor industry has produced so many devices and systems from transistors, sensors, lasers, and LEDs to more sophisticated solar panels, which are now part of our daily lives. By down sizing the core components or parts to 1D form, one might wonder how fundamentally the dimensionality and morphology would impact the device performance, this is, as always, requiring us to fully understand the structure-property relationship in 1D nano materials. It may be equally crucial in connecting discovery-driven fundamental science to market-driven technology industry concerning potentially relevant findings derived from these novel materials. The importance of a platform that allows active researchers in this field to present their new development in a timely and efficient manner is therefore self-evident. Following the success of two early special issues devoted to 1D nano materials, this is the third one in a row organized by the same group of guest editors, attesting that such a platform has been well received by the readers
Time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the inner heliosphere
Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J. G.; Lario, D.; Arge, C. N.; Henney, C. J.
2016-04-01
This paper presents results from a simulation study exploring heliospheric consequences of time-dependent changes at the Sun. We selected a 2 month period in the beginning of year 2008 that was characterized by very low solar activity. The heliosphere in the equatorial region was dominated by two coronal holes whose changing structure created temporal variations distorting the classical steady state picture of the heliosphere. We used the Air Force Data Assimilate Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model to obtain daily updated photospheric magnetograms and drive the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model of the corona. This leads to a formulation of a time-dependent boundary condition for our three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, LFM-helio, which is the heliospheric adaptation of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry MHD simulation code. The time-dependent coronal conditions were propagated throughout the inner heliosphere, and the simulation results were compared with the spacecraft located near 1 astronomical unit (AU) heliocentric distance: Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO-A and STEREO-B), and the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft that was in cruise phase measuring the heliospheric magnetic field between 0.35 and 0.6 AU. In addition, during the selected interval MESSENGER and ACE aligned radially allowing minimization of the effects of temporal variation at the Sun versus radial evolution of structures. Our simulations show that time-dependent simulationsreproduce the gross-scale structure of the heliosphere with higher fidelity, while on smaller spatial and faster time scales (e.g., 1 day) they provide important insights for interpretation of the data. The simulations suggest that moving boundaries of slow-fast wind transitions at 0.1 AU may result in the formation of inverted magnetic fields near pseudostreamers which is an intrinsically time-dependent process
We study the electron localization dynamics in the dissociation of H2+ using a 1D model Hamiltonian. To this end we calculate the exact time-dependent potential energy surfaces (TDPES) both for the electron and for the nuclei. The exact electronic TDPES shows that the final electron localization is determined when the interatomic barrier becomes large and prohibits electron tunneling. The exact nuclear TDPES shows the mechanism of slowdown of the dissociation. It is found that the nuclear potential cannot be approximated by the weighted average of the quasi-static state potential energy surfaces, but can be approximated well by the transition between them. We show these two time-dependent potentials are the exact potential functionals of the time-dependent multicomponent density functional theory and can reproduce the whole phenomena of electron localization dynamics.
SCALE 6 computes problem-dependent multigroup (MG) cross sections through a combination of the conventional Bondarenko shielding-factor method and a deterministic pointwise (PW) transport calculation of the fine-structure spectra in the resolved resonance and thermal energy ranges. The PW calculation is performed by the CENTRM code using a 1-D cylindrical Wigner-Seitz model with the white boundary condition instead of the real rectangular cell shape to represent a lattice unit cell. The pointwise fluxes computed by CENTRM are not exact because a 1-D model is used for the transport calculation, which introduces discrepancies in the MG self-shielded cross sections, resulting in some deviation in the eigenvalue. In order to solve this problem, the method of characteristics (MOC) has been applied to enable the CENTRM PW transport calculation for a 2-D square pin cell. The computation results show that the new BONAMI/CENTRM-MOC procedure produces very precise self-shielded cross sections compared to MCNP reaction rates.
Student understanding of time dependence in quantum mechanics
Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.
2015-12-01
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing the key role of the energy eigenbasis in determining the time dependence of wave functions. Through analysis of student responses to a set of four interrelated tasks, we categorize some of the difficulties that underlie common errors. The conceptual and reasoning difficulties that have been identified are illustrated through student responses to four sets of questions administered at different points in a junior-level course on quantum mechanics. Evidence is also given that the problems persist throughout undergraduate instruction and into the graduate level.
Eisenhart lifts and symmetries of time-dependent systems
Cariglia, M; Gibbons, G W; Horvathy, P A
2016-01-01
Certain dissipative systems, such as Caldirola and Kannai's damped simple harmonic oscillator, may be modelled by time-dependent Lagrangian and hence time dependent Hamiltonian systems with $n$ degrees of freedom. In this paper we treat these systems, their projective and conformal symmetries as well as their quantisation from the point of view of the Eisenhart lift to a Bargmann spacetime in $n+2$ dimensions, equipped with its covariantly constant null Killing vector field. Reparametrization of the time variable corresponds to conformal rescalings of the Bargmann metric. We show how the Arnold map lifts to Bargmann spacetime. We contrast the greater generality of the Caldirola-Kannai approach with that of Arnold and Bateman. At the level of quantum mechanics, we are able to show how the relevant Schr\\"odinger equation emerges naturally using the techniques of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, since a covariantly constant null Killing vector field gives rise to well defined one particle Hilbert space...
Sublinear scaling for time-dependent stochastic density functional theory
A stochastic approach to time-dependent density functional theory is developed for computing the absorption cross section and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy. The core idea of the approach involves time-propagation of a small set of stochastic orbitals which are first projected on the occupied space and then propagated in time according to the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. The evolving electron density is exactly represented when the number of random orbitals is infinite, but even a small number (≈16) of such orbitals is enough to obtain meaningful results for absorption spectrum and the RPA correlation energy per electron. We implement the approach for silicon nanocrystals using real-space grids and find that the overall scaling of the algorithm is sublinear with computational time and memory
Sublinear scaling for time-dependent stochastic density functional theory
Gao, Yi; Baer, Roi; Rabani, Eran
2014-01-01
A stochastic approach to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is developed for computing the absorption cross section and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy. The core idea of the approach involves time-propagation of a small set of stochastic orbitals which are fi?rst projected on the occupied space and then propagated in time according to the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. The evolving electron density is exactly represented when the number of random orbitals is in?finite, but even a small number (? 16) of such orbitals is enough to obtain meaningful results for absorption spectrum and the RPA correlation energy per electron. We implement the approach for silicon nanocrystals (NCs) using real-space grids and ?find that the overall scaling of the algorithm is sublinear with computational time and memory.
Scintillation time dependence and pulse shape discrimination in liquid argon
Using a single-phase liquid argon detector with a signal yield of 4.85 photoelectrons per keV of electronic-equivalent recoil energy (keVee), we measure the scintillation time dependence of both electronic and nuclear recoils in liquid argon down to 5 keVee. We develop two methods of pulse shape discrimination to distinguish between electronic and nuclear recoils. Using one of these methods, we measure a background- and statistics-limited level of electronic recoil contamination to be 7.6x10-7 between 52 and 110 keV of nuclear recoil energy (keVr) for a nuclear recoil acceptance of 50% with no nuclear recoil-like events above 62 keVr. Finally, we develop a maximum likelihood method of pulse shape discrimination based on the measured scintillation time dependence
Tokamak power reactor ignition and time dependent fractional power operation
A flexible time-dependent and zero-dimensional plasma burn code with radial profiles was developed and employed to study the fractional power operation and the thermal burn control options for an INTOR-sized tokamak reactor. The code includes alpha thermalization and a time-dependent transport loss which can be represented by any one of several currently popular scaling laws for energy confinement time. Ignition parameters were found to vary widely in density-temperature (n-T) space for the range of scaling laws examined. Critical ignition issues were found to include the extent of confinement time degradation by alpha heating, the ratio of ion to electron transport power loss, and effect of auxiliary heating on confinement. Feedback control of the auxiliary power and ion fuel sources are shown to provide thermal stability near the ignition curve
Time-dependent coupled harmonic oscillators: classical and quantum solutions
In this work we present the classical and quantum solutions for an arbitrary system of time-dependent coupled harmonic oscillators, where the masses (m), frequencies (ω) and coupling parameter (k) are functions of time. To obtain the classical solutions, we use a coordinate and momentum transformations along with a canonical transformation to write the original Hamiltonian as the sum of two Hamiltonians of uncoupled harmonic oscillators with modified time-dependent frequencies and unitary masses. To obtain the exact quantum solutions we use a unitary transformation and the Lewis and Riesenfeld (LR) invariant method. The exact wave functions are obtained by solving the respective Milne–Pinney (MP) equation for each system. We obtain the solutions for the system with m1 = m2 = m0eγt, ω1 = ω01e-γt/2, ω2 = ω02e-γt/2 and k = k0. (author)
Time-dependent delayed signatures from energetic photon interrogations
Pulsed photonuclear interrogation environments generated by 8-24 MeV electron linac are rich with time-dependent, material-specific, radiation signatures. Nitrogen-based explosives and nuclear materials can be detected by exploiting these signatures in different delayed-time regions. Numerical and experimental results presented in this paper show the unique time and energy dependence of these signatures. It is shown that appropriate delayed-time windows are essential to acquire material-specific signatures in pulsed photonuclear assessment environments. These developments demonstrate that pulsed, high-energy, photon-inspection environments can be exploited for time-dependent, material-specific signatures through the proper operation of specialized detectors and detection methods
Time-Dependent Delayed Signatures from Energetic Photon Interrogations
Pulsed photonuclear interrogation environments generated by 8-24 MeV electron linac are rich with time-dependent, material-specific, radiation signatures. Nitrogen-based explosives and nuclear materials can be detected by exploiting these signatures in different delayed-time regions. Numerical and experimental results presented in this paper show the unique time and energy dependence of these signatures. It is shown that appropriate delayed-time windows are essential to acquire material-specific signatures in the pulsed photonuclear assessment (PPA) environments. These developments demonstrate that pulsed, high-energy, photon- inspection environments can be exploited for time-dependent, material-specific signatures through the proper operation of specialized detectors and detection methods
Time-dependent perturbation theories using normal forms
A time-dependent perturbation theory based on normal from techniques is studies within a rigorous Hilbert space formalism in the context of Schroedinger initial value problems associate with Hamiltonians having time-dependent perturbations to arrived at approximations that deviate in norm from the exact solution by a term of order εm+1t provided the initial vector is restricted to an appropriate linear submanifold. This new method of approximations is compared with other method described previously by the present author. It turns out that operators involved in the new method have simpler construction. Computation aspects of normal from theory are the main goal of this paper. The theory is applied to the one-dimensional quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator coupled via a quasiperiodic interaction which initially is 4εq4 where q is the position operator, to obtain an explicit construction of second-order approximation
Nonlinear time-dependent simulation of helix traveling wave tubes
A one-dimensional nonlinear time-dependent theory for helix traveling wave tubes is studied. A generalized electromagnetic field is applied to the expression of the radio frequency field. To simulate the variations of the high frequency structure, such as the pitch taper and the effect of harmonics, the spatial average over a wavelength is substituted by a time average over a wave period in the equation of the radio frequency field. Under this assumption, the space charge field of the electron beam can be treated by a space charge wave model along with the space charge coefficient. The effects of the radio frequency and the space charge fields on the electrons are presented by the equations of the electron energy and the electron phase. The time-dependent simulation is compared with the frequency-domain simulation for a helix TWT, which validates the availability of this theory. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
K shortest paths in stochastic time-dependent networks
Nielsen, Lars Relund; Pretolani, Daniele; Andersen, Kim Allan
2004-01-01
A substantial amount of research has been devoted to the shortest path problem in networks where travel times are stochastic or (deterministic and) time-dependent. More recently, a growing interest has been attracted by networks that are both stochastic and time-dependent. In these networks, the...... best route choice is not necessarily a path, but rather a time-adaptive strategy that assigns successors to nodes as a function of time. In some particular cases, the shortest origin-destination path must nevertheless be chosen a priori, since time-adaptive choices are not allowed. Unfortunately......, finding the a priori shortest path is NP-hard, while the best time-adaptive strategy can be found in polynomial time. In this paper, we propose a solution method for the a priori shortest path problem, and we show that it can be easily adapted to the ranking of the first K shortest paths. Moreover, we...
Time-dependent viscoelastic behavior of an LDPE melt
Shuxin Huang; Chuanjing Lu; Yurun Fan
2006-01-01
Two differential constitutive equations,i.e.Giesekus model and Johnson-Segalman model were employed here to predict the time-dependent viscoelastic behavior of an LDPE melt in thixotropy-loop experiments and step shear rate experiment. Multiple relaxation modes were adopted, and the parameters used to describe the nonlinear viscoelasticity in the two models were obtained by fitting the shear-thinning viscosity. The predictions on those transient shear characteristics by the two models are found in qualitative agreement with our previous experiments. Johnson-Segalman model predicts oscillation behavior in the thixotropy-loop and step shear rate experiments, whereas Giesekus model does not. Both models predict higher shear stresses than the experimental data in the case of long time shearing, implying that both models are not able to completely characterize the time-dependent shear stress of the-melt at high shear rate.
Time-dependent nonlinear cosmic ray shocks confirming abstract
Dorfi, E. A.
1985-01-01
Numerical studies of time dependent cosmic ray shock structures in planar geometry are interesting because analytical time-independent solutions are available which include the non-linear reactions on the plasma flow. A feature of these time asymptotic solutions is that for higher Mach numbers (M approximately 5) and for a low cosmic ray upstream pressure the solution is not uniquely determined by the usual conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy. These numerical solutions clearly indicate that much work needs to be done before we understand shock acceleration as a time dependent process. The slowness of the process is possibly due to the fact that there is a diffusive flux into the downstream region in addition to the usual advective losses. Analytic investigations of thie phenomenon are required.
Adiabatic theorem for the time-dependent wave operator
The application of time-dependent wave operator theory to the development of a quantum adiabatic perturbation theory is treated both theoretically and numerically, with emphasis on the description of field-matter interactions which involve short laser pulses. It is first shown that the adiabatic limit of the time-dependent wave operator corresponds to a succession of instantaneous static Bloch wave operators. Wave operator theory is then shown to be compatible with the two-time Floquet theory of light-matter interaction, thus allowing the application of Floquet theory to cases which require the use of a degenerate active space. A numerical study of some problems shows that the perturbation strength associated with nonadiabatic processes can be reduced by using multidimensional active spaces and illustrates the capacity of the wave operator approach to produce a quasiadiabatic treatment of a nominally nonadiabatic Floquet dynamical system
Quasinormal modes in time-dependent black hole background
Shao, C G; Abdalla, Elcio; Su, R K; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Wang, Bin; Abdalla, Elcio; Su, Ru-Keng
2005-01-01
We have studied the evolution of the massless scalar field propagating in time-dependent charged Vaidya black hole background. A generalized tortoise coordinate transformation were used to study the evolution of the massless scalar field. It is shown that, for the slowest damped quasinormal modes, the approximate formulae in stationary Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole turn out to be a reasonable prescription, showing that results from quasinormal mode analysis are rather robust.
An Analytical Air Pollution Model with Time Dependent Eddy Diffusivity
Tiziano Tirabassi; Marco Túllio Vilhena; Daniela Buske; Gervásio Annes Degrazia
2013-01-01
Air pollution transport and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer are modeled by the advection-diffusion equation, that is, essentially, a statement of conservation of the suspended material in an incompressible flow. Many models simulating air pollution dispersion are based upon the solution (numerical or analytical) of the advection-diffusion equation assuming turbulence parameterization for realistic physical scenarios. We present the general time dependent three-dimensional soluti...
Time-dependent crack growth and fracture in concrete
The objectives of this thesis are to study time-dependent fracture behaviour in concrete. The thesis consists of an experimental study, costitutive modelling and numerical analysis. The experimental study was undertaken to investigate the influences of time on material properties for the fracture process zone and on crack growth and fracture in plain concrete structures. The experiments include tensile relaxation tests, bending tests on notched beams to determine fracture energy at varying deflection rates, and sustained bending and compact tensile tests. From the tensile relaxation tests, the envelope of the σ-w relation does not seem to be influenced by holding periods, though some local detrimental effect does occur. Fracture energy seems to decrease as rates become slower. In the sustained loading tests, deformation (deflection or CMOD) growth curves display three stages, as usually observed in a creep rupture test. The secondary stage dominates the whole failure lifetime, and the secondary deformation rate appears to have good correlation with the failure lifetime. A crack model for time-dependent fracture is proposed, by applying the idea of the Fictitious Crack Model. In this model, a modified Maxwell model is introduced for the fracture process zone incorporated with the static σ-w curve as a failure criterion, based on the observation of the tensile relaxation tests. The time-dependent σ-w curve is expressed in an incremental law. The proposed model has been implemented in a finite element program and applied to simulating sustained flexural and compact tensile tests. Numerical analysis includes simulations of crack growth, load-CMOD curves, stress-failure lifetime curves, size effects on failure life etc. The numerical results indicate that the model seems to be able to properly predict the main features of time-dependent fracture behaviour in concrete, as compared with the experimental results. 97 refs
Time-dependent induced potentials in convoy electron emission
Acuña, G. P.; Miraglia, J. E.
2006-11-01
We study the time-dependent induced potentials at the convoy electron position due to the self-interaction with a metal surface and to the shock wave created by the positive hole (vacancy) left. The time evolution of these potentials are calculated using the linear response theory. Results obtained are fitted with simple functions. We find that those two potentials nearly cancel each other in the first ten atomic units of time.
Error budget in systems with time-dependent forcings
Sancho, P.
1998-01-01
The behaviour of the error growth is analyzed in several simple examples of systems with external time-dependent forcings. in some systems oscillations of the error around the saturation level can be observed. A common feature of these examples is the error growth dependence on initial time. In the examples here considered the improvement in the predictability derived from an adequate choice of the Initial time is comparable to those obtained by reducing the initial errors.
Effects of Age on Time-Dependent Cognitive Change
Salthouse, Timothy A.
2011-01-01
Interpretation of cognitive change has been complicated because different influences on change are not easily distinguished. In this study, longitudinal cognitive change was decomposed into a component related to the length of the interval between test occasions (i.e., time-dependent change) and a component unrelated to the test-retest interval (i.e., time-independent change). Influences of age on the two hypothesized components were investigated in a sample of more than 1,500 adults for whom...
Residual equilibrium schemes for time dependent partial differential equations
Pareschi, Lorenzo; Rey, Thomas
2016-01-01
Many applications involve partial differential equations which admits nontrivial steady state solutions. The design of schemes which are able to describe correctly these equilibrium states may be challenging for numerical methods, in particular for high order ones. In this paper, inspired by micro-macro decomposition methods for kinetic equations, we present a class of schemes which are capable to preserve the steady state solution and achieve high order accuracy for a class of time dependent...
Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and Height Using an Elevator
Kinser, Jason M.
2015-01-01
A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to height is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v(t)=? a(t) dt (1) and x(t)=? v(t) dt. Mobile devices such as…
Making Cold Molecules by Time-dependent Feshbach Resonances
Julienne, P. S.; Tiesinga, E.; Koehler, T.
2003-01-01
Pairs of trapped atoms can be associated to make a diatomic molecule using a time dependent magnetic field to ramp the energy of a scattering resonance state from above to below the scattering threshold. A relatively simple model, parameterized in terms of the background scattering length and resonance width and magnetic moment, can be used to predict conversion probabilities from atoms to molecules. The model and its Landau-Zener interpretation are described and illustrated by specific calcu...
Price and wage inflation inertia under time-dependent adjustments
Di Bartolomeo Giovanni; Di Pietro Marco
2013-01-01
We derive and estimate a small-scale DSGE model augmented with price and wage adjustment governed by a time-dependent mechanisms. Byusing positively sloping hazard functions, we micro-found price and wage inflation intrinsic persistence, as we derive price and wage Phillips curves characterized by both forward and backward terms for inflation. Our estimation confirms upward-sloping hazard functions. Finally, we compare the empirical performance of our model to several popular alternatives bas...
Time dependent quantum transport through Kondo correlated quantum dots
Goker, Ali; Gedik, Elif
2013-01-01
In this article, we review recent work about time dependent quantum transport through a quantum dot in Kondo regime. This represents a major step towards designing next generation transistors that are expected to replace current MOSFET's in a few years. We first discuss the effects of the density of states of gold contacts on the instantaneous conductance of an asymmetrically coupled quantum dot that is abruptly moved into Kondo regime via a gate voltage. Next, we investigate the effect of st...
Schwinger pair creation in constant and time-dependent fields
The effect of pair creation from the vacuum in a strong electric field, predicted by Schwinger in 1951, may conceivably be confirmed experimentally with some of the ultrastrong lasers presently under construction. However, it is not easy to calculate the effect for realistic laser fields. We will shortly review here the intermediate case of a purely time-dependent but otherwise generic electric field, which is still relatively amenable to calculation.
Gamma time-dependency in Blaxter's compartmental model.
Matis, J. H.
1972-01-01
A new two-compartment model for the passage of particles through the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants is proposed. In this model, a gamma distribution of lifetimes is introduced in the first compartment; thereby, passage from that compartment becomes time-dependent. This modification is strongly suggested by the physical alteration which certain substances, e.g. hay particles, undergo in the digestive process. The proposed model is applied to experimental data.
The time dependence of molecular iodine emission from Laminaria digitata
J. Orphal
2009-02-01
Full Text Available We present the first in situ detection of molecular iodine emitted from the brown macroalga Laminaria digitata under natural stress conditions. We show that the release of I2 occurs in short, strong bursts with a complex time signature. The new data indicate that algal control of I2 release in the form of an oscillatory time-dependence may be based on a nonlinear autocatalytic reaction scheme which is closely linked to the production of H2O2.
The time dependence of molecular iodine emission from Laminaria digitata
J. Orphal
2008-08-01
Full Text Available We present the first in situ detection of molecular iodine emitted from the brown macroalga Laminaria digitata under natural stress conditions. We show that the release of I2 occurs in short, strong bursts with a complex time signature. The new data indicate that algal control of I2 release in the form of an oscillatory time-dependence may be based on a nonlinear autocatalytic reaction scheme which is closely linked to the production of H2O2.
Thermal state of the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator
Jeong-Ryeol Choi
2003-07-01
Taking advantage of dynamical invariant operator, we derived quantum mechanical solution of general time-dependent harmonic oscillator. The uncertainty relation of the system is always larger than ħ=2 not only in number but also in the thermal state as expected. We used the diagonal elements of density operator satisfying Leouville–von Neumann equation to calculate various expectation values in the thermal state. We applied our theory to a special case which is the forced Caldirola–Kanai oscillator.
Time-dependent fatigue--phenomenology and life prediction
The time-dependent fatigue behavior of materials used or considered for use in present and advanced systems for power generation is outlined. A picture is first presented to show how basic mechanisms and phenomenological information relate to the performance of the component under consideration through the so-called local strain approach. By this means life prediction criteria and design rules can be formulated utilizing laboratory test information which is directly translated to predicting the performance of a component. The body of phenomenological information relative to time-dependent fatigue is reviewed. Included are effects of strain range, strain rate and frequency, environment and wave shape, all of which are shown to be important in developing both an understanding and design base for time dependent fatigue. Using this information, some of the current methods being considered for the life prediction of components are reviewed. These include the current ASME code case, frequency-modified fatigue equations, strain range partitioning, the damage function method, frequency separation and damage rate equations. From this review, it is hoped that a better perspective on future directions for basic material science at high temperature can be achieved
Time-dependent dynamic behavior of light diffraction in ferrofluid
Chung, Min-Feng; Chou, S. E.; Fu, Chao-Ming
2012-04-01
The time-dependent dynamic behavior of diffraction patterns induced by external magnetic field in a suspension of nano-sized magnetic particles (Fe3O4) in a water-based magnetic fluid was investigated. It was observed that the diffraction pattern changed with time as the magnetic field was applied. In the absence of applied magnetic field, there was no diffraction pattern in the screen. When the magnetic field was applied, the transmitted light was perpendicular to the magnetic field, and the diffraction pattern was unstable. There were many small lines and points moving with time. After one minute, the diffraction pattern turned stable, and the small lines became longer. This time-dependent behavior helps us to understand the evolution of the forming chains of magnetic nanoparticles. Moreover, we have measured the other diffraction pattern, the transmitted light propagating parallel to the applied field. These time-dependent diffraction patterns give a new point to understand the dynamic three-dimensional structure of magnetic fluid under a dc magnetic field.
The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach revisited
The multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach facilitates accurate high-dimensional quantum dynamics simulations. In the approach, the wavefunction is expanded in a direct product of self-adapting time-dependent single-particle functions (SPFs). The equations of motion for the expansion coefficients and the SPFs are obtained via the Dirac-Frenkel variational principle. While this derivation yields well-defined differential equations for the motion of occupied SPFs, singularities in the working equations resulting from unoccupied SPFs have to be removed by a regularization procedure. Here, an alternative derivation of the MCTDH equations of motion is presented. It employs an analysis of the time-dependence of the single-particle density matrices up to second order. While the analysis of the first order terms yields the known equations of motion for the occupied SPFs, the analysis of the second order terms provides new equations which allow one to identify optimal choices for the unoccupied SPFs. The effect of the optimal choice of the unoccupied SPFs on the structure of the MCTDH equations of motion and their regularization is discussed. Generalized equations applicable in the multi-layer MCTDH framework are presented. Finally, the effects resulting from the initial choice of the unoccupied SPFs are illustrated by a simple numerical example
Shoulder pain and time dependent structure in wheelchair propulsion variability.
Jayaraman, Chandrasekaran; Moon, Yaejin; Sosnoff, Jacob J
2016-07-01
Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable repetitive mechanical strain on the upper limbs leading to shoulder injury and pain. While recent research indicates that the amount of variability in wheelchair propulsion and shoulder pain may be related. There has been minimal inquiry into the fluctuation over time (i.e. time-dependent structure) in wheelchair propulsion variability. Consequently the purpose of this investigation was to examine if the time-dependent structure in the wheelchair propulsion parameters are related to shoulder pain. 27 experienced wheelchair users manually propelled their own wheelchair fitted with a SMARTWheel on a roller at 1.1m/s for 3min. Time-dependent structure of cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in contact angle and inter push time interval was quantified using sample entropy (SampEn) and compared between the groups with/without shoulder pain using non-parametric statistics. Overall findings were, (1) variability observed in contact angle fluctuations during manual wheelchair propulsion is structured (Z=3.15;pshoulder pain exhibited higher SampEn magnitude for contact angle during wheelchair propulsion than those without pain (χ(2)(1)=6.12;pshoulder pain (rs (WUSPI) =0.41;rs (VAS)=0.56;pshoulder pain. PMID:27134151
Neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model
Sajad Abbar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A dense neutrino medium such as that inside a core-collapse supernova can experience collective flavor conversion or oscillations because of the neutral-current weak interaction among the neutrinos. This phenomenon has been studied in a restricted, stationary supernova model which possesses the (spatial spherical symmetry about the center of the supernova and the (directional axial symmetry around the radial direction. Recently it has been shown that these spatial and directional symmetries can be broken spontaneously by collective neutrino oscillations. In this letter we analyze the neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model. Our results show that collective neutrino oscillations start at approximately the same radius in both the stationary and time-dependent supernova models unless there exist very rapid variations in local physical conditions on timescales of a few microseconds or shorter. Our results also suggest that collective neutrino oscillations can vary rapidly with time in the regimes where they do occur which need to be studied in time-dependent supernova models.
Time-Dependent Delayed Signatures From Energetic Photon Interrogations
A pulsed photonuclear interrogation environment is rich with time-dependent, material specific, radiation signatures. Exploitation of these signatures in the delayed time regime (>1us after the photon flash) has been explored through various detection schemes to identify both shielded nuclear material and nitrogen-based explosives. Prompt emission may also be invaluable for these detection methods. Numerical and experimental results, which utilize specially modified neutron and HpGe detectors, are presented which illustrate the efficacy of utilizing these time-dependent signatures. Optimal selection of the appropriate delayed time window is essential to these pulsed inspection systems. For explosive (ANFO surrogate) detection, both numerical models and experimental results illustrate that nearly all 14N(n,y) reactions have occurred within l00 us after the flash. In contrast, however, gamma-ray and neutron signals for nuclear material detection require a delay of several milliseconds after the photon pulse. In this case, any data collected too close to the photon flash results in a spectrum dominated by high energy signals which make it difficult to discern signatures from nuclear material. Specifically, two short-lived, high-energy fission fragments (97Ag(T1/2=5.1 s) and 94Sr(T1/2=75.2 s)) were measured and identified as indicators of the presence of fissionable material. These developments demonstrate that a photon inspection environment can be exploited for time-dependent, material specific signatures through the proper operation of specially modified detectors
Multigroup cross sections of resonant nuclei considering moderator mass differences
The multigroup constants library MGCL in the nuclear criticality safety evaluation code system JACS has been produced by the Bondarenko method to treat self-shielding effects. For estimating errors of this treatment, the multigroup cross sections of MGCL are compared with those obtained by precise treatment, i.e. with the weighted cross sections by ultra-fine spectra of neutron. The precise calculations are made for homogeneous mixtures of a resonant nucleus (235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 242Pu or 56Fe) and a fictitious moderator nucleus with mass number 1, 12 or 200. The ultra-fine spectrum is calculated by the RABBLE code. Distinct differences are found in the self-shielding factors by comparisons between both treatments. Moreover, as the mass number increases, depressions of the self-shielding factor at the resonance peaks and its enhancements at the window of resonances are observed. (author)
Cyclotron radiation by a multi-group method
A multi-energy group technique is developed to study conditions under which cyclotron radiation emission can shift a Maxwellian electron distribution into a non-Maxwellian; and if the electron distribution is non-Maxwellian, to study the rate of cyclotron radiation emission as compared to that emitted by a Maxwellian having the same mean electron density and energy. The assumptions in this study are: the electrons should be in an isotropic medium and the magnetic field should be uniform. The multi-group technique is coupled into a multi-group Fokker-Planck computer code to study electron behavior under the influence of cyclotron radiation emission in a self-consistent fashion. Several non-Maxwellian distributions were simulated to compare their cyclotron emissions with the corresponding energy and number density equivalent Maxwellian distribtions
Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables
Wright, Julie Knibloe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-06-01
Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant
Optimal calculational schemes for solving multigroup photon transport problem
A scheme of complex algorithm for solving multigroup equation of radiation transport is suggested. The algorithm is based on using the method of successive collisions, the method of forward scattering and the spherical harmonics method, and is realized in the FORAP program (FORTRAN, BESM-6 computer). As an example the results of calculating reactor photon transport in water are presented. The considered algorithm being modified may be used for solving neutron transport problems
Multigroup-multiwaves Lisrel modeling in tourist satisfaction analysis
Cristina Bernini; Silvia Cagnone
2013-01-01
The paper analyzes the influence of tourist heterogeneity on the Tourist Local System Overall Satisfaction and its changes over time. We investigate two aspects: if different tourists segmented according to their trip motivation (seaside, conference and sport) show the same pattern of evaluation toward some relevant features of the TLS and if the evaluation scheme is dynamic. At this aim, a Multigroup-Multiwaves Lisrel model is estimated on a data set from the Tourist Satisfaction Survey, con...
Development and validation of Apros multigroup nodal diffusion model
Rintala, Antti
2015-01-01
The development of a steady state and transient multigroup nodal diffusion model for process simulation software Apros was continued and the models were validated. The initial implementation of the model was performed in 2009 and it has not been under continuous development afterwards. Some errors in the steady state model were corrected. The transient model was found to be incorrect. The solution method of the transient model was derived, and the program code not common with the steady s...
Nuclear data and multigroup methods in fast reactor calculations
The work deals with fast reactor multigroup calculations, and the efficient treatment of basic nuclear data, which serves as raw material for the calculations. Its purpose is twofold: to build a computer code system that handles a large, detailed library of basic neutron cross section data, (such as ENDF/B-III) and yields a compact set of multigroup cross sections for reactor calculations; to use the code system for comparative analysis of different libraries, in order to discover basic uncertainties that still exist in the measurement of neutron cross sections, and to determine their influence upon uncertainties in nuclear calculations. A program named NANICK which was written in two versions is presented. The first handles the American basic data library, ENDF/B-III, while the second handles the German basic data library, KEDAK. The mathematical algorithm is identical in both versions, and only the file management is different. This program calculates infinitely diluted multigroup cross sections and scattering matrices. It is complemented by the program NASIF that calculates shielding factors from resonance parameters. Different versions of NASIF were written to handle ENDF/B-III or KEDAK. New methods for evaluating in reactor calculations the long term behavior of the neutron flux as well as its fine structure are described and an efficient calculation of the shielding factors from resonance parameters is offered. (B.G.)
Characterizing time-dependent mechanics in metallic MEMS
Geers M.G.D.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Experiments for characterization of time-dependent material properties in free-standing metallic microelectromechanical system (MEMS pose challenges: e.g. fabrication and handling (sub-μm sized specimens, control and measurement of sub-μN loads and sub-μm displacements over long periods and various temperatures [1]. A variety of experimental setups have been reported each having their pros and cons. One example is a micro-tensile tester with an ingenious electro-static specimen gripping system [2] aiding simple specimen design giving good results at μN and sub-μm levels, but without in-situ full-field observations. Other progressive examples assimilate the specimen, MEMS actuators and load cells on a single chip [3,4] yielding significant results at nN and nm levels with in-situ TEM/SEM observability, though not without complications: complex load actuator/sensor calibration per chip, measures to reduce fabrication failure and unfeasible cofabrication on wafers with commercial metallic MEMS. This work aims to overcome these drawbacks by developing experimental methods with high sensitivity, precision and in-situ full-field observation capabilities. Moreover, these should be applicable to simple free-standing metallic MEMS that can be co-fabricated with commercial devices. These methods will then serve in systematic studies into size-effects in time-dependent material properties. First a numeric-experimental method is developed. It characterizes bending deformation of onwafer μm-sized aluminum cantilevers. A specially designed micro-clamp is used to mechanically apply a constant precise deflection of the beam (zres <50 nm for a prolonged period, see fig. 1. After this period, the deflection by the micro-clamp is removed. Full-field height maps with the ensuing deformation are measured over time with confocal optical profilometry (COP. This yields the tip deflection as function of time with ~3 nm precision, see fig.2. To extract material
Time-dependent radiation dose estimations during interplanetary space flights
Dobynde, M. I.; Shprits, Y.; Drozdov, A.
2015-12-01
Time-dependent radiation dose estimations during interplanetary space flights 1,2Dobynde M.I., 2,3Drozdov A.Y., 2,4Shprits Y.Y.1Skolkovo institute of science and technology, Moscow, Russia 2University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA 3Lomonosov Moscow State University Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow, Russia4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USASpace radiation is the main restriction for long-term interplanetary space missions. It induces degradation of external components and propagates inside providing damage to internal environment. Space radiation particles and induced secondary particle showers can lead to variety of damage to astronauts in short- and long- term perspective. Contribution of two main sources of space radiation- Sun and out-of-heliosphere space varies in time in opposite phase due to the solar activity state. Currently the only habituated mission is the international interplanetary station that flights on the low Earth orbit. Besides station shell astronauts are protected with the Earth magnetosphere- a natural shield that prevents significant damage for all humanity. Current progress in space exploration tends to lead humanity out of magnetosphere bounds. With the current study we make estimations of spacecraft parameters and astronauts damage for long-term interplanetary flights. Applying time dependent model of GCR spectra and data on SEP spectra we show the time dependence of the radiation in a human phantom inside the shielding capsule. We pay attention to the shielding capsule design, looking for an optimal geometry parameters and materials. Different types of particles affect differently on the human providing more or less harm to the tissues. Incident particles provide a large amount of secondary particles while propagating through the shielding capsule. We make an attempt to find an optimal combination of shielding capsule parameters, namely material and thickness, that will effectively decrease
Time-dependent Integrated Predictive Modeling of ITER Plasmas
R.V. Budny
2007-01-01
@@ Introduction Modeling burning plasmas is important for speeding progress toward practical Tokamak energy production. Examples of issues that can be elucidated by modelinginclude requirements for heating, fueling, torque, and current drive systems, design of diagnostics, and estimates of the plasma performance (e.g., fusion power production) in various plasma scenarios. The modeling should be time-dependent to demonstrate that burning plasmas can be created, maintained (controlled), and terminated successfully. The modeling also should be integrated to treat self-consistently the nonlinearities and strong coupling between the plasma, heating, current drive, confinement, and control systems.
Time-dependent, lattice approach to atomic collisions
Schultz, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Physics Div.
1995-12-31
Recent progress in developing and applying methods of direct numerical solution of atomic collision problems is described. Various forms of the three-body problem are used to illustrate these techniques. Specifically, the process of ionization in proton-, antiproton-, and electron-impact of atomic hydrogen is considered in applications ranging in computational intensity from collisions simulated in two spatial dimensions to treatment of the three-dimensional, fully correlated two-electron Schroedinger equation. These examples demonstrate the utility and feasibility of treating strongly interacting atomic systems through time-dependent, lattice approaches.
Time-dependent density-functional theory concepts and applications
Ullrich, Carsten A
2011-01-01
Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) describes the quantum dynamics of interacting electronic many-body systems formally exactly and in a practical and efficient manner. TDDFT has become the leading method for calculating excitation energies and optical properties of large molecules, with accuracies that rival traditional wave-function based methods, but at a fraction of the computational cost.This book is the first graduate-level text on the concepts and applications of TDDFT, including many examples and exercises, and extensive coverage of the literature. The book begins with a s
Shapes and Dynamics from the Time-Dependent Mean Field
Stevenson, P D; Rios, A
2015-01-01
Explaining observed properties in terms of underlying shape degrees of freedom is a well--established prism with which to understand atomic nuclei. Self--consistent mean--field models provide one tool to understand nuclear shapes, and their link to other nuclear properties and observables. We present examples of how the time--dependent extension of the mean--field approach can be used in particular to shed light on nuclear shape properties, particularly looking at the giant resonances built on deformed nuclear ground states, and at dynamics in highly-deformed fission isomers. Example calculations are shown of $^{28}$Si in the first case, and $^{240}$Pu in the latter case.
Time-Dependent Laminar, Transitional and Turbulent Pipe Flows
Ünsal, Bülent
2008-01-01
This thesis summarises the author's research work carried out at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics of the Friedrich-Alexander Universiät Erlangen-Nüernberg (LSTM-Erlangen) during his time there as a researcher. The work deals with time dependent laminar, transitional, and turbulent pipe flows. Most investigations of pipe flows, available these days in the literature, are of steady state flow cases. The reason for this was found to lie in the fact that no suitable experimental equipment is avai...
Time-Dependent Mean-Field Games with Logarithmic Nonlinearities
Gomes, Diogo A.
2015-10-06
In this paper, we prove the existence of classical solutions for time-dependent mean-field games with a logarithmic nonlinearity and subquadratic Hamiltonians. Because the logarithm is unbounded from below, this nonlinearity poses substantial mathematical challenges that have not been addressed in the literature. Our result is proven by recurring to a delicate argument which combines Lipschitz regularity for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with estimates for the nonlinearity in suitable Lebesgue spaces. Lipschitz estimates follow from an application of the nonlinear adjoint method. These are then combined with a priori bounds for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation and a concavity argument for the nonlinearity.
Time-dependent, lattice approach to atomic collisions
Recent progress in developing and applying methods of direct numerical solution of atomic collision problems is described. Various forms of the three-body problem are used to illustrate these techniques. Specifically, the process of ionization in proton-, antiproton-, and electron-impact of atomic hydrogen is considered in applications ranging in computational intensity from collisions simulated in two spatial dimensions to treatment of the three-dimensional, fully correlated two-electron Schroedinger equation. These examples demonstrate the utility and feasibility of treating strongly interacting atomic systems through time-dependent, lattice approaches
On time dependent scattering theory for identical particles
A time-dependent multichannel nonrelativistic quantum scattering theory is established for systems containing identical particles. The symmetry properties of the theory are rooted in certain abstract algebraic relationships between permutations. The formalism of second quantization is thus avoided. Appropriate wave and scattering operators are defined, including those for systems of particles with long range Coulomb interactions. The cluster properties of the scattering operator are rigorously derived. The transition to time-independent theory is made mathematically thus establishing connection with previous time-independent theories. (author)
Time-dependent phenomena in athermal martensitic transformations
The unexpected finding of time-dependent behaviour in athermal martensitic transformations (MT) above the MS temperature has prompted many experimental studies of incubation time. We review here various data scattered in the literature, emphasising the seminal experimental and theoretical work by Kakeshita et al. Contradicting experimental results and alternative concepts as put forward by Otsuka et al. and Planes et al. are discussed in some detail as well. Future experiments to clarify the situation are suggested, in particular the application of X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy to extend the range of observable time scales into regimes dominated by the dynamics of potential embryonic fluctuations
Building mathematical foundations for time-dependent density functional theory
In this presentation we study the essential mathematical structures for a rigorous foundation of time-dependent density functional theory, a reformulation of many-body quantum mechanics where the wave function as a fundamental variable is replaced by the electronic density. We introduce a new fixed-point proof of the fundamental one-to-one correspondence between densities and external potentials. Our approach not only sharpens the Theorems of Runge and Gross and van Leeuwen, as no additional time regularity is needed, but also yields interesting restrictions on the density and leads to a problem-adapted set of external potentials.
Time-dependant cosmological interpretation of quantum mechanics
Moulay, Emmanuel
2015-01-01
The aim of this article is to define a time-dependant cosmological interpretation of quantum mechanics in the context of a multiverse coming from eternal inflation. A common notion of time is defined for observers in similar observable universes by using the holographic principle. It is the time elapsed since the post-inflationary epoch. With this improvement, the cosmological interpretation of quantum mechanics becomes a full interpretation of quantum mechanics where the unitary evolution of quantum states is preserved. Moreover, it is well suited for eternal inflation .
On particle creation by a time-dependent scalar field
The probability of particles creation by a homogeneous scalar field Χ(t) is calculated. Explicit analytical expressions are obtained in two limiting cases in the quasiclassical approximation and in the framework of perturbation theory. In the case when the mass of the created particles is defined by the time-dependent field Χ(t) according to the expression gΧ(t) Ψ-barΨ, where Χ(t)=Χ0cos(ωt), it is shown that the creation probability is suppresed not exponentially, but as ω1/2. Some cosmological consequences of the results are discussed. 13 refs
Perspective: Fundamental aspects of time-dependent density functional theory
Maitra, Neepa T.
2016-06-01
In the thirty-two years since the birth of the foundational theorems, time-dependent density functional theory has had a tremendous impact on calculations of electronic spectra and dynamics in chemistry, biology, solid-state physics, and materials science. Alongside the wide-ranging applications, there has been much progress in understanding fundamental aspects of the functionals and the theory itself. This Perspective looks back to some of these developments, reports on some recent progress and current challenges for functionals, and speculates on future directions to improve the accuracy of approximations used in this relatively young theory.
Optimal moving grids for time-dependent partial differential equations
Wathen, A. J.
1992-01-01
Various adaptive moving grid techniques for the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations were proposed. The precise criterion for grid motion varies, but most techniques will attempt to give grids on which the solution of the partial differential equation can be well represented. Moving grids are investigated on which the solutions of the linear heat conduction and viscous Burgers' equation in one space dimension are optimally approximated. Precisely, the results of numerical calculations of optimal moving grids for piecewise linear finite element approximation of PDE solutions in the least-squares norm are reported.
Time-dependent Mechanisms in Beta-cell Glucose Sensing
Vagn Korsgaard, Thomas; Colding-Jørgensen, Morten
2006-01-01
The relation between plasma glucose and insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells is not stationary in the sense that a given glucose concentration leads to a specific rate of insulin secretion. A number of time-dependent mechanisms appear to exist that modify insulin release both on a short and a longer time scale. Typically, two phases are described. The first phase, lasting up to 10 min, is a pulse of insulin release in response to fast changes in glucose concentration. The second phase i...
An algorithm for Monte-Carlo time-dependent radiation transfer
Harries, Tim J
2011-01-01
A new Monte-Carlo algorithm for calculating time-dependent radiative-transfer under the assumption of LTE is presented. Unlike flux-limited diffusion the method is polychromatic, includes scattering, and is able to treat the optically thick and free-streaming regimes simultaneously. The algorithm is tested on a variety of 1-d and 2-d problems, and good agreement with benchmark solutions is found. The method is used to calculate the time-varying spectral energy distribution from a circumstellar disc illuminated by a protostar whose accretion luminosity is varying. It is shown that the time lag between the optical variability and the infrared variability results from a combination of the photon travel time and the thermal response in the disc, and that the lag is an approximately linear function of wavelength.
Maximum time-dependent space-charge limited diode currents
Griswold, M. E.; Fisch, N. J.
2016-01-01
Recent papers claim that a one dimensional (1D) diode with a time-varying voltage drop can transmit current densities that exceed the Child-Langmuir (CL) limit on average, apparently contradicting a previous conjecture that there is a hard limit on the average current density across any 1D diode, as t → ∞, that is equal to the CL limit. However, these claims rest on a different definition of the CL limit, namely, a comparison between the time-averaged diode current and the adiabatic average of the expression for the stationary CL limit. If the current were considered as a function of the maximum applied voltage, rather than the average applied voltage, then the original conjecture would not have been refuted.
Maximum time-dependent space-charge limited diode currents
Griswold, M. E. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Fisch, N. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2016-01-15
Recent papers claim that a one dimensional (1D) diode with a time-varying voltage drop can transmit current densities that exceed the Child-Langmuir (CL) limit on average, apparently contradicting a previous conjecture that there is a hard limit on the average current density across any 1D diode, as t → ∞, that is equal to the CL limit. However, these claims rest on a different definition of the CL limit, namely, a comparison between the time-averaged diode current and the adiabatic average of the expression for the stationary CL limit. If the current were considered as a function of the maximum applied voltage, rather than the average applied voltage, then the original conjecture would not have been refuted.
Multi-configuration time-dependent density-functional theory based on range separation
Fromager, Emmanuel; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa
2012-01-01
Multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory is extended to the time-dependent regime. An exact variational formulation is derived. The approximation, which consists in combining a long-range Multi-Configuration-Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) treatment with an adiabatic short-range density-functional (DFT) description, is then considered. The resulting time-dependent multi-configuration short-range DFT (TD-MC-srDFT) model is applied to the calculation of singlet excitation energies in H2, Be and ferrocene, considering both short-range local density (srLDA) and generalized gradient (srGGA) approximations. In contrast to regular TD-DFT, TD-MC-srDFT can describe double excitations. As expected, when modeling long-range interactions with the MCSCF model instead of the adiabatic Buijse-Baerends density-matrix functional as recently proposed by Pernal [K. Pernal, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 184105 (2012)], the description of both the 1^1D doubly-excited state in Be and the 1^1\\Sigma^+_u state in the stretch...
On the time-dependent resonant width for Landau damping: theory and PIC simulation
We use electrostatic partice-in-cell (PIC) simulations and theory to study the damping of 1D plasma waves. We consider the linear regime where the asymptotic damping rate is much bigger than the bounce frequency. In this regime the waves are typically very small and often below the thermal noise in simulations and experiments. These waves can be studied using a subtraction technique in which two simulations with identical random number generation seeds are carried out. In the first, a small amplitude wave is excited. In the second simulation no wave is excited. The results from each simulation are subtracted providing a clean linear wave that can be studied. Since the Landau derivation does not provide a description of damping in terms of individual particle trajectories, we analyze Landau damping using a Lagrangian approach based on energy conservation and the linearized particle trajectories. This method provides a time-dependent resonance curve and the energy transfer of the particles in the damping process. The time-dependent resonant width measured in the simulations is compared with the theoretical prediction. Simulations in which particles within the resonance width are removed are also presented.
On the time-dependent resonant width for Landau damping: theory and PIC simulation
Grismayer, T.; Fahlen, J. E.; Decyk, V. K.; Mori, W. B.
2011-07-01
We use electrostatic partice-in-cell (PIC) simulations and theory to study the damping of 1D plasma waves. We consider the linear regime where the asymptotic damping rate is much bigger than the bounce frequency. In this regime the waves are typically very small and often below the thermal noise in simulations and experiments. These waves can be studied using a subtraction technique in which two simulations with identical random number generation seeds are carried out. In the first, a small amplitude wave is excited. In the second simulation no wave is excited. The results from each simulation are subtracted providing a clean linear wave that can be studied. Since the Landau derivation does not provide a description of damping in terms of individual particle trajectories, we analyze Landau damping using a Lagrangian approach based on energy conservation and the linearized particle trajectories. This method provides a time-dependent resonance curve and the energy transfer of the particles in the damping process. The time-dependent resonant width measured in the simulations is compared with the theoretical prediction. Simulations in which particles within the resonance width are removed are also presented.
Time-dependent strains and stresses in a pumpkin balloon
Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a study of pumpkin-shaped superpressure balloons, consisting of gores made from a thin polymeric film attached to high stiffness, meridional tendons. This type of design is being used for the NASA ULDB balloons. The gore film shows considerable time-dependent stress relaxation, whereas the behaviour of the tendons is essentially time-independent. Upon inflation and pressurization, the "instantaneous", i.e. linear-elastic strain and stress distribution in the film show significantly higher values in the meridional direction. However, over time, and due to the biaxial visco-elastic stress relaxation of the the material, the hoop strains increase and the meridional stresses decrease, whereas the remaining strain and stress components remain substantially unchanged. These results are important for a correct assessment of the structural integrity of a pumpkin balloon in a long-duration mission, both in terms of the material performance and the overall stability of the shape of the balloon. An experimental investigation of the time dependence of the biaxial strain distribution in the film of a 4 m diameter, 48 gore pumpkin balloon is presented. The inflated shape of selected gores has been measured using photogrammetry and the time variation in strain components at some particular points of these gores has been measured under constant pressure and temperature. The results show good correlation with a numerical study, using the ABAQUS finite-element package, that includes a widely used model of the visco-elastic response of the gore material:
Inverse problem of quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonians
Guo, Guang-Jie; Meng, Yan; Chang, Hong; Duan, Hui-Zeng; Di, Bing
2015-08-01
Using an algebraic approach, it is possible to obtain the temporal evolution wave function for a Gaussian wave-packet obeying the quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonian (QTDH). However, in general, most of the practical cases are not exactly solvable, for we need general solutions of the Riccatti equations which are not generally known. We therefore bypass directly solving for the temporal evolution wave function, and study its inverse problem. We start with a particular evolution of the wave-packet, and get the required Hamiltonian by using the inverse method. The inverse approach opens up a new way to find new exact solutions to the QTDH. Some typical examples are studied in detail. For a specific time-dependent periodic harmonic oscillator, the Berry phase is obtained exactly. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11347171), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province of China (Grant No. A2012108003), and the Key Project of Educational Commission of Hebei Province of China (Grant No. ZD2014052).
Time Circular Birefringence in Time-Dependent Magnetoelectric Media
Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Lin, Shi-Rong; Zhao, Qing; Wen, Weijia; Ge, Mo-Lin
2015-01-01
Light traveling in time-dependent media has many extraordinary properties which can be utilized to convert frequency, achieve temporal cloaking, and simulate cosmological phenomena. In this paper, we focus on time-dependent axion-type magnetoelectric (ME) media, and prove that light in these media always has two degenerate modes with opposite circular polarizations corresponding to one wave vector $\\mathbf{k}$, and name this effect "time circular birefringence" (TCB). By interchanging the status of space and time, the pair of TCB modes can appear simultaneously via "time refraction" and "time reflection" of a linear polarized incident wave at a time interface of ME media. The superposition of the two TCB modes causes the "time Faraday effect", namely the globally unified polarization axes rotate with time. A circularly polarized Gaussian pulse traversing a time interface is also studied. If the wave-vector spectrum of a pulse mainly concentrates in the non-traveling-wave band, the pulse will be trapped with n...
Time-dependent penetrative mixed convection in a porous layer
In the last few decades, heat and mass transfer in porous media have been studied extensively by many investigators. The main motivations behind these studies were the wide range of applications and the interaction of multiple processes. Examples include geothermal energy production, drying of porous media, high level nuclear waste disposal, and energy-related engineering technologies. Here, a general two-dimensional, time-dependent model has been developed to investigate the transfer of heat and mass in a liquid saturated porous layer locally heated from above. Both free and mixed convection are considered. For mixed convection an eternal flow is assumed to enter the two-dimensional domain in the horizontal direction. At a finite segment of the top wall, two types of heat sources are applied: a constant flux heat source and a time varying heat, constant flux source. The latter is a representation of heat released by spent nuclear fuel in a mined repository located above the layer. Both time-dependent and steady solutions of the flow and temperature fields are obtained. For natural convection, the effects of Rayleigh number on the Nusselt number are obtained. For mixed convection, the effects of both Rayleigh and Peclet numbers are studied. In addition, the effects of the aspect ratio, as well as the length of the heated zone are examined
Time-dependent response of dissipative electron systems
We present a systematic study of the influence of energy and phase relaxation on dynamic polarizability simulations in the linear response regime. The nonperturbative approach is based on explicit electron dynamics using short laser pulses of low intensities. To include environmental effects on the property calculation, we use the time-dependent configuration-interaction method in its reduced density matrix formulation. Both energy dissipation and nonlocal pure dephasing are included. The explicit treatment of time-resolved electron dynamics gives access to the phase shift between the electric field and the induced dipole moment, which can be used to define a useful uncertainty measure for the dynamic polarizability. The nonperturbative treatment is compared to perturbation theory expressions, as applied to a simple model system, the rigid H2 molecule. It is shown that both approaches are equivalent for low field intensities, but the time-dependent treatment provides complementary information on the phase of the induced dipole moment, which allows for the definition of an uncertainty associated with the computation of the dynamic polarizability in the linear response regime.
Time-dependent modelling of an iodine-filtering facility
Passat a test facility to remove iodine isotopes and aerosols from dissolver off-gas of a large reprocessing plant is located at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. For the purposes of time-dependent modelling of the iodine-filtering part of Passat the experimental results have been described by mathematical functions. Assuming that a planned reprocessing plant of about 350 tons per year uses the present dissolution process of the reprocessing plant Karlsruhe (WAK), we are able to describe the time-dependence of iodine released by the dissolver. The change of the off-gas temperature is given as a function of time: - behind the HEPA-filter after failure of heater W3, - behind the iodine-sorption-filter after failure of heater W4, as well as after failures of W3 and W4. The transmission factor of the iodine-sorption-filter is dependent on filter bed bepth and realtive humidity of the off-gas as well as on bed depth and NO2-concentration. Based on exponential functions it was possible to describe satisfactorily these two 2-dimensional dependences. (orig.)
Time-dependent behavior of passive skeletal muscle
Ahamed, T.; Rubin, M. B.; Trimmer, B. A.; Dorfmann, L.
2016-03-01
An isotropic three-dimensional nonlinear viscoelastic model is developed to simulate the time-dependent behavior of passive skeletal muscle. The development of the model is stimulated by experimental data that characterize the response during simple uniaxial stress cyclic loading and unloading. Of particular interest is the rate-dependent response, the recovery of muscle properties from the preconditioned to the unconditioned state and stress relaxation at constant stretch during loading and unloading. The model considers the material to be a composite of a nonlinear hyperelastic component in parallel with a nonlinear dissipative component. The strain energy and the corresponding stress measures are separated additively into hyperelastic and dissipative parts. In contrast to standard nonlinear inelastic models, here the dissipative component is modeled using an evolution equation that combines rate-independent and rate-dependent responses smoothly with no finite elastic range. Large deformation evolution equations for the distortional deformations in the elastic and in the dissipative component are presented. A robust, strongly objective numerical integration algorithm is used to model rate-dependent and rate-independent inelastic responses. The constitutive formulation is specialized to simulate the experimental data. The nonlinear viscoelastic model accurately represents the time-dependent passive response of skeletal muscle.
Rayleigh-Taylor mixing with time-dependent acceleration
Abarzhi, Snezhana
2015-11-01
We extend the momentum model to describe Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing driven by a time-dependent acceleration. The acceleration is a power-law function of time, similarly to astrophysical and plasma fusion applications. In RT flow the dynamics of a fluid parcel is driven by a balance per unit mass of the rates of momentum gain and loss. We find analytical solutions in the cases of balanced and imbalanced gains and losses, and identify their dependence on the acceleration exponent. The existence is shown of two typical regimes of self-similar RT mixing -acceleration-driven Rayleigh-Taylor-type and dissipation-driven Richtymer-Meshkov-type with the latter being in general non-universal. Possible scenarios are proposed for transitions from the balanced dynamics to the imbalanced self-similar dynamics. Scaling and correlations properties of RT mixing are studied on the basis of dimensional analysis. Departures are outlined of RT dynamics with time-dependent acceleration from canonical cases of homogeneous turbulence as well as blast waves with first and second kind self-similarity. Support of National Science Foundation is warmy appreciated.
A P1 benchmark for time dependent thermal radiative transfer
We present an analytic solution for time-dependent P1 (telegrapher's equation) radiative transfer. This solution will be useful for verifying spherical harmonics based transport codes and to providing in-sight into the properties of the Pn equations. The solution is for a uniform, isotropic and non-scattering medium that has a heat capacity proportional to the material temperature cubed (T3). We first derive the time-dependent Greens function for the P1 equations in planar geometry. This result is then used to generate a P1 solution to one of the Su-Olson problems. We also use the planar Greens function to generate the Greens function for a pulsed point source in an infinite medium. With this point source we have reduced the problem of solving the P1 equations in a uniform medium to quadrature. The solution for a pulsed line source is developed, again because of its utility for verifying Pn based thermal radiation transport codes. (authors)
Time Dependent Relative Risks in Life Insurance Medical Underwriting.
Kneepkens, Robert F
2015-01-01
Introduction .- Life insurance medicine focuses on mortality hazards in specified periods. People are free to insure their lives for shorter or longer terms. Because the chosen terms range from 1 year to a life time, life insurers have to take into account the fact that the predictive value of risk indicators can and will change over time. The time a risk indicator keeps its predictive value, will be dependent on its biological effects, volatility, and treatability. For a given applicant this implies that the relative hazard (RH) calculated for his/her medical condition should be dependent on the term of the insurance. The main objective of this study is to determine if some commonly used risk indicators - previously used to study age dependency of relative risks - have a predictive value that increases with the observation period. (1) Methods .- This population-based cohort study uses NHANES-data files from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the NHANES Linked Mortality Files 2010. Only participants aged 20 to 69 that were examined in mobile examination centers, without a history of some prevalent high risk diseases were included. The observed mortality was compared to the expected mortality in a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with Poisson error structure with two reference populations, which both can serve as preferred reference for life insurers: The United States Life Tables 2008 (USLT) and the 2008 Valuation Basic Tables (VBT) based on the insured population of 35 US Life insurers. The time dependency of the RHs of the systolic blood pressure (SBP), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin and albuminuria, was assessed, with correction for ethnicity, household income, history of diabetes mellitus, BMI and serum cholesterol. To be able to compare the results with the results of the Age Dependency Study (ADS), the same data, risk indicators, statistical analysis method, and the
Graphical abstract: We solve a 1D N-electron system, with N small, by mapping it onto an N-dimensional one-electron problem. We compare the exact solutions to the results from adiabatic density and density matrix functionals for different physical situations. Highlights: ► Static and dynamical correlations. ► Memory dependence of exchange-correlation functionals in TDDFT. ► Linear and non-linear response. ► Laser-induced population control. - Abstract: To address the impact of electron correlations in the linear and non-linear response regimes of interacting many-electron systems exposed to time-dependent external fields, we study one-dimensional (1D) systems where the interacting problem is solved exactly by exploiting the mapping of the 1D N-electron problem onto an N-dimensional single electron problem. We analyze the performance of the recently derived 1D local density approximation as well as the exact-exchange orbital functional for those systems. We show that the interaction with an external resonant laser field shows Rabi oscillations which are detuned due to the lack of memory in adiabatic approximations. To investigate situations where static correlations play a role, we consider the time-evolution of the natural occupation numbers associated to the reduced one-body density matrix. Those studies shed light on the non-locality and time-dependence of the exchange and correlation functionals in time-dependent density and density-matrix functional theories.
Size-effects on time-dependent concrete fracture
A realistic description of the behavior of concrete specimens (laboratory-sized) and concrete structures (e.g. concrete dams) requires a nonlinear theory able to predict the well-known phenomenon of size-effects. One of these theories was first proposed by Hillerborg and co-workers (fictitious crack model) and is based on earlier works by Barenblatt and Dugdale for metals (cohesive crack model). It is based on the existence of a fracture process zone (FPZ), where the material undergoes strain-softening while the material outside this zone is linear and elastic. The FPZ, whose existence is borne out by experimental evidence, especially in materials characterized by a heterogeneous microstructure, makes it possible to avoid the stress singularity at the crack tip. This paper analyses the interaction between strain-softening and time-dependent behavior in the case of quasi-static fracture of concrete, with emphasis on size-effects on failure lifetime. A micromechanical model for the fracture process zone, proposed by Santhikumar and Karihaloo, is coupled with a viscous element based on a fractional order rate law (Barpi and Valente). This approach makes it possible to include a whole range of dissipative mechanisms in a single rheological element. The crack propagation rate is slow enough to neglect inertial forces and large enough to ensure that the time-dependent behavior of the process zone remains dominant compared to the behavior of the undamaged and viscoelastic zone. Creep fracture in modeI I conditions is analyzed through the finite element method and the cohesive crack model in the case of laboratory tests where rupture can be achieved by keeping the load constant before peak value. The results obtained with the proposed method in terms of size-effects on failure lifetime are compared with the experimental results reported by Bazant and Xiang. A discussion about the advantages of an object-oriented programming language (like C++ or Java) in the development of
Time-dependent radiation hazard estimations during space flights
Dobynde, Mikhail; Shprits, Yuri; Drozdov, Alexander
Cosmic particle radiation is a limiting factor for the out of magnetosphere crewed flights. The cosmic radiation uncrewed flights inside heliosphere and crewed flights inside of magnetosphere tend to become a routine procedure, whereas there have been only few shot time flights out of it (Apollo missions 1969-1972) with maximum duration less than a month. Long term crewed missions set much higher requirements to the radiation shielding, primarily because of long exposition term. Inside the helosphere there are two main sources of cosmic radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and coronal mass ejections (CME). GCR come from the outside of heliosphere forming a background of overall radiation that affects the spacecraft. The intensity of GCR is varied according to solar activity, increasing with solar activity decrease and backward, with the modulation time (time between nearest maxima) of 11 yeas. CME are shot term events, comparing to GCR modulation time, but are much more energetic. The probability of CME increases with the increase of solar activity. Time dependences of the intensity of these two components encourage looking for a time window of flight, when intensity and affection of CME and GCR would be minimized. Applying time dependent models of GCR spectra [1] and estimations of CME we show the time dependence of the radiation dose in a realistic human phantom [2] inside the shielding capsule. We pay attention to the shielding capsule design, looking for an optimal geometry parameters and materials. Different types of particles affect differently on the human providing more or less harm to the tissues. Incident particles provide a large amount of secondary particles while propagating through the shielding capsule. We make an attempt to find an optimal combination of shielding capsule parameters, namely material and thickness, that will effectively decrease the incident particle energy, at the same time minimizing flow of secondary induced particles and
Bernasconi, Leonardo; Webster, Ross; Tomić, Stanko; Harrison, Nicholas M.
2012-05-01
We describe a unified formulation of time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TD-HF) and time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) for the accurate and efficient calculation of the optical response of infinite (periodic) systems. The method is formulated within the linear-response approximation, but it can easily be extended to include higher-order response contributions, and, in TD-DFT, it can treat with comparable computational efficiency purely local, semi-local or fully non-local approximations for the ground-state exchange-correlation (XC) functional and for the response TD-DFT XC kernel in the adiabatic approximation. At variance with existing methods for computing excitation energies based on the diagonalisation of suitable coupling matrices, or on the inversion of a dielectric matrix, our approach exploits an iterative procedure similar to a standard self-consistent field calculation. This results in a particularly efficient treatment of the coupling of excitations at different k points in the Brillouin zone. As a consequence, our method has the potential to describe completely from first principles the optically induced formation of bound particle-hole pairs in wide classes of materials. This point is illustrated by computing the optical gaps of a series of representative bulk semiconductors, (non-spin polarised) oxides and ionic insulators.
Time-dependent, optically thick accretion onto a black hole
Gilden, D. L.; Wheeler, J. C.
1980-01-01
A fully relativistic hydrodynamics code which incorporates diffusive radiation transport is used to study time-dependent, spherically symmetric, optically thick accretion onto a black hole. It is found that matter free-falls into the hole regardless of whether the diffusion time scale is longer or shorter than the dynamical time. Nonadiabatic heating due to magnetic field reconnection is included. The internal energy thus generated affects the flow in a purely relativistic way, again ensuring free-fall collapse of the inflowing matter. Any matter enveloping a black hole will thus be swallowed on a dynamical time scale with relatively small net release of energy. The inclusion of angular momentum will not necessarily affect this conclusion.
Equation-free analysis of spike-timing-dependent plasticity.
Laing, Carlo R; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G
2015-12-01
Spike-timing-dependent plasticity is the process by which the strengths of connections between neurons are modified as a result of the precise timing of the action potentials fired by the neurons. We consider a model consisting of one integrate-and-fire neuron receiving excitatory inputs from a large number-here, 1000-of Poisson neurons whose synapses are plastic. When correlations are introduced between the firing times of these input neurons, the distribution of synaptic strengths shows interesting, and apparently low-dimensional, dynamical behaviour. This behaviour is analysed in two different parameter regimes using equation-free techniques, which bypass the explicit derivation of the relevant low-dimensional dynamical system. We demonstrate both coarse projective integration (which speeds up the time integration of a dynamical system) and the use of recently developed data mining techniques to identify the appropriate low-dimensional description of the complex dynamical systems in our model. PMID:26577337
The covariant, time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect
We discuss two possible covariant generalizations of the Aharonov–Bohm effect – one expression in terms of the space–time line integral of the four-vector potential and the other expression in terms of the space–time “area” integral of the electric and magnetic fields written in terms of the Faraday 2-form. These expressions allow one to calculate the Aharonov–Bohm effect for time-dependent situations. In particular, we use these expressions to study the case of an infinite solenoid with a time varying flux and find that the phase shift is zero due to a cancellation of the Aharonov–Bohm phase shift with a phase shift coming from the Lorentz force associated with the electric field, E=−∂tA, outside the solenoid. This result may already have been confirmed experimentally
The covariant, time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect
Singleton, Douglas, E-mail: dougs@csufresno.edu [Physics Department, CSU Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740-8031 (United States); Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia); Vagenas, Elias C., E-mail: evagenas@academyofathens.gr [Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efessiou 4, GR-11527, Athens (Greece)
2013-06-10
We discuss two possible covariant generalizations of the Aharonov–Bohm effect – one expression in terms of the space–time line integral of the four-vector potential and the other expression in terms of the space–time “area” integral of the electric and magnetic fields written in terms of the Faraday 2-form. These expressions allow one to calculate the Aharonov–Bohm effect for time-dependent situations. In particular, we use these expressions to study the case of an infinite solenoid with a time varying flux and find that the phase shift is zero due to a cancellation of the Aharonov–Bohm phase shift with a phase shift coming from the Lorentz force associated with the electric field, E=−∂{sub t}A, outside the solenoid. This result may already have been confirmed experimentally.
The covariant, time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Singleton, Douglas
2013-01-01
We discuss two possible covariant generalizations of the Aharonov-Bohm effect - one expression in terms of the space-time line integral of the four-vector potential and the other expression in terms of the space-time "area" integral of the electric and magnetic fields written in terms of the Faraday 2-form. These expressions allow one to calculate the Aharonov-Bohm effect for time-dependent situations. In particular, we use these expressions to study the case of an infinite solenoid with a time varying flux and find that the phase shift is zero due to a cancellation of the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift with a phase shift coming from the Lorentz force associated with the electric field, ${\\bf E} = - \\partial_t {\\bf A}$, outside the solenoid. This result may already have been confirmed experimentally.
Stochastic ranking process with space-time dependent intensities
Hattori, Tetsuya
2012-01-01
We consider the stochastic ranking process with space-time dependent jump rates for the particles. The process is a simplified model of the time evolution of the rankings such as sales ranks at online bookstores. We prove that the joint empirical distribution of jump rate and scaled position converges almost surely to a deterministic distribution, and also the tagged particle processes converge almost surely, in the infinite particle limit. The limit distribution is characterized by a system of inviscid Burgers-like integral-partial differential equations with evaporation terms, and the limit process of a tagged particle is a motion along a characteristic curve of the differential equations except at its Poisson times of jumps to the origin.
Translation invariant time-dependent solutions to massive gravity
Homogeneous time-dependent solutions of massive gravity generalise the plane wave solutions of the linearised Fierz-Pauli equations for a massive spin-two particle, as well as the Kasner solutions of General Relativity. We show that they also allow a clear counting of the degrees of freedom and represent a simplified framework to work out the constraints, the equations of motion and the initial value formulation. We work in the vielbein formulation of massive gravity, find the phase space resulting from the constraints and show that several disconnected sectors of solutions exist some of which are unstable. The initial values determine the sector to which a solution belongs. Classically, the theory is not pathological but quantum mechanically the theory may suffer from instabilities. The latter are not due to an extra ghost-like degree of freedom
Time-dependent isotope effect in recoil implantation Pt. 2
A typical case of time-dependent isotope effect was found in recoil implantation of technetium in tetraphenylporphyrin. When a mixture of metallic molybdenum and tetraphenylporphyrin (free base) was bombarded with 15 MeV deuterons, the difference of chemical distribution between sup(99m)Tc and 95Tc (or 96Tc) was pronounced in the sample which was stored one day after irradiation, whereas no difference was observed just after the irradiation. This effect was ascribed to decay-induced decomposition, by observing behaviours of the purified system of 99Mo-sup(99m)Tc-TPP. The decomposition was not derived directly from the β-decay recoil but from internal excitation associated with the decay. (author)
Time-dependent corona models - A numerical method
Korevaar, P.; van Leer, B.
1988-07-01
A time-dependent numerical method for calculating gas flows is described. The method is implicit and especially suitable for finding stationary flow solutions. Although the method is general in its application to ideal compressible fluids, this paper applies it to a stellar atmosphere, heated to coronal temperatures by dissipation of mechanical energy. The integration scheme is based on conservative upwind spatial differencing. The upwind switching is provided by Van Leer's method of differentiable flux-splitting. It is shown that the code can handle large differences in density: up to 14 orders of magnitude. Special attention is paid to the boundary conditions, which are made completely transparent to disturbances. Besides some test-results, converged solutions for various values of the initial mechanical flux are presented which are in good agreement with previous time-independent calculations.
A time dependent anatomically detailed model of cardiac conduction
Saxberg, B. E.; Grumbach, M. P.; Cohen, R. J.
1985-01-01
In order to understand the determinants of transitions in cardiac electrical activity from normal patterns to dysrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, we are constructing an anatomically and physiologically detailed finite element simulation of myocardial electrical propagation. A healthy human heart embedded in paraffin was sectioned to provide a detailed anatomical substrate for model calculations. The simulation of propagation includes anisotropy in conduction velocity due to fiber orientation as well as gradients in conduction velocities, absolute and relative refractory periods, action potential duration and electrotonic influence of nearest neighbors. The model also includes changes in the behaviour of myocardial tissue as a function of the past local activity. With this model, we can examine the significance of fiber orientation and time dependence of local propagation parameters on dysrhythmogenesis.
Study of Time-Dependent Properties of Thermoplastics
Bolchoun A.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Simple tests carried out with a common tension/compression testing machine are used to obtain timedependent properties of non-reinforced thermoplastics. These tests include ramp loadings as well as relaxation and creep tests. Two materials (PBT Celanex 2002-2 and POM Hostaform C9021, Ticona GmbH, Kelsterbach were taken for the experiments. The experiments show that an adequate description of the long-term material properties can be obtained from the short-time tests, namely from tests with constant traverse speed $L^.$. Below a model for the time-dependent mechanical behavior is presented and fitted to the obtained measured data. For the evaluation of the fitting quality long-term tests are used. Especially creep and relaxation tests with ”jumps”, i.e. rapid change of loading, are important for this purpose.
Time-dependent density-functional description of nuclear dynamics
Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Yabana, Kazuhiro
2016-01-01
We present the basic concepts and recent developments in the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for describing nuclear dynamics at low energy. The symmetry breaking is inherent in nuclear energy density functionals (EDFs), which provides a practical description of important correlations at the ground state. Properties of elementary modes of excitation are strongly influenced by the symmetry breaking and can be studied with TDDFT. In particular, a number of recent developments in the linear response calculation have demonstrated their usefulness in description of collective modes of excitation in nuclei. Unrestricted real-time calculations have also become available in recent years, with new developments for quantitative description of nuclear collision phenomena. There are, however, limitations in the real-time approach; for instance, it cannot describe the many-body quantum tunneling. Thus, we treat the quantum fluctuations associated with slow collective motions assuming that time evolution of...
Spin-orbit torque induced spike-timing dependent plasticity
Sengupta, Abhronil, E-mail: asengup@purdue.edu; Al Azim, Zubair; Fong, Xuanyao; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
2015-03-02
Nanoelectronic devices that mimic the functionality of synapses are a crucial requirement for performing cortical simulations of the brain. In this work, we propose a ferromagnet-heavy metal heterostructure that employs spin-orbit torque to implement spike-timing dependent plasticity. The proposed device offers the advantage of decoupled spike transmission and programming current paths, thereby leading to reliable operation during online learning. Possible arrangement of such devices in a crosspoint architecture can pave the way for ultra-dense neural networks. Simulation studies indicate that the device has the potential of achieving pico-Joule level energy consumption (maximum 2 pJ per synaptic event) which is comparable to the energy consumption for synaptic events in biological synapses.
Development of constitutive model for composites exhibiting time dependent properties
Regenerated cellulose fibres and their composites exhibit highly nonlinear behaviour. The mechanical response of these materials can be successfully described by the model developed by Schapery for time-dependent materials. However, this model requires input parameters that are experimentally determined via large number of time-consuming tests on the studied composite material. If, for example, the volume fraction of fibres is changed we have a different material and new series of experiments on this new material are required. Therefore the ultimate objective of our studies is to develop model which determines the composite behaviour based on behaviour of constituents of the composite. This paper gives an overview of problems and difficulties, associated with development, implementation and verification of such model
Lorentz Transformation as a 'Complementary Time-Dependent Coordinate Transformation
Ceapa, A C V
2006-01-01
We here deduce Lorentz transformation (LT) as a member of a class of time-dependent coordinate transformations, complementary to those already known as spatial translations and rotations. This exercise validates the principle of physical determination of equations within special relativity theory (SRT), in accordance with the derivation of the LT in Einstein's original paper on relativity. This validation is possible because our LT deduction also discloses the real physics warranting Einstein's manipulations of several equations in that paper, thus proving the correctness of his derivation of the LT. The essential role of the revelation in the act of science then results. Far from being an arbitrary dogmatic construction, SRT appears to be a revealed dogmatic theory that can be turned into a truly physical one like operational theory. Radically new technological applications of relativistic quantum field theories then results.
Translation invariant time-dependent solutions to massive gravity
Mourad, J
2013-01-01
Homogeneous time-dependent solutions of massive gravity generalise the plane wave solutions of the linearised Fierz-Pauli equations for a massive spin-two particle, as well as the Kasner solutions of General Relativity. We show that they also allow a clear counting of the degrees of freedom and represent a simplified framework to work out the constraints, the equations of motion and the initial value formulation. We work in the vielbein formulation of massive gravity, find the phase space resulting from the constraints and show that several disconnected sectors of solutions exist some of which are unstable. The initial values determine the sector to which a solution belongs. Classically, the theory is not pathological but quantum mechanically the theory may suffer from instabilities. The latter are not due to an extra ghost-like degree of freedom.
Subsystem real-time Time Dependent Density Functional Theory
Krishtal, Alisa; Pavanello, Michele
2015-01-01
We present the extension of Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) theory to real-time Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (rt-TDDFT). FDE a is DFT-in-DFT embedding method that allows to partition a larger Kohn-Sham system into a set of smaller, coupled Kohn-Sham systems. Additional to the computational advantage, FDE provides physical insight into the properties of embedded systems and the coupling interactions between them. The extension to rt-TDDFT is done straightforwardly by evolving the Kohn-Sham subsystems in time simultaneously, while updating the embedding potential between the systems at every time step. Two main applications are presented: the explicit excitation energy transfer in real time between subsystems is demonstrated for the case of the Na$_4$ cluster and the effect of the embedding on optical spectra of coupled chromophores. In particular, the importance of including the full dynamic response in the embedding potential is demonstrated.
Time-dependent reliability analysis and condition assessment of structures
Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
1997-01-01
Structures generally play a passive role in assurance of safety in nuclear plant operation, but are important if the plant is to withstand the effect of extreme environmental or abnormal events. Relative to mechanical and electrical components, structural systems and components would be difficult and costly to replace. While the performance of steel or reinforced concrete structures in service generally has been very good, their strengths may deteriorate during an extended service life as a result of changes brought on by an aggressive environment, excessive loading, or accidental loading. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures can be developed using time-dependent structural reliability analysis methods. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process.
The derivation of time-dependent Schroedinger equations
Beginning with an entangled state of a time-independent (TI) quantum system coupled to its TI quantum environment, we show that a time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) for the quantum system alone can be derived in the limit that one of the environment variables becomes a classical variable. In the same limit the TI amplitude of the environment wavefunction becomes the TD amplitude of an eigenfunction expansion of the system TD wavefunction. Similarly, the phase of the TI environment wavefunction goes over into the TD phase of the system amplitude. By considering that more and more environment variables become successively classical, each provides a classical clock to give a multiple-time TDSE for the quantum system. Two examples of two-time TDSE given in the literature are derived. When all clocks are synchronized the multiple-time TDSE reduces to the usual one-time TDSE
Measuring time-dependent diffusion in polymer matrix composites
Pilli, Siva Prasad; Smith, Lloyd V.; Shutthanandan, V.
2014-11-01
Moisture plays a significant role in influencing the mechanical behavior and long-term durability of polymer matrix composites (PMC’s). The common methods used to determine the moisture diffusion coefficients of PMCs are based on the solution of Fickian diffusion in the one-dimensional domain. Fick’s Law assumes that equilibrium between the material surface and the external vapor is established instantaneously. A time dependent boundary condition has been shown to improve correlation with some bulk diffusion measurements, but has not been validated experimentally. The surface moisture content in a Toray 800S/3900-2B toughened quasi-isotropic laminate system, [0/±60]s, was analyzed experimentally using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). It was found that the surface moisture content showed a rapid increase to an intermediate concentration C0, followed by a slow linear increase to the saturation level.
Measuring time-dependent diffusion in polymer matrix composites
Pilli, Siva P.; Smith, Lloyd V.; Vaithiyalingam, Shutthanandan
2014-11-01
Moisture plays a significant role in influencing the mechanical behavior and long-term durability of polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The common methods used to determine the moisture diffusion coefficients of PMCs are based on the solution of Fickian diffusion in the one-dimensional domain. Fick's Law assumes that equilibrium between the material surface and the external vapor is established instantaneously. A time-dependent boundary condition has been shown to improve correlation with some bulk diffusion measurements, but has not been validated experimentally. The surface moisture content in a Toray 800S/3900-2B toughened quasi-isotropic laminate system, [0/±60] s , was analyzed experimentally using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). It was found that the surface moisture content showed a rapid increase to an intermediate concentration C 0, followed by a slow linear increase to the saturation level.
Time-dependent corona models: coronae with accretion
Models of stationary extended coronae are presented for various values of the interstellar density. These calculations have been performed with the implicit time-dependent numerical method developed by Korevaar and Van Leer (1988). If the interstellar density is sufficiently low, the coronal gas expands through the Parker critical point to supersonic velocities. An increase in the interstellar density moves the interstellar shock closer to the star. When it comes closer than the critical point, the flow changes to a breeze solution that is subsonic everywhere. A further increase in the interstellar density reverses the flow. First an accretion breeze solution is found and then an inflow with a stationary accretion shock. This is the first numerical calculation of the complete set of stationary stellar wind solutions in spherical symmetry with boundary conditions specified at the stellar surface and at infinity, including the solutions with an interstellar shock or an accretion shock
Time dependent linear transport II Properties of weak solutions
In this paper properties of weak solutions of the time-dependent linear transport equation posed in a multidimensional rectangular parallelepiped with partially reflecting walls are established. Nonnegative constituent functions are shown to guarantee that a weak solution is nonnegative. This implies a monotnoicity principle which is established. Sufficient continuity properties of the constituent functions are shown to guarantee that a weak solution will be uniformly continuous in each of its variables independently of the others on compact subsets of the interior of its domain of definition. Continuity with respect to time follows from continuity with respect to space; but continuity with respect to velocity seems to require continuity with respect to space as a precondition
Observation of Broadband Time-Dependent Rabi Shifting in Microplasmas
Coherent broadband radiation in the form of Rabi sidebands is observed when a ps probe laser propagates through a weakly ionized, electronically excited microplasma generated in the focus of an intense pump beam. The sidebands arise from the interaction of the probe beam with pairs of excited states of a constituent neutral atom via the probe-induced Rabi oscillation. Sideband shifting of >90 meV from the probe carrier frequency results in an effective bandwidth of 200 meV. The sidebands are controlled by the intensity and temporal profile of the probe pulse; with amplitude and shift in agreement with the predictions of a time-dependent generalized Rabi cycling model.
SYMTRAN - A Time-dependent Symmetric Tandem Mirror Transport Code
A time-dependent version of the steady-state radial transport model in symmetric tandem mirrors in Ref. [1] has been coded up and first tests performed. Our code, named SYMTRAN, is an adaptation of the earlier SPHERE code for spheromaks, now modified for tandem mirror physics. Motivated by Post's new concept of kinetic stabilization of symmetric mirrors, it is an extension of the earlier TAMRAC rate-equation code omitting radial transport [2], which successfully accounted for experimental results in TMX. The SYMTRAN code differs from the earlier tandem mirror radial transport code TMT in that our code is focused on axisymmetric tandem mirrors and classical diffusion, whereas TMT emphasized non-ambipolar transport in TMX and MFTF-B due to yin-yang plugs and non-symmetric transitions between the plugs and axisymmetric center cell. Both codes exhibit interesting but different non-linear behavior
Stochastic domain decomposition for time dependent adaptive mesh generation
Bihlo, Alexander; Walsh, Emily J
2015-01-01
The efficient generation of meshes is an important component in the numerical solution of problems in physics and engineering. Of interest are situations where global mesh quality and a tight coupling to the solution of the physical partial differential equation (PDE) is important. We consider parabolic PDE mesh generation and present a method for the construction of adaptive meshes in two spatial dimensions using stochastic domain decomposition that is suitable for an implementation in a multi- or many-core environment. Methods for mesh generation on periodic domains are also provided. The mesh generator is coupled to a time dependent physical PDE and the system is evolved using an alternating solution procedure. The method uses the stochastic representation of the exact solution of a parabolic linear mesh generator to find the location of an adaptive mesh along the (artificial) subdomain interfaces. The deterministic evaluation of the mesh over each subdomain can then be obtained completely independently us...
Time-Dependent Tomographic Reconstruction of the Solar Corona
Vibert, Didier; Lamy, Philippe; Frazin, Richard A; Wojak, Julien
2016-01-01
Solar rotational tomography (SRT) applied to white-light coronal images observed at multiple aspect angles has been the preferred approach for determining the three-dimensional (3D) electron density structure of the solar corona. However, it is seriously hampered by the restrictive assumption that the corona is time-invariant which introduces significant errors in the reconstruction. We first explore several methods to mitigate the temporal variation of the corona by decoupling the "fast-varying" inner corona from the "slow-moving" outer corona using multiple masking (either by juxtaposition or recursive combination) and radial weighting. Weighting with a radial exponential profile provides some improvement over a classical reconstruction but only beyond 3 Rsun. We next consider a full time-dependent tomographic reconstruction involving spatio-temporal regularization and further introduce a co-rotating regularization aimed at preventing concentration of reconstructed density in the plane of the sky. Crucial t...
Reprint of : Time dependent electronic transport in chiral edge channels
Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.
2016-08-01
We study time dependent electronic transport along the chiral edge channels of the quantum Hall regime, focusing on the role of Coulomb interaction. In the low frequency regime, the a.c. conductance can be derived from a lumped element description of the circuit. At higher frequencies, the propagation equations of the Coulomb coupled edge channels need to be solved. As a consequence of the interchannel coupling, a charge pulse emitted in a given channel fractionalized in several pulses. In particular, Coulomb interaction between channels leads to the fractionalization of a charge pulse emitted in a given channel in several pulses. We finally study how the Coulomb interaction, and in particular the fractionalization process, affects the propagation of a single electron in the circuit. All the above-mentioned topics are illustrated by experimental realizations.
Time-dependent Corotation Resonance in Barred Galaxies
Wu, Yu-Ting; Taam, Ronald E
2016-01-01
The effective potential neighboring the corotation resonance region in barred galaxies is shown to be strongly time-dependent in any rotating frame because of the competition of nearby perturbations of similar strengths with differing rotation speeds. Contrary to the generally adopted assumption, that in the bar rotating frame the corotation region should possess four stationary equilibrium points (Lagrange points), with high quality N-body simulations we localize the instantaneous equilibrium points and find that they circulate or oscillate broadly in azimuth with respect to the pattern speeds of the inner or outer perturbations. This implies that at the particle level the Jacobi integral is not well conserved around the corotation radius. That is, angular momentum exchanges decouple from energy exchanges, enhancing the chaotic diffusion of stars through the corotation region.
Time-dependent resonant magneto-optical rotation
Dziczek, Dariusz
2015-01-01
Results of a fairly straightforward experiment on resonant magneto-optical rotation by rubidium-87 atoms revealed strong time-dependence of the polarization plane of light emerging from atomic vapors following a sudden irradiation with a laser beam. The rotation of the plane appears as a not direct consequence of the influence of the magnetic field on atoms. Reported measurements conducted using a vapor cell without any buffer gas or an anti-relaxation wall coating show that transmitted light has initially the same (linear) polarization as the incident one. Rotation of the polarization plane caused by an axial magnetic field develops in time scales similar to the pace of establishing the optical pumping/relaxation equilibrium in the atomic ensemble. The traditional passive Faraday rotation picture providing working description for the resonant magneto-optical effects in steady-state conditions does not explain the observed sequence of evolution of the polarization. The picture has to be augmented with analysi...
Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.
Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A
2016-05-01
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows. PMID:27142954
Time dependent energy deposition at the nanometer scale and nanodosimetry
Full text: Energy deposition by ionizing radiation in an irradiated target is generally an essential requirement for a) radiation measurements with their subsequent interpretations (e.g. in radiation protection, cosmic ray research, radiation diagnostics, etc.) as well as for b) radiation action sequences to become initiated (e.g. in radiation biological studies, radiation therapy, radiation genetic, teratogenic, acute or late effects). The tracks left behind in matter represent the characteristic initial conditions for all such re-acting process used in studies and measurements. The case of 'no interaction' cannot lead to any direct effects in the volume of interest (but to indirect effects e.g. by secondary physical events, diffusion or other types signalling). To measure radiation properly and to understand the often complex mechanisms leading e.g. to biological radiation effects it is important to understand the details of time dependent energy deposition at the nanometer/molecular scale. In this presentation an overview will be given on the present status of scientific understanding of the formation of particle tracks in various matters (including e.g. water, tissue, gases) and by various types of radiation (including photons, neutrons, electrons, protons and heavier fast ions). First, definitions of quantities useful in this context (trajectory, path, track, transfer point, event, LET, dE/dx, etc.) will be given, then the concepts of 'dose', weighted doses, microdosimetry, nanodosimetry, etc. and their usefulnesses and conceptual shortcomings will be discussed. The often underestimated importance of 'time' in dosimetry at three different time levels (track formation, dose rate and fractionation) will be outlined. The upcoming ICRU-Report on 'Approaches to the Specification and Reporting of Low Dose and other Heterogeneous Irradiations' will be discussed and these recommendations explained. Finally, results of selected computational approaches to simulate
Spike-timing dependent plasticity in the striatum.
Fino, Elodie; Venance, Laurent
2010-01-01
The striatum is the major input nucleus of basal ganglia, an ensemble of interconnected sub-cortical nuclei associated with fundamental processes of action-selection and procedural learning and memory. The striatum receives afferents from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus. In turn, it relays the integrated information towards the basal ganglia output nuclei through which it operates a selected activation of behavioral effectors. The striatal output neurons, the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), are in charge of the detection and integration of behaviorally relevant information. This property confers to the striatum the ability to extract relevant information from the background noise and select cognitive-motor sequences adapted to environmental stimuli. As long-term synaptic efficacy changes are believed to underlie learning and memory, the corticostriatal long-term plasticity provides a fundamental mechanism for the function of the basal ganglia in procedural learning. Here, we reviewed the different forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) occurring at corticostriatal synapses. Most of the studies have focused on MSNs and their ability to develop long-term plasticity. Nevertheless, the striatal interneurons (the fast-spiking GABAergic, NO-synthase and cholinergic interneurons) also receive monosynaptic afferents from the cortex and tightly regulated corticostriatal information processing. Therefore, it is important to take into account the variety of striatal neurons to fully understand the ability of striatum to develop long-term plasticity. Corticostriatal STDP with various spike-timing dependence have been observed depending on the neuronal sub-populations and experimental conditions. This complexity highlights the extraordinary potentiality in term of plasticity of the corticostriatal pathway. PMID:21423492
New applications with time-dependent thermochemical simulation
Koukkari, P. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laukkanen, L. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Penttilae, K. [Kemira Engineering Oy, Helsinki (Finland)
1996-12-31
A new method (RATEMIX) to calculate multicomponent chemical reaction mixtures as a series of sequential thermochemical states was recently introduced. The procedure combines multicomponent thermodynamics with chemical kinetics and may be used to simulate the multicomponent reactors as a thermochemical natural process. The method combines the desired reaction rates sequentially with constrained Gibbs energy minimization. The reactant concentrations are determined by the experimental (Arrhenius) rate laws. During the course of the given reaction the subsequent side reactions are supposed to occur reversibly. At every sequential stage of the given reaction the temperature and composition of the reaction mixture are calculated by a thermodynamic subroutine, which minimizes the Gibbs energy of the system and takes into account the heat transfer between the system and its surroundings. The extents of reaction are included as algorithmic constraints in the Gibbs energy minimization procedure. Initially, the reactants are introduced to the system as inert copies to match both the mass and energy balance of the reactive system. During the calculation the copies are sequentially interchanged to the actual reactants which allows one to simulate the time-dependent reaction route by using the thermochemical procedure. For each intermediate stage, the temperature and composition are calculated and as well numerical estimates of the thermodynamic functions are obtained. The method is applicable in processes where the core thermodynamic and kinetic data of the system are known and the time-dependent heat transfer data can either be measured or estimated by calculation. The method has been used to simulate e.g. high temperature flame reactions, zinc vapour oxidation and a counter-current rotary drum with chemical reactions. The procedure has today been tested with SOLGASMIX, CHEMSAGE and HSC programs. (author)
Fundamentals of time-dependent density functional theory
There have been many significant advances in time-dependent density functional theory over recent years, both in enlightening the fundamental theoretical basis of the theory, as well as in computational algorithms and applications. This book, as successor to the highly successful volume Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (Lect. Notes Phys. 706, 2006) brings together for the first time all recent developments in a systematic and coherent way. First, a thorough pedagogical presentation of the fundamental theory is given, clarifying aspects of the original proofs and theorems, as well as presenting fresh developments that extend the theory into new realms such as alternative proofs of the original Runge-Gross theorem, open quantum systems, and dispersion forces to name but a few. Next, all of the basic concepts are introduced sequentially and building in complexity, eventually reaching the level of open problems of interest. Contemporary applications of the theory are discussed, from real-time coupled-electron-ion dynamics, to excited-state dynamics and molecular transport. Last but not least, the authors introduce and review recent advances in computational implementation, including massively parallel architectures and graphical processing units. Special care has been taken in editing this volume as a multi-author textbook, following a coherent line of thought, and making all the relevant connections between chapters and concepts consistent throughout. As such it will prove to be the text of reference in this field, both for beginners as well as expert researchers and lecturers teaching advanced quantum mechanical methods to model complex physical systems, from molecules to nanostructures, from biocomplexes to surfaces, solids and liquids. (orig.)
Spike-timing dependent plasticity in the striatum
Elodie Fino
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The striatum is the major input nucleus of basal ganglia, an ensemble of interconnected sub-cortical nuclei associated with fundamental processes of action-selection and procedural learning and memory. The striatum receives afferents from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus. In turn, it relays the integrated information towards the basal ganglia output nuclei through which it operates a selected activation of behavioral effectors. The striatal output neurons, the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, are in charge of the detection and integration of behaviorally relevant information. This property confers to the striatum the ability to extract relevant information from the background noise and select cognitive-motor sequences adapted to environmental stimuli. As long-term synaptic efficacy changes are believed to underlie learning and memory, the corticostriatal long-term plasticity provides a fundamental mechanism for the function of the basal ganglia in procedural learning. Here, we reviewed the different forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP occurring at corticostriatal synapses. Most of the studies have focused on MSNs and their ability to develop long-term plasticity. Nevertheless, the striatal interneurons (the fast-spiking GABAergic, the NO synthase and cholinergic interneurons also receive monosynaptic afferents from the cortex and tightly regulated corticostriatal information processing. Therefore, it is important to take into account the variety of striatal neurons to fully understand the ability of striatum to develop long-term plasticity. Corticostriatal STDP with various spike-timing dependence have been observed depending on the neuronal sub-populations and experimental conditions. This complexity highlights the extraordinary potentiality in term of plasticity of the corticostriatal pathway.
PRESTO, Slab Shields for Time-Dependent Gamma Spectra
A - Description of program or function: PRESTO is designed to calculate slab shields for gamma ray sources of complex and time dependent energy spectra. PRESTO I treats cylinder sources with shields at side, such as pipelines or containers in radioactive facilities. PRESTO II is the analogous code for spherical sources. The programs permit to consider volume sources or a combination of volume and surface sources. To describe the source spectrum, one can start from the nuclides contained in the source mixture or (with the aid of PRESTO IA) from energy group sets. The internal data set contains 5 common shield construction materials. B - Method of solution: The solution method is based on the point kernel integration, extended by the 'self absorption distance' concept. The approximation mentioned before reduces the spatial flux calculation to a plane problem. The dose build-up factor is taken into account by Taylor's equation. Some functions necessary for the integration will be calculated inside the program, by means of extrapolation based on the internal data sets. PRESTO permits to calculate: 1). required shield thicknesses for a given dose rate level or the allowed activity concentration of the source for a given shield thickness, both time dependent. 2). the contribution to the dose rate by single nuclides. C - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - Energy range from 0.1 to 10 MeV. - Contents of internal nuclide library: 100 nuclides with 428 energy lines. One job run can use 30 of them (up to 280 energy lines) - PRESTO I : 1 shielding material per job - PRESTO II: up to 5 shielding materials per job - PRESTO IA: 40 energy groups, taken from the nuclides contained in the data set, or up to 250 free energy groups
Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields
Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of 232U, 237Np, 238Pu, 241Am, /sup 242m/Am, 245Cm, and 249Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from 232Th to 252Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables
TDTORT: Time-Dependent, 3-D, Discrete Ordinates, Neutron Transport Code System with Delayed Neutrons
1 - Description of program or function: TDTORT solves the time-dependent, three-dimensional neutron transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons to estimate the fission yield from fissionable material transients. This release includes a modified version of TORT from the C00650MFMWS01 DOORS3.1 code package plus the time-dependent TDTORT code. GIP is also included for cross-section preparation. TORT calculates the flux or fluence of particles due to particles incident upon the system from extraneous sources or generated internally as a result of interaction with the system in two- or three-dimensional geometric systems. The principle application is to the deep-penetration transport of neutrons and photons. Reactor eigenvalue problems can also be solved. Numerous printed edits of the results are available, and results can be transferred to output files for subsequent analysis. TDTORT reads ANISN-format cross-section libraries, which are not included in the package. Users may choose from several available in RSICC's data library collection which can be identified by the keyword 'ANISN FORMAT'. 2 - Methods:The time-dependent spatial flux is expressed as a product of a space-, energy-, and angle-dependent shape function, which is usually slowly varying in time and a purely time-dependent amplitude function. The shape equation is solved for the shape using TORT; and the result is used to calculate the point kinetics parameters (e.g., reactivity) by using their inner product definitions, which are then used to solve the time-dependent amplitude and precursor equations. The amplitude function is calculated by solving the kinetics equations using the LSODE solver. When a new shape calculation is needed, the flux is calculated using the newly computed amplitude function. The Boltzmann transport equation is solved using the method of discrete ordinates to treat the directional variable and weighted finite-difference methods, in addition to Linear Nodal
SERKON program for compiling a multigroup library to be used in BETTY calculation
A SERKON-type program was written to compile data sets generated by FEDGROUP-3 into a multigroup library for BETTY calculation. A multigroup library was generated from the ENDF/B-IV data file and tested against the TRX-1 and TRX-2 lattices with good results. (author)
MUXS: a code to generate multigroup cross sections for sputtering calculations
This report documents MUXS, a computer code to generate multigroup cross sections for charged particle transport problems. Cross sections generated by MUXS can be used in many multigroup transport codes, with minor modifications to these codes, to calculate sputtering yields, reflection coefficients, penetration distances, etc
Nonparametric Multi-group Membership Model for Dynamic Networks
Kim, Myunghwan; Leskovec, Jure
2013-01-01
Relational data-like graphs, networks, and matrices-is often dynamic, where the relational structure evolves over time. A fundamental problem in the analysis of time-varying network data is to extract a summary of the common structure and the dynamics of the underlying relations between the entities. Here we build on the intuition that changes in the network structure are driven by the dynamics at the level of groups of nodes. We propose a nonparametric multi-group membership model for dynami...
Status of multigroup cross-section data for shielding applications
Multigroup cross-section libraries for shielding applications in formats for direct use in discrete ordinates or Monte Carlo codes have long been a part of the Data Library Collection (DLC) of the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). In recent years libraries in more flexible and comprehensive formats, which allow the user to derive his own problem-dependent sets, have been added to the collection. The current status of both types is described, as well as projections for adding data libraries based on ENDF/B-V
Multigroup Free-atom Doppler-broadening Approximation. Experiment
Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-11-06
The multigroup energy Doppler-broadening approximation agrees with continuous energy Dopplerbroadening generally to within ten percent for the total cross sections of ^{1}H,^{ 56}Fe, and ^{235}U at 250 lanl. Although this is probably not good enough for broadening from room temperature through the entire temperature range in production use, it is better than any interpolation scheme between temperatures proposed to date, and may be good enough for extrapolation from high temperatures. The method deserves further study since additional improvements are possible.
Variational nodal solution algorithms for multigroup criticality problems
Variational nodal transport methods are generalized for the treatment of multigroup criticality problems. The generation of variational response matrices is streamlined and automated through the use of symbolic manipulation. A new red-black partitioned matrix algorithm for the solution of the within-group equations is formulated and shown to be at once both a regular matrix splitting and a synthetic acceleration method. The methods are implemented in X- Y geometry as a module of the Argonne National Laboratory code DIF3D. For few group problems highly accurate P3 eigenvalues are obtained with computing times comparable to those of an existing interface-current nodal transport method
1D model for the dynamics and expansion of elongated Bose-Einstein condensates
Massignan, Pietro; Modugno, Michele
2002-01-01
We present a 1D effective model for the evolution of a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate in time dependent potentials whose radial component is harmonic. We apply this model to investigate the dynamics and expansion of condensates in 1D optical lattices, by comparing our predictions with recent experimental data and theoretical results. We also discuss negative-mass effects which could be probed during the expansion of a condensate moving in an optical lattice.
Supersymmetric intersecting branes in time-dependent backgrounds
We construct a fairy general family of supersymmetric solutions in time- and space-dependent backgrounds in general supergravity theories. One class of the solutions are intersecting brane solutions with factorized form of time- and space-dependent metrics, the second class are brane solutions in pp-wave backgrounds carrying spacetime-dependence, and the final class are the intersecting branes with more nontrivial spacetime-dependence, and their intersection rules are given. Physical properties of these solutions are discussed, and the relation to existing literature is also briefly mentioned. The number of remaining supersymmetries are identified for various configurations including single branes, D1-D5, D2-D6-branes with nontrivial dilaton, and their possible dual theories are briefly discussed.
Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles
Darroudi M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Majid Darroudi1,2, Mansor Bin Ahmad3, Reza Zamiri4, AK Zak5, Abdul Halim Abdullah1,3, Nor Azowa Ibrahim31Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran; 3Department of Chemistry, 4Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: The application of “green” chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, gelatin, green chemistry, time-dependent effect, ultraviolet-visible spectra
The screw dynamo in a time-dependent pipe flow
Dobler, W; Stepanov, R; Dobler, Wolfgang; Frick, Peter; Stepanov, Rodion
2003-01-01
The kinematic dynamo problem is investigated for the flow of a conducting fluid in a cylindrical, periodic tube with conducting walls. The methods used are an eigenvalue analysis of the steady regime, and the three-dimensional solution of the time-dependent induction equation. The configuration and parameters considered here are close to those of a dynamo experiment planned in Perm, which will use a torus-shaped channel. We find growth of an initial magnetic field by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Marked field growth can be obtained if the braking time is less than 0.2 s and only one diverter is used in the channel. The structure of the seed field has a strong impact on the field amplification factor. The generation properties can be improved by adding ferromagnetic particles to the fluid in order to increase its relative permeability,but this will not be necessary for the success of the dynamo experiment. For higher magnetic Reynolds numbers, the nontrivial evolution of different magnetic modes limits the ...
Efficient Design of Triplet Based Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity
Azghadi, Mostafa Rahimi; Iannella, Nicolangelo; Abbott, Derek
2012-01-01
Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) is believed to play an important role in learning and the formation of computational function in the brain. The classical model of STDP which considers the timing between pairs of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic spikes (p-STDP) is incapable of reproducing synaptic weight changes similar to those seen in biological experiments which investigate the effect of either higher order spike trains (e.g. triplet and quadruplet of spikes), or, simultaneous effect of the rate and timing of spike pairs on synaptic plasticity. In this paper, we firstly investigate synaptic weight changes using a p-STDP circuit and show how it fails to reproduce the mentioned complex biological experiments. We then present a new STDP VLSI circuit which acts based on the timing among triplets of spikes (t-STDP) that is able to reproduce all the mentioned experimental results. We believe that our new STDP VLSI circuit improves upon previous circuits, whose learning capacity exceeds current designs due ...
Time-dependent motor properties of multipedal molecular spiders
Samii, Laleh; Blab, Gerhard A.; Bromley, Elizabeth H. C.; Linke, Heiner; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.; Forde, Nancy R.
2011-09-01
Molecular spiders are synthetic biomolecular walkers that use the asymmetry resulting from cleavage of their tracks to bias the direction of their stepping motion. Using Monte Carlo simulations that implement the Gillespie algorithm, we investigate the dependence of the biased motion of molecular spiders, along with binding time and processivity, on tunable experimental parameters, such as number of legs, span between the legs, and unbinding rate of a leg from a substrate site. We find that an increase in the number of legs increases the spiders’ processivity and binding time but not their mean velocity. However, we can increase the mean velocity of spiders with simultaneous tuning of the span and the unbinding rate of a spider leg from a substrate site. To study the efficiency of molecular spiders, we introduce a time-dependent expression for the thermodynamic efficiency of a molecular motor, allowing us to account for the behavior of spider populations as a function of time. Based on this definition, we find that spiders exhibit transient motor function over time scales of many hours and have a maximum efficiency on the order of 1%, weak compared to other types of molecular motors.
Time-dependent radiation dose simulations during interplanetary space flights
Dobynde, Mikhail; Shprits, Yuri; Drozdov, Alexander; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Li, Ju
2016-07-01
Space radiation is one of the main concerns in planning long-term interplanetary human space missions. There are two main types of hazardous radiation - Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). Their intensities and evolution depend on the solar activity. GCR activity is most enhanced during solar minimum, while the most intense SEPs usually occur during the solar maximum. SEPs are better shielded with thick shields, while GCR dose is less behind think shields. Time and thickness dependences of the intensity of these two components encourage looking for a time window of flight, when radiation intensity and dose of SEP and GCR would be minimized. In this study we combine state-of-the-art space environment models with GEANT4 simulations to determine the optimal shielding, geometry of the spacecraft, and launch time with respect to the phase of the solar cycle. The radiation environment was described by the time-dependent GCR model, and the SEP spectra that were measured during the period from 1990 to 2010. We included gamma rays, electrons, neutrons and 27 fully ionized elements from hydrogen to nickel. We calculated the astronaut's radiation doses during interplanetary flights using the Monte-Carlo code that accounts for the primary and the secondary radiation. We also performed sensitivity simulations for the assumed spacecraft size and thickness to find an optimal shielding. In conclusion, we present the dependences of the radiation dose as a function of launch date from 1990 to 2010, for flight durations of up to 3 years.
Distributed energy storage: Time-dependent tree flow design
Bejan, A.; Ziaei, S.; Lorente, S.
2016-05-01
This article proposes "distributed energy storage" as a basic design problem of distributing energy storage material on an area. The energy flows by fluid flow from a concentrated source to points (users) distributed equidistantly on the area. The flow is time-dependent. Several scenarios are analyzed: sensible-heat storage, latent-heat storage, exergy storage vs energy storage, and the distribution of a finite supply of heat transfer surface between the source fluid and the distributed storage material. The chief conclusion is that the finite amount of storage material should be distributed proportionally with the distribution of the flow rate of heating agent arriving on the area. The total time needed by the source stream to "invade" the area is cumulative (the sum of the storage times required at each storage site) and depends on the energy distribution paths and the sequence in which the users are served by the source stream. Directions for future designs of distributed storage and retrieval are outlined in the concluding section.
Physical implementation of pair-based spike timing dependent plasticity
Full text: Objective Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STOP) is one of several plasticity rules which leads to learning and memory in the brain. STOP induces synaptic weight changes based on the timing of the pre- and post-synaptic neurons. A neural network which can mimic the adaptive capability of biological brains in the temporal domain, requires the weight of single connections to be altered by spike timing. To physically realise this network into silicon, a large number of interconnected STOP circuits on the same substrate is required. This imposes two significant limitations in terms of power and area. To cover these limitations, very large scale integrated circuit (VLSI) technology provides attractive features in terms of low power and small area requirements. An example is demonstrated by (lndiveli et al. 2006). The objective of this paper is to present a new implementation of the STOP circuit which demonstrates better power and area in comparison to previous implementations. Methods The proposed circuit uses complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as depicted in Fig. I. The synaptic weight can be stored on a capacitor and charging/discharging current can lead to potentiation and depression. HSpice simulation results demonstrate that the average power, peak power, and area of the proposed circuit have been reduced by 6, 8 and 15%, respectively, in comparison with Indiveri's implementation. These improvements naturally lead to packing more STOP circuits onto the same substrate, when compared to previous proposals. Hence, this new implementation is quite interesting for real-world large neural networks.
Experimental quantum cosmology in time-dependent optical media
Westerberg, N; Belgiorno, F; Piazza, F Dalla; Faccio, D
2014-01-01
It is possible to construct artificial spacetime geometries for light by using intense laser pulses that modify the spatiotemporal properties of an optical medium. Here we theoretically investigate experimental possibilities for studying spacetime metrics of the form $\\textrm{d}s^2=c^2\\textrm{d}t^2-\\eta(t)^2\\textrm{d}x^2$. By tailoring the laser pulse shape and medium properties, it is possible to create a refractive index variation $n=n(t)$ that can be identified with $\\eta(t)$. Starting from a perturbative solution to a generalised Hopfield model for the medium described by an $n=n(t)$ we provide estimates for the number of photons generated by the time-dependent spacetime. The simplest example is that of a uniformly varying $\\eta(t)$ that therefore describes the Robertson-Walker metric, i.e. a cosmological expansion. The number of photon pairs generated in experimentally feasible conditions appears to be extremely small. However, large photon production can be obtained by periodically modulating the medium...
Erratic time dependence of orbits of topologically mixing maps
In the present paper we show that for a topologically mixing map there are considerably many points in the domain whose orbits display highly erratic time dependence, i.e., if f: X→X is a topologically mixing map where X is a compact metric space then for any increasing sequence {qi} of positive integers and any countable subset S dense in X there exists everywhere an uncountable subset C of X satisfying the conditions of (1) for any s is an element of S. There exists a subsequence {pi} of the sequence {qi} such that limi→∞fP1(y)=s for every y is an element of C, and (2) for any n>0, any n distinct points y1,y2,...,yn of C and any n points x1,x2,...,xn of X there exists a subsequence {ti} of the sequence {qi} such that limi→∞ fti(yj)=xj for every j=1,2,...n. (author). 4 refs
Aspects Of Time-dependent Solutions Of String Theory
Fabinger, M
2004-01-01
Most of our present knowledge of string theory pertains to time-independent backgrounds. Time-dependent backgrounds are in general much harder to understand, and pose a number of interesting questions. In the first part of this dissertation, we study light- like singularities in string theory. We discuss physical properties of the parabolic orbifold and the null-brane orbifold of Minkowski space, and we show how a large class of light-like singularities gets repaired by string worldsheet instantons. The second part of the dissertation is devoted to the study of physical systems related to double analytic continuations of black holes. In particular, we discuss M-theory compactified on a non-supersymmetric interval, which can decay by nucleation of bubbles of nothing. We also study the evolution of spacetimes obtained by a double analytic continuation of Kerr black holes. We compute particle creation in these spacetimes, and explain its relation to non-local deformations of the string worldsheet action. The mai...
Hot Jupiter Breezes: Time-dependent Outflows from Extrasolar Planets
Owen, James E
2015-01-01
We explore the dynamics of magnetically controlled outflows from Hot Jupiters, where these flows are driven by UV heating from the central star. In these systems, some of the open field lines do not allow the flow to pass smoothly through the sonic point, so that steady-state solutions do not exist in general. This paper focuses on this type of magnetic field configuration, where the resulting flow becomes manifestly time-dependent. We consider the case of both steady heating and time-variable heating, and find the time scales for the corresponding time variations of the outflow. Because the flow cannot pass through the sonic transition, it remains subsonic and leads to so-called breeze solutions. One manifestation of the time variability is that the flow samples a collection of different breeze solutions over time, and the mass outflow rate varies in quasi-periodic fashion. Because the flow is subsonic, information can propagate inward from the outer boundary, which determines, in part, the time scale of the...
Hot Jupiter breezes: time-dependent outflows from extrasolar planets
Owen, James E.; Adams, Fred C.
2016-03-01
We explore the dynamics of magnetically controlled outflows from hot Jupiters, where these flows are driven by UV heating from the central star. In these systems, some of the open field lines do not allow the flow to pass smoothly through the sonic point, so that steady-state solutions do not exist in general. This paper focuses on this type of magnetic field configuration, where the resulting flow becomes manifestly time-dependent. We consider the case of both steady heating and time-variable heating, and find the time-scales for the corresponding time variations of the outflow. Because the flow cannot pass through the sonic transition, it remains subsonic and leads to so-called breeze solutions. One manifestation of the time variability is that the flow samples a collection of different breeze solutions over time, and the mass outflow rate varies in quasi-periodic fashion. Because the flow is subsonic, information can propagate inwards from the outer boundary, which determines, in part, the time-scale of the flow variability. This work finds the relationship between the outer boundary scale and the time-scale of flow variations. In practice, the location of the outer boundary is set by the extent of the sphere of influence of the planet. The measured time variability can be used, in principle, to constrain the parameters of the system (e.g. the strengths of the surface magnetic fields).
Time Dependent Radio-toxicology of Fission Products
Ionizing radiation, emitted by radiological materials, is known to cause damage to biological tissue. Prolonged exposure to radiation may cause a vast array of harmful medical effects, from enhancing future probability of cancer, up to Acute Radiation Syndrome resulting in multi-system failure. In complex radiologic release events involving fission products (nuclear fallout, reactor failures), the products' physical decay chains dictate a time dependent product inventory. As the ratios between different products vary, so does the toxicology of the radioactive inventory as a whole. The temporally varying toxicological factors should be taken into account when producing radiological risk assessments for populations. In this paper we study the time varying toxicology of fission products, using a specialized model named Koala, developed in Soreq NRC. A significant and monotonous rise in the aggregate toxicity of ingested fission products was noted. This result carries important implications for risk assessment, as it partially cancels out the fission product physical decay. A similar, albeit less pronounced rise was found for external exposure. Factoring activity and toxicity together allows computation of effective source terms for simple events involving fission products. We demonstrate one such source term, based on fallout from a nuclear explosion. This source term may be easily introduced into suitable atmospheric dispersion models
Time Dependent Hadronic Modeling of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars
Diltz, Christopher; Fossati, Giovanni
2015-01-01
We introduce a new time-dependent lepto-hadronic model for blazar emission that takes into account the radiation emitted by secondary particles, such as pions and muons, from photo hadronic interactions. Starting from a baseline parameter set guided by a fit to the spectral energy distribution of the blazar 3C 279, we perform a parameter study to investigate the effects of perturbations of the input parameters to mimic different flaring events to study the resulting lightcurves in the optical, X-ray, high energy (HE: E > 100 MeV) and very-high-energy (VHE: E > 100 GeV) gamma-rays as well as the neutrino emission associated with charged-pion and muon decay. We find that flaring events from an increase in the efficiency of Fermi II acceleration will produce a positive correlation between all bandpasses and a marked plateau in the HE gamma-ray lightcurve. We also predict a distinctive dip in the HE lightcurve for perturbations caused by a change in the proton injection spectral index. These plateaus / dips could...
The evolution of streams in a time-dependent potential
Buist, Hans J T
2015-01-01
We study the evolution of streams in a time-dependent spherical gravitational potential. Our goal is to establish what are the imprints of this time evolution on the properties of streams as well as their observability. To this end, we have performed a suite of numerical experiments for a host system that doubles its mass during the integration time and for a variety of initial conditions. In these experiments we found that the most striking imprint is a misalignment of 10 degrees in the angular location of the apocentres of the streams compared to the static case (and to the orbit of the centre of mass), which only becomes apparent for sufficiently long streams. We have also developed an analytic model using action-angle variables which allows us to explain this behaviour and to identify the most important signature of time evolution, namely a difference in the slope defined by the distribution of particles along a stream in frequency and in angle space. Although a difference in slope can arise when the pres...
Simple preconditioning for time-dependent density functional perturbation theory.
Lehtovaara, Lauri; Marques, Miguel A L
2011-07-01
By far, the most common use of time-dependent density functional theory is in the linear-reponse regime, where it provides information about electronic excitations. Ideally, the linear-response equations should be solved by a method that avoids the use of the unoccupied Kohn-Sham states--such as the Sternheimer method--as this reduces the complexity and increases the precision of the calculation. However, the Sternheimer equation becomes ill-conditioned near and indefinite above the first resonant frequency, seriously hindering the use of efficient iterative solution methods. To overcome this serious limitation, and to improve the general convergence properties of the iterative techniques, we propose a simple preconditioning strategy. In our method, the Sternheimer equation is solved directly as a linear equation using an iterative Krylov subspace method, i.e., no self-consistent cycle is required. Furthermore, the preconditioner uses the information of just a few unoccupied states and requires simple and minimal modifications to existing implementations. In this way, convergence can be reached faster and in a considerably wider frequency range than the traditional approach. PMID:21744884
, heterogeneous clusters and 1D core-reflector calculations. The main results are given below: - a P3 expansion is sufficient to model the scattering law with respect to the biases due to the other approximations used for calculations (self-shielding, spatial resolution method). This order of expansion is converged for anisotropy representation in the modelling of light water reactors. - the transport correction, P0c is not suited for calculations, especially for B4C absorbent. (author)
Prandtl-Ishlinskii hysteresis models for complex time dependent hysteresis nonlinearities
Al Janaideh, Mohammad, E-mail: aljanaideh@gmail.com [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Krejci, Pavel, E-mail: krejci@math.cas.cz [Mathematical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zitna 25, CZ-11567 Praha 1 (Czech Republic)
2012-05-01
We introduce a new class of time dependent hysteresis models by combining the time dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii model with functional nonlinearities. This combination improves the capability of the time dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii model to characterize a class of complex time dependent hysteresis nonlinearities in smart actuators. The analytical inversion for the proposed time dependent hysteresis model is also presented in order to extend the inversion algorithm of the inverse time dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii model for a class of complex time dependent hysteresis nonlinearities.
Radionuclide transport in media with time-dependent properties
Methods are developed for solving the transport equation for radionuclides moving in porous rock by hydrodynamic dispersion and advection. The unique nature of the problem arises from the long time interval over which the solutions are required, e.g., 106 yr, during which geological and climatic changes can radially alter the system properties, such as the retardation factor and the water velocity. In order to solve this problem, the authors have developed eigenfunction expansion methods which eliminate the spatial variable and thereby enable the time dependence to be incorporated explicitly. Various problems are considered, each based on two simple boundary conditions: (a) concentration is fixed at both ends of the layer and (b) a delta function impulsive source at one end. The convergence of the solutions is improved by a technique based on the Poisson sum formula which makes them readily tractable numerically over a wide range of practically interesting parameters. Some exact solutions are obtained for purely advective transport which are particularly useful as they are very general and lend themselves to a variety of analytical averaging techniques. Of considerable importance is the development of a stochastic averaging procedure to account for uncertainties in the parameters and onset of climate changes. The authors have illustrated the effects of averaging by application to a single layer with a delta input and one climatic change (switchtime). The switchtime is regarded as a random variable and averaged over lognormal and uniform distributions. They have considered the retardation factor as uniformly distributed between upper and lower bounds and give graphical results for the concentration as a function of time. Finally, they consider various developments of the method to multinuclide chains and multilayer systems. These studies are important for the design of nuclear waste repositories and also to establish guidelines for safety assessments
A history of spike-timing-dependent plasticity
Henry Markram
2011-08-01
Full Text Available How learning and memory is achieved in the brain is a central question in neuroscience research. Key to today’s research into information storage in the brain is the concept of synaptic plasticity, a notion that has been heavily influenced by Donald Hebb’s 1949 postulate. Hebb conjectured that repeatedly and persistently coactive cells should increase connective strength among populations of interconnected neurons as a means of storing a memory trace, also known as an engram. Hebb certainly was not the first to make such a conjecture, as we show in this history. Nevertheless, literally thousands of studies into the classical frequency-dependent paradigm of cellular learning rules were directly inspired by the Hebbian postulate. But in more recent years, a novel concept in cellular learning has emerged, where temporal order instead of frequency is emphasized. This new learning paradigm — known as Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity, or STDP — has rapidly gained tremendous interest, perhaps because of its combination of elegant simplicity, biological plausibility, and computational power. But what are the roots of today’s STDP concept? Here, we discuss several centuries of diverse thinking, beginning with philosophers such as Aristotle, Locke and Ribot, traversing e.g. Lugaro’s plasticità and Rosenblatt’s Perceptron, and culminating with the discovery of STDP. We highlight interactions between theoretical and experimental fields, showing how discoveries sometimes occurred in parallel, seemingly without much knowledge of the other field, and sometimes via concrete back-and-forth communication. We point out where the future directions may lie, which includes interneuron STDP, the functional impact of STDP, its mechanisms and its neuromodulatory regulation, and the linking of STDP to the developmental formation and continuous plasticity of neuronal networks.
Spike-timing dependent plasticity and the cognitive map
Daniel Bush
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Since the discovery of place cells – single pyramidal neurons that encode spatial location – it has been hypothesised that the hippocampus may act as a cognitive map of known environments. This putative function has been extensively modelled using auto-associative networks, which utilise rate-coded synaptic plasticity rules in order to generate strong bi-directional connections between concurrently active place cells that encode for neighbouring place fields. However, empirical studies using hippocampal cultures have demonstrated that the magnitude and direction of changes in synaptic strength can also be dictated by the relative timing of pre- and post- synaptic firing according to a spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP rule. Furthermore, electrophysiology studies have identified persistent ‘theta-coded’ temporal correlations in place cell activity in vivo, characterised by phase precession of firing as the corresponding place field is traversed. It is not yet clear if STDP and theta-coded neural dynamics are compatible with cognitive map theory and previous rate-coded models of spatial learning in the hippocampus. Here, we demonstrate that an STDP rule based on empirical data obtained from the hippocampus can mediate rate-coded Hebbian learning when pre- and post- synaptic activity is stochastic and has no persistent sequence bias. We subsequently demonstrate that a spiking recurrent neural network that utilises this STDP rule, alongside theta-coded neural activity, allows the rapid development of a cognitive map during directed or random exploration of an environment of overlapping place fields. Hence, we establish that STDP and phase precession are compatible with rate-coded models of cognitive map development.
Solving the time dependent vehicle routing problem by metaheuristic algorithms
Johar, Farhana; Potts, Chris; Bennell, Julia
2015-02-01
The problem we consider in this study is Time Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem (TDVRP) which has been categorized as non-classical VRP. It is motivated by the fact that multinational companies are currently not only manufacturing the demanded products but also distributing them to the customer location. This implies an efficient synchronization of production and distribution activities. Hence, this study will look into the routing of vehicles which departs from the depot at varies time due to the variation in manufacturing process. We consider a single production line where demanded products are being process one at a time once orders have been received from the customers. It is assumed that order released from the production line will be loaded into scheduled vehicle which ready to be delivered. However, the delivery could only be done once all orders scheduled in the vehicle have been released from the production line. Therefore, there could be lateness on the delivery process from awaiting all customers' order of the route to be released. Our objective is to determine a schedule for vehicle routing that minimizes the solution cost including the travelling and tardiness cost. A mathematical formulation is developed to represent the problem and will be solved by two metaheuristics; Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) and Tabu Search (TS). These algorithms will be coded in C ++ programming and run using 56's Solomon instances with some modification. The outcome of this experiment can be interpreted as the quality criteria of the different approximation methods. The comparison done shown that VNS gave the better results while consuming reasonable computational efforts.
Implosion Robustness, Time-Dependent Flux Asymmetries and Big Data
Peterson, J. L.; Field, J. E.; Spears, B. K.; Brandon, S. T.; Gaffney, J. A.; Hammer, J.; Kritcher, A.; Nora, R. C.; Springer, P. T.
2015-11-01
Both direct and indirect drive inertial confinement fusion rely on the formation of spherical implosions, which can be a challenge under temporal and spatial drive variations (either from discrete laser beams, a complex hohlraum radiation environment, or both). To that end, we examine the use of large simulation databases of 2D capsule implosions to determine the sensitivity of indirectly driven NIF designs to time-varying low-mode radiation drive asymmetries at varying convergence ratios. In particular, we define and calculate a large number of extensive quantities for the simulations within the database and compare with the equivalent quantities extracted from fully 3D simulations and those used in 1D hydrodynamic models. Additionally, we discuss some of the practical challenges of searching for physical insight in multi-petabyte datasets. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-674884.
MORSE-EMP, Monte-Carlo Neutron and Gamma Multigroup Transport with Array Geometry, for PC
A - Description of program or function: MORSE-CGA was developed to add the capability of modeling rectangular lattices for nuclear reactor cores or for multi-partitioned structures. It thus enhances the capability of the MORSE code system. The MORSE code is a multipurpose neutron and gamma-ray transport Monte Carlo code. It has been designed as a tool for solving most shielding problems. Through the use of multigroup cross sections, the solution of neutron, gamma-ray, or coupled neutron-gamma-ray problems may be obtained in either the forward or adjoint mode. Time dependence for both shielding and criticality problems is provided. General three-dimensional geometry may be used with an albedo option available at any material surface. Isotropic or anisotropic scattering up to a P16 expansion of the angular distribution is allowed. B - Method of solution: Monte Carlo methods are used to solve the forward and the adjoint transport equations. Quantities of interest are then obtained by summing the contributions over all collisions, and frequently over most of phase space. Standard multigroup cross sections, such as those used in discrete ordinates codes, may be used as input; either CCC-254/ANISN, CCC-42/DTF-IV, or CCC-89/DOT cross section formats are acceptable. Anisotropic scattering is treated for each group-to-group transfer by utilizing a generalized Gaussian quadrature technique. The Morse code is organised into functional modules with simplified interfaces such that new modules may be incorporated with reasonable ease. The modules are (1) random walk, (2) cross section, (3) geometry, (4) analysis, and (5) diagnostic. The MARS module allows the efficient modeling of complex lattice geometries. Computer memory requirements are minimized because fewer body specifications are needed and nesting and repetition of arrays is allowed. While the basic MORSE code assumes the analysis module is user-written, a general analysis package, SAMBO is included. SAMBO handles some
Multigroup finite element-boundary element method for neutron diffusion
Full text: The finite element method (FEM) is an efficient method used for the solution of partial differential equations (PDE's) of engineering physics due to its symmetric, sparse and positive-definite coefficient matrix. FEM has been successfully applied for the solution of multigroup neutron transport and diffusion equations since 1970's. The boundary element method (BEM), on the other hand, is a newer method and is unique among the numerical methods used for the solution of PDE's with its property of confining the unknowns only to the boundaries of homogeneous regions, thus, greatly reducing matrix dimensions. The first application of BEM to the neutron diffusion equation (NDE) dates back to 1985 and many researchers are currently working in this area. Although BEM is known to have the desirable property of being an internal-mesh free method, this advantage is lost in some of its application to the NDE due to the existence of fission source volume integrals in fissionable regions unless domain-decomposition methods are used. To exploit the favorable properties of both FEM and BEM, a hybrid FE/BE method has been recently proposed for reflected systems treated by one or two-group diffusion theories in a recent paper co-authored by the first author. In this work, the hybrid FE/BE method for reflected systems is generalized to multigroup diffusion theory. The core is treated by FEM to preserve the high accuracy of FEM in such neutron-producing regions. Using a boundary integral equation formerly proposed by the second author, BEM, is utilized for the discretization of the reflector, thus, eliminating the internal mesh completely for this nonfissionable region. The multigroup FE/BE method has been implemented in our recently developed FORTRAN program. The program is validated by comparison of the calculated effective multiplication factor and the group fluxes with their analytical counterparts for a two-group reflected system. Comparison of these results and
Time-Dependent Moment Tensors of the First Four Source Physics Experiments (SPE) Explosions
Yang, X.
2015-12-01
We use mainly vertical-component geophone data within 2 km from the epicenter to invert for time-dependent moment tensors of the first four SPE explosions: SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3 and SPE-4Prime. We employ a one-dimensional (1D) velocity model developed from P- and Rg-wave travel times for Green's function calculations. The attenuation structure of the model is developed from P- and Rg-wave amplitudes. We select data for the inversion based on the criterion that they show consistent travel times and amplitude behavior as those predicted by the 1D model. Due to limited azimuthal coverage of the sources and the mostly vertical-component-only nature of the dataset, only long-period, diagonal components of the moment tensors are well constrained. Nevertheless, the moment tensors, particularly their isotropic components, provide reasonable estimates of the long-period source amplitudes as well as estimates of corner frequencies, albeit with larger uncertainties. The estimated corner frequencies, however, are consistent with estimates from ratios of seismogram spectra from different explosions. These long-period source amplitudes and corner frequencies cannot be fit by classical P-wave explosion source models. The results motivate the development of new P-wave source models suitable for these chemical explosions. To that end, we fit inverted moment-tensor spectra by modifying the classical explosion model using regressions of estimated source parameters. Although the number of data points used in the regression is small, the approach suggests a way for the new-model development when more data are collected.
Generation of subgroup parameters from JENDL-2 based multigroup data set for FBR core materials
Subgroup method gives a more accurate treatment to the resonance absorption in nuclear reactors, especially when it is heterogeneous, than the usual multigroup method. An algorithm has been developed based on a modified form of Roth's procedure, to calculate subgroup parameters, from the multigroup table of self-shielding factors given against a set of temperatures and dilution cross sections. A program SPART has been written with this algorithm, and it has been used to generate subgroup parameters for some important fast reactor core materials from the JENDL-2 based multigroup set, recently created and validated at IGCAR. In this report, the algorithm is discussed, and the subgroup parameters generated are presented. (author)
Intragroup Socialization for Adult Korean Adoptees: A Multigroup Analysis
Kimberly J. Langrehr
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to test a model of socialization among a sample of adult Korean adoptees. Based on the tenants of homophily and social identity theory, it was hypothesized that participants’ early racial and ethnic socialization experiences would account for their current intragroup friendships as adults, and that this relationship would be mediated by early intragroup contact and moderated by early ethnic identity status. The two ethnic and racial socialization variables (i.e., ethnic heritage activities and racial in-exposure significantly accounted for participants’ relationships with other Korean adoptees and nonadopted Koreans, and the effects were partially explained by early intragroup contact. Results of multigroup testing indicated the proposed socialization model was non-invariant across groups, such that the effects of ethnic heritage activities on intragroup contact and the effect of racial in-exposure on friendships with Korean adoptees were significantly different based on early ethnic identity status.
MORET: Version 4.B. A multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code
MORET 4 is a three dimensional multigroup Monte Carlo code which calculates the effective multiplication factor (keff) of any configurations more or less complex as well as reaction rates in the different volumes of the geometry and the leakage out of the system. MORET 4 is the Monte Carlo code of the APOLLO2-MORET 4 standard route of CRISTAL, the French criticality package. It is the most commonly used Monte Carlo code for French criticality calculations. During the last four years, the MORET 4 team has developed or improved the following major points: modernization of the geometry, implementation of perturbation algorithms, source distribution convergence, statistical detection of stationarity, unbiased variance estimation and creation of pre-processing and post-processing tools. The purpose of this paper is not only to present the new features of MORET but also to detail clearly the physical models and the mathematical methods used in the code. (author)
Multigroup albedo method applied to gamma radiation shielding
The Albedo method, when applied to shielding calculations, is characterized by following the radiation through the materials, determining the reflected, absorbed and transmitted fractions of the incident current, independently of flux calculations. The excellent results obtained to neutron shielding cases in which the diffusion approximation could be applied motivated this work, where the method was applied in order to develop a multigroup and multilayered algorithm. A gamma radiation shielding simulation was carried out to a system constituted by three infinite slabs of varied materials and six energy groups. The results obtained by Albedo Method were the same generated by ANISN, a consecrated deterministic nuclear code. Concludingly, this work demonstrates the validity of Albedo Method to gamma radiation shielding analysis through its agreement with the full Transport Equation. (author)
Multigroup-multiwaves Lisrel modeling in tourist satisfaction analysis
Cristina Bernini
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the influence of tourist heterogeneity on the Tourist Local System Overall Satisfaction and its changes over time. We investigate two aspects: if different tourists segmented according to their trip motivation (seaside, conference and sport show the same pattern of evaluation toward some relevant features of the TLS and if the evaluation scheme is dynamic. At this aim, a Multigroup-Multiwaves Lisrel model is estimated on a data set from the Tourist Satisfaction Survey, conducted in Rimini from 2004 to 2006 by the Faculty of Statistics – University of Bologna. The analysis shows that tourist evaluation scheme toward Rimini is quite similar among groups and over time, suggesting that differences among tourists do not affect TLS satisfaction.
Multigroup covariance matrices for fast-reactor studies
This report presents the multigroup covariance matrices based on the ENDF/B-V nuclear data evaluations. The materials and reactions have been chosen according to the specifications of ORNL-5517. Several cross section covariances, other than those specified by that report, are included due to the derived nature of the uncertainty files in ENDF/B-V. The materials represented are Ni, Cr, 16O, 12C, Fe, Na, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 10B (present due to its correlation to 238U). The data have been originally processed into a 52-group energy structure by PUFF-II and subsequently collapsed to smaller subgroup strutures. The results are illustrated in 52-group correlation matrix plots and tabulated into thirteen groups for convenience
Parallel computation of multigroup reactivity coefficient using iterative method
One of the research activities to support the commercial radioisotope production program is a safety research target irradiation FPM (Fission Product Molybdenum). FPM targets form a tube made of stainless steel in which the nuclear degrees of superimposed high-enriched uranium. FPM irradiation tube is intended to obtain fission. The fission material widely used in the form of kits in the world of nuclear medicine. Irradiation FPM tube reactor core would interfere with performance. One of the disorders comes from changes in flux or reactivity. It is necessary to study a method for calculating safety terrace ongoing configuration changes during the life of the reactor, making the code faster became an absolute necessity. Neutron safety margin for the research reactor can be reused without modification to the calculation of the reactivity of the reactor, so that is an advantage of using perturbation method. The criticality and flux in multigroup diffusion model was calculate at various irradiation positions in some uranium content. This model has a complex computation. Several parallel algorithms with iterative method have been developed for the sparse and big matrix solution. The Black-Red Gauss Seidel Iteration and the power iteration parallel method can be used to solve multigroup diffusion equation system and calculated the criticality and reactivity coeficient. This research was developed code for reactivity calculation which used one of safety analysis with parallel processing. It can be done more quickly and efficiently by utilizing the parallel processing in the multicore computer. This code was applied for the safety limits calculation of irradiated targets FPM with increment Uranium
An analytical solution to time-dependent fission-product diffusion in an HTGR core
An analytical time-dependent fission-product diffusion model is solved for the fuel-moderator regions of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during a hypothetical loss of forced circulation (LOFC) accident. A conservative approximate 1-D model is developed for the fuel and moderator regions, represented in cylindrical and slab geometries, from consideration of the hexagonal fuel-element symmetry. Transport is assumed along the shortest diffusion path and the concentration change across the fuel-moderator interface is approximated by a jump condition. The model is solved by construction of the Green's functions for the Laplace-transformed equations and identification of the pole structure. The concentration and current inverse Laplace transforms are obtained by the Cauchy residue theorem in each region for cubic piecewise polynomial initial conditions. A computer program was developed and validated to evaluate the solution, serve as a benchmark for more sophisticated numerical models and to investigate 90Sr diffusion during a hypothetical LOFC. (author)
Kalpakkam multigroup cross section set for fast reactor applications - status and performance
This report documents the status of the presently created set of multigroup constants at Kalpakkam. The list of nuclides processed and the details of multigroup structure are given. Also included are the particulars of dilutions and temperatures for each nuclide in the multigroup cross section set for which self shielding factors have been calculated. Using this new multigroup cross section set, measured integral quantities such as K-eff, central reaction rate ratios, central reactivity worths etc. were calculated for a few fast critical benchmark assemblies and the calculated values of neutronic parameters obtained were compared with those obtained using the available Cadarache cross section library and those published in literature for ENDF/B-IV based set and Japanese evaluated nuclear data library (JENDL). The details of analyses are documented along with the conclusions. (author). 17 refs., 12 tabs
MCMG: a 3-D multigroup P3 Monte Carlo code and its benchmarks
In this paper a 3-D Monte Carlo multigroup neutron transport code MCMG has been developed from a coupled neutron and photon transport Monte Carlo code MCNP. The continuous-energy cross section library of the MCNP code is replaced by the multigroup cross section data generated by the transport lattice code, such as the WIMS code. It maintains the strong abilities of MCNP for geometry treatment, counting, variance reduction techniques and plotting. The multigroup neutron scattering cross sections adopt the Pn (n ≤ 3) approximation. The test results are in good agreement with the results of other methods and experiments. The number of energy groups can be varied from few groups to multigroup, and either macroscopic or microscopic cross section can be used. (author)
One-Dimensional (1-D) Nanoscale Heterostructures
Guozhen SHEN; Di CHEN; Yoshio BANDO; Dmitri GOLBERG
2008-01-01
One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures have been attracted much attention as a result of their exceptional properties, which are different from bulk materials. Among 1-D nanostructures, 1-D heterostructures with modulated compositions and interfaces have recently become of particular interest with respect to potential applications in nanoscale building blocks of future optoelectronic devices and systems. Many kinds of methods have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures. This article reviews the most recent development, with an emphasize on our own recent efforts, on 1-D nanoscale heterostructures, especially those synthesized from the vapor deposition methods, in which all the reactive precursors are mixed together in the reaction chamber. Three types of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures, defined from their morphologies characteristics, are discussed in detail, which include 1-D co-axial core-shell heterostructures, 1-D segmented heterostructures and hierarchical heterostructures. This article begins with a brief survey of various methods that have been developed for synthesizing 1-D nanoscale heterostructures and then mainly focuses on the synthesis, structures and properties of the above three types of nanoscale heterostructures. Finally, this review concludes with personal views towards the topic of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures.
Coste-Delclaux, M
2006-03-15
This document describes the improvements carried out for modelling the self-shielding phenomenon in the multigroup transport code APOLLO2. They concern the space and energy treatment of the slowing-down equation, the setting up of quadrature formulas to calculate reaction rates, the setting-up of a method that treats directly a resonant mixture and the development of a sub-group method. We validate these improvements either in an elementary or in a global way. Now, we obtain, more accurate multigroup reaction rates and we are able to carry out a reference self-shielding calculation on a very fine multigroup mesh. To end, we draw a conclusion and give some prospects on the remaining work. (author)
A variational finite element-spherical harmonics method is presented for the solution of the even-parity multigroup equations with anisotropic scattering and sources. It is shown that by using a simple and natural formulation the numerical implementation of the method for any desired geometry is greatly eased and the anisotropy of scatter treated without any difficulty. Numerical examples demonstrate the ability of the resulting code to solve geometrically complex multigroup problems. (Author)
Exact solutions of Feinberg–Horodecki equation for time-dependent anharmonic oscillator
P K Bera; Tapas Sil
2013-01-01
In this work, an alternative treatment known as Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method is proposed to find the exact solutions of the Feinberg–Horodecki equation for the time-dependent potentials. The present procedure is illustrated with two examples: (1) time-dependent Wei Hua oscillator, (2) time-dependent Manning–Rosen potential.
The subject is divided in two parts: In the first part a nodal method has been worked out to solve the steady state multigroup diffusion equation. This method belongs to the same set of nodal methods currently used to calculate the exact fission powers and neutron fluxes in a very short computing time. It has been tested on a two dimensional idealized reactors. The effective multiplication factor and the fission powers for each fuel element have been calculated. The second part consists in studying and mastering the multigroup diffusion code DAHRA - a reduced version of DIANE - a two dimensional code using finite difference method
Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Abedi, Ali; Gross, Eberhard K.U. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Maitra, Neepa T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College and the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Yamashita, Koichi [Department of Chemical System Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2013-07-01
We study the electron localization dynamics in the dissociation of H2+ using a 1D model Hamiltonian. To this end we calculate the exact time-dependent potential energy surfaces (TDPES) both for the electron and for the nuclei. The exact electronic TDPES shows that the final electron localization is determined when the interatomic barrier becomes large and prohibits electron tunneling. The exact nuclear TDPES shows the mechanism of slowdown of the dissociation. It is found that the nuclear potential cannot be approximated by the weighted average of the quasi-static state potential energy surfaces, but can be approximated well by the transition between them. We show these two time-dependent potentials are the exact potential functionals of the time-dependent multicomponent density functional theory and can reproduce the whole phenomena of electron localization dynamics.
Macroscopic multigroup constants for accelerator driven system core calculation
The high-level wastes stored in facilities above ground or shallow repositories, in close connection with its nuclear power plant, can take almost 106 years before the radiotoxicity became of the order of the background. While the disposal issue is not urgent from a technical viewpoint, it is recognized that extended storage in the facilities is not acceptable since these ones cannot provide sufficient isolation in the long term and neither is it ethical to leave the waste problem to future generations. A technique to diminish this time is to transmute these long-lived elements into short-lived elements. The approach is to use an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), a sub-critical arrangement which uses a Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), after separation the minor actinides and the long-lived fission products (LLFP), to convert them to short-lived isotopes. As an advanced reactor fuel, still today, there is a few data around these type of core systems. In this paper we generate macroscopic multigroup constants for use in calculations of a typical ADS fuel, take into consideration, the ENDF/BVI data file. Four energy groups are chosen to collapse the data from ENDF/B-VI data file by PREPRO code. A typical MOX fuel cell is used to validate the methodology. The results are used to calculate one typical subcritical ADS core. (author)
MCNP - transport calculations in ducts using multigroup albedo coefficients
In this work, the use of multigroup albedo coefficients in Monte Carlo calculations of particle reflection and transmission by ducts is investigated. The procedure consists in modifying the MCNP code so that an albedo matrix computed previously by deterministic methods or Monte Carlo is introduced into the program to describe particle reflection by a surface. This way it becomes possible to avoid the need of considering particle transport in the duct wall explicitly, changing the problem to a problem of transport in the duct interior only and reducing significantly the difficulty of the real problem. The probability of particle reflection at the duct wall is given, for each group, as the sum of the albedo coefficients over the final groups. The calculation is started by sampling a source particle and simulating its reflection on the duct wall by sampling a group for the emerging particle. The particle weight is then reduced by the reflection probability. Next, a new direction and trajectory for the particle is selected. Numerical results obtained for the model are compared with results from a discrete ordinates code and results from Monte Carlo simulations that take particle transport in the wall into account. (author)
FINELM: a multigroup finite element diffusion code. Part I
The author presents a two dimensional code for multigroup diffusion using the finite element method. It was realized that the extensive connectivity which contributes significantly to the accuracy, results in a matrix which, although symmetric and positive definite, is wide band and possesses an irregular profile. Hence, it was decided to introduce sparsity techniques into the code. The introduction of the R-Z geometry lead to a great deal of changes in the code since the rotational invariance of the removal matrices in X-Y geometry did not carry over in R-Z geometry. Rectangular elements were introduced to remedy the inability of the triangles to model essentially one dimensional problems such as slab geometry. The matter is discussed briefly in the text in the section on benchmark problems. This report is restricted to the general theory of the triangular elements and to the sparsity techniques viz. incomplete disections. The latter makes the size of the problem that can be handled independent of core memory and dependent only on disc storage capacity which is virtually unlimited. (Auth.)
The time-dependent non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effect
Bright, Max
2015-01-01
In this article, we study the {\\it time-dependent} Aharonov-Bohm effect for non-Abelian gauge fields. We use two well known time-dependent solutions to the Yang-Mills field equations to investigate the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift. For both of the solutions, we find a cancellation between the phase shift coming from the non-Abelian "magnetic" field and the phase shift coming from the non-Abelian "electric" field, which inevitably arises in time-dependent cases. We compare and contrast this cancellation for the time-dependent non-Abelian case to a similar cancellation which occurs in the time-dependent Abelian case. We postulate that this cancellation occurs generally in time-dependent situations for both Abelian and non-Abelian fields.
Time Dependent Radiative Transfer for Multi-Level Atoms using Accelerated Lambda Iteration
van Adelsberg, Matthew
2012-01-01
We present a general formalism for computing self-consistent, numerical solutions to the time-dependent radiative transfer equation in low velocity, multi-level ions undergoing radiative interactions. Recent studies of time-dependent radiative transfer have focused on radiation hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic effects without lines, or have solved time-independent equations for the radiation field simultaneously with time-dependent equations for the state of the medium. In this paper, we provide a fully time-dependent numerical solution to the radiative transfer and atomic rate equations for a medium irradiated by an external source of photons. We use Accelerated Lambda Iteration to achieve convergence of the radiation field and atomic states. We perform calculations for a three-level atomic model that illustrates important time-dependent effects. We demonstrate that our method provides an efficient, accurate solution to the time-dependent radiative transfer problem. Finally, we characterize astrophysical...
Time Dependent Radiative Transfer for Multi-Level Atoms using Accelerated Lambda Iteration
van Adelsberg, Matthew; Perna, Rosalba
2012-01-01
We present a general formalism for computing self-consistent, numerical solutions to the time-dependent radiative transfer equation in low velocity, multi-level ions undergoing radiative interactions. Recent studies of time-dependent radiative transfer have focused on radiation hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic effects without lines, or have solved time-independent equations for the radiation field simultaneously with time-dependent equations for the state of the medium. In this paper, we ...
The aim of this paper is to localize the position of a point source and recover the history of its time-dependent intensity function that is both unknown and constitutes the right-hand side of a 1D linear transport equation. Assuming that the source intensity function vanishes before reaching the final control time, we prove that recording the state with respect to the time at two observation points framing the source region leads to the identification of the source position and the recovery of its intensity function in a unique manner. Note that at least one of the two observation points should be strategic. We establish an identification method that determines quasi-explicitly the source position and transforms the task of recovering its intensity function into solving directly a well-conditioned linear system. Some numerical experiments done on a variant of the water pollution BOD model are presented
Time-dependent PIC - Monte Carlo modeling of electron-positron cascade in the polar cap of pulsar
Many previously proposed models for polar cap cascades (and almost all quantitative models) assumed stationary particle outflow. Predictions of such models disagree with both observational data (e.g. the number of electron-positron pairs in the Crab nebula is ∼ 100 higher than predicted) and results of numerical models of force-free pulsar magnetosphere (the current density required to support force-free magnetosphere differs substantially from what stationary model for PC cascade predicts). On the other hand, the stability of stationary models has not been quantitatively studied. We decided to study the problem from the first principles, namely to model the accelerating electric field, particle acceleration and pair production simultaneously. We developed a hybrid Particle-In-Cell-Monte Carlo code for direct self-consistent time-dependent modeling of polar cap cascades. Here we report the first results of cascade modeling using the current 1D version of the code. (author)
We introduce a new coupled neutronics/thermal hydraulics code system for analyzing transients of nuclear power plants and research reactors, based on a neutron transport theory approach. For the neutron kinetics, we have developed the code DORT-TD, a time-dependent extension of the well-known discrete ordinates code DORT. DORT-TD uses a fully implicit time integration scheme and is coupled via a general interface to the thermal hydraulics system code ATHLET, a generally applicable code for the analyses of LWR accident scenarios. Feedback is accounted for by interpolating multigroup cross sections from precalculated libraries, which are generated in advance for user-specified, discrete sets of thermal hydraulic parameters, e.g., fuel and coolant temperature. The coupled code system is applied to the high-flux research reactor FRM-II (Germany). Several design basis accidents are considered, namely the unintended control rod withdrawal, the loss of offsite power, and the loss of the secondary heat sink as well as a hypothetical transient with large reactivity insertion
Hochstuhl, David
2012-01-01
We introduce the time-dependent restricted active space Configuration Interaction method to solve the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation for many-electron atoms, and particularly apply it to the treatment of photoionization processes in atoms. The method is presented in a very general formulation and incorporates a wide range of commonly used approximation schemes, like the single-active electron approximation, time-dependent Configuration Interaction with single-excitations, or the time-dependent R-matrix method. We proof the applicability of the method by calculating the photoionization cross sections of Helium and Beryllium.
Finite difference approximation of control via the potential in a 1-D Schrodinger equation
K. Kime
2000-04-01
Full Text Available We consider the problem of steering given initial data to given terminal data via a time-dependent potential, the control, in a 1-D Schrodinger equation. We determine a condition for existence of a transferring potential within our approximation. Using Maple, we give equations for the control and also examples in which the potential is restricted to be centralized and to be a step potential.
Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics
A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry
Chaplin, Vernon H.; Bellan, Paul M.
2015-12-01
A time-dependent two-fluid model has been developed to understand axial variations in the plasma parameters in a very high density (peak ne≳ 5 ×1019 m-3 ) argon inductively coupled discharge in a long 1.1 cm radius tube. The model equations are written in 1D with radial losses to the tube walls accounted for by the inclusion of effective particle and energy sink terms. The ambipolar diffusion equation and electron energy equation are solved to find the electron density ne(z ,t ) and temperature Te(z ,t ) , and the populations of the neutral argon 4s metastable, 4s resonant, and 4p excited state manifolds are calculated to determine the stepwise ionization rate and calculate radiative energy losses. The model has been validated through comparisons with Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements; close agreement between the simulated and measured axial plasma density profiles and the initial density rise rate at each location was obtained at pA r=30 -60 mTorr . We present detailed results from calculations at 60 mTorr, including the time-dependent electron temperature, excited state populations, and energy budget within and downstream of the radiofrequency antenna.
We check the validity of the frozen-core approximation (FCA) in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for an atom interacting with a laser field. For this purpose we investigate an exactly solvable 1D model for Li with the help of TDDFT considering different exchange-correlation (XC) functionals. Observables such as the ionisation rate, the energy absorption rate and the dipole expectation value are obtained with and without FCA. Comparisons among the different TDDFT results on one hand and with the exact numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation on the other hand show that the propagation of core electrons in time does significantly affect the observables of the valence electron. Additionally, we find a strong dependency of TDDFT observables on the XC functional used even though the values for the ionisation potentials are equal. We conclude that pseudopotentials (which apply the FCA or even bolder approximations) must yield inaccurate results in TDDFT simulations of strong-field ionization even for an otherwise exact XC functional.
Current theories for approximating the effects of stochastic media on radiation transport assume very limited physics such as one dimension, constant grey opacities, and no material energy balance equation. When applied to more complex physical problems, the standard theory fails to match the results from direct numerical simulations. This work presents the first direct numerical simulations of multigroup radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 2D stochastic medium that are compared to closures proposed by various authors. After extending it from grey to multigroup physics, one closure that is not commonly used successfully models the results in dilute systems where one material comprises less than 5% of the total. This closure is more accurate for related grey transport problems than it is for the multigroup problem. When the specific heats are material- and temperature-dependent, it is much more difficult to fit the direct numerical solutions with an approximate closure.
Optimal control in multi-group coupled within-host and between-host models
Eric Numfor
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We formulate and then analyze a multi-group coupled within-host model of ODEs and between-host model of ODE and first-order PDEs, using the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV for illustration. The basic reproduction number of the multi-group coupled epidemiological model is derived, steady states solutions are calculated and stability analysis of equilbria is investigated. An optimal control problem for our model with drug treatment on the multi-group within-host system is formulated and analyzed. Ekeland's principle is used in proving existence and uniqueness of an optimal control pair. Numerical simulations based on the semi-implicit finite difference schemes and the forward-backward sweep iterative method are obtained.
Development of a multi-group SN transport calculation code with unstructured tetrahedral meshes
This paper reviews the computational methods used in the MUST (Multi-group Unstructured geometry SN Transport) code for solving the multi-group Sn transport equation in general geometries and describes the status of development of MUST. MUST solves the multi-group transport equation with unstructured tetrahedral meshes for modeling complicated geometrical problems. For tetrahedral mesh generation, input generation, and output visualization, we developed a management program where the mesh generation is based on Gmsh and TetGen that are open softwares. The geometrical modeling is done with the commercial CAD softwares such as CATIA. MUST uses the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) and two-sub cell balance methods with linear discontinuous expansion (LDEM-SCB) to spatially discretize the transport equation. We applied MUST to three neutron and gamma coupled test problems for testing MUST. (author)
Highlights: → Coupled neutron and gamma transport is considered in the multigroup diffusion approximation. → The model accommodates fission, up- and down-scattering and common neutron-gamma interactions. → The exact solution to the diffusion equation in a heterogeneous media of any number of regions is found. → The solution is shown to parallel the one-group case in a homogeneous medium. → The discussion concludes with a heterogeneous, 2 fuel-plate 93.2% enriched reactor fuel benchmark demonstration. - Abstract: The angular flux for the 'rod model' describing coupled neutron/gamma (n, γ) diffusion has a particularly straightforward analytical representation when viewed from the perspective of a one-group homogeneous medium. Cast in the form of matrix functions of a diagonalizable matrix, the solution to the multigroup equations in heterogeneous media is greatly simplified. We shall show exactly how the one-group homogeneous medium solution leads to the multigroup solution.
Development of a Multi-Group Neutron Cross Section Library Generation System for PWR
Kim, Kang Seog; Hong, Ser Gi; Song, Jae Seung; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Cho, Jin Young; Kim, Ha Yong; Koo, Bon Seung; Shim, Hyung Jin; Park, Sang Yoon
2008-10-15
This report describes a generation system of multi-group cross section library which is used in the KARMA lattice calculation code. In particular, the theoretical methodologies, program structures, and input preparations for the constituent programs of the system are described in detail. The library generation system consists of the following five programs : ANJOY, GREDIT, MERIT, SUBDATA, and LIBGEN. ANJOY generates automatically the NJOY input files and two batch files for automatic NJOY run for all the nuclides considered. The automatic NJOY run gives TAPE 23 (PENDF output file of BROADR module of NJOY) and TAPE24 (GENDF output file of GROUPR module of NJOY) files for each nuclide. GREDIT prepares a formatted multi-group cross section file in which the cross sections are tabulated versus temperature and background cross section after reading the TAPE24 file. MERIT generates the hydrogen equivalence factors and the resonance integral tables by solving the slowing down equation with ultra-fine group cross sections which are prepared with the TAPE 23 file. SUBDATA generates the subgroup data including subgroup levels and weights after reading the MERIT output file. Finally, LIBGEN generates the final multi-group library file by assembling the data prepared in the previous steps and by reading the other data such as fission product yield data and decay data.The multi-group cross section library includes general multi-group cross sections, resonance data, subgroup data, fission product yield data, kappa-values (energy release per fission), and all the data which are required in the depletion calculation. The addition or elimination of the cross sections for some nuclides can be easily done by changing the LIBGEN input file if the general multi-group cross section and the subgroup data files are prepared.
Development of a Multi-Group Neutron Cross Section Library Generation System for PWR
This report describes a generation system of multi-group cross section library which is used in the KARMA lattice calculation code. In particular, the theoretical methodologies, program structures, and input preparations for the constituent programs of the system are described in detail. The library generation system consists of the following five programs : ANJOY, GREDIT, MERIT, SUBDATA, and LIBGEN. ANJOY generates automatically the NJOY input files and two batch files for automatic NJOY run for all the nuclides considered. The automatic NJOY run gives TAPE 23 (PENDF output file of BROADR module of NJOY) and TAPE24 (GENDF output file of GROUPR module of NJOY) files for each nuclide. GREDIT prepares a formatted multi-group cross section file in which the cross sections are tabulated versus temperature and background cross section after reading the TAPE24 file. MERIT generates the hydrogen equivalence factors and the resonance integral tables by solving the slowing down equation with ultra-fine group cross sections which are prepared with the TAPE 23 file. SUBDATA generates the subgroup data including subgroup levels and weights after reading the MERIT output file. Finally, LIBGEN generates the final multi-group library file by assembling the data prepared in the previous steps and by reading the other data such as fission product yield data and decay data.The multi-group cross section library includes general multi-group cross sections, resonance data, subgroup data, fission product yield data, kappa-values (energy release per fission), and all the data which are required in the depletion calculation. The addition or elimination of the cross sections for some nuclides can be easily done by changing the LIBGEN input file if the general multi-group cross section and the subgroup data files are prepared
Time-Dependence effect in alumite recording media with perpendicular anisotropy
Kim, Phan Le; Lodder, Cock
1999-01-01
In this paper, we will present a study of the time-dependence effect in alumite perpendicular media at different thicknesses. Important parameters of the time-dependence effect such as magnetic viscosity and activation volume are investigated. Viscosity as a function of applied field (viscosity cur
Quasinormal Modes in Three-Dimensional Time-Dependent Anti-de Sitter Spacetime
SHEN Zai-Xiong; WANG Bin; SU Ru-Keng
2004-01-01
@@ We study the massless scalar wave propagation in the time-dependent Banados Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole background. It is shown that in the quasi-normal ringing, both the decay and the oscillation time-scales are modified in the time-dependent background.
Modified $f(R)$ Gravity and Thermodynamics of Time-Dependent Wormholes at Event Horizon
Saiedi, H
2016-01-01
In the context of modified $f(R)$ gravity theory, we study time-dependent wormhole spacetimes in the radiation background. In this framework, we attempt to generalize the thermodynamic properties of time-dependent wormholes in $f(R)$ gravity. Finally, at event horizon, the rate of change of total entropy has been discussed.
Path Integral Evaluation of a Time-Dependent Oscillator in an External Field
Ikot, Akpan Ndem; ITUEN, Eno Etim; ESSIEN, Ime. E.
2008-01-01
The Lagrangian of a system describing the dynamical behaviour of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator is modified and then used to evaluate the Feynman path integral of the oscillator. The path integral of the time-dependent oscillator is shown to reduce to the time-independent within certain limits.
On the effect of time-dependent inhomogeneous magnetic fields in electron-positron pair production
Kohlfürst, Christian; Alkofer, Reinhard
2016-05-01
Electron-positron pair production in space- and time-dependent electromagnetic fields is investigated. Especially, the influence of a time-dependent, inhomogeneous magnetic field on the particle momenta and the total particle yield is analyzed for the first time. The role of the Lorentz invariant E2 -B2, including its sign and local values, in the pair creation process is emphasized.
We consider tunneling-mediated electron transfer through time dependent bridges. An approach is developed for computing corrections to the time dependent tunneling matrix element that arise from the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer Adiabatic approximation. Differences between Franck-Condon and Born-Oppenheimer breakdown are discussed in the context of bridge-mediated tunneling
Quantum Statistics of a Forced Oscillator with a Time-Dependent Driving Force
刘文森
2003-01-01
Quantum statistics of a forced harmonic oscillator acted upon by a time-dependent external force are derived using the Wilcox trick and the time-dependent inhomogeneous Bogoliubov transformation formalism.The internal energy,fluctuation of the particle-number average and entropy of this nonequilibrium system are presented explicitly.
Determination of a time-dependent thermal diffusivity and free boundary in heat conduction
Hussein, MS; D. Lesnic
2014-01-01
In this paper, we consider the inverse problem of simultaneous determination of time-dependent leading coefficient (thermal diffusivity) and free boundary in the one-dimensional time-dependent heat equation. The resulting inverse problem is recast as a nonlinear regularized least-squares problem. Stable and accurate numerical results are presented and discussed.
Invariant Hermitian Operator and Density Operator for the Adiabatically Time-Dependent System
YAN Feng-Li; YANG Lin-Guang
2001-01-01
The density operator is approximately expressed as a function of the invariant Hermitian operator for the adiabatically time-dependent system. Using this method, the calculation of the density operator for the Heisenberg spin system in a weakly time-dependent magnetic field is exemplified. By virtue of the density operator, we obtain equilibrium.``
Investigating Student Difficulties with Time dependence of Expectation Values in Quantum Mechanics
Marshman, Emily
2015-01-01
Quantum mechanics is challenging even for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. In the Schr\\"odinger representation, the wave function evolves in time according to the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation. The time dependence of the wave function gives rise to time dependence of the expectation value of observables. We have been exploring the difficulties that advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with time dependence of expectation values in quantum mechanics. We have developed and administered conceptual free response and multiple-choice questions to students to investigate these difficulties. We also interviewed 23 students individually using a think-aloud protocol to obtain a better understanding of the rationale behind students' written responses. We find that many students struggle with time dependence of expectation values of observables. We discuss some findings.
Analyzing Density Operator in Thermal State for Complicated Time-Dependent Optical Systems
Jeong Ryeol Choi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Density operator of oscillatory optical systems with time-dependent parameters is analyzed. In this case, a system is described by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. Invariant operator theory is introduced in order to describe time-varying behavior of the system. Due to the time dependence of parameters, the frequency of oscillation, so-called a modified frequency of the system, is somewhat different from the natural frequency. In general, density operator of a time-dependent optical system is represented in terms of the modified frequency. We showed how to determine density operator of complicated time-dependent optical systems in thermal state. Usually, density operator description of quantum states is more general than the one described in terms of the state vector.
Multigroup neutron transport equation in the diffusion and P1 approximation
Investigations of the properties of the multigroup transport operator, width and without delayed neutrons in the diffusion and P1 approximation, is performed using Keldis's theory of operator families as well as a technique . recently used for investigations into the properties of the general linearized Boltzmann operator. It is shown that in the case without delayed neutrons, multigroup transport operator in the diffusion and P1 approximation possesses a complete set of generalized eigenvectors. A formal solution to the initial value problem is also given. (author)
Social exploration of 1D games
Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela
2013-01-01
In this paper the apparently meaningless concept of a 1 dimensional computer game is explored, via netnography. A small number of games was designed and implemented, in close contact with online communities of players and developers, providing evidence that 1 dimension is enough to produce intere...... interesting gameplay, to allow for level design and even to leave room for artistic considerations on 1D rendering. General techniques to re-design classic 2D games into 1D are also emerging from this exploration....
Time-Dependent Behaviors of Granite: Loading-Rate Dependence, Creep, and Relaxation
Hashiba, K.; Fukui, K.
2016-07-01
To assess the long-term stability of underground structures, it is important to understand the time-dependent behaviors of rocks, such as their loading-rate dependence, creep, and relaxation. However, there have been fewer studies on crystalline rocks than on tuff, mudstone, and rock salt, because the high strength of crystalline rocks makes the detection of their time-dependent behaviors much more difficult. Moreover, studies on the relaxation, temporal change of stress and strain (TCSS) conditions, and relations between various time-dependent behaviors are scarce for not only granites, but also other rocks. In this study, previous reports on the time-dependent behaviors of granites were reviewed and various laboratory tests were conducted using Toki granite. These tests included an alternating-loading-rate test, creep test, relaxation test, and TCSS test. The results showed that the degree of time dependence of Toki granite is similar to other granites, and that the TCSS resembles the stress-relaxation curve and creep-strain curve. A viscoelastic constitutive model, proposed in a previous study, was modified to investigate the relations between the time-dependent behaviors in the pre- and post-peak regions. The modified model reproduced the stress-strain curve, creep, relaxation, and the results of the TCSS test. Based on a comparison of the results of the laboratory tests and numerical simulations, close relations between the time-dependent behaviors were revealed quantitatively.
Constant resolution of time-dependent Hartree--Fock phase ambiguity
The customary time-dependent Hartree--Fock problem is shown to be ambiguous up to an arbitrary function of time additive to H/sub HF/, and, consequently, up to an arbitrary time-dependent phase for the solution, PHI(t). The ''constant'' (H)'' phase is proposed as the best resolution of this ambiguity. It leads to the following attractive features: (a) the time-dependent Hartree--Fock (TDHF) Hamiltonian, H/sub HF/, becomes a quantity whose expectation value is equal to the average energy and, hence, constant in time; (b) eigenstates described exactly by determinants, have time-dependent Hartree--Fock solutions identical with the exact time-dependent solutions; (c) among all possible TDHF solutions this choice minimizes the norm of the quantity (H--i dirac constant delta/delta t) operating on the ket PHI, and guarantees optimal time evolution over an infinitesimal period; (d) this choice corresponds both to the stationary value of the absolute difference between (H) and (i dirac constant delta/delta t) and simultaneously to its absolute minimal value with respect to choice of the time-dependent phase. The source of the ambiguity is discussed. It lies in the time-dependent generalization of the freedom to transform unitarily among the single-particle states of a determinant at the (physically irrelevant for stationary states) cost of altering only a factor of unit magnitude
Non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effect with the time-dependent gauge fields
Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali; Mirza, Behrouz
2016-04-01
We investigate the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect for time-dependent gauge fields. We prove that the non-Abelian AB phase shift related to time-dependent gauge fields, in which the electric and magnetic fields are written in the adjoint representation of SU (N) generators, vanishes up to the first order expansion of the phase factor. Therefore, the flux quantization in a superconductor ring does not appear in the time-dependent Abelian or non-Abelian AB effect.
Non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effect with the time-dependent gauge fields
Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini
2016-01-01
We investigate the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect for time-dependent gauge fields. We prove that the non-Abelian AB phase shift related to time-dependent gauge fields, in which the electric and magnetic fields are written in the adjoint representation of $SU(N)$ generators, vanishes up to the first order expansion of the phase factor. Therefore, the flux quantization in a superconductor ring does not appear in the time-dependent Abelian or non-Abelian AB effect.
Non-Abelian Aharonov–Bohm effect with the time-dependent gauge fields
Seyed Ali Hosseini Mansoori
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We investigate the non-Abelian Aharonov–Bohm (AB effect for time-dependent gauge fields. We prove that the non-Abelian AB phase shift related to time-dependent gauge fields, in which the electric and magnetic fields are written in the adjoint representation of SU(N generators, vanishes up to the first order expansion of the phase factor. Therefore, the flux quantization in a superconductor ring does not appear in the time-dependent Abelian or non-Abelian AB effect.
Time-dependent difference theory for noise propagation in a two-dimensional duct
Baumeister, K. J.
1980-01-01
A time-dependent numerical formulation is derived for sound propagation in a two-dimensional straight soft-walled duct in the absence of mean flow. The time-dependent governing acoustic-difference equations and boundary conditions are developed along with the maximum stable time increment. Example calculations are presented for sound attenuation in hard- and soft-wall ducts. The time-dependent analysis has been found to be superior to the conventional steady numerical analysis because of much shorter solution times and the elimination of matrix storage requirements.
Electromagnetic wave propagation in time-dependent media with antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling
Lin, Shi-Rong; Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Ma, Yi-Rong; Jia, Wei; Zhao, Qing
2016-07-01
This paper deals with electromagnetic wave propagation in time-dependent media with an antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling and an isotropic time-dependent permittivity. We identify a new mechanism of linear birefringence, originated from the combined action of the time-dependent permittivity and the antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling. Permittivity with linear and exponential temporal variations exemplifies the creation and control of these two distinct types of linear birefringent modes. As a novel nonlinear optical effect, a scheme utilizing optical Kerr effect in moving media is proposed for the realization of the predicted birefringence.
Reviews are presented firstly of potential events and processes which may affect the evolution of the disposal environments of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in Britain and secondly of previous studies carried out worldwide in the field of time dependent effects. From the latter review available methodologies for incorporating time dependence into radiological assessments are identified. Finally, proposals are presented for the design and development of a time dependent effects model, based on the existing far field state model (FFSM) developed for ONWI in USA. (author)
Numerical modelling of softwood time-dependent behaviour based on microstructure
Engelund, Emil Tang
2010-01-01
by the basic physical mechanism behind the time-dependent behaviour. The mechanism causing time-dependency is thought to be sliding of the microfibrils past each other as a result breaking and re-bonding of hydrogen bonds. This can be incorporated in a numerical model by only allowing time......-dependency in shear modes. Thus, in the local coordinate system corresponding to the orientation of the microfibrils in the S2 layer of the cell wall, only elastic and viscous deformations are included. However, the macroscopic behaviour of the entire cell is visco-elastic in that creep, creep recovery and...
Gödel, Penrose, anti-Mach: extra supersymmetries of time-dependent plane waves
Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, M H; Blau, Matthias; Loughlin, Martin O'; Meessen, Patrick
2003-01-01
We prove that M-theory plane waves with extra supersymmetries are necessarily homogeneous (but possibly time-dependent), and we show by explicit construction that such time-dependent plane waves can admit extra supersymmetries. To that end we study the Penrose limits of Gödel-like metrics, show that the Penrose limit of the M-theory Gödel metric (with 20 supercharges) is generically a time-dependent homogeneous plane wave of the anti-Mach type, and display the four extra Killings spinors in that case. We conclude with some general remarks on the Killing spinor equations for homogeneous plane waves.
Goedel, Penrose, anti-Mach: extra supersymmetries of time-dependent plane waves
We prove that M-theory plane waves with extra supersymmetries are necessarily homogeneous (but possibly time-dependent), and we show by explicit construction that such time-dependent plane waves can admit extra supersymmetries. To that end we study the Penrose limits of Goedel-like metrics, show that the Penrose limit of the M-theory Goedel metric (with 20 supercharges) is generically a time-dependent homogeneous plane wave of the anti-Mach type, and display the four extra Killings spinors in that case. We conclude with some general remarks on the Killing spinor equations for homogeneous plane waves. (author)
Goedel, Penrose, anti-Mach: extra supersymmetries of time-dependent plane waves
Blau, Matthias; Meessen, Patrick; O'Loughlin, Martin
2003-01-01
We prove that M-theory plane waves with extra supersymmetries are necessarily homogeneous (but possibly time-dependent), and we show by explicit construction that such time-dependent plane waves can admit extra supersymmetries. To that end we study the Penrose limits of Goedel-like metrics, show that the Penrose limit of the M-theory Goedel metric (with 20 supercharges) is generically a time-dependent homogeneous plane wave of the anti-Mach type, and display the four extra Killings spinors in...
Time-dependent 3-D deterministic transport on parallel architectures using DANTSYS/MPI
In addition to the ability to solve the static transport equation, time dependence was incorporated into DANTSYS/MPI. Using a semi-implicit scheme, DANTSYS/MPI is capable of performing time-dependent calculations for such problems as nuclear well logging. The form of the time-dependent equations implemented, their solution strategies in DANTSYS/MPI including iteration acceleration, and the strategies used for time-step control are described. Results are presented for a model nuclear well logging calculation. (author)
On the dynamics of a time-dependent mesoscopic LC circuit with a negative inductance
Pedrosa, I. A.; Nogueira, E.; Guedes, I.
2016-05-01
We discuss the problem of a mesoscopic LC circuit with a negative inductance ruled by a time-dependent Hermitian Hamiltonian. Classically, we find unusual expressions for the Faraday’s law and for the inductance of a solenoid. Quantum mechanically, we solve exactly the time-dependent Schrödinger equation through the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant operator method and construct Gaussian wave packet solutions for this time-dependent LC circuit. We also evaluate the expectation values of the charge and the magnetic flux in these Gaussian states, their quantum fluctuations and the corresponding uncertainty product.
Even and Odd Coherent States for Time-Dependent Harmonic Oscillator
WEI Lian-Fu; YANG Qing-Yi; WANG Shun-Jin
2002-01-01
The dynamical invariant for a general time-dependent harmonic oscillator is constructed by making use of two linearly independent solutions to the classical equation of motion. In terms of this dynamical invariant we define the time-dependent creation and annihilation operators and relevantly introduce even and odd coherent states for time dependent harmonic oscillator. The mathematical and quantum statistical properties of these states are discussed in detail. The harmonic oscillator with periodically varying frequency is treated as a demonstration of our general approach.
DIAMANT2 - A multigroup neutron transport program for triangular and hexagonal geometry
DIAMANT2 evolved out of the DIAMANT-code. DIAMANT2 solves the multigroup neutron transport equation in planar geometry using the Ssub(N) method. Spatial discretization is accomplished by taking finite differences on a meshgrid composed of equilateral triangles. This report contains a detailed documentation of the program and the input description. (orig./HJ)
SIXTUS-2. A two dimensional multigroup diffusion theory code in hexagonal geometry. Pt. 1
A new algorithm for solving the 2-dimensional multigroup diffusion equations in hexagonal geometry is described. It is based on three novel ideas: analytic intranodal solutions, use of the group irreducible representations and an explicit scheme for solving the response matrix equations. The resulting computer code SIXTUS-2 has been found to be very accurate and effective. (Auth.)
Jones, K.; Johnston, R.; Manley, D.J.; Owen, D.; Charlton, C.
2015-01-01
We develop and apply a multilevel modeling approach that is simultaneously capable of assessing multigroup and multiscale segregation in the presence of substantial stochastic variation that accompanies ethnicity rates based on small absolute counts. Bayesian MCMC estimation of a log-normal Poisson
A discretization of the multigroup PN radiative transfer equation on general meshes
Hermeline, F.
2016-05-01
We propose and study a finite volume method of discrete duality type for discretizing the multigroup PN approximation of radiative transfer equation on general meshes. This method is second order-accurate on a very large variety of meshes, stable under a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition and it preserves naturally the diffusion asymptotic limit.
Branch and price for the time-dependent vehicle routing problem with time windows
Dabia, Said; Van Woensel, Tom; De Kok, Ton;
2013-01-01
This paper presents a branch-and-price algorithm for the time-dependent vehicle routing problem with time windows (TDVRPTW). We capture road congestion by considering time-dependent travel times, i.e., depending on the departure time to a customer, a different travel time is incurred. We consider...... the variant of the TDVRPTW where the objective is to minimize total route duration and denote this variant the duration minimizing TDVRPTW (DM-TDVRPTW). Because of time dependency, vehicles' dispatch times at the depot are crucial as road congestion might be avoided. Because of its complexity, all...... means of column generation, and a tailored labeling algorithm is used to solve the pricing problem. We introduce new dominance criteria that allow more label dominance. For our numerical results, we modified Solomon's data sets by adding time dependency. Our algorithm is able to solve about 63% of the...
Blazars and Optical Depth in a non-linear, time-dependent injection and cooling scenario
Zacharias, Michael
2014-01-01
In this paper the optical depths in blazars due to photo-pair production is calculated for a time-dependent, non-linear injection model. Several target photon fields are taken into account, namely the internal synchrotron, synchrotron-self Compton and external Compton radiation, as well as a constant external soft photon field. By applying the optical depths to theoretical blazar spectra only the constant external photon field turns out to significantly influence the radiation at high energies. The impact of the internal time-dependent radiation fields is either minor or requires extreme parameter settings. Additionally, the synchrotron-self absorption turn-over energy for low synchrotron energies is calculated, which is inherently time-dependent. It would be challenging to use it to constrain free parameters, since precise knowledge of the observation time relative to the injection time is needed. In conclusion, optical depth does not significantly influence the non-linear, time-dependent injection and cooli...
Vector Constants of Motion for Time-Dependent Kepler and Isotropic Harmonic Oscillator Potentials
Ritter, O. M.; Santos, F. C.; Tort, A. C.
2001-06-01
A method of obtaining vector constants of motion for time-independent as well as time-dependent central fields is discussed. Some well-established results are rederived in this alternative way and new ones obtained.
Evaluation of time-dependent void nucleation theory under ion bombardment conditions
The applicability of a steady state and time-dependent homogeneous void nucleation theory to charged-particle irradiation experiments was investigated. The steady-state theory was found to be inappropriate, since significant changes in a metal's microstructure would likely occur before the void nucleation rate could reach steady state. Two types of time dependence were examined, that of the point defect concentrations at the beginning of an irradiation and the longer-term time dependence of void nucleation. It was found that vacancy and interstitial clustering significantly reduce the relaxation time for the point defect concentrations. An efficient form of time-dependent homogeneous nucleation theory was applied to ion bombardment conditions to predict void size distributions
TDHBB (time dependent Hartree-Bose-Bogoliubov) description of a two-level bosonic model
The time-dependent Hartree-Bose-Bogoliubov approximation was applied to a two level bosonic model with pairing interaction. Phase transitions between boson condensates and boson pairs condensate were also studied. (Author)
On the calculation of matrix elements from the time dependent variational principle
A general prescription is given for the calculation of matrix elements of operators from periodic solutions to the time dependent variational principle. As an example it is applied to the model of Lipkin, Meshkov and Glick. (orig.)
Vector constants of motion for time-dependent Kepler and isotropic harmonic oscillator potentials
Ritter, O. M.; Santos, F. C.; Tort, A C
2000-01-01
A method of obtaining vector constants of motion for time-independent as well as time-dependent central fields is discussed. Some well-established results are rederived in this alternative way and new ones obtained.
Exact expression for decoherence factor in the time-dependent generalized Cini model
Jianqi Shen(沈建其); Sanshui Xiao(肖三水); Qiang Wu(武强)
2003-01-01
The present letter finds the complete set of exact solutions of the time-dependent generalized Cini modelby making use of the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant theory and the invariant-related unitary transformationformulation and, based on this, the general explicit expression for the decoherence factor is thereforeobtained. This study provides us with a useful method to consider the geometric phase and topologicalproperties in the time-dependent quantum decoherence process.
Barceló Bugeda, Jaime; Montero Mercadé, Lídia; Bullejos, Manuel; Serch Muni, Oriol; Carmona, Carlos
2013-01-01
Time-dependent origin–destination (OD) matrices are essential input for dynamic traffic models such as microscopic and mesoscopic traffic simulators. Dynamic traffic models also support real-time traffic management decisions, and they are traditionally used in the design and evaluation of advanced traffic traffic management and information systems (ATMS/ATIS). Time-dependent OD estimations are typically based either on Kalman filtering or on bilevel mathematical programming, which can be cons...
ICT based estimation of time-dependent origin-destination matrices
Barceló Bugeda, Jaime; Montero Mercadé, Lídia; Marqués, Laura; Carmona, Carlos
2011-01-01
Time-Dependent Origin-Destination (OD) matrices are a key input to Dynamic Traffic Models, microscopic and mesoscopic traffic simulators are relevant examples of such models, traditionally used to assist in the design and evaluation of Traffic Management and Information Systems (ATMS/ATIS). Dynamic traffic models are also starting to be used to support real-time traffic management decisions. The typical approaches to the time-dependent OD estimation have been based either on ad hoc heuristics...
Evolution of Arbitrary States under Fock—Darwin Hamiltonian and a Time-Dependent Electric Field
Xu, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Tao; Zhai, Zhi-Yuan; Pan, Xiao-Yin
2012-01-01
The method of path integral is employed to calculate the time evolution of the eigenstates of a charged particle under the Fock—Darwin (FD) Hamiltonian subjected to a time-dependent electric field in the plane of the system. An exact analytical expression is established for the evolution of the eigenstates. This result then provides a general solution to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.
Evolution of Arbitrary States under Fock-Darwin Hamiltonian and a Time-Dependent Electric Field
The method of path integral is employed to calculate the time evolution of the eigenstates of a charged particle under the Fock-Darwin (FD) Hamiltonian subjected to a time-dependent electric field in the plane of the system. An exact analytical expression is established for the evolution of the eigenstates. This result then provides a general solution to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Characteristics of a Delayed System with Time-dependent Delay Time
Kye, Won-Ho; Choi, Muhan; Rim, Sunghwan; Kurdoglyan, M. S.; Kim, Chil-Min; Park, Young-Jai
2004-01-01
The characteristics of a time-delayed system with time-dependent delay time is investigated. We demonstrate the nonlinearity characteristics of the time-delayed system are significantly changed depending on the properties of time-dependent delay time and especially that the reconstructed phase trajectory of the system is not collapsed into simple manifold, differently from the delayed system with fixed delay time. We discuss the possibility of a phase space reconstruction and its applications.
Dirac's hole theory versus field theory for a time dependent perturbation
Solomon, Dan
2003-01-01
Dirac's hole theory (HT) and quantum field theory (QFT) are generally considered to be equivalent to each other. However, it has been recently shown that for a time independent perturbation different results are obtained when the change in the vacuum energy is calculated. Here we shall extend this discussion to include a time dependent perturbation. It will be shown that HT and QFT yield different results for the change in the vacuum energy due to a time dependent perturbation.
Predicting Sequences of Progressive Events Times with Time-dependent Covariates
Cai, Song; Newlands, Nathaniel
2010-01-01
This paper presents an approach to modeling progressive event-history data when the overall objective is prediction based on time-dependent covariates. This approach does not model the hazard function directly. Instead, it models the process of the state indicators of the event history so that the time-dependent covariates can be incorporated and predictors of the future events easily formulated. Our model can be applied to a range of real-world problems in medical and agricultural science.
Time-dependent crack growth behavior of alloy 617 and alloy 230 at elevated temperatures
Roy, Shawoon Kumar
2011-12-01
Two Ni-base solid-solution-strengthened superalloys: INCONEL 617 and HAYNES 230 were studied to check sustained loading crack growth (SLCG) behavior at elevated temperatures appropriate for Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) applictaions with constant stress intensity factor (Kmax= 27.75 MPa✓m) in air. The results indicate a time-dependent rate controlling process which can be characterized by a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter -- stress intensity factor (K). At elevated temperatures, the crack growth mechanism was best described using a damage zone concept. Based on results and study, SAGBOE (stress accelerated grain boundary oxidation embrittlement) is considered the primary reason for time-dependent SLCG. A thermodynamic equation was considered to correlate all the SLCG results to determine the thermal activation energy in the process. A phenomenological model based on a time-dependent factor was developed considering the previous researcher's time-dependent fatigue crack propagation (FCP) results and current SLCG results to relate cycle-dependent and time-dependent FCP for both alloys. Further study includes hold time (3+300s) fatigue testing and no hold (1s) fatigue testing with various load ratios (R) at 700°C with a Kmax of 27.75 MPa✓m. Study results suggest an interesting point: crack growth behavior is significantly affected with the change in R value in cycle-dependent process whereas in time-dependent process, change in R does not have any significant effect. Fractography study showed intergranular cracking mode for all time-dependent processes and transgranular cracking mode for cycle-dependent processes. In Alloy 230, SEM images display intergranular cracking with carbide particles, dense oxides and dimple mixed secondary cracks for time-dependent 3+300s FCP and SLCG test. In all cases, Alloy 230 shows better crack growth resistance compared to Alloy 617.
Time dependence of breakdown in a global fiber-bundle model with continuous damage
Moral, L.; Moreno, Y.; Gomez, J. B.; Pacheco, A. F.
2001-01-01
A time-dependent global fiber-bundle model of fracture with continuous damage is formulated in terms of a set of coupled non-linear differential equations. A first integral of this set is analytically obtained. The time evolution of the system is studied by applying a discrete probabilistic method. Several results are discussed emphasizing their differences with the standard time-dependent model. The results obtained show that with this simple model a variety of experimental observations can ...
Operator-sum representation of time-dependent density operators and its applications
Tong, D M; Oh, C H; Chen, J L; Ma, L; Chen, Jing-Ling
2004-01-01
We show that any arbitrary time-dependent density operator of an open system can always be described in terms of an operator-sum representation regardless of its initial condition and the path of its evolution in the state space, and we provide a general expression of Kraus operators for arbitrary time-dependent density operator of an $N$-dimensional system. Moreover, applications of our result are illustrated through several examples.
Wang, Dong-Mei; Xu, Jing-Bo; Yu, You-Hong
2016-04-01
We investigate how the time-dependent electromagnetic field affects the sudden transitions of the geometric quantum correlation for two qubits each coupled to its own dissipative environment, and two qubits uniformly coupled to a common dissipative environment, respectively. It is shown that the sudden transitions of the geometric quantum correlation in both cases can be controlled by making use of time-dependent electromagnetic field and, in addition, the frozen time during which the geometric quantum correlation remains constant can be lengthened.
Time-dependent Pauli equation in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
We use the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory to determine the exact form of the wavefunctions of a two-dimensional Pauli equation of a charged spin 1/2 particle with time-dependent mass and frequency in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and a two-dimensional time-dependent harmonic oscillator. We find that the irregular solution at the origin as well as the regular one contributes to the phase of the wavefunction
Time-dependent Pauli equation in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Bouguerra, Y.; Bounames, A.; Maamache, M.; Saadi, Y.
2008-04-01
We use the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory to determine the exact form of the wavefunctions of a two-dimensional Pauli equation of a charged spin 1/2 particle with time-dependent mass and frequency in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and a two-dimensional time-dependent harmonic oscillator. We find that the irregular solution at the origin as well as the regular one contributes to the phase of the wavefunction.
Dynamic path analysis - a new approach to analyzing time-dependent covariates
2005-01-01
In this article we introduce a general approach to dynamic path analysis. This is an extension of classical path analysis to the situation where variables may be time-dependent and where the outcome of main interest is a stochastic process. In particular we will focus on the survival and event history analysis setting where the main outcome is a counting process. Our approach will be especially fruitful for analyzing event history data with internal time-dependent covariates, where an ordinar...
Analysis of time-dependent changes in Bitemarks on Styrofoam sheets
Djeapragassam Parimala; Mariappan Jonathan Daniel; Subramanian Vasudevan Srinivasan; Jimsha Vannathan Kumaran
2015-01-01
Context: The scope of Bitemarks in forensic dentistry is widening as they help the forensic expert in identifying the perpetuator in medicolegal cases. The greatest challenge in Bitemarks analysis is the time-dependent changes produced in Bitemark patterns on various substrates at the scene of the crime. Aims: To analyze the time-dependent changes in Bitemarks on Styrofoam sheets. Settings and Design: Single centered prospective study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five subjects were randomly...
We carried out a simulation of heavy ion collision using a time-dependent density functional theory. We call it the canonical-basis time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory (Cb-TDHFB) which can describe nuclear dynamics in three-dimensional coordinate space, treating nuclear pairing correlation. We simulate 20O+20O collision using the Cb-TDHFB with a contact-type pairing functional, and show the behavior of gap energy which is decreasing and vibrating while colliding
Ebata, Shuichiro
2012-01-01
We carried out a simulation of heavy ion collision using a time-dependent density functional theory. We call it the canonical-basis time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory (Cb-TDHFB) which can describe nuclear dynamics in three-dimensional coordinate space, treating nuclear pairing correlation. We simulate 20O+20O collision using the Cb-TDHFB with a contact-type pairing functional, and show the behavior of gap energy which is decreasing and vibrating while colliding.
Dark optical solitons in power law media with time-dependent coefficients
This Letter talks about the dynamics of dark optical solitons that are governed by the nonlinear Schroedinger's equation with power law nonlinearity. The solitons are considered in presence of linear attenuation, third order dispersion and self-steepening terms, all with time-dependent coefficients. The solitary wave ansatz is used to carry out the integration and an exact soliton solution is obtained. It is only necessary that these time-dependent coefficients are Riemann integrable.
Time-Dependence of Risperidone and Asenapine Sensitization and Associated D2 receptor Mechanism
Gao, Jun; LI Ming
2013-01-01
When an antipsychotic drug is given repeatedly and intermittently, there is often a long-term increase in its behavioral efficacy, termed antipsychotic sensitization. With the passage of time, the magnitude of antipsychotic sensitization may increase or decrease depending on the principle of Time-Dependent Sensitization (TDS) or memory decay, respectively. In the present study, we examined the time-dependent feature and possible dopamine D2 receptor mechanism of sensitization induced by the a...
Time-dependent radiative transfer for multi-level atoms using accelerated Lambda iteration
van Adelsberg, Matthew; Perna, Rosalba
2013-02-01
We present a general formalism for computing self-consistent, numerical solutions to the time-dependent radiative transfer equation in low-velocity, multi-level ions undergoing radiative interactions. Recent studies of time-dependent radiative transfer have focused on radiation hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic effects without lines, or have solved time-independent equations for the radiation field simultaneously with time-dependent equations for the state of the medium. In this paper, we provide a fully time-dependent numerical solution to the radiative transfer and atomic rate equations for a medium irradiated by an external source of photons. We use accelerated Lambda iteration to achieve convergence of the radiation field and atomic states. We perform calculations for a three-level atomic model that illustrates important time-dependent effects. We demonstrate that our method provides an efficient, accurate solution to the time-dependent radiative transfer problem. Finally, we characterize astrophysical scenarios in which we expect our solutions to be important.
YORP torques with 1D thermal model
Breiter, Slawomir; Czekaj, Maria
2010-01-01
A numerical model of the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect for objects defined in terms of a triangular mesh is described. The algorithm requires that each surface triangle can be handled independently, which implies the use of a 1D thermal model. Insolation of each triangle is determined by an optimized ray-triangle intersection search. Surface temperature is modeled with a spectral approach; imposing a quasi-periodic solution we replace heat conduction equation by the Helmholtz equation. Nonlinear boundary conditions are handled by an iterative, FFT based solver. The results resolve the question of the YORP effect in rotation rate independence on conductivity within the nonlinear 1D thermal model regardless of the accuracy issues and homogeneity assumptions. A seasonal YORP effect in attitude is revealed for objects moving on elliptic orbits when a nonlinear thermal model is used.
1D ferrimagnetism in homometallic chains
Coronado Miralles, Eugenio; Gómez García, Carlos José; Borrás Almenar, Juan José
1990-01-01
The magnetic properties of the cobalt zigzag chain Co(bpy)(NCS)2 (bpy=2,2′‐bipyridine) are discussed on the basis of an Ising‐chain model that takes into account alternating Landé factors. It is emphasized, for the first time, that a homometallic chain containing only one type of site can give rise to a 1D ferrimagneticlike behavior. ,
Time-dependent damage in predictions of fatigue behaviour of normal and healing ligaments
Thornton, Gail M.; Bailey, Soraya J.; Schwab, Timothy D.
2015-08-01
Ligaments are dense fibrous tissues that connect bones across a joint and are exposed daily to creep and fatigue loading. Ligaments are tensile load-bearing tissues; therefore, fatigue loading will have a component of time-dependent damage from the non-zero mean stress and cycle-dependent damage from the oscillating stress. If time-dependent damage is not sufficient to completely predict the fatigue response, then cycle-dependent damage could be an important contributor. Using data from normal ligaments (current study and Thornton et al., Clin. Biomech. 22:932-940, 2007a) and healing ligaments (Thornton and Bailey, J. Biomech. Eng. 135:091004-1-091004-6, 2013), creep data was used to predict the fatigue response considering time-dependent damage. Relationships between creep lifetime and test stress or initial strain were modelled using exponential or power-law regression. In order to predict fatigue lifetimes, constant rates of damage were assumed and time-varying stresses were introduced into the expressions for time-dependent damage from creep. Then, the predictions of fatigue lifetime were compared with curvefits to the fatigue data where exponential or power-law regressions were used to determine the relationship between fatigue lifetime and test stress or initial strain. The fatigue prediction based on time-dependent damage alone greatly overestimated fatigue lifetime suggesting that time-dependent damage alone cannot account for all of the damage accumulated during fatigue and that cycle-dependent damage has an important role. At lower stress and strain, time-dependent damage was a greater relative contributor for normal ligaments than healing ligaments; however, cycle-dependent damage was a greater relative contributor with incremental increases in stress or strain for normal ligaments than healing ligaments.
Yu, Haitao; Guo, Xinmeng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile
2015-10-01
The phenomenon of vibrational resonance is investigated in adaptive Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks, where the strength of synaptic connections between neurons is modulated based on spike-timing-dependent plasticity. Numerical results demonstrate that there exists appropriate amplitude of high-frequency driving which is able to optimize the neural ensemble response to the weak low-frequency periodic signal. The effect of networked vibrational resonance can be significantly affected by spike-timing-dependent plasticity. It is shown that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with dominant depression can always improve the efficiency of vibrational resonance, and a small adjusting rate can promote the transmission of weak external signal in small-world neuronal networks. In addition, the network topology plays an important role in the vibrational resonance in spike-timing-dependent plasticity-induced neural systems, where the system response to the subthreshold signal is maximized by an optimal network structure. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the introduction of inhibitory synapses can considerably weaken the phenomenon of vibrational resonance in the hybrid small-world neuronal networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity.
Time-dependent effects of clinical predictors in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Fuerst, Daniel; Mueller, Carlheinz; Beelen, Dietrich W; Neuchel, Christine; Tsamadou, Chrysanthi; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Mytilineos, Joannis
2016-02-01
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a multifactorial process. Some of the predictors exhibit time-dependent effects. We present a systematic analysis and description of selected clinical predictors influencing outcome in a time-dependent manner based on an analysis of registry data from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation. A total of 14,951 patients with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and non-Hodgkin lymphoma transplanted with peripheral blood stem cells or bone marrow grafts were included. Multivariate Cox regression models were tested for time-dependent effects within each diagnosis group. Predictors not satisfying the proportional hazards assumption were modeled in a time-dependent manner, extending the Cox regression models. Similar patterns occurred in all diagnosis groups. Patients with a poor Karnofsky performance score (transplantation (HR 2.42, CI: 2.19-2.68; Ptransplant (HR: 0.81 CI: 0.75-0.88; Ptransplantation (HR 0.79, CI: 0.73-0.85; P<0.001), reversing to a significantly higher risk afterwards (HR 1.23, CI: 1.08-1.40; P=0.002). Integrating time dependency in regression models allows a more accurate description and quantification of clinical predictors to be made, which may help in risk assessment and patient counseling. PMID:26611475
Kapoor, Varun; Brics, Martins; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)
2013-07-01
Autoionizing states are inaccessible to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using known, adiabatic Kohn-Sham (KS) potentials. We determine the exact KS potential for a numerically exactly solvable model Helium atom interacting with a laser field that is populating an autoionizing state. The exact single-particle density of the population in the autoionizing state corresponds to that of the energetically lowest quasi-stationary state in the exact KS potential. We describe how this exact potential controls the decay by a barrier whose height and width allows for the density to tunnel out and decay with the same rate as in the ab initio time-dependent Schroedinger calculation. However, devising a useful exchange-correlation potential that is capable of governing such a scenario in general and in more complex systems is hopeless. As an improvement over TDDFT, time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory has been proposed. We are able to obtain for the above described autoionization process the exact time-dependent natural orbitals (i.e., the eigenfunctions of the exact, time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix) and study the potentials that appear in the equations of motion for the natural orbitals and the structure of the two-body density matrix expanded in them.
A multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library/Self-Shielding) based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluate data has been generated using Bondarenko and flux calculator method for the correction of self-shielding effect of neutronics analyses. To validate the reliability of the multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS, transport calculations for fusion-fission hybrid system FDS-I were performed in this paper. It was verified that the calculations with the HENDL2.1/SS gave almost the same results with MCNP calculations and were better than calculations with the HENDL2.0/MG which is another multigroup library without self-shielding correction. The test results also showed that neglecting resonance self-shielding caused underestimation of the Keff, neutron fluxes and waste transmutation ratios in the multigroup calculations of FDS-I.
Zou Jun, E-mail: jzou@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); He Zhaozhong; Zeng Qin; Qiu Yuefeng; Wang Minghuang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)
2010-12-15
A multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library/Self-Shielding) based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluate data has been generated using Bondarenko and flux calculator method for the correction of self-shielding effect of neutronics analyses. To validate the reliability of the multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS, transport calculations for fusion-fission hybrid system FDS-I were performed in this paper. It was verified that the calculations with the HENDL2.1/SS gave almost the same results with MCNP calculations and were better than calculations with the HENDL2.0/MG which is another multigroup library without self-shielding correction. The test results also showed that neglecting resonance self-shielding caused underestimation of the K{sub eff}, neutron fluxes and waste transmutation ratios in the multigroup calculations of FDS-I.
1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO
T. EVANS; ET AL
2000-08-01
We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.
A hybrid multigroup/continuous-energy Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for solving the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation. This algorithm differs significantly from previous charged-particle Monte Carlo algorithms. Most importantly, it can be used to perform both forward and adjoint transport calculations, using the same basic multigroup cross-section data. The new algorithm is fully described, computationally tested, and compared with a standard condensed history algorithm for coupled electron-photon transport calculations
Time-dependent switched discrete-time linear systems control and filtering
Zhang, Lixian; Shi, Peng; Lu, Qiugang
2016-01-01
This book focuses on the basic control and filtering synthesis problems for discrete-time switched linear systems under time-dependent switching signals. Chapter 1, as an introduction of the book, gives the backgrounds and motivations of switched systems, the definitions of the typical time-dependent switching signals, the differences and links to other types of systems with hybrid characteristics and a literature review mainly on the control and filtering for the underlying systems. By summarizing the multiple Lyapunov-like functions (MLFs) approach in which different requirements on comparisons of Lyapunov function values at switching instants, a series of methodologies are developed for the issues on stability and stabilization, and l2-gain performance or tube-based robustness for l∞ disturbance, respectively, in Chapters 2 and 3. Chapters 4 and 5 are devoted to the control and filtering problems for the time-dependent switched linear systems with either polytopic uncertainties or measurable time-varying...
Time dependent plasma viscosity and relation between neoclassical transport and turbulent transport
Time dependent plasma viscosities for asymmetric toroidal plasmas in various collisionality regimes are calculated. It is known that in the symmetric limit the time dependent plasma viscosities accurately describe plasma flow damping rate. Thus, time dependent plasma viscosities are important in modeling the radial electric field of the zonal flow. From the momentum balance equation, it is shown that, at the steady state, the balance of the viscosity force and the momentum source determines the radial electric field of the zonal flow. Thus, for a fixed source, the smaller the viscous force is, the larger the value of the radial electric field is, which in turn suppresses the turbulence fluctuations more and improves turbulence transport. However, the smaller the viscous force also implies the smaller the neoclassical transport fluxes based on the neoclassical flux-force relationship. We thus show that when neoclassical transport fluxes are improved so are the turbulent fluxes in toroidal plasmas. (author)
An analytical nodal method for time-dependent one-dimensional discrete ordinates problems
In recent years, relatively little work has been done in developing time-dependent discrete ordinates (SN) computer codes. Therefore, the topic of time integration methods certainly deserves further attention. In this paper, we describe a new coarse-mesh method for time-dependent monoenergetic SN transport problesm in slab geometry. This numerical method preserves the analytic solution of the transverse-integrated SN nodal equations by constants, so we call our method the analytical constant nodal (ACN) method. For time-independent SN problems in finite slab geometry and for time-dependent infinite-medium SN problems, the ACN method generates numerical solutions that are completely free of truncation errors. Bsed on this positive feature, we expect the ACN method to be more accurate than conventional numerical methods for SN transport calculations on coarse space-time grids
Organ doses from radionuclides on the ground. Part I. Simple time dependences
Organ dose equivalents of mathematical, anthropomorphical phantoms ADAM and EVA for photon exposures from plane sources on the ground have been calculated by Monte Carlo photon transport codes and tabulated in this article. The calculation takes into account the air-ground interface and a typical surface roughness, the energy and angular dependence of the photon fluence impinging on the phantom and the time dependence of the contributions from daughter nuclides. Results are up to 35% higher than data reported in the literature for important radionuclides. This manuscript deals with radionuclides, for which the time dependence of dose equivalent rates and dose equivalents may be approximated by a simple exponential. A companion manuscript treats radionuclides with non-trivial time dependences
Closed-orbit theory for photodetachment in a time-dependent electric field
Yang, B C
2016-01-01
The standard closed-orbit theory is extended for the photodetachment of negative ions in a time-dependent electric field. The time-dependent photodetachment rate is specifically studied in the presence of a single-cycle terahertz pulse, based on exact quantum simulations and semiclassical analysis. We find that the photodetachment rate is unaffected by a weak terahertz field, but oscillates complicatedly when the terahertz pulse gets strong enough. Three types of closed classical orbits are identified for the photoelectron motion in a strong single-cycle terahertz pulse, and their connections with the oscillatory photodetachment rate are established quantitatively by generalizing the standard closed-orbit theory to a time-dependent form. By comparing the negative hydrogen and fluorine ions, both the in-phase and antiphase oscillations can be observed, depending on a simple geometry of the contributed closed classical orbits. On account of its generality, the presented theory provides an intuitive understandin...
Exact solutions to the supply chain equations for arbitrary, time-dependent demands
Warburton, Roger D.H.; Hodgson, J.P.E.; Nielsen, Erland Hejn
2014-01-01
We study the impact on inventory of an unexpected, non-linear, time-dependent demand and present the exact solutions over time to the supply chain equations without requiring any approximations. We begin by imposing a boundary condition of stability at infinity, from which we derive expressions for...... the estimated demand and the target work in progress when the demand is time-dependent. The resulting inventory equation is solved in terms of the Lambert modes with all of the demand non-linearities confined to the pre-shape function. The series solution is exact, and all terms are reasonably easy to...... calculate, so users can determine the inventory behavior to any desired precision. To illustrate, we solve the equations for a non-linear, quadratic time-dependence in the demand. For practical use, only a few terms in the series are required, a proposition illustrated by the For All Practical Purposes...
Using NIAM to capture time dependencies in a domain of discourse
Becker, S.D.
1994-07-01
This paper addresses the issues surrounding the use of NIAM to capture time dependencies in a domain of discourse. The NIAM concepts that support capturing time dependencies are in the event and process portions of the NIAM metamodel, which are the portions most poorly supported by a well-established methodology. This lack of methodological support is a potentially serious handicap in any attempt to apply NIAM to a domain of discourse in which time dependencies are a central issue. However, the capability that NIAM provides for validating and verifying the elementary facts in the domain may reduce the magnitude of the event/process-specification task to a level at which it could be effectively handled even without strong methodological support.
Wavefunctions for the time-dependent linear oscillator and Lie point symmetries
We investigate the solution of the quantal time-dependent linear oscillator from the viewpoint of the Lie point symmetries of its time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Four of the five nongeneric symmetries can be used for the construction of wavefunctions, two as creation symmetries and two as annihilation symmetries. The fifth nongeneric symmetry provides an eigenvalue for the Lie Bracket which maps a solution symmetry to itself. The general treatment indicates that care must be taken with the selection of solutions of the classical equation for the time-dependent linear oscillator and its third-order self-adjoint counterpart to obtain results which are consistent with the standard results for the autonomous harmonic oscillator
Modelling time-dependent mechanical behaviour of softwood using deformation kinetics
Engelund, Emil Tang; Svensson, Staffan
2010-01-01
The time-dependent mechanical behaviour (TDMB) of softwood is relevant, e.g., when wood is used as building material where the mechanical properties must be predicted for decades ahead. The established mathematical models should be able to predict the time-dependent behaviour. However, these models...... are not always based on the actual physical processes causing time-dependent behaviour and the physical interpretation of their input parameters is difficult. The present study describes the TDMB of a softwood tissue and its individual tracheids. A model is constructed with a local coordinate system that follows...... and inelastic responses. The results of the model are compared with experimental results of different types. It was observed that the model is able to describe the results. Moreover, to some surprise, the introduction of only elastic and viscous properties on the microscopic scale leads to an apparent...
A theory of time-dependent compaction by fracturing and pressure solution
Keszthelyi, Daniel; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjørn
2016-04-01
Porous rocks under compressional stress conditions are subject to compaction creep. A previous micromechanical model, dealing with (partially) water-filled carbonates was able to predict strain rates of the compaction at macroscopic level by combining microscopic fracturing and pressure solution at microscopic level and using a statistical upscaling. Building on this model we investigated the time-dependence of the pressure solution and the overall compaction and created a new theory of compaction by developing a statistical theory of time-dependence of pressure solution. Long-term creep experiments on carbonate samples were used to test the model which was able to predict the rate of compaction and its time-dependence in largely different effective stress, temperature and fluid chemistry conditions.
NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Time-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics : Theory and Experiment
Lathouwers, L
1992-01-01
From March 30th to April 3rd, 1992, a NATO Advanced Research workshop entitled "Time Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Experiment" was held at Snowbird, Utah. The organizing committee consisted of J. BROECKHOVE (Antwerp, Belgium), L. CEDERBAUM (Heidelberg, Germany), L. LATHOUWERS (Antwerp, Belgium), N. OHRN (Gainesville, Florida) and J. SIMONS (Salt Lake City, Utah). Fifty-two participants from eleven different countries attended the meeting at which thirty-three talks and one poster session were held. Twenty-eight participants submitted contributions to the proceedings of the meeting, which are reproduced in this volume. The workshop brought together experts in different areas 0 f molecular quantum dynamics, all adhering to the time dependent approach. The aim was to discuss and compare methods and applications. The ~amiliarityo~ the aUdience with the concepts o~ time dependent approaches greatly facilitated topical discussions and probing towards new applications. A broad area of subject matt...
On the algebraic approach to the time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian
Urdaneta, Ines; Palma, Alejandro [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Sandoval, Lourdes, E-mail: urdaneta@sirio.ifuap.buap.m [Facultad de Ciencias de la Computacion, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)
2010-09-24
The unitary operator V(t) that diagonalizes the time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian (TDQH) into a time-dependent harmonic oscillator (TDHO) is obtained using a Lie algebra. The method involves a factorization of the TDQH into a TDHO through a unitary Bogoliubov transformation in terms of creation and annihilation operators with time-dependent coefficients. It is shown that this operator can be easily achieved by means of the factorization, together with the commonly known Wei-Norman theorem. We discuss the conditions under which this unitary operator converges to the evolution operator U(t) of the Schroedinger equation for the TDQH, giving then a straightforward calculation of the evolution operator with respect to the procedures published in the literature.
Stable recovery of the time-dependent source term from one measurement for the wave equation
Rashedi, Kamal; Sini, Mourad
2015-10-01
In this work, we discuss the inverse problem which consists of the determination of an unknown time-dependent force function from one time-dependent measurement collected in any space point for the one-dimensional wave equation. This problem is motivated by the question of estimating the time-dependent body force which needs to be exerted on a given string to reach a desired shape at the final time. We prove its unique solvability using as data a linear combination of displacement and flux measured at one arbitrary fixed point of the string. We also derive a conditional Hölder stability estimate of this inverse problem. The numerical solution of the problem is investigated by means of the Ritz--Galerkin technique along with the application of the satisfier function to obtain cost-effective and stable results. Some numerical examples are provided to show the performance of the proposed scheme.
Global fixed point proof for time-dependent density functional theory
Time-dependent density-functional theory is the extension of the highly successful ground-state density-functional theory to time-dependent phenomena. The basic theorem by Runge and Gross shows under the assumption of Taylor-expandable external potentials that every observable is in principle uniquely defined by the one-particle density of the quantum system. The van Leeuwen theorem provides under similar restrictions, that there is an auxiliary system of noninteracting particles generating the exact density of the interacting system. This so-called Kohn-Sham construction makes an ab initio solution for big quantum systems feasible. By rewriting the question whether a system is uniquely defined by its density as a fixed point question, we can proof both theorems without assumptions on the time-dependence of the potentials. We discuss implications and applications of this novel approach to fundamental questions of many-body physics.
Simulating transient dynamics of the time-dependent time fractional Fokker-Planck systems
Kang, Yan-Mei
2016-09-01
For a physically realistic type of time-dependent time fractional Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, derived as the continuous limit of the continuous time random walk with time-modulated Boltzmann jumping weight, a semi-analytic iteration scheme based on the truncated (generalized) Fourier series is presented to simulate the resultant transient dynamics when the external time modulation is a piece-wise constant signal. At first, the iteration scheme is demonstrated with a simple time-dependent time fractional FP equation on finite interval with two absorbing boundaries, and then it is generalized to the more general time-dependent Smoluchowski-type time fractional Fokker-Planck equation. The numerical examples verify the efficiency and accuracy of the iteration method, and some novel dynamical phenomena including polarized motion orientations and periodic response death are discussed.
The large discretization step method for time-dependent partial differential equations
Haras, Zigo; Taasan, Shlomo
1995-01-01
A new method for the acceleration of linear and nonlinear time dependent calculations is presented. It is based on the Large Discretization Step (LDS) approximation, defined in this work, which employs an extended system of low accuracy schemes to approximate a high accuracy discrete approximation to a time dependent differential operator. Error bounds on such approximations are derived. These approximations are efficiently implemented in the LDS methods for linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations, presented here. In these algorithms the high and low accuracy schemes are interpreted as the same discretization of a time dependent operator on fine and coarse grids, respectively. Thus, a system of correction terms and corresponding equations are derived and solved on the coarse grid to yield the fine grid accuracy. These terms are initialized by visiting the fine grid once in many coarse grid time steps. The resulting methods are very general, simple to implement and may be used to accelerate many existing time marching schemes.
Time-dependent transport in interacting and noninteracting resonant-tunneling systems
Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Wingreen, Ned S.; Meir, Yigal
1994-01-01
noninteracting resonant-tunneling system are presented. Due to the coherence between the leads and the resonant site, the current does not follow the driving signal adiabatically: a ''ringing'' current is found as a response to a voltage pulse, and a complex time dependence results in the case of harmonic...... driving voltages. We also establish a connection to recent linear-response calculations, and to earlier studies of electron-phonon scattering effects in resonant tunneling.......We consider a mesoscopic region coupled to two leads under the influence of external time-dependent voltages. The time dependence is coupled to source and drain contacts, the gates controlling the tunnel-barrier heights, or to the gates that define the mesoscopic region. We derive, with the Keldysh...
Probing the noncommutative effects of phase space in the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect
Ma, Kai; Yang, Huan-Xiong
2016-01-01
We study the noncommutative corrections on the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect when both the coordinate-coordinate and momentum-momentum noncommutativities are considered. This study is motivated by the recent observation that there is no net phase shift in the time-dependent AB effect on the ordinary space, and therefore tiny derivation from zero can indicate new physics. The vanishing of the time-dependent AB phase shift on the ordinary space is preserved by the gauge and Lorentz symmetries. However, on the noncomutative phase space, while the ordinary gauge symmetry can be kept by the Seiberg-Witten map, but the Lorentz symmetry is broken. Therefore nontrivial noncommutative corrections are expected. We find there are three kinds of noncommutative corrections in general: 1) $\\xi$-dependent correction which comes from the noncommutativity among momentum operators; 2) momentum-dependent correction which is rooted in the nonlocal interactions in the noncommutative extended model; 3) momentum-independent c...
Wave function for dissipative harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field
Lai, Meng-Yun; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Li, Yu-Qi
2016-07-01
We investigate the many-body wave function of a dissipative system of interacting particles confined by a harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field. Applying the method of Yu and Sun (1994), it is found that the wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical damped driven equation of motion, plus an addition fluctuation term due to the Brownian motion. The wave function reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem (HPT) wave function in the absence of the dissipation. An example of application of the results derived is also given.
Magnetic Reversal and Relaxation in a Quasi-1D Fractal Cluster Glass
Etzkorn, S. J.; Hibbs, Wendy; Miller, Joel S.; Epstein, A. J.
2003-03-01
The magnetic reversal of the quasi-1D organic-based magnet [MnTPP]^+[TCNE]^- otx(1,3-C_6H_4Cl_2) (TPP is tetraphenylporphyrin dianion, TCNE is tetracyanoethylene, x ˜ 2) is explored using both static and dynamic measurements. A time dependent shift is observed in the bifurcation point of the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization as a result of long time relaxation above the spin glass transition. Hysteresis measurements recorded with different applied magnetic field sweep rates show time dependent effects above the spin glass transition temperature. Below the transition temperature collective behavior in magnetic reversal is observed. The temperature dependence of the coercive field is linear below the glass transition suggesting the energy landscape is dominated by a single, temperature independent energy barrier. The results are examined in the context of an anisotropic fractal cluster model.
A density-functional approach to fermionization in the 1D Bose gas
A time-dependent Kohn-Sham scheme for 1D bosons with contact interaction is derived based on a model of spinor fermions. This model is specifically designed for the study of the strong interaction regime close to the Tonks gas. It allows us to treat the transition from the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau to the weakly interacting quasicondensate regime and provides an intuitive picture of the extent of fermionization in the system. An adiabatic local-density approximation is devised for the study of time-dependent processes. This scheme is shown to yield not only accurate ground-state properties but also overall features of the elementary excitation spectrum, which is described exactly in the Tonks-gas limit
Repair and Strengthening Assessment of Existing Bridges Based on Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis
孙晓燕; 黄承逵; 孙保沭
2004-01-01
The strategy on repair and strengthening of existing bridges based on time-dependent reliability was analyzed with the maximum expected benefit as the objective function. A sample of risk-ranking decision was illustrated based on updated inspection information with 35 survival age. The effect of improvement of live loads and difference of repair methods on time-dependent reliability of existing bridges are considered. The results show that the decision method can be used in real project, with the cost of failure consequence and the risk of failure considered.
Low-energy fusion dynamics of weakly bound nuclei: A time dependent perspective
Diaz-Torres, A.; Boselli, M.
2016-05-01
Recent dynamical fusion models for weakly bound nuclei at low incident energies, based on a time-dependent perspective, are briefly presented. The main features of both the PLATYPUS model and a new quantum approach are highlighted. In contrast to existing timedependent quantum models, the present quantum approach separates the complete and incomplete fusion from the total fusion. Calculations performed within a toy model for 6Li + 209Bi at near-barrier energies show that converged excitation functions for total, complete and incomplete fusion can be determined with the time-dependent wavepacket dynamics.
Time-dependent Bragg diffraction and short-pulse reflection by one-dimensional photonic crystals
André, Jean-michel
2015-01-01
The time-dependence of the Bragg diffraction by one-dimensional photonic crystals and its influence on the short pulse reflection are studied in the framework of the coupled- wave theory. The indicial response of the photonic crystal is calculated and it appears that it presents a time-delay effect with a transient time conditioned by the extinction length. A numerical simulation is presented for a Bragg mirror in the x-ray domain and a pulse envelope modelled by a sine-squared shape. The potential consequences of the time-delay effect in time-dependent optics of short-pulses are emphasized.
Low-energy fusion dynamics of weakly bound nuclei: A time dependent perspective
Diaz-Torres A.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Recent dynamical fusion models for weakly bound nuclei at low incident energies, based on a time-dependent perspective, are briefly presented. The main features of both the PLATYPUS model and a new quantum approach are highlighted. In contrast to existing timedependent quantum models, the present quantum approach separates the complete and incomplete fusion from the total fusion. Calculations performed within a toy model for 6Li + 209Bi at near-barrier energies show that converged excitation functions for total, complete and incomplete fusion can be determined with the time-dependent wavepacket dynamics.
Electrical probe characteristic recovery by measuring only one time-dependent parameter
Costin, C.; Popa, G.; Anita, V.
2016-03-01
Two straightforward methods for recovering the current-voltage characteristic of an electrical probe are proposed. Basically, they consist of replacing the usual power supply from the probe circuit with a capacitor which can be charged or discharged by the probe current drained from the plasma. The experiment requires the registration of only one time-dependent electrical parameter, either the probe current or the probe voltage. The corresponding time-dependence of the second parameter, the probe voltage, or the probe current, respectively, can be calculated using an integral or a differential relation and the current-voltage characteristic of the probe can be obtained.
Time-dependent formulation of the many-electron problem in atoms
Method development of the time-dependent numerical MCSCF and CI method for atoms, without and with inclusion of an oscillating electric field, linearly polarized (electric dipole approximation for light). In the CI method, the numerical orbitals are kept fixed (not time-dependent), and only the CI coefficients are propagated, whereas in the MCSCF method both the CI coefficients and the numerical orbitals in the CSFs are propagated. The basis for this work were the non-relativistic numerical atomic structure codes for free atoms and for atoms in a static electric field developed at Bielefeld. (orig.)
Reactivity-induced time-dependencies of EBR-II linear and non-linear feedbacks
Time-dependent linear feedback reactivities are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a kinetic code analysis of an experiment in which the change in power resulted from the dropping of a control rod. Shown with these linear reactivities are the reactivity associated with the control-rod shaft contraction and also time-dependent non-linear (mainly bowing) component deduced from the inverse kinetics of the experimentally measured fission power and the calculated linear reactivities. (author)
Efficient computation of the MCTDHF approximation to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation
Othmar Koch
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss analytical and numerical properties of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method for the approximate solution of the time-dependent multi-particle (electronic Schrödinger equation which are relevant for an efficient implementation of this model reduction technique. Particularly, we focus on a discretization and low rank approximation in the evaluation of the meanfield terms occurring in the MCTDHF equations of motion, which is crucial for the computational tractability of the problem. We give error bounds for this approximation and demonstrate the achieved gain in performance.
Time dependent difference theory for sound propagation in axisymmetric ducts with plug flow
Baumeister, K. J.
1980-01-01
The time dependent governing/acoustic-difference equations and boundary conditions are developed and solved for sound propagation in an axisymmetric (cylindrical) hard wall duct with a plug mean flow and spinning acoustic modes. The analysis begins with a harmonic sound source radiating into a quiescent duct. This explicit iteration method then calculates stepwise in real time to obtain the transient as well as the 'steady' state solutions of the acoustic field. The time dependent finite difference analysis has two advantages over the steady state finite difference and finite element techniques: (1) the elimination of large matrix storage requirements, and (2) shorter solution times under most conditions.
Interaction-free evolution in the presence of time-dependent Hamiltonians
Chruściński, Dariusz; Messina, Antonino; Militello, Benedetto; Napoli, Anna
2015-04-01
The generalization of the concept of interaction-free evolutions (IFE) [Napoli et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 062104 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.062104] to the case of time-dependent Hamiltonians is discussed. It turns out that the time-dependent case allows for much richer structures of interaction-free states and interaction-free subspaces. The general condition for the occurrence of IFE is found and exploited to analyze specific situations. Several examples are presented, each one associated to a class of Hamiltonians with specific features.
Transient Taylor-Aris dispersion for time-dependent flows in straight channels
Vedel, Søren; Bruus, Henrik
2012-01-01
–ket formalism, we derive an expression for the effective solute diffusivity valid for transient Taylor–Aris dispersion in any given time-dependent, multi-frequency solvent flow through straight channels. Our theory shows that the solute dispersion may be greatly enhanced by the time-dependent parts of the flow...... we both recover the known results for steady and single-frequency pulsating flows, and find new, richer structure of the dispersion as function of system parameters in multi-frequency systems. We show that the effective diffusivity is enhanced significantly by those parts of the time...
Rate-Independent Processes with Linear Growth Energies and Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions
Kružík, Martin; Zimmer, J.
2012-01-01
Roč. 5, č. 3 (2012), s. 591-604. ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/10/0357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : concentrations * oscillations * time-dependent boundary conditions * rate-independent evolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/MTR/kruzik-rate-independent processes with linear growth energies and time-dependent boundary conditions.pdf
Time-dependent Landauer—Büttiker formalism for superconducting junctions at arbitrary temperatures
Tuovinen, Riku; van Leeuwen, Robert; Perfetto, Enrico; Stefanucci, Gianluca
2016-03-01
We discuss an extension of our earlier work on the time-dependent Landauer- Buttiker formalism for noninteracting electronic transport. The formalism can without complication be extended to superconducting central regions since the Green's functions in the Nambu representation satisfy the same equations of motion which, in turn, leads to the same closed expression for the equal-time lesser Green's function, i.e., for the time-dependent reduced one-particle density matrix. We further write the finite-temperature frequency integrals in terms of known special functions thereby considerably speeding up the computation. Simulations in simple normal metal - superconductor - normal metal junctions are also presented.
Rüger, Robert; van Lenthe, Erik; Heine, Thomas; Visscher, Lucas
2016-01-01
We report a time-dependent density functional based tight-binding (TD-DFTB) scheme for the calculation of UV/Vis spectra, explicitly taking into account the excitation of nuclear vibrations via the harmonic approximation. The theory of vibrationally resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy is first summarized from the viewpoint of TD-DFTB. The method is benchmarked against time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for strongly dipole allowed excitations in various aromatic and polar molecules. Using the recent 3ob:freq parameter set of Elstner's group, excellent agreement with TD-DFT calculations using local functionals was achieved.
Time dependence of the radiation-induced EPR signal in sucrose
Sucrose and common household sugars (e.g. cane) have been studied as dosemeters for a wide variety of applications. However, previous studies of the post-irradiation time dependence of irradiated sugar did not include an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) reference material. This work employs synthetic ruby as an EPR reference material to remove significant spectrometer/environmental influences on the measured time-dependent changes in the EPR spectral amplitude of irradiated sucrose. As such, these more accurate measurements should replace the previously published data. (authors)
Direct measurement of time dependent diffusion for Ag and Au under ambient conditions
Yoo, Pil Sun; Jo, Han Yeol; Kim, Tae Kyeong [Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
Time-dependent diffusion for Ag and Au metal atoms was measured using the scanning tunneling microscope break-junction technique in ambient conditions. We observed that Ag contacts do not form long single-atomic chains compared to Au contacts during the elongation of each metal electrode, and Ag atoms diffuse more quickly than Au atoms after metal contact rupture. This is consistent with previous results of molecular dynamic simulations. Further, we found a correlation between diffusion length and the evolution time on an atomic scale to reveal the time-dependent diffusion for Ag and Au metal atoms.
Time-dependent renormalized-natural-orbital theory applied to laser-driven H$_2^+$
Hanusch, A; Brics, M; Bauer, D
2016-01-01
Recently introduced time-dependent renormalized-natural orbital theory (TDRNOT) is extended towards a multi-component approach in order to describe H$_2^+$ beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Two kinds of natural orbitals, describing the electronic and the nuclear degrees of freedom are introduced, and the exact equations of motion for them are derived. The theory is benchmarked by comparing numerically exact results of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation for a H$_2^+$ model system with the corresponding TDRNOT predictions. Ground state properties, linear response spectra, fragmentation, and high-order harmonic generation are investigated.
High-Order Non-Reflecting Boundary Scheme for Time-Dependent Waves
Givoli, Dan; Neta, Beny
2002-01-01
A new non-reflecting boundary scheme is proposed for time-dependent wave problems in unbounded domains. The linear time-dependent wave equation, with or without a disper- sive term, is considered outside of an obstacle or in a semi-infinite wave guide. The infinite domain is truncated via an artificial boundary B, and a high-order Non-Reflecting Boundary Condition (NRBC) is imposed on B. Then the problem is solved numerically in the finite domain bounded by B. The new boundary scheme is based...
The Modification of Time-Dependent Mechanical Properties of Polyamides due to Sterilization
Florjancic, Urska; Zupancic, Barbara; Sutton, Elizabeth; Sitar, Ksenija Rener; Marion, Ljubo; Batista, Urska; Groselj, Dusan; Emri, Igor
2008-07-01
We examine the effect of sterilization on functionality and durability of Polyamide 6. Nowadays there are several applications of this material in medicine in a form of surgical sewing material, vascular catheters and other implants. Understanding the time-dependent behavior of PA-6 is critical in predicting the durability of different medical products made from this polymer. We show that two PA-6 materials having different initial kinetics and processed with the same technology, when exposed to sterilization, change their time-dependent mechanical properties, and hence the durability in significantly different ways.
A time-dependent Fokker-Planck code for neutron rate interpretations
A time dependent code for neutron rate interpretation of neutral beam heated tokamak plasmas has been developed. The code is based on a Fokker-Planck model and is comparatively fast. It includes tail-tail fusion reaction rates, which are important but often neglected since they are difficult to calculate. Results from the code are presented for test cases in order to illustrate some of its features. Finally, time-dependent calculations for a Joint European Torus (JET) discharge are presented and the interpretation calculation for the dilution nD/ne are shown to be in very good agreement with the experimental results. (Author)
Thresholds of time dependent intergranular crack growth in a nickel disc alloy Alloy 720Li
Li Hangyue; Fisk Joe; Lim Lik-Beng; Williams Steve; Bowen Paul
2014-01-01
At high temperatures in air, introducing a dwell period at the peak stress of fatigue cycles promotes time dependent intergranular crack growth which can increase crack growth rates by upto a few orders of magnitude from the rates of transgranular fatigue crack growth in superalloys. It is expected that time dependent intergranular crack growth in nickel-based superalloys may not occur below a critical mechanical driving force, ΔKth−IG, analogous to a fatigue threshold (ΔKth) and a critical t...
Time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect on the noncommutative space
Kai Ma; Jian-Hua Wang; Huan-Xiong Yang
2016-01-01
We study the time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect on the noncommutative space. Because there is no net Aharonov–Bohm phase shift in the time-dependent case on the commutative space, therefore, a tiny deviation from zero indicates new physics. Based on the Seiberg–Witten map we obtain the gauge invariant and Lorentz covariant Aharonov–Bohm phase shift in general case on noncommutative space. We find there are two kinds of contribution: momentum-dependent and momentum-independent corrections. Fo...
New geometric transition as origin of particle production in time-dependent backgrounds
By extending the quantum evolution of a scalar field in time-dependent backgrounds to the complex-time plane and transporting the in-vacuum along a closed path, we argue that the geometric transition from the simple pole at infinity determines the multi-pair production depending on the winding number. We apply the geometric transition to Schwinger mechanism in the time-dependent vector potential for a constant electric field and to Gibbons–Hawking particle production in the planar coordinates of a de Sitter space
Time-dependent Networks as Models to Achieve Fast Exact Time-table Queries
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jacob, Rico
We consider efficient algorithms for exact time-table queries, i.e. algorithms that find optimal itineraries. We propose to use time-dependent networks as a model and show advantages of this approach over space-time networks as models.......We consider efficient algorithms for exact time-table queries, i.e. algorithms that find optimal itineraries. We propose to use time-dependent networks as a model and show advantages of this approach over space-time networks as models....
Time-Dependent Networks as Models to Achieve Fast Exact Time-Table Queries
Brodal, Gert Stølting; Jacob, Rico
2003-01-01
We consider efficient algorithms for exact time-table queries, i.e. algorithms that find optimal itineraries for travelers using a train system. We propose to use time-dependent networks as a model and show advantages of this approach over space-time networks as models.......We consider efficient algorithms for exact time-table queries, i.e. algorithms that find optimal itineraries for travelers using a train system. We propose to use time-dependent networks as a model and show advantages of this approach over space-time networks as models....
Time-Dependent Mean-Field Games in the Subquadratic Case
Gomes, Diogo A.
2014-10-14
In this paper we consider time-dependent mean-field games with subquadratic Hamiltonians and power-like local dependence on the measure. We establish existence of classical solutions under a certain set of conditions depending on both the growth of the Hamiltonian and the dimension. This is done by combining regularity estimates for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation based on the Gagliardo-Nirenberg interpolation inequality with polynomial estimates for the Fokker-Planck equation. This technique improves substantially the previous results on the regularity of time-dependent mean-field games.
Time-dependent renormalized-natural-orbital theory applied to laser-driven H2 +
Hanusch, A.; Rapp, J.; Brics, M.; Bauer, D.
2016-04-01
Recently introduced time-dependent renormalized-natural-orbital theory (TDRNOT) is extended towards a multicomponent approach in order to describe H2 + beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Two kinds of natural orbitals, describing the electronic and the nuclear degrees of freedom are introduced, and the exact equations of motion for them are derived. The theory is benchmarked by comparing numerically exact results of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for an H2 + model system with the corresponding TDRNOT predictions. Ground-state properties, linear-response spectra, fragmentation, and high-order harmonic generation are investigated.
Wodraszka, Robert; Carrington, Tucker
2016-07-01
In this paper, we propose a pruned, nondirect product multi-configuration time dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method for solving the Schrödinger equation. MCTDH uses optimized 1D basis functions, called single particle functions, but the size of the standard direct product MCTDH basis scales exponentially with D, the number of coordinates. We compare the pruned approach to standard MCTDH calculations for basis sizes small enough that the latter are possible and demonstrate that pruning the basis reduces the CPU cost of computing vibrational energy levels of acetonitrile (D = 12) by more than two orders of magnitude. Using the pruned method, it is possible to do calculations with larger bases, for which the cost of standard MCTDH calculations is prohibitive. Pruning the basis complicates the evaluation of matrix-vector products. In this paper, they are done term by term for a sum-of-products Hamiltonian. When no attempt is made to exploit the fact that matrices representing some of the factors of a term are identity matrices, one needs only to carefully constrain indices. In this paper, we develop new ideas that make it possible to further reduce the CPU time by exploiting identity matrices.
MC2-2: a code to calculate fast neutron spectra and multigroup cross sections
MC2-2 is a program to solve the neutron slowing down problem using basic neutron data derived from the ENDF/B data files. The spectrum calculated by MC2-2 is used to collapse the basic data to multigroup cross sections for use in standard reactor neutronics codes. Four different slowing down formulations are used by MC2-2: multigroup, continuous slowing down using the Goertzel-Greuling or Improved Goertzel-Greuling moderating parameters, and a hyper-fine-group integral transport calculation. Resolved and unresolved resonance cross sections are calculated accounting for self-shielding, broadening and overlap effects. This document provides a description of the MC2-2 program. The physics and mathematics of the neutron slowing down problem are derived and detailed information is provided to aid the MC2-2 user in preparing input for the program and implementation of the program on IBM 370 or CDC 7600 computers
A Multigroup Method for the Calculation of Neutron Fluence with a Source Term
Heinbockel, J. H.; Clowdsley, M. S.
1998-01-01
Current research on the Grant involves the development of a multigroup method for the calculation of low energy evaporation neutron fluences associated with the Boltzmann equation. This research will enable one to predict radiation exposure under a variety of circumstances. Knowledge of radiation exposure in a free-space environment is a necessity for space travel, high altitude space planes and satellite design. This is because certain radiation environments can cause damage to biological and electronic systems involving both short term and long term effects. By having apriori knowledge of the environment one can use prediction techniques to estimate radiation damage to such systems. Appropriate shielding can be designed to protect both humans and electronic systems that are exposed to a known radiation environment. This is the goal of the current research efforts involving the multi-group method and the Green's function approach.
Processing ENDF/B-V uncertainty data into multigroup covariance matrices
The purpose of this work is to develop and demonstrate the capability of processing Evaluated Nuclear Data File, system B, version five (ENDF/B-V) uncertainty data into multigroup covariance matrices. These covariances may then be folded with sensitivity coefficients to obtain uncertainties in selected integral parameters such as K-effective and breeding ratio. The project consisted of separating the previous uncertainty processor (PUFF) from the basic nuclear data cross section processor (MINX), updating the uncertanty processor to theENDF/B-V format, programming the processor for new uncertainty data, and demonstrating the processor capabilities by producing a multigroup covariance library. These capabilities were verified in various ways including hand calculations and comparisons with other known results. A computer code named PUFF-II was written to perform the task described above
A conservative multi-group approach to the Boltzmann equations for reactive gas mixtures
Bisi, M.; Rossani, A.; Spiga, G.
2015-11-01
Starting from a simple kinetic model for a quaternary mixture of gases undergoing a bimolecular chemical reaction, multi-group integro-differential equations are derived for the particle distribution functions of all species. The procedure takes advantage of a suitable probabilistic formulation, based on the underlying collision frequencies and transition probabilities, of the relevant reactive kinetic equations of Boltzmann type. Owing to an appropriate choice of a sufficiently large number of weight functions, it is shown that the proposed multi-group equations are able to fulfil exactly, at any order of approximation, the correct conservation laws that must be inherited from the original kinetic equations, where speed was a continuous variable. Future developments are also discussed.
Cassandre : a two-dimensional multigroup diffusion code for reactor transient analysis
CASSANDRE is a two-dimensional (x-y or r-z) finite element neutronics code with thermohydraulics feedback for reactor dynamics prior to the disassembly phase. It uses the multigroup neutron diffusion theory. Its main characteristics are the use of a generalized quasistatic model, the use of a flexible multigroup point-kinetics algorithm allowing for spectral matching and the use of a finite element description. The code was conceived in order to be coupled with any thermohydraulics module, although thermohydraulics feedback is only considered in r-z geometry. In steady state criticality search is possible either by control rod insertion or by homogeneous poisoning of the coolant. This report describes the main characterstics of the code structure and provides all the information needed to use the code. (Author)
Updated multi-group cross sections of minor actinides with improved resonance treatment
The study of minor actinide in transmutation reactors and other future applications makes resonance self-shielding treatment a significant issue for criticality and isotope depletion. Resonance treatment for minor actinides has been carried out by subgroup method with improved interference effect through interference correction. Subgroup data was generated using RMET21 and GENP codes along with multi-group cross section data by NJOY nuclear data processing system. Updated multi-group cross section data library for a neutron transport code nTRACER was compared with solutions from MCNPX. The resonance interaction of uranium with minor actinides has been included by modified interference treatment of interference correction in subgroup methodology. The comparison of cross sections and multiplication factor in pin and assembly problems showed significant improvement from systematic resonance treatment especially for 237Np and 243Am. (author)
Tredit A 3-D multigroup diffusion theory simulator for hexagonal fuel assembly cores
A multigroup 3-D reactor core simulator based on neutron diffusion theory, called TREDIT has been developed for Light Water Reactors (LWRs). It considers triangle shaped meshes in X-Y plane and variable mesh spacing in Z-direction. Thus it is especially suited for designing and analysing LWR cores with hexagonal fuel assemblied like the Russian WWER reactors. When fuel assembly cross-sections in multigroup form are input as fitted constants, the computer code TREDIT can build up core burnup distribution with power distribution computed for initial reactor conditions. The results of this code have been compared with another diffusion theory based code and found satisfactory. Xenon feedback effects on core power distribution are demonstrated. (author)
Correction of multigroup cross sections for resolved resonance interference in mixed absorbers
The effect that interference between resolved resonances has on averaging multigroup cross sections is examined for thermal reactor-type problems. A simple and efficient numerical scheme is presented to correct a preprocessed multigroup library for interference effects. The procedure is implemented in a design oriented lattice physics computer code and compared with rigorous numerical calculations. The approximate method for computing resonance interference correction factors is applied to obtaining fine-group cross sections for a homogeneous uranium-plutonium mixture and a uranium oxide lattice. It was found that some fine group cross sections are changed by more than 40% due to resonance interference. The change in resonance interference correction factors due to burnup of a PWR fuel pin is examined and found to be small. The effect of resolved resonance interference on collapsed broad-group cross sections for thermal reactor calculations is discussed
Second order time evolution of the multigroup diffusion and P1 equations for radiation transport
Highlights: → An existing multigroup transport algorithm is extended to be second-order in time. → A new algorithm is presented that does not require a grey acceleration solution. → The two algorithms are tested with 2D, multi-material problems. → The two algorithms have comparable computational requirements. - Abstract: An existing solution method for solving the multigroup radiation equations, linear multifrequency-grey acceleration, is here extended to be second order in time. This method works for simple diffusion and for flux-limited diffusion, with or without material conduction. A new method is developed that does not require the solution of an averaged grey transport equation. It is effective solving both the diffusion and P1 forms of the transport equation. Two dimensional, multi-material test problems are used to compare the solution methods.
Graphical abstract: The time-dependent electron density is mapped via inversion of the ground-state Kohn–Sham formalism on two spin-densities, and thus an accurate adiabatic correlation potential is obtained. Research highlights: ► An adiabatic approximation for time-dependent density functional theory is proposed. ► Inverting static spin-density functional theory yields accurate correlation potentials. ► The derivative discontinuity is reproduced. ► Tested for strong-field ionization and molecules at large internuclear distance. - Abstract: It has recently been shown by Thiele et al. [M. Thiele, E. K. U. Gross, S. Kümmel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 153004] that the exact adiabatic approximation in time-dependent density functional theory gives a good description of non-sequential double ionization in the one-dimensional helium atom. In this paper, we propose an adiabatic approximation based on the inversion of ground-state spin-density functional theory and apply it to several model systems. We demonstrate that our approach reproduces the derivative discontinuity and yields correlation potentials close to the exact correlation potentials for a strong-field ionization process as well as for the 1D H2 and LiH molecules at large internuclear distance.
TRIMARAN: a three dimensional multigroup P1 Monte Carlo code for criticallity studies
TRIMARAN is developed for safety analysis of nuclar components containing fissionnable materials: shipping casks, storage and cooling pools, manufacture and reprocessing plants. It solves the transport equation by Monte Carlo method in general three dimensional geometry with multigroup P1 approximation. A special representation of cross sections and numbers has been developed in order to reduce considerably the computing cost and allow this three dimensional code to compete with standard numerical program used in parametric studies
Mejlbro, Leif
1996-01-01
Fick's Second Law of Diffusion with time-dependent diffusioncoefficient and surface concentration is solved. Mimicking the classicalsolution, special time-dependent surface concentration functions areconsidered. These models are used in giving estimates of the lifetimeof the structure, when the...
Time-dependent density-functional theory in the projector augmented-wave method
Walter, Michael; Häkkinen, Hannu; Lehtovaara, Lauri; Puska, Martti; Enkovaara, Jussi; Rostgaard, Carsten; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen
2008-01-01
We present the implementation of the time-dependent density-functional theory both in linear-response and in time-propagation formalisms using the projector augmented-wave method in real-space grids. The two technically very different methods are compared in the linear-response regime where we...
For the direct-inverse scattering transform of the time dependent Schroedinger equation, rigorous results are obtained based on an operator-triangular-factorization approach. By viewing the equation as a first order operator equation, similar results as for the first order n x n matrix system are obtained. The nonlocal Riemann-Hilbert problem for inverse scattering is shown to have solution. (orig.)
Time-dependent flow from an AdS Schwarzschild black hole
I discuss two examples of time-dependent flow which can be described in terms of an AdS Schwarzschild black hole via holography. The first example involves Bjorken hydrodynamics which should be applicable to the formation of the quark gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions. The second example is the cosmological evolution of our Universe
Parallel solution of the three-dimensional time-dependent Ginzburg- Landau equation
The recent discovery of superconductivity in a class of copper-oxide compounds (the cuprate superconductors) at liquid nitrogen temperatures has generated a renewed interest in the magnetic properties of type-II superconductors. In our work, we are investigating these properties using the phenomenological time- dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. This paper describes the parallelization of this equation
Time-dependent density-functional theory with self-interaction correction
Messud, J.; Dinh, P. M.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.
2007-01-01
We discuss an extension of time-dependent density-functional theory by a self-interaction correction (SIC). A strictly variational formulation is given taking care of the necessary constraints. A manageable and transparent propagation scheme using two sets of wavefunctions is proposed and applied to laser excitation with subsequent ionization of a dimer molecule.
Space- and time-dependent reactor dynamics on the basis of a 2D FEM programme
The time-dependent reactor equations are solved using the FEM, and the results are compared with a 2D benchmark problem. It is shown schematically how the basic element of a stationary programme, the search for eigenvalues, may be used without alterations in a dynamic calculation. Also, proposals are made for improving the economy of matrix processing in a FEM programme. (RW)
Time-dependent boundary-layer response in a propeller slipstream
Howard, Richard M.; Miley, Stan J.
1989-01-01
The time-dependent behavior of a wing boundary layer immersed in a propeller slipstream has been studied experimentally in wind-tunnel tests and in flight. Hot-wire anemometer measurements were made through the boundary layer for time-dependent, ensemble-average velocity and turbulence-intensity profiles at various chord locations. The boundary layer has a coherent, time-dependent cycle of transitional behavior, varying from a laminar to a turbulent-transitional state. Local drag coefficients determined from the velocity profiles for the freewheeling propeller case in flight show that the time-dependent drag in the propeller slipstream varies from the undisturbed laminar value to a value less than that predicted for fully turbulent flow. Local drag coefficients determined from the thrusting propeller case in the wind tunnel indicate that the effects of the slipstream are to enhance the stability of the boundary layer and to reduce the drag coefficient in the laminar portion of the cycle below its undisturbed laminar value.
Well-posedness of inverse problems for systems with time dependent parameters
Banks, H. T.; Pedersen, Michael
2009-01-01
H is identified with its dual and denotes the associated duality product. We show under reasonable assumptions on the time-dependent sesquilinear forms a (t;.,.) : V x V -> C and d (t;.,.) : V-D x V-D -> C that this model allows a unique solution and that the solution depends continuously on the...... kinds of damping....
A time-dependent measurement of charm CP violation at LHCb
Smith, M
2014-01-01
A time dependent analysis of CP violation in charm mesons is presented through the measurement of the observable $A_{\\Gamma}$. This observable involves precise measurements of the D0 lifetime as it decays to a CP eigenstate. The results presented are the most precise to date. No CP violation is observed.
3D time-dependent flow computations using a molecular stress function model with constraint release
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz
2002-01-01
The numerical simulation of time dependent viscoelastic flow (in three dimensions) is of interest in connection with a variety of polymer processing operations. The application of the numerical simulation techniques is in the analysis and design of polymer processing problems. This is operations...
Stability estimate for the relativistic Schrödinger equation with time-dependent vector potentials
We consider the relativistic Schrödinger equation with a time dependent vector and scalar potential on a bounded cylindrical domain. Using a geometric optics ansatz we establish a logarithmic stability estimate for the recovery of vector and scalar potentials. (paper)
A sparse collocation method for solving time-dependent HJB equations using multivariate B-splines
Govindarajan, N.; De Visser, C.C.; Krishnakumar, K.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a sparse collocation method for solving the time-dependent Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation associated with the continuous-time optimal control problem on a fixed, finite timehorizon with integral cost functional. Through casting the problem in a recursive framework using t
Yong Wu; Siming He
2015-01-01
Failure of loose gully deposits under the effect of rainfall contributes to the potential risk of debris flow. In the past decades, researches on hydraulic mechanism and time-dependent characteristics of loose deposits failure are frequently reported, however adequate measures for reducing debris flow are not available practically. In this context, a time-dependent model was established to determine the changes of water table of loose deposits using hydraulic and topographic theories. In addition, the variation in water table with elapsed time was analyzed. The formulas for calculating hydrodynamic and hydrostatic pressures on each strip and block unit of deposit were proposed, and the slope stability and failure risk of the loose deposits were assessed based on the time-dependent hydraulic characteristics of established model. Finally, the failure mechanism of deposits based on infinite slope theory was illustrated, with an example, to calculate sliding force, anti-sliding force and residual sliding force applied to each slice. The results indicate that failure of gully deposits under the effect of rainfall is the result of continuously increasing hydraulic pressure and water table. The time-dependent characteristics of loose deposit failure are determined by the factors of hydraulic properties, drainage area of interest, rainfall pattern, rainfall duration and intensity.
Daveau, Christian
2007-01-01
We consider for the time-dependent Maxwell's equations the inverse problem of identifying locations and certain properties of small electromagnetic inhomogeneities in a homogeneous background medium from dynamic measurements of the tangential component of the magnetic field on the boundary (or a part of the boundary) of a domain.
Time-dependent clearance of mycophenolic acid in renal transplant recipients
R.M. van Hest (Reinier); T. van Gelder (Teun); R. Bouw (René); T. Goggin (Timothy); R. Gordon (Robert); R. Mamelok (Richard); R.A. Mathot (Ron)
2007-01-01
textabstractAims: Pharmacokinetic studies of the immunosuppressive compound mycophenolic acid (MPA) have shown a structural decrease in clearance (CL) over time after renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to characterize the time-dependent CL of MPA by means of a population pharmacokineti
Time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect on the noncommutative space
Ma, Kai; Yang, Huan-Xiong
2016-01-01
We study the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect on the noncommutative space. Because there is no net Aharonov-Bohm phase shift in the time-dependent case on the commutative space, therefore tiny deviation from zero indicates new physics. Based on the Seiberg-Witten map we obtained the gauge invariant and Lorentz covariant Aharonov-Bohm phase shift on noncommutative space in general case. We find there are two kinds of contributions: momentum-dependent and momentum-independent corrections. For the momentum-dependent correction, there is a cancellation between the magnetic and electric phase shifts, just like the case on the commutative space. However, there is a non-trivial contribution in the momentum-independent correction. This is true for both the time-independent and time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effects on the noncommutative space. However, for the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect, there is no overwhelming background which exists on both commutative and noncommutative space for the time-independent Ah...
Mixing of photons with light pseudoscalars in time-dependent magnetic fields
Arias, Paola; Gamboa, Jorge
2016-01-01
The effects of an external time-dependent magnetic field in the conversion probability of photon-to-axion-like particles are studied. Our findings show that for a certain time regime, the amplitude of the produced axion-like field can be enlarged with respect to the static case, thus, enhancing the probability of conversion.
Inhibitory synaptic plasticity: spike timing-dependence and putative network function
Vogels, Tim P.; Froemke, Robert C.; Nicolas Doyon; Matthieu Gilson; Haas, Julie S.; Robert Liu; Arianna Maffei; Paul Miller; Corette Wierenga; Woodin, Melanie A.; Henning Sprekeler
2013-01-01
While the plasticity of excitatory synaptic connections in the brain has been widely studied, the plasticity of inhibitory connections is much less understood. Here, we present recent experimental and theoretical findings concerning the rules of spike timing-dependent inhibitory plasticity and their putative network function. This is a summary of a workshop at the COSYNE conference 2012.
Operation safety risk analysis method of hydropower project considering time-dependent effect
Zhang Sherong; Yan Lei
2012-01-01
In order to consider the time-dependent characteristic of risk factors of hydropower project, the method of stochastic process simulating structure resistance and load effect is adopted. On the basis of analyzing the structure characteristics and mode of operation, the operation safety risk rate assessment model of hydropower project is established on the comprehensive application of the improved analytic hierarchy process, the time-dependent reliability theory and the risk rate threshold. A scheme to demonstrate the time-dependent risk rate assessment method for an example of the earth-rock dam is particularly implemented by the proposed approach. The example shows that operation safety risk rate is closely related to both the service period and design standard ; considering the effect of time-dependent, the risk rate increases with time and the intersection of them reflects the technical service life of structures. It could provide scientific basis for the operation safety and risk decision of the hydropower project by predicting the trend of risk rate via this model.
Emergence of slow collective oscillations in neural networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity
Mikkelsen, Kaare; Imparato, Alberto; Torcini, Alessandro
2013-01-01
The collective dynamics of excitatory pulse coupled neurons with spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is studied. The introduction of STDP induces persistent irregular oscillations between strongly and weakly synchronized states, reminiscent of brain activity during slow-wave sleep. We explain...
Fractional Fokker-Planck Equations for Subdiffusion with Space-and-Time-Dependent Forces
Henry, B. I.; Langlands, T. A. M; Straka, P.
2010-01-01
We have derived a fractional Fokker-Planck equation for subdiffusion in a general space-and- time-dependent force field from power law waiting time continuous time random walks biased by Boltzmann weights. The governing equation is derived from a generalized master equation and is shown to be equivalent to a subordinated stochastic Langevin equation.
Theoretical study of time-dependent, ultrasound-induced acoustic streaming in microchannels
Muller, Peter Barkholt; Bruus, Henrik
2015-01-01
frequency domain. Scaling analysis reveals that the acoustic resonance builds up much faster than the acoustic streaming, implying that the radiation force may dominate over the drag force from streaming even for small particles. However, our numerical time-dependent analysis indicates that pulsed actuation...
de la Calle Negro, A.; Dundas, D.; Taylor, K. T.
2014-01-01
We investigate electron dynamics in the hydrogen atom and the hydrogen molecular ion when exposed to long wavelength laser pulses yet having intensity insufficient to ionize the system. We find that the field is still able to drive the electron, leading to time-dependent interference effects.
Annual progress report FY 1976. [Numerical methods for time-dependent reactor dynamics
Hansen, K.F.; Henry, A.F.
1976-03-01
This project is directed toward development of numerical methods suitable for the computer solution of problems in reactor dynamics and safety. Specific areas of research include methods of integration of the time-dependent diffusion equations by finite difference and finite element methods; representation of reactor properties by various homogenization procedures; application of synthesis methods; and development of response matrix techniques.
Numerical evaluation of coherent-state path integrals with applications to time-dependent problems
Burghardt, Bernd; Stolze, Joachim
1999-01-01
We study the application of the coherent-state path integral as a numerical tool for wave-packet propagation. The numerical evaluation of path integrals is reduced to a matrix-vector multiplication scheme. Together with a split-operator technique we apply our method to a time-dependent double-well potential.
Time-dependent ion selectivity in capacitive charging of porous electrodes
Zhao, R.; Soestbergen, M.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Wal, van der A.F.; Bazant, M.Z.; Biesheuvel, P.M.
2012-01-01
In a combined experimental and theoretical study, we show that capacitive charging of porous electrodes in multicomponent electrolytes may lead to the phenomenon of time-dependent ion selectivity of the electrical double layers (EDLs) in the electrodes. This effect is found in experiments on capacit
Condition-based prediction of time-dependent reliability in composites
This paper presents a reliability-based prediction methodology to obtain the remaining useful life of composite materials subjected to fatigue degradation. Degradation phenomena such as stiffness reduction and increase in matrix micro-cracks density are sequentially estimated through a Bayesian filtering framework that incorporates information from both multi-scale damage models and damage measurements, that are sequentially collected along the process. A set of damage states are further propagated forward in time by simulating the damage progression using the models in the absence of new damage measurements to estimate the time-dependent reliability of the composite material. As a key contribution, the estimation of the remaining useful life is obtained as a probability from the prediction of the time-dependent reliability, whose validity is formally proven using the axioms of Probability Logic. A case study is presented using multi-scale fatigue damage data from a cross-ply carbon-epoxy laminate. - Highlights: • A prognostics framework is proposed to predict fatigue damage in composite materials. • The prognostics methodology is formulated to incorporate uncertainties. • Time-dependent reliability predictions are obtained using particle filters. • RUL is straightforwardly obtained from the calculation of time-dependent reliability. • A case study is presented using multi-scale fatigue damage data
Coriolis coupling effects in time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations of ion-atom collisions
Effects on the collision dynamics due to the inclusion of the Coriolis term in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock Hamiltonian are investigated for the He2++He colliding system both at low and high incident energies. Whereas at low energies these effects are perturbative, Coriolis terms produce drastic reductions in charge-exchange cross sections at high energies
Wang, P.; Li, P.
1998-01-01
A high-resolution numerical study on parallel systems is reported on three-dimensional, time-dependent, thermal convective flows. A parallel implentation on the finite volume method with a multigrid scheme is discussed, and a parallel visualization systemm is developed on distributed systems for visualizing the flow.
We discuss the role of the dynamic Oseen tensor in setting the time scales involved in the scaling of the time-dependent self-diffusion coefficient measured by diffusing wave spectroscopy. We elucidate the paradoxical short time behavior for which scaling is observed and clarify the possible discrepancies between theory and experiments
Unified framework for numerical methods to solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations
De Raedt, H; Kole, JS; Michielsen, KFL; Figge, MT
2003-01-01
We present a comparative study of numerical algorithms to solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations for systems with spatially varying permittivity and permeability. We show that the Lie-Trotter-Suzuki product-formula approach can be used to construct a family of unconditionally stable algorithms,
Analysis of Two-Level Support Systems with Time-Dependent Overflow - A Banking Application
Barth, Wolfgang; Manitz, Michael; Stolletz, Raik
2010-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the performance of call centers of financial service providers with two levels of support and a time-dependent overflow mechanism. Waiting calls from the front-office queue flow over to the back office if a waiting-time limit is reached and at least one back-office agent...