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Sample records for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid acc

  1. Effects of aminoisobutyric acid on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid uptake, ethylene production and content of ACC in water-stressed tomato plants

    The effect of water stress on the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis has not yet clearly been established. Both the formation and utilization of aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ACC, are considered to be major regulatory points in ethylene biosynthesis. There is evidence that ACC synthase is the key control enzyme in response to various stimuli associated with the induction of ethylene biosynthesis. It has been reported that aminoisobutyric acid, AIB, inhibits ethylene production in some plants and AIB may inhibit the conversion of ACC to ethylene. For this reason, the possibility of inhibition of ACC uptake in the presence of AIB was examined. It was observed that the rate of 14C-ACC uptake decreased with an increase in the concentration of AIB in the solution. Calculating the percentage of ACC converted to ethylene on the basis of uptake shows that AIB inhibits the conversion of 14C-ACC to ethylene and that this inhibition is increased with an increase in the concentration of AIB in the solution. This suggests that a portion of the inhibition of the conversion of ACC to ethylene in the presence of AIB is partly due to the competition for absorption. However, the ability of AIB to inhibit ethylene production in leaf tissue without an exogenous supply of ACC clearly indicates that AIB inhibits ethylene production. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in water-stressed plants and the results are discussed

  2. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and abscisic acid during the germination of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.): a comparative study of fruits and seeds

    Hermann, K.; Meinhard, J.; Dobrev, Petre; Linkies, A.; Pešek, Bedřich; Heß, B.; Macháčková, Ivana; Fischer, U.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 11 (2007), s. 3047-3060. ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : abscisic acid (ABA) * ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A) * 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.917, year: 2007

  3. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Genes in Hevea brasiliensis

    Jia-Hong Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is an important factor that stimulates Hevea brasiliensis to produce natural rubber. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS is a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. However, knowledge of the ACS gene family of H. brasiliensis is limited. In this study, nine ACS-like genes were identified in H. brasiliensis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis results confirmed that seven isozymes (HbACS1–7 of these nine ACS-like genes were similar to ACS isozymes with ACS activity in other plants. Expression analysis results showed that seven ACS genes were differentially expressed in roots, barks, flowers, and leaves of H. brasiliensis. However, no or low ACS gene expression was detected in the latex of H. brasiliensis. Moreover, seven genes were differentially up-regulated by ethylene treatment. These results provided relevant information to help determine the functions of the ACS gene in H. brasiliensis, particularly the functions in regulating ethylene stimulation of latex production.

  4. Matriconditioning Improves Thermotolerance in Pepper Seeds through Increased in 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthesis and Utilization

    SATRIYAS ILYAS

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Matriconditioning using a solid carrier, Micro-Cel E, was applied on pepper seeds and its effects on the improvement of thermotolerance through the ethylene biosynthesis were studied. Untreated and matriconditioned seeds were soaked in 5 mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC for various time at 25 oC to studies the time course of ACC-derived ethylene production. To study the performance of the seeds at high temperature, they were planted at temperature regime of 35 oC, 12h light/27 oC, 12h dark. The ACC-oxidase activity of the seeds after incubated in ACC at 35 oC was also determined. The ACC contents in untreated and matriconditioned seeds during the 24h imbibition period at 35 oC were monitored. No ethylene was detected during soaking of pepper seeds in the absence of ACC. In 5 mM ACC detectable levels of ethylene were produced; the matriconditioned seeds producing 10-fold larger amounts than the untreated seeds at the time of germination. It is postulated that matriconditioning greatly increases the ACC-oxidase activity at the time of germination. Matriconditioned seeds imbibed at 35 oC produced larger amounts of ACC and greater ACC-oxidase activity than the untreated seeds. Thus, the basis for the thermotolerance by matriconditioned seeds may be increasing ability to synthesize ACC and to utilize it for ethylene production and stress alleviation.

  5. Effect of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid on the production of ethylene in senescing flowers of Ipomoea tricolor Cav

    Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to rib segments excised from flowers of Ipomoea tricolor Cav. resulted in the formation of C2H4 in greater quantities than produced under natural conditions. The ability of ACC to enhance C2H4 production was independent of the physiological age of the tissue and its capacity to synthesize C2H4 without applied ACC. When ACC was fed to rib segments that had been treated with [14C]methionine, incorporation of radioactivity into C2H4 was reduced by 80%. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine and aminooxyacetic acid inhibited C2H4 production in rib segments of I. tricolor but had no effect on ACC-enhanced C2H4 production. Protoplasts obtained from flower tissue of I. tricolor did not form C2H4, even when incubated with methionine or selenomethionine. They produced C2H4 upon incubation with ACC, however. ACC-dependent C2H4 production in protoplasts was inhibited by n-propyl gallate, AgCl, CoCl2, KCN, Na2S, and NaN3. ACC-dependent C2H4 synthesis in rib segments and protoplasts was dependent on O2, the K/sub m/ for O2 being 1.0 to 1.4% (v/v). These results confirm the following pathway for C2H4 biosynthesis in I. tricolor: methionine [selenomethionine] →S-adenosylmethionine [selenoadenosylmethionine] → ACC → C2H4

  6. Immunopurification and characterization of a 40-kD 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid N-malonyltransferase from mung bean seedling hypocotyls

    Chick, WSH; Leung, PC

    1997-01-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) N-malonyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of the malonyl group from malonyl coenzyme A to ACC to form malonyl ACC. Using partially purified ACC N-malonyltransferase from the hypocotyls of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings, we produced two mouse monoclonal antibodies (1H5 and 2G3) to this enzyme. These antibodies bind to sites other than the active site of the enzyme because monoclonal antibody-bound ACC N-malonyltransferase still exhibits full c...

  7. Cell wall integrity controls root elongation via a general 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-dependent, ethylene-independent pathway.

    Tsang, Dat L; Edmond, Clare; Harrington, Jennifer L; Nühse, Thomas S

    2011-06-01

    Cell expansion in plants requires cell wall biosynthesis and rearrangement. During periods of rapid elongation, such as during the growth of etiolated hypocotyls and primary root tips, cells respond dramatically to perturbation of either of these processes. There is growing evidence that this response is initiated by a cell wall integrity-sensing mechanism and dedicated signaling pathway rather than being an inevitable consequence of lost structural integrity. However, the existence of such a pathway in root tissue and its function in a broader developmental context have remained largely unknown. Here, we show that various types of cell wall stress rapidly reduce primary root elongation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This response depended on the biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In agreement with the established ethylene signaling pathway in roots, auxin signaling and superoxide production are required downstream of ACC to reduce elongation. However, this cell wall stress response unexpectedly does not depend on the perception of ethylene. We show that the short-term effect of ACC on roots is partially independent of its conversion to ethylene or ethylene signaling and that this ACC-dependent pathway is also responsible for the rapid reduction of root elongation in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This acute response to internal and external stress thus represents a novel, noncanonical signaling function of ACC. PMID:21508182

  8. Biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and ethylene from δ-aminolevulinic acid in ripening tomato fruits

    A new pathway for ethylene (C2H4) biosynthesis, which utilizes δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a precursor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of C2H4, is presented. ALA enhanced ACC accumulation to 410% and C2H4 production to 232% of the control. The C2H4 production rate varied with the ALA concentration and the stage of tomato fruit development. As the ALA concentration increased from zero to 40 mM, the C2H4 production rate increased. Both treated and untreated pericarp discs from fruits at the pink stage of development yielded the largest C2H4 production rate. Radioactivity from (2,3-3H)ALA was detected in both ACC and C2H4, and radioactivity from (4-14C)ALA was detected in ACC and CO2 but not in C2H4. However, radioactivity from (5-14C)ALA was detected in CO2, and its amount was greater than that obtained from (4-14C)ALA. Neither ACC nor C2H4 showed any radioactivity when (5-14C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs. In addition, when (2,3-3H)ALA or (4-14C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs, radioactivity was detected in other metabolites such as fumarate, succinate, malate, glutamate, glutamine, α-ketoglutarate, and methionine, but the amount of radioactivity was insignificant as compared with the amount of radioactivity found in C2H4 and ACC

  9. Ethylene Production and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) Synthase Gene Expression in Tomato(Lycopsicon esculentum Mill.) Leaves Under Enhanced UV-B Radiation

    Lizhe An; Xunling Wang; Xiaofeng Xu; Hongguan Tang; Manxiao Zhang; Zongdong Hou; Yanhong Liu; Zhiguang Zhao; Huyuan Feng; Shijian Xu

    2006-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopsicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown in a greenhouse were irradiated with two different levels of UV-B, namely 8.82 (T1) and 12.6 kJ/m2 per day (T2). Ethylene production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1carboxylate (ACC) content, 1-(malonylamino) cyclopvopane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC) content, gene expression of ACC synthase (EC 4.4.1.14), and ACC oxidase activity in tomato leaves were determined. The results indicated that ACC content, the activity of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase, and ethylene production increased continuously under low doses of UV-B radiation, whereas at high doses of radiation these parameters increased during the first 12 d and then started to decrease. The MACC content increased continuously over 18 d under both doses of UV-B irradiation. The changes in ACC content, ACC synthase activity,ACC oxidase activity, the transcriptional level of the ACC synthase gene, and ethylene production were consistent with each other, suggesting that ACC synthase was the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis and that ethylene production in tomato leaf tissues under UV-B radiation could be regulated by the expression of the ACC synthase gene. The results also indicate that the change in ethylene metabolism may be an adaptive mechanism to enhanced UV-B radiation.

  10. ACC (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate) Deaminase Activity, a Widespread Trait in Burkholderia Species, and Its Growth-Promoting Effect on Tomato Plants▿

    Onofre-Lemus, Janette; Hernández-Lucas, Ismael; Girard, Lourdes; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia includes pathogens of plants and animals and some human opportunistic pathogens, such as the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), but most species are nonpathogenic, plant associated, and rhizospheric or endophytic. Since rhizobacteria expressing ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase may enhance plant growth by lowering plant ethylene levels, in this work we investigated the presence of ACC deaminase activity and the acdS gene in 45 strains, most of which are...

  11. Study the effect of bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC deaminase on resistance to salt stress in tomato plant

    Maryam SADRNIA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC deaminase produced by rhizobacteria could be remove theethylene precursor and stimulate plant growth. Aim of the work was investigation on effect of rhizosphere bacteria Pseudomonasmendocina containing plasmid carrying gene encoding ACC deaminase on resistance of tomato plant to salinity. Amplification ofacds gene in selected Pseudomonas was performed; the g e n e w a s c l o n e d i n Escherichia coli and was cloned subsequently in P.mendocina. Enzyme activity was determined in cloned Escherichia coli and cloned P. mendocina for confirmation of geneexpression. Effect of bacterial ACC deaminase on resistance of tomato plants to NaCl was studied in Pot and Greenhouse. In potexperiment, tomato plant treated by cloned P. mendocina was compared with plants treated by P. mendocina (without plasmid andcontrol group. Salinity were established by adding 172 and 207 mM of NaCl to irrigated water. Greenhouse experiments wereconducted in similar groups of bacteria in 207 mM of NaCl. Results obtained from pot experiment revealed that plants treated bycloned P. mendocina in 172 mM of NaCl was showed increasing content of growth than ones treated by P. mendocina and controlas 11%, 18.4% growth for the shoot, 16.6%, 3.7% for roots and 9.6%, 27.5% for wet weight after five weeks, respectively. In 207mM of NaCl, the results were as 14.9 %, 9.7% for shoot, 94.3%, 15.7% for roots and 96.4%, 50.6% for wet weight, respectively. Ingreenhouse experiment, results in same parameter in 207 mM of NaCl were revealed as 63.7%, 7 times for shoot, 2.8, 14 times forroots and 66.1%, 154 times for wet weight, respectively. We concluded that recombinant P. mendocina producing ACC deaminaseby reduction of ethylene content of tomato plant in high salt concentrations could result in improvement of plant resistance tosalinity.

  12. Inibição da síntese da ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano oxidase em maçãs frigoconservadas em atmosfera controlada Inhibition of (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxydase synthesis in apple fruits by controlled atmosphere storage

    Paulo Dejalma ZIMMER

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a expressão da ACC oxidase em maçãs, cv. Jonagold, colhidas no estádio pré-climatérico e armazenadas sob refrigeração em atmosfera normal (0ºC, 95% UR - AN e controlada (0ºC, 95% UR, 1,5% O2 e 2,5% CO2 - AC, durante 180 dias. Na instalação do experimento, aos 90 e aos 120 dias, foram coletadas amostras para a determinação da firmeza de polpa, da acidez total titulável, dos sólidos solúveis totais, da produção de etileno, da atividade ACC oxidase e para a detecção imunoquímica das isoformas desta enzima. A dosagem da atividade ACC oxidase foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa a partir de extrato protéico solúvel acrescido de 250µM de ACC, 10µL de sulfato ferroso e 30µL de ascorbato de sódio. Para a detecção imunoquímica utilizou-se a técnica "western blot", com anticorpos policlonais anti-ACC oxidase de maçã, após separação das proteínas em eletroforese e isoeletrofocalização. Não foi detectada ACC oxidase em maçãs pré-climatéricas. Porém, após 120 horas em condições ambientais, houve a síntese dessa enzima e um incremento na produção de etileno. A refrigeração não exerceu controle na síntese da ACC oxidase e produção de etileno, resultando em significativas perdas físico-químicas nas frutas armazenadas em AN. Já a utilização de AC permitiu controlar a via de biossíntese do etileno, pela inibição da síntese da ACC oxidase, mantendo o material com boa qualidade para o consumo in natura. A adição de ACC e dos cofatores aumentou a atividade ACC oxidase e alterou o pI da ACC oxidase.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the inhibition of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC oxidase in apple fruits by controled atmosphere. Jonagold apples were stored in normal atmosphere (NA and controlled atmosphere (CA storage. The fruits were harvested at the preclimateric stage and stored for 120 days at 0ºC and 95±5% RH with O2 set to 1,5% and CO2 set to 2,5% (CA

  13. The Influence of Co-Suppressing Tomato 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Ⅰ on the Expression of Fruit Ripening-Related and Pathogenesis-Related Protein Genes

    HU Zong-li; CHEN Xu-qing; CHEN Guo-ping; L(U) Li-juan; Grierson Donald

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of co-suppressing tomato ACC oxidase I on the expression of fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes, and on the biosynthesis of endogenous ethylene and storage ability of fruits. Specific fragments of several fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were cloned, such as the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 1 gene (LeACO1), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 3 gene (LeAC03), EIN3-binding F-box 1 gene (LeEBF1), pathogenesisrelated protein 1 gene (LePR1), pathogenesis-related protein 5 gene (LePR5), and pathogenesis-related protein osmotin precursor gene (LeNP24) by PCR or RT-PCR. Then these specific DNA fragments were used as probes to hybridize with the total RNAs extracted from the wild type tomato Ailsa Craig (AC++) and the LeACO1 co-suppression tomatoes (V1187 and T4B), respectively. At the same time, ethylene production measurement and storage experiment of tomato fruits were carried out. The hybridization results indicated that the expression of fruit ripening-related genes such as LeACO3 and LeEBF1, and pathogenesis-related protein genes such as LePR1, LePR5, and LeNP24, were reduced sharply, and the ethylene production in the fruits, wounded leaves decreased and the storage time of ripening fruits was prolonged, when the expression of LeACO1 gene in the transgenic tomato was suppressed. In the co-suppression tomatoes, the expression of fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes were restrained at different degrees, the biosynthesis of endogenous ethylene decreased and the storage ability of tomato fruits increased.

  14. Southern blight disease of tomato control by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase producing Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488.

    Dixit, Ritu; Agrawal, Lalit; Gupta, Swati; Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Sumit; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-02-01

    Tomato cultivation is highly susceptible for soil born diseases and among them southern blight disease caused by Scelerotium rolfsii is very common. For its management use of chemical fungicides is not very successful as their spores are able to survive for many years in the soil. As an alternative eco-friendly approach to control the disease antagonistic microbes are being characterized.Among them plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488 (B-30488) with antagonistic properties, multiple PGP attributes stress tolerance and ACC deaminase enzyme activity is characterized to decipher its mode of action against S. rolfsii under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro results obtained from this study clearly demonstrate that B-30488 has ability to show antagonistic properties under different abiotic stresses against S. rolfsii. Similar results were also obtained from in vivo experiments where B-30488 inoculation has efficiently controlled the disease caused by S. rolfsii and improve the plant growth. Deleterious enhanced ethylene level in S. rolfsii infected plants was also ameliorated by inoculation of ACC deaminase producing B-30488. The ACC accumulation, ACO and ACS activities were also modulated in S. rolfsii infected plants. Results from defense enzymes and other biochemical attributes were also support the role of B-30488 inoculation in ameliorating the biotic stress caused by S. rolfsii in tomato plants. These results were further validated by pathogen related gene expression analysis by real time PCR. Overall results from the present study may be concluded that ACC deaminase producing B-30488 has ability to control the southern blight disease caused by S. rolfsii and commercial bioinoculant package may be developed. PMID:26825539

  15. RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2 Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L. Papaya Fruit

    Rogayah Sekeli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6. Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  16. A Ser/Thr protein kinase phosphorylates MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 1) during banana fruit ripening.

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis during ripening. ACS isozymes are regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. However, in banana, an important climacteric fruit, little is known about post-translational regulation of ACS. Here, we report the post-translational modification of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACS1), a ripening inducible isozyme in the ACS family, which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis during banana fruit ripening. Immunoprecipitation analyses of phospholabeled protein extracts from banana fruit using affinity-purified anti-MA-ACS1 antibody have revealed phosphorylation of MA-ACS1, particularly in ripe fruit tissue. We have identified the induction of a 41-kDa protein kinase activity in pulp at the onset of ripening. The 41-kDa protein kinase has been identified as a putative protein kinase by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Biochemical analyses using partially purified protein kinase fraction from banana fruit have identified the protein kinase as a Ser/Thr family of protein kinase and its possible involvement in MA-ACS1 phosphorylation during ripening. In vitro phosphorylation analyses using synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenized recombinant MA-ACS1 have revealed that serine 476 and 479 residues at the C-terminal region of MA-ACS1 are phosphorylated. Overall, this study provides important novel evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of MA-ACS1 at the molecular level as a possible mechanism of post-translational regulation of this key regulatory protein in ethylene signaling pathway in banana fruit during ripening. PMID:22419220

  17. Inibição da síntese da ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano) oxidase em maçãs frigoconservadas em atmosfera controlada Inhibition of (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) oxydase synthesis in apple fruits by controlled atmosphere storage

    Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Jaqueline Dettmann BIERHALS; SILVA Jorge Adolfo; ROMBALDI Cesar Valmor

    1999-01-01

    Foi estudada a expressão da ACC oxidase em maçãs, cv. Jonagold, colhidas no estádio pré-climatérico e armazenadas sob refrigeração em atmosfera normal (0ºC, 95% UR - AN) e controlada (0ºC, 95% UR, 1,5% O2 e 2,5% CO2 - AC), durante 180 dias. Na instalação do experimento, aos 90 e aos 120 dias, foram coletadas amostras para a determinação da firmeza de polpa, da acidez total titulável, dos sólidos solúveis totais, da produção de etileno, da atividade ACC oxidase e para a detecção imunoquímica d...

  18. A Combinatorial Interplay Among the 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate Isoforms Regulates Ethylene Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Ethylene (C2H4) is a unique plant-signaling molecule that regulates numerous developmental processes. The key enzyme in the two-step biosynthetic pathway of ethylene is 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the conversion of Sadenosyl-methionine (AdoMet) to ACC, the precu...

  19. Characterization and sequencing of the active site of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase

    The pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, is inactivated by its substrate S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Apple ACC synthase was purified with an immunoaffinity gel, and its active site was probed with NaB3H4 or Ado[14C]Met. Peptide sequencing of both 3H- and 14C-labeled peptides revealed a common dodecapeptide of Ser-Leu-Ser-Xaa-Asp-Leu-Gly-Leu-Pro-Gly-Phe-Arg, where Xaa was the modified, radioactive residue in each case. Acid hydrolysis of the 3H-labeled enzyme released radioactive N-pyridoxyllysine, indicating that the active-site peptide contained lysine at position 4. Mass spectrometry of the 14C-labeled peptide indicated a protonated molecular ion at m/z 1390.6, from which the mass of Xaa was calculated to be 229, a number that is equivalent to the mass of a lysine residue alkylated by the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet, as we previously proposed. These results indicate that the same active-site lysine binds the PLP and convalently links to the 2-aminobutyrate portion of AdoMet during inactivation. The active site of tomato ACC synthase was probed in the same manner with Ado [14C]Met. Sequencing of the tomato active-site peptide revealed two highly conserved dodecapeptides; the minor peptide possessed a sequence identical to that of the apple enzyme, whereas the major peptide differed from the minor peptide in that methionine replaced leucine at position 6

  20. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine.

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana- ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP. PMID:20689184

  1. An insight into the sequential, structural and phylogenetic properties of banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 1 and study of its interaction with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine

    Swarup Roy Choudhury; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Sujit Roy; Dibyendu N Sengupta

    2010-06-01

    In banana, ethylene production for ripening is accompanied by a dramatic increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, transcript level of Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1 (MA-ACS1) and the enzymatic activity of ACC synthase 1 at the onset of the climacteric period. MA-ACS1 catalyses the conversion of -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to ACC, the key regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis. Multiple sequence alignments of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences based on database searches have indicated that MA-ACS1 is a highly conserved protein across the plant kingdom. This report describes an in silico analysis to provide the first important insightful information about the sequential, structural and phylogenetic characteristics of MA-ACS1. The three-dimensional structure of MA-ACS1, constructed based on homology modelling, in combination with the available data enabled a comparative mechanistic analysis of MA-ACS1 to explain the catalytic roles of the conserved and non-conserved active site residues. We have further demonstrated that, as in apple and tomato, banana-ACS1 (MA-ACS1) forms a homodimer and a complex with cofactor pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) and inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). We have also predicted that the residues from the PLP-binding pocket, essential for ligand binding, are mostly conserved across the MA-ACS1 structure and the competitive inhibitor AVG binds at a location adjacent to PLP.

  2. Arabidopsis ETO1 specifically interacts with and negatively regulates type 2 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases

    Saito Koji

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis, ETO1 (ETHYLENE-OVERPRODUCER1 is a negative regulator of ethylene evolution by interacting with AtACS5, an isoform of the rate-limiting enzyme, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases (ACC synthase or ACS, in ethylene biosynthetic pathway. ETO1 directly inhibits the enzymatic activity of AtACS5. In addition, a specific interaction between ETO1 and AtCUL3, a constituent of a new type of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, suggests the molecular mechanism in promoting AtACS5 degradation by the proteasome-dependent pathway. Because orthologous sequences to ETO1 are found in many plant species including tomato, we transformed tomato with Arabidopsis ETO1 to evaluate its ability to suppress ethylene production in tomato fruits. Results Transgenic tomato lines that overexpress Arabidopsis ETO1 (ETO1-OE did not show a significant delay of fruit ripening. So, we performed yeast two-hybrid assays to investigate potential heterologous interaction between ETO1 and three isozymes of ACC synthases from tomato. In the yeast two-hybrid system, ETO1 interacts with LE-ACS3 as well as AtACS5 but not with LE-ACS2 or LE-ACS4, two major isozymes whose gene expression is induced markedly in ripening fruits. According to the classification of ACC synthases, which is based on the C-terminal amino acid sequences, both LE-ACS3 and AtACS5 are categorized as type 2 isozymes and possess a consensus C-terminal sequence. In contrast, LE-ACS2 and LE-ACS4 are type 1 and type 3 isozymes, respectively, both of which do not possess this specific C-terminal sequence. Yeast two-hybrid analysis using chimeric constructs between LE-ACS2 and LE-ACS3 revealed that the type-2-ACS-specific C-terminal tail is required for interaction with ETO1. When treated with auxin to induce LE-ACS3, seedlings of ETO1-OE produced less ethylene than the wild type, despite comparable expression of the LE-ACS3 gene in the wild type. Conclusion These results suggest that ETO1

  3. Expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase during leaf ontogeny in white clover.

    Hunter, D A; Yoo, S D; Butcher, S M; McManus, M T

    1999-05-01

    We examined the expression of three distinct 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes during leaf ontogeny in white clover (Trifolium repens). Significant production of ethylene occurs at the apex, in newly initiated leaves, and in senescent leaf tissue. We used a combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify three distinct DNA sequences designated TRACO1, TRACO2, and TRACO3, each with homology to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Southern analysis confirmed that these sequences represent three distinct genes. Northern analysis revealed that TRACO1 is expressed specifically in the apex and TRACO2 is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in developing leaf tissue. The third gene, TRACO3, is expressed in senescent leaf tissue. Antibodies were raised to each gene product expressed in Escherichia coli, and western analysis showed that the TRACO1 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 205 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed preferentially in apical tissue. The TRACO2 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 36.4 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in mature green tissue. No protein recognition by the TRACO3 antibody could be detected in senescent tissue or at any other stage of leaf development. PMID:10318691

  4. Glutathione Regulates 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase Transcription via WRKY33 and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Oxidase by Modulating Messenger RNA Stability to Induce Ethylene Synthesis during Stress.

    Datta, Riddhi; Kumar, Deepak; Sultana, Asma; Hazra, Saptarshi; Bhattacharyya, Dipto; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2015-12-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays a fundamental role in plant defense-signaling network. Recently, we have established the involvement of GSH with ethylene (ET) to combat environmental stress. However, the mechanism of GSH-ET interplay still remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that GSH induces ET biosynthesis by modulating the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations of its key enzymes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO). Transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with enhanced GSH content (AtECS) exhibited remarkable up-regulation of ACS2, ACS6, and ACO1 at transcript as well as protein levels, while they were down-regulated in the GSH-depleted phytoalexin deficient2-1 (pad2-1) mutant. We further observed that GSH induced ACS2 and ACS6 transcription in a WRKY33-dependent manner, while ACO1 transcription remained unaffected. On the other hand, the messenger RNA stability for ACO1 was found to be increased by GSH, which explains our above observations. In addition, we also identified the ACO1 protein to be a subject for S-glutathionylation, which is consistent with our in silico data. However, S-glutathionylation of ACS2 and ACS6 proteins was not detected. Further, the AtECS plants exhibited resistance to necrotrophic infection and salt stress, while the pad2-1 mutant was sensitive. Exogenously applied GSH could improve stress tolerance in wild-type plants but not in the ET-signaling mutant ethylene insensitive2-1, indicating that GSH-mediated resistance to these stresses occurs via an ET-mediated pathway. Together, our investigation reveals a dual-level regulation of ET biosynthesis by GSH during stress. PMID:26463088

  5. Isolation of a Tomato Protease that May Be Involved in Proteolysis of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase

    Jian-Feng LI; Liang-Hu QU; Ning LI

    2005-01-01

    1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase is a principal enzyme that catalyses the committed step in phytohormone ethylene biosynthesis. Previous evidence indicates that the hypervariable C-terminus of ACC synthase is most likely to be processed proteolytically in vivo. However, the protease responsible has not been identified thus far. In the present study, we detected proteolytic activity against ACC synthase (LeACS2) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit extract based on a newly established in vitro assay system. Purification of the protease through DEAE, gel filtration and MonoQ chromatography resulted in considerable enrichment of a 64-kDa protein species. Subsequent biochemical analysis of the purified tomato protease revealed that the optimal conditions for its proteolytic activity were at pH 8.0 and at 37 ℃. In addition, the protease activity was blocked completely by the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline. The present study represents the first report on the isolation of an ACC synthaseprocessing protease from plant tissues.

  6. The formation of ACC and competition between polyamines and ethylene for SAM

    Ethylene biosynthesis involves the conversion of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) by ACC synthase (ACS). ACC is then converted to ethylene. The genes that encode enzymes in this pathway all belong to a family of genes. Differential transcriptional regulation ...

  7. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase from Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 Facilitates the Growth of Rice in the Presence of Salt or Heavy Metals.

    Han, Yunlei; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhirong; Zhan, Yuhua; Ma, Yao; Ping, Shuzhen; Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Min; Yan, Yongliang

    2015-07-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which is encoded by some bacteria, can reduce the amount of ethylene, a root elongation inhibitor, and stimulate the growth of plants under various environmental stresses. The presence of ACC deaminase activity and the regulation of ACC in several rhizospheric bacteria have been reported. The nitrogen-fixing Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 is capable of endophytic association with rice plants and promotes the growth of rice. However, the functional identification of ACC deaminase has not been performed. In this study, the proposed effect of ACC deaminase in P. stutzeri A1501 was investigated. Genome mining showed that P. stutzeri A1501 carries a single gene encoding ACC deaminase, designated acdS. The acdS mutant was devoid of ACC deaminase activity and was less resistant to NaCl and NiCl2 compared with the wild-type. Furthermore, inactivation of acdS greatly impaired its nitrogenase activity under salt stress conditions. It was also observed that mutation of the acdS gene led to loss of the ability to promote the growth of rice under salt or heavy metal stress. Taken together, this study illustrates the essential role of ACC deaminase, not only in enhancing the salt or heavy metal tolerance of bacteria but also in improving the growth of plants, and provides a theoretical basis for studying the interaction between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and plants. PMID:25674802

  8. Characterization and optimization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase (ACCD activity in different rhizospheric PGPR along with Microbacterium sp. strain ECI-12A

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of nine strains of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria were analyzed for ACC deaminase activity, where highest ACC deaminase activity was found in Klebsiella sp strain ECI-10A (539.1 nmol α-keto butyrate/ mg protein/ h and lowest in Microbacterium sp strain ECI-12A (122.0 nmol α-keto butyrate/ mg protein/ h. Although Microbacterium sp strain ECI-12A showed lowest level of ACC deaminase activity, but, the species of Microbacterium isolated from rhizosphere is the first report. Microbacterium sp strain ECI-12A was also analyzed under varying conditions of time, amount of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylate (ACC, and temperature for optimization of the ACC deaminase activity. The optimum activity was recorded with the supplementation of 5mM ACC at 30oC temperature after 24h of culture growth. All the nine strains showed acdS gene in the PCR amplification of that gene. No any rhizospheric Microbacterium species showing ACC deaminase activity have been reported earlier, therefore, we report here ACC deaminase activity in Microbacterium sp ECI-12A isolated from rice rhizosphere is a novel finding.

  9. Prospective Use of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase-Producing Bacteria for Plant Growth Promotion and Defense against Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Peat-Soil-Agriculture

    EDI HUSEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase (EC4.1.99.4 is an enzyme produced by some soil bacteria to degrade ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene to reduce ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants. Increased concentrations of ethylene in plant tissues, which are triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses, inhibits plant growth and weakens the plant defense against the stressors. Various findings on the successful use of ACC deaminase producing bacteria for plant growth under unfavorable soil conditions are inspiring their use in tropical peat-soil-agriculture, which possesses bio-physical constraints. It has been proven that inoculation of plants with ACC deaminase producing bacteria decreased ethylene inhibition generated by unfavorable environmental conditions, such as nutrient shortage, flooding, drought, high salts, and the presence of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Understanding the mechanisms by which ACC deaminase-producing bacteria act to reduce plant stress and the fitness of bacterial traits with the properties and constraints of peat-soils becomes a key to utilize these bacteria in improving crop productivity. The bacteria may ameliorate plant stress as well as promote plant growth under seasonal bio-physical changes of peat-soils that are usually encountered in the field.

  10. Isolation, characterization and colonization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase-producing bacteria XG32 and DP24.

    Wang, Mei-Xia; Liu, Jia; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Yan, Shu-Zhen

    2012-03-01

    Two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase-producing bacterial strains (DP24 and XG32) were isolated from surface-sterilized tomato roots and rizhospere soil. The strains were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar. IV (XG2) and Erwinia herbicola (DP24) by physiological and biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Both strains showed positive plant growth-promoting activity when inoculated into cucumber (Cucumis sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), pepper (Capsicum annuum) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Colonization ability and behavior of these two strains were determined by treating mutant strains with rifampicin and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay with rRNA targeted probes, respectively. Both strains were endophytic colonizers of pepper plants. The behavior of the two strains was not identical. Strain XG32 only colonized the root and reached the max level of 27.7 × 10(7) c.f.u./g (fresh weight), after 12 days postinoculation, while strain DP24 was able to colonize the roots, stems and leaves. The max level was reached at 40.87 × 10(7) c.f.u./g (fresh weight) in the roots, 17 × 10(7) c.f.u./g in the stems after 7 days postinoculation and 44.84 × 10(7) c.f.u./g in the leaves after 12 days postinoculation. PMID:22805836

  11. Expression characteristics of CS-ACS1, CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3, three members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit under carbon dioxide stress.

    Mathooko, F M; Mwaniki, M W; Nakatsuka, A; Shiomi, S; Kubo, Y; Inaba, A; Nakamura, R

    1999-02-01

    We investigated the expression pattern of three 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genes, CS-ACS1, CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit under CO2 stress. CO2 stress-induced ethylene production paralleled the accumulation of only CS-ACS1 transcripts which disappeared upon withdrawal of CO2. Cycloheximide inhibited the CO2 stress-induced ethylene production but superinduced the accumulation of CS-ACS1 transcript. At higher concentrations, cycloheximide also induced the accumulation of CS-ACS2 and CS-ACS3 transcripts. In the presence of CO2 and cycloheximide, the accumulation of CS-ACS2 transcript occurred within 1 h, disappeared after 3 h and increased greatly upon withdrawal of CO2. Inhibitors of protein kinase and types 1 and 2A protein phosphatases which inhibited and stimulated, respectively, CO2 stress-induced ethylene production had little effect on the expression of these genes. The results presented here identify CS-ACS1 as the main ACC synthase gene responsible for the increased ethylene biosynthesis in cucumber fruit under CO2 stress and suggest that this gene is a primary response gene and its expression is under negative control since it is expressed by treatment with cycloheximide. The results further suggest that the regulation of CO2 stress-induced ethylene biosynthesis by reversible protein phosphorylation does not result from enhanced ACC synthase transcription. PMID:10202812

  12. Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining

    Byczkowska, Anna; Kunikowska, Anita; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB moved to the nuclei via the cell membrane which lost its integrity and stained nuclei red. AO/EB staining showed...

  13. Structural analysis of the promoter of tomato 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 6 gene(Le-ACS6)

    LIN JingYu; FAN Rong; WAN XiaoRong; CHARNG Yeeyung; WANG NingNing

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene plays an important role in the regulation of many growth and developmental processes of higher plants. In tomato, Le-ACS6, a member of the ACC synthase multigene family involved in system 1 ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening, is subject to negative feedback regulation by ethylene. To identify the cis-elements that are responsible for the negative feedback control, we established an in vitro transient assay system employing particle bombardment on mature-green tomato fruit pericarp to examine the expression of a luciferase (LUC) reporter gene driven by a 5'-serially deleted Le-ACS6 promoter. The results localized putative cis-elements required for negative ethylene-response between -347 and -266 upstream from the translational start site ATG. Several lines of stable transformation of the Le-ACS6 promoter and GUS reporter fusion gene containing internal deletion from -347 to -266 were generated. The expression pattern of the GUS reporter showed that removal of the nucleotides from -347 to -266 completely eliminated the response of the Le-ACS6 promoter to exogenous ethylene.

  14. Perspectives of bacterial ACC deaminase in phytoremediation.

    Arshad, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Hussain, Sarfraz

    2007-08-01

    Phytoremediation of contaminated soil and water environments is regulated and coordinated by the plant root system, yet root growth is often inhibited by pollutant-induced stress. Prolific root growth could maximize rates of hyperaccumulation of inorganic contaminants or rhizodegradation of organic pollutants, and thus accelerate phytoremediation. Accelerated ethylene production in response to stress induced by contaminants is known to inhibit root growth and is considered as a major limitation in improving phytoremediation efficiency. Recent work shows that bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase regulates ethylene levels in plants by metabolizing its precursor ACC into alpha-ketobutyric acid and ammonia. Plants inoculated with ACC deaminase bacteria or transgenic plants that express bacterial ACC deaminase genes can regulate their ethylene levels and consequently contribute to a more extensive root system. Such proliferation of roots in contaminated soil can lead to enhanced uptake of heavy metals or rhizodegradation of xenobiotics. PMID:17573137

  15. Purification of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase from apple fruits using s-adenosyl [3,414C]-methionine (SAM) as a probe

    Tomato ACC synthase is inactivated by its substrate SAM, with the moiety of aminobutyrate being covalently linked to ACC synthase during the catalytic reactions. A partial purified ACC synthase (the catalytic activity 100 μmol/h·mg protein) from pellets of apple extract was incubated with [3,414C] SAM. Only one radioactive peak was revealed in a C-4 reverse phase HPLC and one radioactive band on SDS-PAGE with an M.W. of 48 kDa. Apple ACC synthase in native form is resistant to V8, α-chromtrypsin and carboxylpeptidase A digestion, but effectively inactivated by trypsin and ficin, as demonstrated by both the activity assay and SAM labeling. The radioactive protein cut from the SDS-PAGE was injected to three mice, two of the mice showed responses to the protein in western blot analysis. The antibodies from mice is currently under characterization

  16. Regulation of Expression of the prb-1b / ACC Deaminase gene by UV-B in Transgenic tomatoes

    Transgenic tomato plants with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase gene from Enterobacter cloacae UWA4 under the control of a pathogenesis-related promoter (prb-1b) from tobacco were challenged by abiotic stresses to determine the expression patterns of the transgene. No ACC deaminase RNA or protein was detected bu RT-PCR and in western blots prepared from leaf proteins of transgenic plants after wounding or treatment with alpha-amino butyric acid, xylanase, ethephon, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid , ethylene, or ethylene plus jasmonic acid. However, expression of the ACC deaminase transgene was observed in leaves and roots of transformed tomato lines exposed to UV light. The UV response required a minimum of 48 h of exposure and was specific to UV-B light

  17. Apoplastic Alkalinization Is Instrumental for the Inhibition of Cell Elongation in the Arabidopsis Root by the Ethylene Precursor 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid

    Staal, Marten; De Cnodder, Tinne; Simon, Damien; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Elzenga, Theo; Vissenberg, Kris

    2011-01-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; Columbia-0) roots, the so-called zone of cell elongation comprises two clearly different domains: the transition zone, a postmeristematic region (approximately 200-450 mu m proximal of the root tip) with a low rate of elongation, and a fast elongation zone, the

  18. gamma-Aminobutyric acid stimulates ethylene biosynthesis in sunflower

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, is often accumulated in plants following environmental stimuli that can also cause ethylene production. We have investigated the relationship between GABA and ethylene production in excised sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tissues. Exogenous GABA causes up to a 14-fold increase in the ethylene production rate after about 12 h. Cotyledons fed with [14C]GABA did not release substantial amounts of radioactive ethylene despite its chemical similarity to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), indicating that GABA is not likely to be an alternative precursor for ethylene. GABA causes increases in ACC synthase mRNA accumulation, ACC levels, ACC oxidase mRNA levels, and in vitro ACC oxidase activity. In the presence of aminoethoxyvinylglycine or alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, GABA did not stimulate ethylene production. We therefore conclude that GABA stimulates ethylene biosynthesis mainly by promoting ACC synthase transcript abundance. Possible roles of GABA as a signal transducer are suggested

  19. Peroxide-dependent amino acid oxidation and chemiluminescence catalysed by magnesium-pyridoxal phosphate-glutamate complex.

    Meyer, B U; Schneider, W; Elstner, E F

    1992-08-01

    Magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate (MPPG) has been shown to ameliorate atherosclerotic symptoms in rabbits. In vitro, MPPG in the presence of peroxides such as cholesterolhydroperoxide or cumene hydroperoxide and Mn2+ ions produces "excited states" measurable as chemiluminescence or ethylene release from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). The reactions are stimulated synergistically by unsaturated fatty acids. Pyridoxal phosphate exhibits similar properties, but can be differentiated from the activities of MPPG or the sum of the components present in MPPG. PMID:1510700

  20. Inducing salt tolerance in maize through ACC-deaminase biotechnology (abstract)

    Ethylene is one of the five established classes of phytohormones. Its involvement in evoking physiological responses in plants exposed to any kind of environmental stresses (such as salinity, drought and metal toxicity stresses) is well established, thus it has also been designated as 'stress' hormone. It is generally believed that stress induces accelerated synthesis of ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), which subsequently results in the out burst of ethylene production and plant responds to this higher level of ethylene. Thus any check on this accelerated ethylene production in plants exposed to salinity stress could help in minimizing the negative impact of this stress and plants might survive better. There are some soil bacteria which carry ACC-deaminase enzyme and their presence on root surface results in lowering the accelerated production of ethylene. Trials were conducted under axenic condition to study the effect of inoculation with ACC-deaminase containing rhizobacteria to ameliorate the effect of salinity on seedling growth. Maize seedlings were exposed to different salinity levels and results indicated that inoculation with ACC-deaminase containing rhizobacteria significantly increased root elongation, shoot length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings at all the salinity levels. (author)

  1. Short Communication: Rhizosphere bacteria containing ACC-deaminase conferred drought tolerance in wheat grown under semi-arid climate

    Masood Ahmad Shakir; Asghari Bano; and Muhammad Arshad

    2012-01-01

    Certain rhizobacteria have the potential of lowering endogenous ethylene levels in plants because of their 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase activity and promoting root growth. This mechanism is of great agronomic significance under stress environments, which are known to induce accelerated production of ethylene. Thirty rhizobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growing in the Southern Punjab, a semi-arid region of Pakistan. Rhizobacteria we...

  2. Selection of efficient salt-tolerant bacteria containing ACC deaminase for promotion of tomato growth under salinity stress

    Kannika Chookietwattana* and Kedsukon Maneewan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For successful application of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB in salt-affected soil, bioinoculant with salt-tolerant property is required in order to provide better survival and perform well in the field. The present study aimed to select the most efficient salt-tolerant bacterium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase from eighty four bacterial strains and to investigate the effects of the selected bacterium on the germination and growth of tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Seeda under saline conditions. The Bacillus licheniformis B2r was selected for its ability to utilize ACC as a sole nitrogen source under salinity stress. It also showed a high ACC deaminase activity at 0.6 M NaCl salinity. Tomato plants inoculated with the selected bacterium under various saline conditions (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl revealed a significant increase in the germination percentage, germination index, root length, and seedling dry weight especially at salinity levels ranging from 30-90 mM NaCl. The work described in this report is an important step in developing an efficient salt-tolerant bioinoculant to facilitate plant growth in saline soil.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Cucumber ACC Oxidase Gene and Its Upstream

    CHEN Yin-hua; OUYANG Bo; LI Han-xia; ZHANG Jun-hong; YE Zhi-biao

    2005-01-01

    Ethylene has been implicated as a sex-determining hormone in cucumber. Its exogenous application increases femaleness,and gynoecious genotypes were reported to produce more ethylene. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase (ACO) is the key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. In this study, a 1 200 base pair (bp) candidate fragment was amplified from the cucumber genome with degenerated primers derived from the ACO amino acid consensus sequence among different plant species. The coding region and its upstream (1 155 bp) were obtained by vector-mediated inverse PCR. The novel gene was analyzed by bioinformatics tools. Four exons and three introns were identified in the coding sequence.The spliced length of mRNA was 933 nucleotides (nts) and it encoded 311 amino acids. Phylogenic analysis result of the new gene (CsACO4, GenBank accession number AY450356) was in accordance with the evolution relationship of genetics among various plant species. Northern blotting showed that the gene expressed among female flowers of gynoecious and monoecious genotypes, it could not express in other organs. This implied that the gene might be correlated with the female behavior positively. Further work is on the way to demonstrate the complexity of the relationship between the endogenous ethylene and the sex determination.

  4. Bacteria in combination with fertilizers promote root and shoot growth of maize in saline-sodic soil

    Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye; Hafiz Muhammad Farooq; Mubshar Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is the leading abiotic stress hampering maize ( Zea mays L.) growth throughout the world, especially in Pakistan. During salinity stress, the endogenous ethylene level in plants increases, which retards proper root growth and consequent shoot growth of the plants. However, certain bacteria contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which converts 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants) into am...

  5. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  6. Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining.

    Byczkowska, Anna; Kunikowska, Anita; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB moved to the nuclei via the cell membrane which lost its integrity and stained nuclei red. AO/EB staining showed that changes in color of the nuclear chromatin were accompanied by DNA condensation, nuclei fragmentation, and chromatin degradation which were also shown after 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining. These results indicate that ACC induced programmed cell death. The increasing values of RFI together with the corresponding morphological changes of nuclear chromatin were the basis to prepare the standard curve; cells with green unchanged nuclear chromatin were alive while those with dark orange and bright red nuclei were dead. The cells with nuclei with green-yellow, yellow-orange, and bright orange chromatin with or without their condensation and fragmentation chromatin were dying. The prepared curve has became the basis to draw up the digital method for detection and determination of the number of living, dying, and dead cells in an in planta system and revealed that ACC induced death in about 20% of root cortex cells. This process was accompanied by increase in ion leakage, shortening of cells and whole roots, as well as by increase in weight and width of the apical part of roots and appearance of few aerenchymatic spaces while not by internucleosomal DNA degradation. PMID:22350735

  7. Ethylene signalling is involved in regulation of phosphate starvation-induced gene expression and production of acid phosphatases and anthocyanin in Arabidopsis

    Lei, Mingguang

    2010-11-30

    With the exception of root hair development, the role of the phytohormone ethylene is not clear in other aspects of plant responses to inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation. The induction of AtPT2 was used as a marker to find novel signalling components involved in plant responses to Pi starvation. Using genetic and chemical approaches, we examined the role of ethylene in the regulation of plant responses to Pi starvation. hps2, an Arabidopsis mutant with enhanced sensitivity to Pi starvation, was identified and found to be a new allele of CTR1 that is a key negative regulator of ethylene responses. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the precursor of ethylene, increases plant sensitivity to Pi starvation, whereas the ethylene perception inhibitor Ag+ suppresses this response. The Pi starvation-induced gene expression and acid phosphatase activity are also enhanced in the hps2 mutant, but suppressed in the ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-5. By contrast, we found that ethylene signalling plays a negative role in Pi starvation-induced anthocyanin production. These findings extend the roles of ethylene in the regulation of plant responses to Pi starvation and will help us to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying these responses. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Identification of ACC Deaminase-Containing Rhizobacterium XG32%ACC脱氨酶活性细菌XG32的鉴定

    刘维红; 闫淑珍; 刘五星; 杨启银

    2007-01-01

    采用生理生化、Biolog和16SrDNA序列同源性分析3种方法,对一株分离自植物根际的具ACC(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate,ACC)脱氨酶活性的细菌菌株XG32进行了鉴定,比较了3种方法在最后确定种属上的重要性.研究认为通过生理生化和16SrDNA序列同源性分析可将菌株XG32鉴定到种,确定该菌株为荧光假单胞菌生物型Ⅳ(Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar Ⅳ).

  9. Identification of genes involved in the ACC-mediated control of root cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Markakis Marios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along the root axis of Arabidopsis thaliana, cells pass through different developmental stages. In the apical meristem repeated cycles of division increase the numbers of cells. Upon leaving the meristem, these cells pass the transition zone where they are physiologically and mechanically prepared to undergo subsequent rapid elongation. During the process of elongation epidermal cells increase their length by 300% in a couple of hours. When elongation ceases, the cells acquire their final size, shape and functions (in the differentiation zone. Ethylene administered as its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC is capable of inhibiting elongation in a concentration-dependent way. Using a microarray analysis, genes and/or processes involved in this elongation arrest are identified. Results Using a CATMA-microarray analysis performed on control and 3h ACC-treated roots, 240 differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of the 10 most up and down regulated genes combined with literature search confirmed the accurateness of the analysis. This revealed that inhibition of cell elongation is, at least partly, caused by restricting the events that under normal growth conditions initiate elongation and by increasing the processes that normally stop cellular elongation at the end of the elongation/onset of differentiation zone. Conclusions ACC interferes with cell elongation in the Arabidopsis thaliana roots by inhibiting cells from entering the elongation process and by immediately stimulating the formation of cross-links in cell wall components, diminishing the remaining elongation capacity. From the analysis of the differentially expressed genes, it becomes clear that many genes identified in this response, are also involved in several other kind of stress responses. This suggests that many responses originate from individual elicitors, but that somewhere in the downstream

  10. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006.

    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:27151797

  11. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006

    Gamez, Rocío M.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds.

  12. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006

    Gamez, Rocío M.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:27151797

  13. Foliar abscisic acid-to-ethylene accumulation and response regulate shoot growth sensitivity to mild drought in wheat

    Ravi eValluru

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although plant hormones play an important role in adjusting growth in response to environmental perturbation, the relative contributions of abscisic acid (ABA and ethylene remain elusive. Using six spring wheat genotypes differing for stress tolerance, we show that young seedlings of the drought-tolerant (DT group maintained or increased shoot dry weight (SDW while the drought-susceptible (DS group decreased SDW in response to mild drought. Both the DT and DS groups increased endogenous ABA and ethylene concentrations under mild drought compared to control. The DT and DS groups exhibited different SDW response trends, whereby the DS group decreased while the DT group increased SDW, to increased concentrations of ABA and ethylene under mild drought, although both groups decreased ABA/ethylene ratio under mild drought albeit at different levels. We concluded that SDW of the DT and DS groups might be distinctly regulated by specific ABA:ethylene ratio. Further, a foliar-spray of low concentrations (0.1 μM of ABA increased shoot relative growth rate (RGR in the DS group while ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ethylene precursor spray increased RGR in both groups compared to control. Furthermore, the DT group accumulated a significantly higher galactose while a significantly lower maltose in the shoot compared to the DS group. Taken all together, these results suggest an impact of ABA, ethylene and ABA:ethylene ratio on SDW of wheat seedlings that may partly underlie a genotypic variability of different shoot growth sensitivities to drought among crop species under field conditions. We propose that phenotyping based on hormone accumulation, response and hormonal ratio would be a viable, rapid, and an early–stage selection tool aiding genotype selection for stress tolerance.

  14. Foliar Abscisic Acid-To-Ethylene Accumulation and Response Regulate Shoot Growth Sensitivity to Mild Drought in Wheat.

    Valluru, Ravi; Davies, William J; Reynolds, Matthew P; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Although, plant hormones play an important role in adjusting growth in response to environmental perturbation, the relative contributions of abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene remain elusive. Using six spring wheat genotypes differing for stress tolerance, we show that young seedlings of the drought-tolerant (DT) group maintained or increased shoot dry weight (SDW) while the drought-susceptible (DS) group decreased SDW in response to mild drought. Both the DT and DS groups increased endogenous ABA and ethylene concentrations under mild drought compared to control. The DT and DS groups exhibited different SDW response trends, whereby the DS group decreased while the DT group increased SDW, to increased concentrations of ABA and ethylene under mild drought, although both groups decreased ABA/ethylene ratio under mild drought albeit at different levels. We concluded that SDW of the DT and DS groups might be distinctly regulated by specific ABA:ethylene ratio. Further, a foliar-spray of low concentrations (0.1 μM) of ABA increased shoot relative growth rate (RGR) in the DS group while ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ethylene precursor) spray increased RGR in both groups compared to control. Furthermore, the DT group accumulated a significantly higher galactose while a significantly lower maltose in the shoot compared to the DS group. Taken all together, these results suggest an impact of ABA, ethylene, and ABA:ethylene ratio on SDW of wheat seedlings that may partly underlie a genotypic variability of different shoot growth sensitivities to drought among crop species under field conditions. We propose that phenotyping based on hormone accumulation, response and hormonal ratio would be a viable, rapid, and an early-stage selection tool aiding genotype selection for stress tolerance. PMID:27148292

  15. Short Communication: Rhizosphere bacteria containing ACC-deaminase conferred drought tolerance in wheat grown under semi-arid climate

    Masood Ahmad Shakir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain rhizobacteria have the potential of lowering endogenous ethylene levels in plants because of their 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC-deaminase activity and promoting root growth. This mechanism is of great agronomic significance under stress environments, which are known to induce accelerated production of ethylene. Thirty rhizobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. growing in the Southern Punjab, a semi-arid region of Pakistan. Rhizobacteria were screened for ACC-deaminase activity and their potential to confer drought tolerance in wheat crop. Results of laboratory study revealed that selected rhizobacteria lowered endogenous ethylene levels in the rhizosphere as measured by Gas Chromatograph. Axenic studies showed that inoculation increased root-shoot length, root-shoot mass and lateral root number of the inoculated plants by 141, 44, 196, 52 and 30%, respectively, over control. Better-developed roots because of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR helped plants, a better crop stand that enhanced moisture and nutrient feeding volume resulting-in improved growth and yields of wheat crop. Two-year multi-location field trials inferred optimum yields with low delta water in semi-arid climate by PGPR containing ACC-deaminase. The enzyme ACC-deaminase probably lowered harmful ethylene levels which partially eliminated drought stress consequently utilizing soil moisture from lower profiles through proliferated roots.

  16. Various effects of fluorescent bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas containing ACC deaminase on wheat seedling growth.

    Magnucka, Elżbieta G; Pietr, Stanisław J

    2015-12-01

    The study evaluates the effect of rhizobacteria having 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCd) on the development of wheat seedlings. This enzyme has been proposed to play a key role in microbe-plant association. Three fluorescent pseudomonads containing this deaminase were selected from 70 strains of pseudomonads isolated from rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.). These bacteria, varied significantly in the ability to both biosynthesize auxins and hydrolyze ACC. Among them, Pseudomonas brassicacearum subsp. brassicacearum strain RZ310 presented the highest activities of ACC deaminase during 96h of growth in liquid Dworkin and Foster (DF) salt medium. Additionally, this rape rhizosphere strain did not produce indoles. Two other isolates, Pseudomonas sp. PO283 and Pseudomonas sp. PO366, secreted auxins only in the presence of their precursor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and four other protein-encoding genes indicated that these wheat rhizosphere isolates belonged to the fluorescent Pseudomonas group. Moreover, the effects of these strains on wheat seedling growth under in vitro conditions were markedly dependent on both their cell suspensions used to grain inoculation and nutrient conditions. Strains tested had beneficial influence on wheat seedlings mainly at low cell densities. In addition, access to nutrients markedly changed bacteria action on cereal growth. Their presence generally favored the positive effects of pseudomonads on length and the estimated biomasses of wheat coleoptiles. Despite these general rules, impacts of each isolate on the growth parameters of cereal seedlings were unique. PMID:25983132

  17. Down regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in apples. Cloning and sequencing of the partial ACC synthase gene in the McIntosh cultivar

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and senescence. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase has been identified as the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ethylene. Down regulation of ethylene biosynthesis via transformation with the antisense ACC synthase gene (as has already been proved with tomato) might lengthen the storability of apple. To produce the antisense gene of the apple, RNA was isolated from the McIntosh cultivar and the cDNA synthesized. The cDNA template was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using ACC specific primers that have been found to be highly conserved in several plant species. PCR resulted in a 1.1 kb DNA band, which was cloned and sequenced. Sequenced analysis of the McIntosh clones (K1, G1, G2, G3, G4) showed a similarity of 63.5-71.6% with the apple ACC synthase known so far and found comparable homology with the ACC syntheses of other plant species in the databank. 8 refs, 2 tabs

  18. Skeletal muscle ACC2 S212 phosphorylation is not required for the control of fatty acid oxidation during exercise

    O’Neill, Hayley M.; Lally, James S.; Galic, Sandra; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Ford, Rebecca J; Dyck, Jason R.B.; van Denderen, Bryce J.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2015-01-01

    During submaximal exercise fatty acids are a predominant energy source for muscle contractions. An important regulator of fatty acid oxidation is acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which exists as two isoforms (ACC1 and ACC2) with ACC2 predominating in skeletal muscle. Both ACC isoforms regulate malonyl-CoA production, an allosteric inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1); the primary enzyme controlling fatty acyl-CoA flux into mitochondria for oxidation. AMP-activated protein kinase...

  19. The Isolation of PGPR Strains with ACC Deaminase and Their Influences on the Resistance of Oat%含ACC脱氨酶PGPR菌株的分离及其对燕麦耐盐性的影响

    辛树权; 高扬; 赵骥民

    2011-01-01

    Two PGPR strains with ACC deaminase activity was isolated in the soil of oat roots in BaiCheng Academy of Agricultural Science by using enriching and screening method which took the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate as the only source of the nitrogen.The 7ACC9-2's ACC deaminase activity is higher than another,and it was used to treat the oat seeds,which were used in the experiment of the oat seeds germination and growth under different concentration sodium bicarbonate,measuring seed germination rate,seedling height and root length.The results showed that the germination rate was significantly increased by 7ACC9-2,and seedling height and root length are also significantly better than check group under different concentration sodium bicarbonate.The 7ACC9-2 can effectively solve the problem of the salinization of oat seed germination and harms of growth stage.%本文采用富集筛选法,以1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate,ACC)为唯一氮源,从白城农科院实验地燕麦根际土壤中分离出2株具有ACC脱氨酶活性的细菌。其中菌株7ACC9-1的ACC脱氨酶酶活性较高,并用此菌株处理燕麦种子,在不同浓度的碳酸氢钠溶液的碱胁迫下进行燕麦种子的萌发实验和初生苗的生长试验,测定燕麦种子的发芽率、燕麦初生苗的根长和苗高。结果表明:燕麦种子用菌株处理后,发芽率显着提高;同时,在各浓度的碱胁迫下,燕麦处理组的初生苗根长和苗高均显着地优于对照组。说明具ACC脱氨酶活性的7ACC9-1能够有效地缓解燕麦种子在盐碱胁迫下萌发及其在初生苗生长阶段所受到的危害。

  20. Biochemistry and Genetics of ACC deaminase: A weapon to 'stress ethylene' produced in plants

    Rajnish Prakash Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD, a pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzyme, is widespread in diverse bacterial and fungal species. Owing to ACCD activity, certain plant associated bacteria help plant to grow under biotic and abiotic stresses by decreasing level of 'stress ethylene' which is inhibitory to plant growth. ACCD breaks down ACC, an immediate precursor of ethylene, to ammonia and α-ketobutyrate which can be further metabolized by bacteria for their growth. ACC deaminase is an inducible enzyme whose synthesis is induced in presence of its substrate ACC. This enzyme, encoded by gene AcdS, is under tight regulation and regulated differentilly under different environmental conditions. Regulatory elements of gene AcdS are comprised of regulatory gene encoding LRP protein and other regulator elements which are activated differentially under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Role of some additional regulatory genes such as AcdB or LysR may also be required for expression of AcdS. Phylogenetic analysis of AcdS has revealed that distribution of this gene among different bacteria might have resulted from vertical gene transfer with occasional horizontal gene transfer. Application of bacterial AcdS gene has been extended by developing transgenic plants with ACCD gene which showed increased tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Moreover, distribution of ACCD gene or its homologs in wide range of species belonging to all three domains indicate alternative role of ACCD in physiology of an organism. Therefore, this review is an attempt to explore current knowledge of bacterial ACC deaminase mediated physiological effects in plants, mode of enzyme action, genetics, and distribution in different species and ecological role of ACCD and, future research avenues to develop transgenic plants expressing foreign AcdS gene to cope with biotic and abiotic stressors. Systemic identification of regulatory circuits would be highly

  1. Ethylene evolution and endo-beta-mannanase activity during lettuce seed germination at high temperature Evolução de etileno e atividade da enzima endo-beta-mananase durante a germinação de sementes de alface sob altas temperaturas

    Warley Marcos Nascimento; Daniel James Cantliffe; Donald John Huber

    2004-01-01

    High temperatures during lettuce seed imbibition can delay or completely inhibit germination and the endosperm layer appears to restrict the radicle protrusion. The role of endo-beta-mannanase during lettuce seed germination at 35°C and the influence of ethylene in endo-beta-mannanase regulation were investigated. Seeds of 'Dark Green Boston' (DGB) and 'Everglades' (EVE) were germinated in water, or 10 mmol L-1 of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), or 10 mmol L-1 of aminoethoxyvinyl...

  2. Native Bacterial Endophytes Promote Host Growth in a Species-Specific Manner; Phytohormone Manipulations Do Not Result in Common Growth Responses

    Hoang Hoa Long; Schmidt, Dominik D; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of endophytic bacteria which can positively affect host plant growth. Changes in plant growth frequently reflect alterations in phytohormone homoeostasis by plant-growth-promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria which can decrease ethylene (ET) levels enzymatically by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase or produce indole acetic acid (IAA). Whether these common PGP mechanisms work similarly for different plant species has not been r...

  3. Isolation of rhizobacteria from salt tolerant plant species and evaluation of their plant growth-promotion

    Suarez Franco, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria from rhizosphere samples of Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri from a natural salt meadow in Hessen, Germany, a natural undisturbed ecosystem, were isolated with emphasis on diazotrophs (NFB & LG agar), phosphate- and phytate-mobilising bacteria (CP & IHP agar), ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, a precursor of ethylene) deaminase-active bacteria (DF agar) as well as IAA (indole-3-acetic-acid)-producing bacteria (LBT agar) as source of potential halotolerant potential growth...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas trivialis Strain IHBB745 with Multiple Plant Growth-Promoting Activities and Tolerance to Desiccation and Alkalinity

    Gulati, Arvind; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Vyas, Pratibha; Rahi, Praveen; Thakur, Rishu; Thakur, Namika; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of 6.45 Mb is reported here for Pseudomonas trivialis strain IHBB745 (MTCC 5336), which is an efficient, stress-tolerant, and broad-spectrum plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. The gene-coding clusters predicted the genes for phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, and stress response.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas trivialis Strain IHBB745 with Multiple Plant Growth-Promoting Activities and Tolerance to Desiccation and Alkalinity.

    Gulati, Arvind; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Vyas, Pratibha; Rahi, Praveen; Thakur, Rishu; Thakur, Namika; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of 6.45 Mb is reported here for Pseudomonas trivialis strain IHBB745 (MTCC 5336), which is an efficient, stress-tolerant, and broad-spectrum plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. The gene-coding clusters predicted the genes for phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, and stress response. PMID:26337878

  6. ACC 260

    ADMIN

    2015-01-01

    ACC 460 Complete Class - NO DQ's To purchase this material click below link http://www.assignmentcloud.com/ACC-460/ACC-460-Complete-Class. For more classes visit www.assignmentcloud.com     ACC 460 Week 1 Individual GASB and FASB  Paper To purchase this material click below link   http://www.assignmentcloud.com/ACC-460/ACC-460-Week-1-Individual-GASB-and-FASB-Paper   Prepare a 350- to 700-word paper comparing and cont...

  7. Characterization of Alcohol Acyl Transferase and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase Gene Expression and Volatile Compound Emission during Apple Fruit Development and Ripening

    Alcohol acyl transferase (AAT) catalyzes the last step of volatile ester biosynthesis, and in this study, expression of four apple AAT genes was investigated in the peel of two apple cultivars with relatively high (‘Golden Delicious’) or low (‘Granny Smith’) volatile ester production. All four AAT ...

  8. Characterization of cultivar differences in alcohol acyltransferase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1carboxylate synthase gene expression and volatile compound emission during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Alcohol acyl transferase (AAT) catalyzes the last step of volatile ester biosynthesis, and ethylene purportedly regulates AAT gene expression. In this study, expession patterns of four apple AAT genes and two ethylene biosynthesis genes were investigated in two apple cultivars with relatively high ...

  9. ACC 491 Courses / acc491guidedotcom

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT www.acc491guide.com ACC 491 Week 1 Individual Assignment Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 2 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 Week 2 Team Assignment Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 1 ..

  10. ACC 491 Tutorials / acc491dotcom

    munna10

    2015-01-01

    ACC 491 Entire Course   For more course tutorials visit www.acc491.com   ACC 491 Week 1 Individual Assignment Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 2 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 Week 2 Team Assignment Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 3 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 week 3...

  11. ACC 490 Tutorials / acc490dotcom

    munna10

    2015-01-01

    ACC 490 Entire Course   For more course tutorials visit www.acc490.com   ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 490 Week 1 DQ 1 ACC 490 Week 1 DQ 2 ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Ch. 1 Textbook Exercise ACC 490 Week 2 Learning Team Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 490 Week 2 DQ 1 ACC 490 Week 2 DQ 2 ACC 490 Week 3 Individual Ch. 5, 6, & 7 Textbook Exercises ACC 490 Week 3 Learning Team ...

  12. Ethylene is involved in brassinosteroids induced alternative respiratory pathway in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings response to abiotic stress

    Lijie eWei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of brassinosteroids (BRs on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. abiotic stresses resistance to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG, cold and the potential mechanisms were investigated in this work. Previous reports have indicated that BRs can induce ethylene production and enhance alternative oxidase (AOX pathway. The mechanisms whether ethylene is involved as a signal molecule which connected BR with AOX in regulating stress tolerance are still unknown. Here, we found that pretreatment with 1 µM brassinolide (BL, the most active BRs relieved stress-caused oxidative damage in cucumber seedlings and clearly enhanced the capacity of AOX and the ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription level of ethylene signaling biosynthesis genes including ripening-related ACC synthase1 (CSACS1, ripening-related ACC synthase2 (CSACS2, ripening-related ACC synthase3 (CSACS3, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase1 (CSACO1, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase2 (CSACO2 and CSAOX were increased after BL treatment. Importantly, the application of the salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, AOX inhibitor and ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOA decreased plant resistance to environmental stress by blocking BRs-induced alternative respiration. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ethylene was involved in BRs-induced AOX activity which played important roles in abiotic stresses tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

  13. Bacteria in combination with fertilizers promote root and shoot growth of maize in saline-sodic soil

    Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is the leading abiotic stress hampering maize (Zea maysL. growth throughout the world, especially in Pakistan. During salinity stress, the endogenous ethylene level in plants increases, which retards proper root growth and consequent shoot growth of the plants. However, certain bacteria contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase, which converts 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants into ammonia and α-ketobutyrate instead of ethylene. In the present study, two Pseudomonas bacterial strains containing ACC-deaminase were tested separately and in combinations with mineral fertilizers to determine their potential to minimize/undo the effects of salinity on maize plants grown under saline-sodic field conditions. The data recorded at 30, 50 and 70 days after sowing revealed that both the Pseudomonas bacterial strains improved root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh weight, and root and shoot dry weight up to 34, 43, 35, 71, 55 and 68%, respectively, when applied without chemical fertilizers: these parameter were enhanced up to 108, 95, 100, 131, 100 and 198%, respectively, when the strains were applied along with chemical fertilizers. It can be concluded that ACC-deaminase Pseudomonas bacterial strains applied alone and in conjunction with mineral fertilizers improved the root and shoot growth of maize seedlings grown in saline-sodic soil.

  14. Bacteria in combination with fertilizers promote root and shoot growth of maize in saline-sodic soil.

    Zafar-Ul-Hye, Muhammad; Farooq, Hafiz Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar

    2015-03-01

    Salinity is the leading abiotic stress hampering maize ( Zea mays L.) growth throughout the world, especially in Pakistan. During salinity stress, the endogenous ethylene level in plants increases, which retards proper root growth and consequent shoot growth of the plants. However, certain bacteria contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which converts 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants) into ammonia and α-ketobutyrate instead of ethylene. In the present study, two Pseudomonas bacterial strains containing ACC-deaminase were tested separately and in combinations with mineral fertilizers to determine their potential to minimize/undo the effects of salinity on maize plants grown under saline-sodic field conditions. The data recorded at 30, 50 and 70 days after sowing revealed that both the Pseudomonas bacterial strains improved root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh weight, and root and shoot dry weight up to 34, 43, 35, 71, 55 and 68%, respectively, when applied without chemical fertilizers: these parameter were enhanced up to 108, 95, 100, 131, 100 and 198%, respectively, when the strains were applied along with chemical fertilizers. It can be concluded that ACC-deaminase Pseudomonas bacterial strains applied alone and in conjunction with mineral fertilizers improved the root and shoot growth of maize seedlings grown in saline-sodic soil. PMID:26221093

  15. ACC 546 courses/ acc546paperdotcom

    miller

    2015-01-01

    For More Course Tutorials Visit www.acc546paper.com   ACC 546 Week 1 Individual Assignment Auditing Introduction Letter ACC 546 Week 2 Individual Assignment Beginning the Audit Report ACC 546 Week 3 Individual Assignment The Audit Report and Internal Control Evaluation ACC 546 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment Audit Program Design Part I ACC 546 Week 5 Learning Team Assignment Audit Program Design Part II ACC 546 Week 6 Individual Assignment Audit Program De...

  16. ACC 250 Tutorials / acc250dotcom

    modumteja

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.acc250.com   ACC 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Choosing Accounting Software ACC 250 Week 1 Assignment Accounting Software Memo ACC 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Back Up and Restore Data ACC 250 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Vendor Transactions ACC 250 Week 3 Assignment Bellwether Garden Supply Record a Transaction ACC 250 Week 4 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Pa...

  17. ACC 310 Tutorials / acc310dotcom

    modutejak

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.acc310.com ACC 310 Week 1 DQ 1 Information for Decision Making and Cost Concepts and Behavior(1-A+ ACC 310 Week 1 DQ 2 Fundamentals of Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis    (no ratg ) ACC 310 Week 1 Assignment CVP Analysis and Price Changes   (2A) ACC 310 Week 2 DQ 1 Fundamentals of Cost Accounting for Decision Making (no ratg ) ACC 310 Week 2 DQ 2 Fundamentals of Product and Service Costing  (2B+) ACC 310 ...

  18. Co-inoculation with Rhizobium and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR for inducing salinity tolerance in mung bean under field condition of semi arid climate

    Muhammad Aamir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress severely affects the growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.. However, its growth can be improved under salinity stress by inoculation/co-inoculation with rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase enzyme. ACC-deaminase containing bacteria regulate the stress induced ethylene production by hydrolyzing the ACC (immediate precursor of ethylene into ammonia and ketobutyric acid, thus improve plant growth by lowering the ethylene level. A study was conducted under salt affected field conditions where pre-isolated strains of Rhizobium and PGPR were used alone as well as in combination for mitigating the salinity stress on growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean by following the randomized complete block design (RCBD. The data were recorded and analyzed statistically to see the difference among treatments.

  19. pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles induces apoptosis via reduced fatty acid synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells

    Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Hari, Natarajan; Pavankumar, Padarthi; Elangovan, Namasivayam

    2016-06-01

    The development of formulations with therapeutic peptides has been restricted to poor cell penetration and in this attempt; we developed pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized with FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TEM. In addition, the suitable formulation was evaluated for hemocompatibility, plasma stability and embryo toxicity using Danio rerio embryo model. The results showed that pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were compatible with plasma. They possess sustained release pattern and also found to be safe up to 300 mg/L in embryo toxicity tests. Cytotoxicity assays with MDA-MB-231 cell lines suggested that, pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were capable of enhanced cellular penetration and reduced palmitic acid content, which was confirmed by H1 NMR. Hence, these nanoparticles could be employed as excellent adjuvant therapeutics while treating solid tumors with multi-drug resistance.

  20. Pear 14-3-3a gene (Pp14-3-3a) is regulated during fruit ripening and senescense, and involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling

    Haiyan Shi; Yuxing Zhang

    2014-12-01

    14-3-3 proteins play important roles in regulating plant development and phytohormone (abscisic acid, gibberellin and brassinosteroids) signalling. However, their regulation in fruit ripening and senescense, and response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling are yet to be illustrated. One cDNA encoding putative 14-3-3 protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated Pp14-3-3a. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a belonged to -like group of 14-3-3 super-families. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of Pp14-3-3a gene was developmentally regulated in the fruit. Further study demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a expression was inhibited by salicylic acid and induced by ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in pear fruit. These data suggested that Pp14-3-3a might be involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling during fruit ripening and senescence of pear.

  1. Optimatization of transient transformation methods to study gene expression in Musa acuminata (AAA group) cultivar Ambon Lumut

    Prayuni, Kinasih; Dwivany, Fenny M.

    2015-09-01

    Banana is classified as a climateric fruit, whose ripening is regulated by ethylene. Ethylene is synthesized from ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) by ACC oxidase enzyme which is encoded by ACO gene. Controling an important gene expression in ethylene biosynthesis pathway has became a target to delay the ripening process. Therefore in the previous study we have designed a MaACO-RNAi construct to control MaACO gene expression. In this research, we study the effectiveness of different transient transformation methods to deliver the construct. Direct injection, with or no vaccum infiltration methods were used to deliver MaACO-RNAi construct. All of the methods succesfully deliver the construct into banana fruits based on RT-PCR result.

  2. ACC 375 Course Tutorial / indigohelp

    roman8034

    2015-01-01

     ACC 375 Entire Course For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   ACC 375 Week 1 Individual Assignment Understanding Ethics Matrix ACC 375 Week 1 Discussion Question 1 ACC 375 Week 1 Discussion Question 2 ACC 375 Week 2 Team Assignment Sarbanes Oxley Act Training Manual ACC 375 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 ACC 375 Week 2 Discussion Question 2 ACC 375 Week 3 Individual Assignment Ethics Situation 1 Fraudulent Schemes Report ACC 375 Week 3 Team As...

  3. ACC 491 Courses/snaptutorial

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visits www.snaptutorial.com           ACC 491 Week 1 Individual Assignment Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 2 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 Week 2 Team Assignment Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 3 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 week 3 Te...

  4. ACC 490 UOP Course Tutorial / acc490dotcom

    geeni

    2015-01-01

    ACC 490 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.acc490.com   ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 490 Week 1 DQ 1 ACC 490 Week 1 DQ 2 ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Ch. 1 Textbook Exercise ACC 490 Week 2 Learning Team Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 490 Week 2 DQ 1 ACC 490 Week 2 DQ 2 ACC 490 Week 3 Individual Ch. 5, 6, & 7 Textbook Exercises ACC 490 Week 3 Learning Team Ch. 6 &...

  5. ACC 491 UOP Course Tutorial / acc491dotcom

    geeni

    2015-01-01

    ACC 491 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.acc491.com   ACC 491 Week 1 Individual Assignment Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 2 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 Week 2 Team Assignment Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 3 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 week 3 Team Assig...

  6. ACC 375 Courses/snaptutorial

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.snaptutorial.com   ACC 375 Week 1 Individual Assignment Understanding Ethics Matrix ACC 375 Week 1 Discussion Question 1 ACC 375 Week 1 Discussion Question 2 ACC 375 Week 2 Team Assignment Sarbanes Oxley Act Training Manual ACC 375 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 ACC 375 Week 2 Discussion Question 2 ACC 375 Week 3 Individual Assignment Ethics Situation 1 Fraudulent Schemes Report ACC 375 Week 3 Team Assignment Article Review Ethic...

  7. ACC 490 Courses/snaptutorial

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visits www.snaptutorial.com           ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 490 Week 1 – DQ 1   ACC 490 Week 1 – DQ 2   ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Ch. 1 Textbook Exercise ACC 490 Week 2 Learning Team Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 490 Week 2 – DQ 1   ACC 490 Week 2 – DQ 2   ACC 490 Week 3 ...

  8. ACC 205 NEW TUTORIAL / Uoptutorial

    Richard

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 1 Accounting Equation   ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 2 Accounts   ACC 205 Week 1 Journal Balance Sheet Journal   ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 1 Accounting Cycle   ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 2 Bank Reconciliation   ACC 205 Week 2 Journal Income Statement Journal   ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 1 LIFO vs. FIFO   ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 2 Depreciation   ...

  9. Partial Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate Oxidase from Excised Mesocarp Tissue of Winter Squash Fruit

    Mathooko, Francis Mutiso; Kubo, Yasutaka; Inaba, Akitsugu; Nakamura, Reinosuke

    1993-01-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ACC to ethylene, the final step of ethylene biosynthesis was extracted from wounded mesocarp tissue of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. v. Ebisu) fruit. The enzyme was characterized with respect to temperature optima, thermostability, stability in the presence f selected metal ions and alkylating agents, and Km value for ACC.   ACC oxidase requires Fe2+ as a co-factor and maximum activity was ac...

  10. ACC 491 Courses Tutorial / indigohelp

    sahe

    2015-01-01

      ACC 491 Week 1 Individual Assignment Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 2 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 Week 2 Team Assignment Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 3 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 week 3 Team Assignments From the Text ACC 491 Week 3 Team Assignment Assessing Materiality and Risk Sim...

  11. ACC 206 NEW TUTORIAL / Uoptutorial

    Honey Singh

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 206 Week 1 Assignment Chapter One Problems   ACC 206 Week 1 DQ1 Cash Flows Information   ACC 206 Week 1 DQ2 Apple's Cash Flow   ACC 206 Week 2 Assignment Chapter Two and Three Problems   ACC 206 Week 2 DQ1 Stock Features   ACC 206 Week 2 DQ2 Role of Management Accounting   ACC 206 Week 2 Journal Institute of Management Accounting &nb...

  12. ACC 490 Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    welcome1361

    2015-01-01

    ACC 490 Entire Course (UOP Course) For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+   ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 1 DQ 1 (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 1 DQ 2 (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Ch. 1 Textbook Exercises (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 2 Learning Team Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 2 DQ 1 (UOP C...

  13. ACC 291 NEW Tutorials / acc291dotcom

    modumtejak

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.acc291.com   ACC 291 Final Exam Study Guide Question 207 On January 1, a machine with a useful life of five years and a residual value of $40,000 was purchased for $120,000. What is the depreciation expense for year 2 under the double-declining-balance method of depreciation? IFRS Multiple Choice Question 01 As a recent graduate of State University you're aware that IFRS requires component depreciation for plant assets. ...

  14. AccQ-Tag-HPLC法测定烟叶生长过程中游离氨基酸的变化%Detection of Free Amino Acids in Tobacco Leaves during Growth Process by Using AccQ-Tag-HPLC Method

    李方楼; 姬小明; 魏跃伟; 杨永锋; 刘国顺

    2011-01-01

    [目的]在AccQ-Tag分析包的基础上建立一种适合烟草中游离氨基酸测定的方法.[方法]采用WATERS公司的AccQ-Tg试剂包作为构建方法的基本条件,通过优化烟草中游离氨基酸的前处理和色谱条件,以6-氨基喹啉-N-羟基琥珀酰亚胺基甲酸酯(AQC)为衍生试剂与各氨基酸柱前定量衍生后,再用AccQ-TagTM柱梯度洗脱,建立了烟叶中游离氨基酸的AccQ-Tag-HPLC测试方法.[结果]用该方法测定烟叶杀青样品中的游离氨基酸,能够分离检测烟叶中的16种游离氨基酸,其回收率均在82.8%~105.3%,标准偏差均在2.5%以内,具有较好的重现性和回收率.烤烟杀青样中游离氨基酸以脯氨酸、天门冬氨酸、丝氨酸和丙氨酸含量较高.[结论] AccQ-Tag-HPLC法是一种实用的烟草中游离氨基酸的分析方法,适于烟叶中游离氨基酸从旺长期到成熟期的不同时段含量变化的测试.%[Objective] The study aimed to establish a method for the detection of free amino acids in tobacco by using AccQ-Tag-HPLC sys tem. [ Method] With the AccQ-Tag reagent bag from WATERS company as the basic condition of building method, through the optimization of pretreatment and chromatographic conditions for the free amino acid in the tobacco, the 6-amino decoquinate-N-hydroxyl succinyl imide formic ether (AQC) was taken as the derivative reagent to make for the column quantitative derivatization with each amino acid and then to elute by using AccQ-TagTM column gradient, thus, a AccQ-Tag-HPLC determining method for the detection of free amino acids in tobacco was estab lished. [ Result ] When the method was used to determine the free amino acids in the kill out samples of tobacco, 16 kinds of free amino acids in tobacco leaves were separated and detected by the method, with the recovery of 82. 8% - 105. 3% and the standard deviation values of be low 2.5% , showing a better reproducibility and recovery. The contents of proline, aspartate

  15. ACC 490 Courses Tutorial / indigohelp

    suha

    2015-01-01

    ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 490 Week 1 – DQ 1   ACC 490 Week 1 – DQ 2   ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Ch. 1 Textbook Exercise ACC 490 Week 2 Learning Team Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 490 Week 2 – DQ 1   ACC 490 Week 2 – DQ 2   ACC 490 Week 3 Individual Ch. 5, 6, & 7 Textbook Exercises ACC 490 Week 3 Learning TeamCh. 6 & 7 Textbook Exerc...

  16. Caracterização imunoquímica da ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano oxidase em frutos climatéricos Immunochemical characterization of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid oxidase in climacteric fruits

    Ana Lúcia CHAVES

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar, por via imunoquímica, a enzima ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano oxidase em frutos climatéricos, foram preparados anticorpos policlonais específicos para esta proteína. Utilizou-se, como antígeno, uma proteína recombinante, produzida em Escherichia coli K38/pGP1,2, contendo o vetor de expressão pT7-7A4 no qual foi inserido um clone de DNA da ACC oxidase. A especificidade dos anticorpos foi demonstrada pela técnica de "Western blot", a partir de extratos protéicos de maçãs e tomates em diferentes estágios de maturação. Verificou-se que o aumento da produção de etileno, quando os frutos passaram do estágio pré-climatérico para o climatérico, está diretamente correlacionada com o aumento da síntese da ACC oxidase. Em estágios de maturação mais avançados houve uma redução da produção de etileno e da atividade ACC oxidase, mas esta proteína continuava presente. Quando o "Western blot" foi realizado com tomates transgênicos, onde a produção de etileno e a síntese da ACC oxidase foram inibidos em mais de 95%, nenhuma reação imunoquímica foi detectada. O conjunto de resultados obtidos indica que os anticorpos detectam especificamente ACC oxidase.Polyclonal antibodies were prepared to characterize the enzyme ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid oxidase from climateric fruits. The antigen was a recombinant protein obtained from an Escherichia coli K38/pGP1,2, which contained the expression vector pT7-7A4 with one ACC oxidase DNA clone inserted. Antibody specificity was demonstrated by the Western blot technique with protein extracts from apples and tomatoes in different maturation stages. It was observed that the increase in ethylene production which happened when the fruits changed from pre-climateric to climateric stage is directly correlated with an increase in ACC oxidase syntesis. In more advanced maturation stages there was a reduction in ethylene production and

  17. ACC 491 Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    welcome1361

    2015-01-01

    ACC 491 Entire Course (UOP Course) For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ACC 491 Week 1 Individual Assignment Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper (UOP Course) ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 1 (UOP Course) ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 2 (UOP Course) ACC 491 week 2 Individual Assignments From the Text (UOP Course) ACC 491 Week 2 Team Assignment Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper (UOP Course) ...

  18. ACC 546 Courses Tutorial / indigohelp

    saqe

    2015-01-01

    ACC 546 Week 1 Individual Assignment Auditing Introduction Letter ACC 546 Week 2 Individual Assignment Beginning the Audit Report ACC 546 Week 3 Individual Assignment The Audit Report and Internal Control Evaluation ACC 546 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment Audit Program Design Part I ACC 546 Week 5 Learning Team Assignment Audit Program Design Part II ACC 546 Week 6 Individual Assignment Audit Program Design Part III  

  19. ACC 226 Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    welcome8888

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+     ACC 226 Week 1 CheckPoint Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Accounts   ACC 226 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2   ACC 226 Week 2 Assignment Accounting for Depreciation part   ACC 226 Week 2 CheckPoint Ethics and Computing   ACC 226 Week 3 CheckPoint Classifying Liabilities and Preparing Payroll Entries   ACC 226...

  20. Expression and beta-glucan binding properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) antimicrobial protein (Sp-AMP)

    Sooriyaarachchi, Sanjeewani; Jaber, Emad; Covarrubias, Adrian Suárez;

    2011-01-01

    . Furthermore, the genes were up-regulated after treatment with salicylic acid and an ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid, but neither methyl jasmonate nor H(2)O(2) induced expression, indicating that Sp-AMP gene expression is independent of the jasmonic acid signaling pathways. The c...

  1. Carrier-Mediated Uptake of 1-(Malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid in Vacuoles Isolated from Catharanthus roseus Cells 1

    Bouzayen, Mondher; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Marigo, Gérard

    1989-01-01

    The uptake of 1-(malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC), the conjugated form of the ethylene precursor, into vacuoles isolated from Catharanthus roseus cells has been studied by silicone layer floatation filtering. The transport across the tonoplast of MACC is stimulated fourfold by 5 millimolar MgATP, has a Km of about 2 millimolar, an optimum pH around 7, and an optimum temperature at 30°C. Several effectors known to inhibit ATPase (N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide) and to collapse the transtonoplastic H+ electrochemical gradient (carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, gramicidin, and benzylamine) all reduced MACC uptake. Abolishing the membrane potential with SCN− and valinomycin also greatly inhibited MACC transport. Our data demonstrate that MACC accumulates in the vacuole against a concentration gradient by means of a proton motive force generated by a tonoplastic ATPase. The involvement of a protein carrier is suggested by the strong inhibition of uptake by compounds known to block SH—, OH—, and NH2— groups. MACC uptake is antagonized competitively by malonyl-d-tryptophan, indicating that the carrier also accepts malonyl-d-amino acids. Neither the moities of these compounds taken separately [1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, malonate, d-tryptophan or d-phenylalanine] nor malate act as inhibitors of MACC transport. The absence of inhibition of malate uptake by MACC suggests that MACC and malate are taken up by two different carriers. We propose that the carrier identified here plays an important physiological role in withdrawing from the cytosol MACC and malonyl-d-amino acids generated under stress conditions. PMID:16667182

  2. ACC 250 UOP Tutorial / Uoptutorial

    Ben K. Green

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Choosing Accounting Software ACC 250 Week 1 Assignment Accounting Software Memo ACC 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Back Up and Restore Data ACC 250 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Vendor Transactions ACC 250 Week 3 Assignment Bellwether Garden Supply Record a Transaction ACC 250 Week 4 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supp...

  3. ACC 250 UOP Courses / uoptutorial

    hani

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com     ACC 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Choosing Accounting Software ACC 250 Week 1 Assignment Accounting Software Memo ACC 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Back Up and Restore Data ACC 250 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Vendor Transactions ACC 250 Week 3 Assignment Bellwether Garden Supply Record a Transaction ACC 250 Week 4 CheckPoint Bellwether...

  4. ACC 250 UOP TUTORIAL / Uoptutorial

    Cherry

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Choosing Accounting Software ACC 250 Week 1 Assignment Accounting Software Memo ACC 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Back Up and Restore Data ACC 250 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Vendor Transactions ACC 250 Week 3 Assignment Bellwether Garden Supply Record a Transaction ACC 250 Week 4 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Sup...

  5. Ethylene Production by Chilled Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Wang, C Y; Adams, D O

    1980-11-01

    Chilling at 2.5 C accelerated the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and C(2)H(4) production in cucumber fruit. Skin tissue contained higher levels of ACC and was more sensitive to chilling than was cortex tissue. Accumulation of ACC in chilled tissue was detected after 1 day of chilling and remained elevated even after C(2)H(4) production started to decline. These data suggest that ACC synthesis is readily stimulated by chilling, whereas the system that converts ACC to C(2)H(4) is vulnerable to chilling injury. Chilling-induced C(2)H(4) production was inhibited by amino-ethoxyvinylglycine, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and cycloheximide. The utilization of methionine for ACC formation and chilling-induced C(2)H(4) biosynthesis was established using l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine. Chilled tissue had a higher capacity to convert l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine to ACC and C(2)H(4) than did nonchilled tissue. PMID:16661538

  6. Characterization of Ethylene Biosynthesis Associated with Ripening in Banana Fruit1

    Liu, Xuejun; Shiomi, Shinjiro; Nakatsuka, Akira; Kubo, Yasutaka; Nakamura, Reinosuke; Inaba, Akitsugu

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana (Musa sp. [AAA group, Cavendish subgroup] cv Grand Nain) fruit. MA-ACS1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by exogenous ethylene. At the onset of the climacteric period in naturally ripened fruit, ethylene production increased greatly, with a sharp peak concomitant with an increase in the accumulation of MA-ACS1 mRNA, and then decreased rapidly. At the onset of ripening, the in vivo ACC oxidase activity was enhanced greatly, followed by an immediate and rapid decrease. Expression of the MA-ACO1 gene encoding banana ACC oxidase was detectable at the preclimacteric stage, increased when ripening commenced, and then remained high throughout the later ripening stage despite of a rapid reduction in the ACC oxidase activity. This discrepancy between enzyme activity and gene expression of ACC oxidase could be, at least in part, due to reduced contents of ascorbate and iron, cofactors for the enzyme, during ripening. Addition of these cofactors to the incubation medium greatly stimulated the in vivo ACC oxidase activity during late ripening stages. The results suggest that ethylene production in banana fruit is regulated by transcription of MA-ACS1 until climacteric rise and by reduction of ACC oxidase activity possibly through limited in situ availability of its cofactors once ripening has commenced, which in turn characterizes the sharp peak of ethylene production. PMID:10594112

  7. Characterization of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana fruit.

    Liu, X; Shiomi, S; Nakatsuka, A; Kubo, Y; Nakamura, R; Inaba, A

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the characteristics of ethylene biosynthesis associated with ripening in banana (Musa sp. [AAA group, Cavendish subgroup] cv Grand Nain) fruit. MA-ACS1 encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase in banana fruit was the gene related to the ripening process and was inducible by exogenous ethylene. At the onset of the climacteric period in naturally ripened fruit, ethylene production increased greatly, with a sharp peak concomitant with an increase in the accumulation of MA-ACS1 mRNA, and then decreased rapidly. At the onset of ripening, the in vivo ACC oxidase activity was enhanced greatly, followed by an immediate and rapid decrease. Expression of the MA-ACO1 gene encoding banana ACC oxidase was detectable at the preclimacteric stage, increased when ripening commenced, and then remained high throughout the later ripening stage despite of a rapid reduction in the ACC oxidase activity. This discrepancy between enzyme activity and gene expression of ACC oxidase could be, at least in part, due to reduced contents of ascorbate and iron, cofactors for the enzyme, during ripening. Addition of these cofactors to the incubation medium greatly stimulated the in vivo ACC oxidase activity during late ripening stages. The results suggest that ethylene production in banana fruit is regulated by transcription of MA-ACS1 until climacteric rise and by reduction of ACC oxidase activity possibly through limited in situ availability of its cofactors once ripening has commenced, which in turn characterizes the sharp peak of ethylene production. PMID:10594112

  8. ACC 310 Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    welcome1351

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ASHFORD ACC 310 Week 1 DQ 1 Information for Decision Making and Cost Concepts and Behavior ASHFORD ACC 310 Week 1 DQ 2 Fundamentals of Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis ASHFORD ACC 310 Week 1 Assignment CVP Analysis and Price Changes ASHFORD ACC 310 Week 2 DQ 1 Fundamentals of Cost Accounting for Decision Making ASHFORD ACC 310 Week 2 DQ 2 Fundamentals of Product and S...

  9. A novel allele of monoecious (m) locus is responsible for elongated fruit shape and perfect flowers in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sex determination is controlled primarily by the F (female) and M (monoecy) loci. Homozygous recessive mm plants bear bisexual (perfect) flowers and the fruits are often round shaped. CsACS2 encoding the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase has been shown ...

  10. Oxygen control of ethylene biosynthesis during seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    Ramonell, K. M.; McClure, G.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    An unforeseen side-effect on plant growth in reduced oxygen is the loss of seed production at concentrations around 25% atmospheric (50 mmol mol-1 O2). In this study, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. cv. 'Columbia' was used to investigate the effect of low oxygen on ethylene biosynthesis during seed development. Plants were grown in a range of oxygen concentrations (210 [equal to ambient], 160, 100, 50 and 25 mmol mol-1) with 0.35 mmol mol-1 CO2 in N2. Ethylene in full-sized siliques was sampled using gas chromatography, and viable seed production was determined at maturity. Molecular analysis of ethylene biosynthesis was accomplished using cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase in ribonuclease protection assays and in situ hybridizations. No ethylene was detected in siliques from plants grown at 50 and 25 mmol mol-1 O2. At the same time, silique ACC oxidase mRNA increased three-fold comparing plants grown under the lowest oxygen with ambient controls, whereas ACC synthase mRNA was unaffected. As O2 decreased, tissue-specific patterning of ACC oxidase and ACC synthase gene expression shifted from the embryo to the silique wall. These data demonstrate how low O2 modulates the activity and expression of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway during seed development in Arabidopsis.

  11. ACC 491 Tutorial Course/Uoptutorial

    nina

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com     ACC 491 Week 1 Individual Assignment Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 2 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 Week 2 Team Assignment Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 3 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 week 3 Team Assignments Fr...

  12. ACC 375 Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    welcome1365

    2015-01-01

                     For more course tutorials visit   www.tutorialrank.com   Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+       ACC 375 Week 1 Individual Assignment Understanding Ethics Matrix (UOP Course) ACC 375 Week 1 Discussion Question 1 (UOP Course) ACC 375 Week 1 Discussion Question 2 (UOP Course) ACC 375 Week 2 Team Assignment Sarbanes Oxley Act Training Manual (UOP Course) AC...

  13. After-ripening induced transcriptional changes of hormonal genes in wheat seeds: the cases of brassinosteroids, ethylene, cytokinin and salicylic acid.

    Vijaya R Chitnis

    Full Text Available Maintenance and release of seed dormancy is regulated by plant hormones; their levels and seed sensitivity being the critical factors. This study reports transcriptional regulation of brassinosteroids (BR, ethylene (ET, cytokinin (CK and salicylic acid (SA related wheat genes by after-ripening, a period of dry storage that decays dormancy. Changes in the expression of hormonal genes due to seed after-ripening did not occur in the anhydrobiotic state but rather in the hydrated state. After-ripening induced dormancy decay appears to be associated with imbibition mediated increase in the synthesis and signalling of BR, via transcriptional activation of de-etiolated2, dwarf4 and brassinosteroid signaling kinase, and repression of brassinosteroid insensitive 2. Our analysis is also suggestive of the significance of increased ET production, as reflected by enhanced transcription of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in after-ripened seeds, and tight regulation of seed response to ET in regulating dormancy decay. Differential transcriptions of lonely guy, zeatin O-glucosyltransferases and cytokinin oxidases, and pseudo-response regulator between dormant and after-ripened seeds implicate CK in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Our analysis also reflects the association of dormancy decay in wheat with seed SA level and NPR independent SA signaling that appear to be regulated transcriptionally by phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and whirly and suppressor of npr1 inducible1 genes, respectively. Co-expression clustering of the hormonal genes implies the significance of synergistic and antagonistic interaction between the different plant hormones in regulating wheat seed dormancy. These results contribute to further our understanding of the molecular features controlling seed dormancy in wheat.

  14. Inhibition of auxin-induced ethylene production by lycoricidinol

    Lycoricidinol, a natural growth inhibitor isolated from bulbs of Lycoris radiata Herb. strongly suppressed auxin-induced ethylene production from the hypocotyl segments of etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata Wilczek) seedlings. The inhibitor did not significantly inhibit ethylene formation from its immediate precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), during short-term (up to 4h) incubation. The ACC content in tissue treated with IAA was reduced by lycoricidinol in close parallel with the inhibition of ethylene production. Examination of radioactive metabolites in tissues labeled with 3,4-14C-methionine indicated that reduction of the ACC content was not due to any possible promotive effect of lycoricidinol on conjugation of ACC with malonate. Lycoricidinol showed no inhibitory effect on the activity of ACC synthase if applied in vitro, but it almost completely abolished the increase in the enzyme activity when applied in vivo during incubation of the tissue with IAA. Lycoricidinol also strongly inhibited incorporation of 14C-leucine into protein in the tissue. The suppression of the enzyme induction and, in turn, that of ethylene production by lycoricidinol were interpreted as being due to the inhibition of protein synthesis. (author)

  15. Inhibition of auxin-induced ethylene production by lycoricidinol

    Kang, Bin-G.; Lee, June-S.; Oh, Seung-Eun (Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea)); Horiuchi, Yuko; Imaseki, Hidemasa

    1984-03-01

    Lycoricidinol, a natural growth inhibitor isolated from bulbs of Lycoris radiata Herb. strongly suppressed auxin-induced ethylene production from the hypocotyl segments of etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata Wilczek) seedlings. The inhibitor did not significantly inhibit ethylene formation from its immediate precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), during short-term (up to 4h) incubation. The ACC content in tissue treated with IAA was reduced by lycoricidinol in close parallel with the inhibition of ethylene production. Examination of radioactive metabolites in tissues labeled with 3,4-/sup 14/C-methionine indicated that reduction of the ACC content was not due to any possible promotive effect of lycoricidinol on conjugation of ACC with malonate. Lycoricidinol showed no inhibitory effect on the activity of ACC synthase if applied in vitro, but it almost completely abolished the increase in the enzyme activity when applied in vivo during incubation of the tissue with IAA. Lycoricidinol also strongly inhibited incorporation of /sup 14/C-leucine into protein in the tissue. The suppression of the enzyme induction and, in turn, that of ethylene production by lycoricidinol were interpreted as being due to the inhibition of protein synthesis.

  16. Plant-Agrobacterium interaction mediated by ethylene and super-Agrobacterium conferring efficient gene transfer ability

    Satoko eNonaka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a unique ability to transfer genes into plant genomes. This ability has been utilized for plant genetic engineering. However, the efficiency is not sufficient for all plant species. Several studies have shown that ethylene decreased the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation frequency. Thus, A. tumefaciens with an ability to suppress ethylene evolution would increase the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Some studies showed that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR can reduce ethylene levels in plants through 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase, which cleaves the ethylene precursor ACC into α-ketobutyrate and ammonia, resulting in reduced ethylene production. The whole genome sequence data showed that A. tumefaciens does not possess an ACC deaminase gene in its genome. Therefore, providing ACC deaminase activity to the bacteria would improve gene transfer. As expected, A. tumefaciens with ACC deaminase activity, designated as super-Agrobacterium, could suppress ethylene evolution and increase the gene transfer efficiency in several plant species. In this review, we summarize plant–Agrobacterium interactions and their applications for improving Agrobacterium-mediated genetic engineering techniques via super-Agrobacterium.

  17. ACC 375 Tutorial Course/Uoptutorial

    hina

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com         ACC 375 Week 1 Individual Assignment Understanding Ethics Matrix ACC 375 Week 1 Discussion Question 1 ACC 375 Week 1 Discussion Question 2 ACC 375 Week 2 Team Assignment Sarbanes Oxley Act Training Manual ACC 375 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 ACC 375 Week 2 Discussion Question 2 ACC 375 Week 3 Individual Assignment Ethics Situation 1 Fraudulent Schemes Report ACC 375...

  18. ACC 205 NEW ASH Tutorial / Uoptutorial

    Albert Camus

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 1 Accounting Equation   ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 2 Accounts   ACC 205 Week 1 Journal Balance Sheet Journal   ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 1 Accounting Cycle   ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 2 Bank Reconciliation   ACC 205 Week 2 Journal Income Statement Journal   ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 1 LIFO vs. FIFO   ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 2 Depreciation   ...

  19. ACC 205new Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    welcome8888

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+ ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 1 Accounting Equation   ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 2 Accounts   ACC 205 Week 1 Journal Balance Sheet Journal   ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 1 Accounting Cycle   ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 2 Bank Reconciliation   ACC 205 Week 2 Journal Income Statement Journal   ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 1 LIFO vs. FIFO   ACC 205 Week 3...

  20. ACC 205 NEW Tutorial Course/Uoptutorial

    neha

    2015-01-01

    For More Course Tutorials Visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 1 Accounting Equation   ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 2 Accounts   ACC 205 Week 1 Journal Balance Sheet Journal   ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 1 Accounting Cycle   ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 2 Bank Reconciliation   ACC 205 Week 2 Journal Income Statement Journal   ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 1 LIFO vs. FIFO   ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 2 Depreciation   ...

  1. ACC 205 NEW Course Tutorial / Tutorialrank

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+ ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 1 Accounting Equation   ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 2 Accounts   ACC 205 Week 1 Journal Balance Sheet Journal   ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 1 Accounting Cycle   ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 2 Bank Reconciliation   ACC 205 Week 2 Journal Income Statement Journal   ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 1 LIFO vs. FIFO   ACC 205 Week 3...

  2. Manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina using AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced generations of biofuels basically revolve around non-agricultural energy crops. Among those, microalgae owing to its unique characteristics i.e. natural tolerance to waste and saline water, sustainable biomass production and high lipid content (LC, is regarded by many as the ultimate choice for the production of various biofuels such as biodiesel. In the present study, manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina was achieved using pGH plasmid harboring AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality. The stability of transformation was confirmed by PCR after several passages. Southern hybridization of AccD probe with genomic DNA revealed stable integration of the cassette in the specific positions in the chloroplast genome with no read through transcription by indigenous promoters. Comparison of the LC and fatty acid profile of the transformed algal cell line and the control revealed the over-expression of the ME/AccD genes in the transformants leading to 12% increase in total LC and significant improvements in biodiesel properties especially by increasing algal oil oxidation stability. The whole process successfully implemented herein for transforming algal cells by genes involved in lipid production pathway could be helpful for large scale biodiesel production from microalgae.

  3. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    Sheikh Hasna Habib; Hossain Kausar; Halimi Mohd Saud

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzym...

  4. ACC 490 Tutorial Course/Uoptutorial

    nina

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 490 Week 1 DQ 1 ACC 490 Week 1 DQ 2 ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Ch. 1 Textbook Exercise ACC 490 Week 2 Learning Team Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 490 Week 2 DQ 1 ACC 490 Week 2 DQ 2 ACC 490 Week 3 Individual Ch. 5, 6, & 7 Textbook Exercises ACC 490 Week 3 Learning Team Ch. 6 & 7 Textbook Exercises ACC 490 Week...

  5. Native bacterial endophytes promote host growth in a species-specific manner; phytohormone manipulations do not result in common growth responses.

    Hoang Hoa Long

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of endophytic bacteria which can positively affect host plant growth. Changes in plant growth frequently reflect alterations in phytohormone homoeostasis by plant-growth-promoting (PGP rhizobacteria which can decrease ethylene (ET levels enzymatically by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase or produce indole acetic acid (IAA. Whether these common PGP mechanisms work similarly for different plant species has not been rigorously tested. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated bacterial endophytes from field-grown Solanum nigrum; characterized PGP traits (ACC deaminase activity, IAA production, phosphate solubilization and seedling colonization; and determined their effects on their host, S. nigrum, as well as on another Solanaceous native plant, Nicotiana attenuata. In S. nigrum, a majority of isolates that promoted root growth were associated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. However, in N. attenuata, IAA but not ACC deaminase activity was associated with root growth. Inoculating N. attenuata and S. nigrum with known PGP bacteria from a culture collection (DSMZ reinforced the conclusion that the PGP effects are not highly conserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that natural endophytic bacteria with PGP traits do not have general and predictable effects on the growth and fitness of all host plants, although the underlying mechanisms are conserved.

  6. The role of stamens in ethylene production in Ipomoea nil

    Ethylene production inhibits filament and corolla growth during young stages in flower development, and it promotes corolla unfolding and senescence in Ipomoea nil. Initial studies with the in vitro application of gibberellic acid (GA3), demonstrated that decreased filament growth occurred when the anthers remained attached to the filaments during the young stages in development. The removal of the anthers from intact plants did not enhance filament growth until the synthesis of wound ethylene was inhibited by applied aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) or cobalt chloride. It was hypothesized that the anthers were source tissues and that the filaments were transport vectors for the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to regulate growth events in the various floral organs. To test this hypothesis, endogenous IAA and ACC and ethylene production were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or gas chromatography. The transport of 14C-IAA and 14C-ACC through filament segments and filaments within intact flower buds also was examined during flower development

  7. ACC 250 UOP Tutorial/Uoptutorial

    Giselle Isabel

    2015-01-01

    ACC 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Choosing Accounting Software ACC 250 Week 1 Assignment Accounting Software Memo ACC 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Back Up and Restore Data ACC 250 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Vendor Transactions ACC 250 Week 3 Assignment Bellwether Garden Supply Record a Transaction ACC 250 Week 4 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Payroll ACC 250 Week 4 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 5 CheckPoi...

  8. acc490uopcoursesTutorial /uophelp

    jacobs

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 490 Week 1 – DQ 1  ACC 490 Week 1 – DQ 2 ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Ch. 1 Textbook Exercise ACC 490 Week 2 Learning Team Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 490 Week 2 – DQ 1 ACC 490 Week 2 – DQ 2 ACC 490 Week 3 Individual Ch. 5, 6, & 7 Textbook Exercises ACC 490 Week 3 L...

  9. ACC 205 ASH Tutorial/Uoptutorial

    Stella,, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 1 Accounting Equation  ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 2 Accounts  ACC 205 Week 1 Journal Balance Sheet Journal  ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 1 Accounting Cycle  ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 2 Bank Reconciliation  ACC 205 Week 2 Journal Income Statement Journal  ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 1 LIFO vs. FIFO  ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 2 Depreciation  ACC 205 Week 3 Journal Inventory Journal...

  10. ACC 206 NEW Tutorial/Uoptutorial

    Stella,, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 1 Accounting Equation  ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 2 Accounts  ACC 205 Week 1 Journal Balance Sheet Journal  ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 1 Accounting Cycle  ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 2 Bank Reconciliation  ACC 205 Week 2 Journal Income Statement Journal  ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 1 LIFO vs. FIFO  ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 2 Depreciation  ACC 205 Week 3 Journal Inventory Journal...

  11. UOP ACC 291 / Assignmentcloud.com

    admin

    2015-01-01

    ACC 291 Complete Class and Final Exams   To purchase this material click below link   http://www.assignmentcloud.com/ACC-291/ACC-291-Complete-Class-Final-Exams   For more classes visit www.assignmentcloud.com

  12. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes. PMID:24709154

  13. ACC 375 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialrank

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit   www.tutorialrank.com   Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+       ACC 375 Week 1 Individual Assignment Understanding Ethics Matrix (UOP Course) ACC 375 Week 1 Discussion Question 1 (UOP Course) ACC 375 Week 1 Discussion Question 2 (UOP Course) ACC 375 Week 2 Team Assignment Sarbanes Oxley Act Training Manual (UOP Course) ACC 375 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 (UOP Course) ACC 375 We...

  14. ACC 491 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialrank

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ACC 491 Week 1 Individual Assignment Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper (UOP Course) ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 1 (UOP Course) ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 2 (UOP Course) ACC 491 week 2 Individual Assignments From the Text (UOP Course) ACC 491 Week 2 Team Assignment Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper (UOP Course) ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 1 (UOP Course) AC...

  15. acc226uopcoursesTutorial /uophelp

    keller

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     ACC 226 Week 1 CheckPoint Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Accounts ACC 226 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 226 Week 2 Assignment Accounting for Depreciation part ACC 226 Week 2 CheckPoint Ethics and Computing ACC 226 Week 3 CheckPoint Classifying Liabilities and Preparing Payroll Entries ACC 226 Week 3 DQ 2 ACC 226 Week 4 Assignment Stocks and Earnings per Share part ACC 226 Week 4 CheckPo...

  16. ACC 226 UOP COURSE TUTORIAL/ UOPHELP

    balumgm

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     ACC 226 Week 1 CheckPoint Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Accounts ACC 226 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 226 Week 2 Assignment Accounting for Depreciation part ACC 226 Week 2 CheckPoint Ethics and Computing ACC 226 Week 3 CheckPoint Classifying Liabilities and Preparing Payroll Entries ACC 226 Week 3 DQ 2 ACC 226 Week 4 Assignment Stocks and Earnings per Share part ACC 226 Week 4 CheckPo...

  17. ACC 226 Ash Course tutorial/uophelp

    THNSSER

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   ACC 226 Week 1 CheckPoint Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Accounts ACC 226 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 226 Week 2 Assignment Accounting for Depreciation part ACC 226 Week 2 CheckPoint Ethics and Computing ACC 226 Week 3 CheckPoint Classifying Liabilities and Preparing Payroll Entries ACC 226 Week 3 DQ 2 ACC 226 Week 4 Assignment Stocks and Earnings per Share part ACC 226 Week 4 CheckPoint Stock I...

  18. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. PMID:25289519

  19. Compensation for a Mutated Auxin Biosynthesis Gene of Agrobacterium Ti Plasmid A66 in Nicotiana glutinosa Does Not Result from Increased Auxin Accumulation.

    Campell, B R; Su, L Y; Pengelly, W L

    1989-04-01

    Nicotiana glutinosa compensated for a mutated tumor-morphology-shooty (tms) (auxin biosynthesis) locus of Agrobacterlum tumefaciens strain A66 and showed the same virulent tumor response to infection by strain A66 or the wild-type strain A6. Cloned cell lines transformed by strains A6 or A66 were fully hormone independent in culture and grew rapidly as friable, unorganized tissues on hormone-free growth medium. Growth of N. glutinosa tumor cells was inhibited by addition of alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid to the growth medium, and A6- and A66-transformed cells showed similar dose responses to this auxin. On the other hand, A6-transformed cells contained much higher levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) than A66-transformed cells. Differences in IAA and ACC levels in N. glutinosa tumor lines were consistent with the expected activity of the tms locus and were quantitatively similar to results obtained previously with A6- and A66-transformed cells of Nicotiana tabacum, which does not compensate for mutated tms genes. Thus, compensation for mutated tms genes in N. glutinosa did not result from increased auxin accumulation and did not appear to be related to the capacity of this host for auxin biosynthesis. PMID:16666706

  20. ACC 310 ASH Tutorial Course/Uoptutorial

    VANI

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 310 Week 1 DQ 1 Information for Decision Making and Cost Concepts and Behavior ACC 310 Week 1 DQ 2 Fundamentals of Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis ACC 310 Week 1 Assignment CVP Analysis and Price Changes ACC 310 Week 2 DQ 1 Fundamentals of Cost Accounting for Decision Making ACC 310 Week 2 DQ 2 Fundamentals of Product and Service Costing ACC 310 Week 2 Assignment Special Orders ACC 310 Week 3 DQ 1 J...

  1. ACC 250 UOP COURSE TUTORIAL/ UOPHELP

    veeru1

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   ACC 250 Week 1 CheckPoint Choosing Accounting Software ACC 250 Week 1 Assignment Accounting Software Memo ACC 250 Week 2 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Back Up and Restore Data ACC 250 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 250 Week 3 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply Vendor Transactions ACC 250 Week 3 Assignment Bellwether Garden Supply Record a Transaction ACC 250 Week 4 CheckPoint Bellwether Garden Supply P...

  2. ACC 490 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialrank

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+   ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 1 DQ 1 (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 1 DQ 2 (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Ch. 1 Textbook Exercises (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 2 Learning Team Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 2 DQ 1 (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 2 DQ 2 (UOP Cou...

  3. ACC 310 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialrank

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+ ASHFORD ACC 310 Week 1 DQ 1 Information for Decision Making and Cost Concepts and Behavior ASHFORD ACC 310 Week 1 DQ 2 Fundamentals of Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis ASHFORD ACC 310 Week 1 Assignment CVP Analysis and Price Changes ASHFORD ACC 310 Week 2 DQ 1 Fundamentals of Cost Accounting for Decision Making ASHFORD ACC 310 Week 2 DQ 2 Fundamentals of Product and Service Costing ...

  4. ACC 226 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialrank

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+       ACC 226 Week 1 CheckPoint Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Accounts   ACC 226 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2   ACC 226 Week 2 Assignment Accounting for Depreciation part   ACC 226 Week 2 CheckPoint Ethics and Computing   ACC 226 Week 3 CheckPoint Classifying Liabilities and Preparing Payroll Entries   ...

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Salt Tolerant Endophytic and Rhizospheric Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB Associated with the Halophyte Plant (Sesuvium Verrucosum Grown in KSA

    Mohamed A.M. El-Awady

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to isolate and characterize endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria associated with the halophyte plant Sesuvium verrucosum, grown under extreme salinity soil in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The plant growth promotion activities of isolated bacterial were evaluated in vitro. A total of 19 salt tolerant endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial isolates were obtained and grouped into six according to genetic similarity based on RAPD data. These six isolates were identified by amplification and partial sequences of 16S rDNA as Enterobacter cancerogenus,Vibrio cholerae, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and two Enterobacter sp. Isolates were then grown until exponential growth phase to evaluate the atmospheric nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, and production of phytohormones such as indole-3-acetic acid, as well as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase activity. While, All of the six strains were negative for ACC deaminaseactivity, two isolates showed Nitrogen fixation activity, three isolates produce the plant hormone (Indole acetic acid and two isolates have the activity of solubiliztion of organic phosphate. Among the six isolates, the isolate (R3 from the soil around the roots is able to perform the three previous growth promoting possibilities together and it is ideal for use in promoting the growth of plants under the high salinity conditions. This isolate is candidate to prepare a friendly biofertelizer that can be used for the improvement of the crops performance under salinity conditions.

  6. Relationship between in vitro characterization and comparative efficacy of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for improving cucumber salt tolerance.

    Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Naveed, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Crowley, David E

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-deaminase activity and production of siderophores and indole acetic acid (IAA) are well-known traits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Here we investigated the expression of these traits as affected by salinity for three PGPR strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus megaterium and Variovorax paradoxus) at two salinity levels [2 and 5 % NaCl (w/v)]. Among the three strains, growth of B. megaterium was the least affected by high salinity. However, P. fluorescens was the best strain for maintaining ACC-deaminase activity, siderophore and IAA production under stressed conditions. V. paradoxus was the least tolerant to salts and had minimal growth and low PGPR trait expression under salt stress. Results of experiment examining the impact of bacterial inoculation on cucumber growth at three salinity levels [1 (normal), 7 and 10 dS m(-1)] revealed that P. fluorescens also had good rhizosphere competence and was the most effective for alleviating the negative impacts of salinity on cucumber growth. The results suggest that in addition to screening the PGPR regarding their effect on growth under salinity, PGPR trait expression is also an important aspect that may be useful for selecting the most promising PGPR bacterial strains for improving plant tolerance to salinity stress. PMID:26860842

  7. Isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria from date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and their potential role in salinity tolerance.

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; Antony, Irin; Glick, Bernard R

    2015-06-01

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seedling roots, characterized and tested for their ability to help plants grow under saline conditions. Molecular characterization showed that the majority of these strains belonged to the genera Bacillus and Enterobacter and had different degrees of resistance to various antibiotics. Some of these strains were able to produce the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase and the plant growth regulatory hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Some strains were also able to chelate ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and solubilize potassium (K(+)), phosphorus (PO 4 (3-) ) and zinc (Zn(2+)), and produce ammonia. The results also showed that ACC deaminase activity and IAA production was slightly increased in some strains in response to an increase in NaCl concentration in the growth media. Consistent with these results, selected strains such as PD-R6 (Paenibacillus xylanexedens) and PD-P6 (Enterobacter cloacae) were able to enhance canola root elongation when grown under normal and saline conditions as demonstrated by a gnotobiotic root elongation assay. These results suggest that the isolated and characterized endophytic bacteria can alter ethylene and IAA levels and also facilitate nutrient uptake in roots and therefore have the potential role to promote the growth and development of date palm trees growing under salinity stress. PMID:25860542

  8. Role of ethylene and cytokinins in the initiation of lateral shoot growth in bromeliads.

    Van Dijck, R; De Proft, M; De Greef, J

    1988-03-01

    Aechmea victoriana var discolor L. B. Foster and Aechmea dactylina Bal. are commercially propagated in vitro through lateral shoot growth. A modified Murashige and Skoog medium is used which contains both BA and IAA. These growth substances were shown in the present study to synergistically stimulate the production of ethylene by the cultured plants. The stimulation of ethylene production is correlated with the outgrowth of the lateral buds. The rise in ethylene production was concluded to induce lateral shoot growth, because: (a) outgrowth of the shoots was blocked by preventing an increase in ethylene production, (b) 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the natural precursor of ethylene biosynthesis, substituted for IAA in the promotion of ethylene production and lateral bud outgrowth. Although ACC could substitute for IAA, it could not substitute for BA; therefore, cytokinins are concluded to be essential for lateral bud outgrowth in vitro in Aechmea. These results suggest that cytokinins and ethylene both play roles in natural lateral bud initiation and that the cytokinin function involves two stages of the process. PMID:16665997

  9. Ethylene Production by Botrytis cinerea In Vitro and in Tomatoes

    2002-01-01

    A laser-based ethylene detector was used for on-line monitoring of ethylene released by the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in tomato fruit. Ethylene data were combined with the results of a cytological analysis of germination of B. cinerea conidia and hyphal growth. We found that aminoethoxyvinylglycine and aminooxyacetic acid, which are competitive inhibitors of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid pathway, did not inhibit the ethylene emission by B. cinerea and th...

  10. acc310ashcoursesTutorial /uophelp

    hakkins

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   ACC 310 Week 1 DQ 1 Information for Decision Making and Cost Concepts and Behavior(1-A+ ACC 310 Week 1 DQ 2 Fundamentals of Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis    (no ratg ) ACC 310 Week 1 Assignment CVP Analysis and Price Changes   (2A) ACC 310 Week 2 DQ 1 Fundamentals of Cost Accounting for Decision Making (no ratg ) ACC 310 Week 2 DQ 2 Fundamentals of Product and Service Costing  (2B+) ACC 31...

  11. Las peroxidasas y la conversión del ácido 1-aminociclopropano-1-carboxílico en etileno

    Vioque, B.; Fernández-Maculet, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the role of peroxidases in the last step of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway, the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylic acid, is discussed.

    En el trabajo se discute el papel de las peroxidasas en el último paso de la ruta de biosíntesis del etileno, la conversión del ácido 1-aminociclopropano-1-carboxílico en etileno.

  12. Las peroxidasas y la conversión del ácido 1-aminociclopropano-1-carboxílico en etileno

    Vioque, B.

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the role of peroxidases in the last step of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway, the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylic acid, is discussed.

    En el trabajo se discute el papel de las peroxidasas en el último paso de la ruta de biosíntesis del etileno, la conversión del ácido 1-aminociclopropano-1-carboxílico en etileno.

  13. Influence of metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth of Ricinus communis in soil contaminated with heavy metals

    Rajkumar, Mani; Freitas, Helena

    2008-01-01

    The metal resistant-plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) strains PsM6 and PjM15 isolated from a serpentine soil were characterized as Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas jessenii, respectively, on the basis of their morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences. Assessment of plant growth-promoting parameters revealed the intrinsic ability of the strains for the utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as the sole N source, solubilization of insol...

  14. A Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium That Decreases Nickel Toxicity in Seedlings

    Burd, Genrich I.; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

    1998-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and CrO4−, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride w...

  15. Arabidopsis eIF2α kinase GCN2 is essential for growth in stress conditions and is activated by wounding

    Robaglia Christophe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorylation of eIF2α provides a key mechanism for down-regulating protein synthesis in response to nutrient starvation or stresses in mammalian and yeast cells. However, this process has not been well characterized in plants Results We show here that in response to amino acid and purine starvations, UV, cold shock and wounding, the Arabidopsis GCN2 kinase (AtGCN2 is activated and phosphorylates eIF2α. We show that AtGCN2 is essential for plant growth in stress situations and that its activity results in a strong reduction in global protein synthesis. Conclusion Our results suggest that a general amino acid control response is conserved between yeast and plants but that the plant enzyme evolved to fulfill a more general function as an upstream sensor and regulator of diverse stress-response pathways. The activation of AtGCN2 following wounding or exposure to methyl jasmonate, the ethylene precursor 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC and salicylic acid, further suggests that this enzyme could play a role in plant defense against insect herbivores.

  16. Red light regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and gravitropism in etiolated pea stems

    Steed, C. L.; Taylor, L. K.; Harrison, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    During gravitropism, the accumulation of auxin in the lower side of the stem causes increased growth and the subsequent curvature, while the gaseous hormone ethylene plays a modulating role in regulating the kinetics of growth asymmetries. Light also contributes to the control of gravitropic curvature, potentially through its interaction with ethylene biosynthesis. In this study, red-light pulse treatment of etiolated pea epicotyls was evaluated for its effect on ethylene biosynthesis during gravitropic curvature. Ethylene biosynthesis analysis included measurements of ethylene; the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC); malonyl-conjugated ACC (MACC); and expression levels of pea ACC oxidase (Ps-ACO1) and ACC synthase (Ps-ACS1, Ps-ACS2) genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Red-pulsed seedlings were given a 6 min pulse of 11 micromoles m-2 s-1 red-light 15 h prior to horizontal reorientation for consistency with the timeline of red-light inhibition of ethylene production. Red-pulse treatment significantly reduced ethylene production and MACC levels in epicotyl tissue. However, there was no effect of red-pulse treatment on ACC level, or expression of ACS or ACO genes. During gravitropic curvature, ethylene production increased from 60 to 120 min after horizontal placement in both control and red-pulsed epicotyls. In red-pulsed tissues, ACC levels increased by 120 min after horizontal reorientation, accompanied by decreased MACC levels in the lower portion of the epicotyl. Overall, our results demonstrate that ethylene production in etiolated epicotyls increases after the initiation of curvature. This ethylene increase may inhibit cell growth in the lower portion of the epicotyl and contribute to tip straightening and reduced overall curvature observed after the initial 60 min of curvature in etiolated pea epicotyls.

  17. ACC 490 V4 Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    welcome1362

    2015-01-01

    ACC 490 Version 4 Entire Course UOP Course For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+   ACC 490 Version 4 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper (UOP Course) ACC 490 Version 4 Week 1 Individual Assignment Ch 1 and Ch 4 Questions (UOP Course) ACC 490 Version 4 Week 1 Team Assignment Ch 1 and Ch 4 Questions (UOP Course) ACC 490 Version 4 Week 2 Individual Assignment Ch 6, Ch 7 and Ch 9 Exercise (U...

  18. ACC 490 V4 Course Tutorial / Tutorialrank

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+   ACC 490 Version 4 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper (UOP Course) ACC 490 Version 4 Week 1 Individual Assignment Ch 1 and Ch 4 Questions (UOP Course) ACC 490 Version 4 Week 1 Team Assignment Ch 1 and Ch 4 Questions (UOP Course) ACC 490 Version 4 Week 2 Individual Assignment Ch 6, Ch 7 and Ch 9 Exercise (UOP Course) ACC 490 Version 4 Week 2 Team As...

  19. Protocol: An updated integrated methodology for analysis of metabolites and enzyme activities of ethylene biosynthesis

    Geeraerd Annemie H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foundations for ethylene research were laid many years ago by researchers such as Lizada, Yang and Hoffman. Nowadays, most of the methods developed by them are still being used. Technological developments since then have led to small but significant improvements, contributing to a more efficient workflow. Despite this, many of these improvements have never been properly documented. Results This article provides an updated, integrated set of protocols suitable for the assembly of a complete picture of ethylene biosynthesis, including the measurement of ethylene itself. The original protocols for the metabolites 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and 1-(malonylaminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid have been updated and downscaled, while protocols to determine in vitro activities of the key enzymes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase have been optimised for efficiency, repeatability and accuracy. All the protocols described were optimised for apple fruit, but have been proven to be suitable for the analysis of tomato fruit as well. Conclusions This work collates an integrated set of detailed protocols for the measurement of components of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, starting from well-established methods. These protocols have been optimised for smaller sample volumes, increased efficiency, repeatability and accuracy. The detailed protocol allows other scientists to rapidly implement these methods in their own laboratories in a consistent and efficient way.

  20. ASH ACC 205 NEW Tutorials /ashacc205dotcom

    yamini63

    2015-01-01

    ACC 205 Entire Course(New)   For more course tutorials visit www.ashacc205.com   ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 1 Accounting Equation ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 2 Accounts ACC 205 Week 1 Journal Balance Sheet Journal ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 1 Accounting Cycle ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 2 Bank Reconciliation ACC 205 Week 2 Journal Income Statement Journal ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 1 LIFO vs. FIFO ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 2 Depreciation ACC 205 Week 3 Journal Inventory Journal ACC...

  1. ACC 205 NEW Ash Course tutorial/uophelp

    RGNSDD

    2015-01-01

    ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 1 Accounting Equation ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 2 Accounts ACC 205 Week 1 Exercise Assignment Basic Accounting Equations ACC 205 Week 1 Journal Balance Sheet Journal ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 1 Accounting Cycle ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 2 Bank Reconciliation ACC 205 Week 2 Exercise Assignment Revenue and Expenses ACC 205 Week 2 Journal Income Statement Journal ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 1 LIFO vs ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 2 Depreciation ACC 205 Week 3 Exercise Assignment Inventory A...

  2. ACC 375 uop course tutorial/uop help

    jeeven

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   ACC 375 Week 1 Individual Assignment Understanding Ethics Matrix ACC 375 Week 1 Discussion Question 1 ACC 375 Week 1 Discussion Question 2 ACC 375 Week 2 Team Assignment Sarbanes Oxley Act Training Manual ACC 375 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 ACC 375 Week 2 Discussion Question 2 ACC 375 Week 3 Individual Assignment Ethics Situation 1 Fraudulent Schemes Report ACC 375 Week 3 Team Assignment Article Review Et...

  3. Brevundimonas diminuta mediated alleviation of arsenic toxicity and plant growth promotion in Oryza sativa L.

    Singh, Namrata; Marwa, Naina; Mishra, Shashank K; Mishra, Jyoti; Verma, Praveen C; Rathaur, Sushma; Singh, Nandita

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid adversely affects plant growth in polluted areas. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of improving phytostablization of arsenic through application of new isolated strain Brevundimonas diminuta (NBRI012) in rice plant [Oryza sativa (L.) Var. Sarju 52] at two different concentrations [10ppm (low toxic) and 50ppm (high toxic)] of As. The plant growth promoting traits of bacterial strains revealed the inherent ability of siderophores, phosphate solubilisation, indole acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase production which may be associated with increased biomass, chlorophyll and MDA content of rice and thereby promoting plant growth. The study also revealed the As accumulation property of NBRI012 strain which could play an important role in As removal from contaminated soil. Furthermore, NBRI012 inoculation significantly restored the hampered root epidermal and cortical cell growth of rice plant and root hair elimination. Altogether our study highlights the multifarious role of B. diminuta in mediating stress tolerance and modulating translocation of As in edible part of rice plant. PMID:26650422

  4. Multiphasic characterization of a plant growth promoting bacterial strain, Burkholderia sp. 7016 and its effect on tomato growth in the ifeld

    GAO Miao; ZHOU Jian-jiao; WANG En-tao; CHEN Qian; XU Jing; SUN Jian-guang

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at searching for plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), a bacterium strain coded as 7016 was isolated from soybean rhizosphere and was characterized in the present study. It was identiifed as Burkholderia sp. based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, as wel as phenotypic and biochemical characterizations. This bacterium presented nitrogenase activity, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity and phosphate solubilizing ability;inhibited the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Gibberel a zeae and Verticil ium dahliae;and produced smal quantities of indole acetic acid (IAA). In green house experiments, signiifcant increases in shoot height and weight, root length and weight, and stem diameter were observed on tomato plants in 30 d after inoculation with strain 7016. Result of 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE showed that 7016 survived in the rhizosphere of tomato seedlings. In the ifeld experiments, Burkholderia sp. 7016 enhanced the tomato yield and signiifcantly promoted activities of soil urease, phosphatase, sucrase, and catalase. Al these results demonstrated Burkholderia sp. 7016 as a valuable PGPR and a candidate of biofertilizer.

  5. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  6. Endophytic Cultivable Bacteria of the Metal Bioaccumulator Spartina maritima Improve Plant Growth but Not Metal Uptake in Polluted Marshes Soils

    Mesa, Jennifer; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Caviedes, Miguel A.; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D.

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacterial population was isolated from Spartina maritima tissues, a heavy metal bioaccumulator cordgrass growing in the estuaries of Tinto, Odiel, and Piedras River (south west Spain), one of the most polluted areas in the world. Strains were identified and ability to tolerate salt and heavy metals along with plant growth promoting and enzymatic properties were analyzed. A high proportion of these bacteria were resistant toward one or several heavy metals and metalloids including As, Cu, and Zn, the most abundant in plant tissues and soil. These strains also exhibited multiple enzymatic properties as amylase, cellulase, chitinase, protease and lipase, as well as plant growth promoting properties, including nitrogen fixation, phosphates solubilization, and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. The best performing strains (Micrococcus yunnanensis SMJ12, Vibrio sagamiensis SMJ18, and Salinicola peritrichatus SMJ30) were selected and tested as a consortium by inoculating S. maritima wild plantlets in greenhouse conditions along with wild polluted soil. After 30 days, bacterial inoculation improved plant photosynthetic traits and favored intrinsic water use efficiency. However, far from stimulating plant metal uptake, endophytic inoculation lessened metal accumulation in above and belowground tissues. These results suggest that inoculation of S. maritima with indigenous metal-resistant endophytes could mean a useful approach in order to accelerate both adaption and growth of this indigenous cordgrass in polluted estuaries in restorative operations, but may not be suitable for rhizoaccumulation purposes. PMID:26733985

  7. 镉超积累植物及植物镉积累特性转基因改良研究进展%Advances on screening of Cd-hyperaccumulators and transgenic improvement of plant in Cd-accumulation

    蔡利娟; 范仲学; 全先庆; 张延新; 杜瑞雪

    2009-01-01

    植物提取修复技术是一项既经济又环保的土壤镉(Cd)污染修复技术,该技术的关键是筛选Cd超积累植物或利用基因工程手段改良植物以提高其Cd积累能力.人们已发现遏兰菜等7种Cd超积累植物及美人蕉等潜在的Cd超积累植物.还发现了许多与Cd耐受和积累能力有关的基因:(1)编码与Cd积累、耐受有关酶的基因,如细菌中的ACC(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid),植物中的PCS(Phytochelatin Synthase)基因;(2)编码金属结合蛋白的基因:MT(Metallothionein)、转运蛋白(P-type ATPase、ABC型转运器)基因;(3)其它相关基因:Hvhsp17、PvSR2(Phaseolus vulgaris stress-related gene number 2)等.并将其中的一些基因转入到其它生物中,提高了其对Cd的耐受性和积累量,为实现Cd污染土壤修复的目标奠定基础.

  8. Bioprospecting of Plant Growth Promoting Bacilli and Related Genera Prevalent in Soils of Pristine Sacred Groves: Biochemical and Molecular Approach

    Lyngwi, Nathaniel A.; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Kalita, Debajit; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus spp. and related genera native to soils of the pristine sacred groves from Meghalaya, India were characterized using biochemical and 16S rRNA gene analysis which revealed dominance of Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridibacillus in the groves. Biochemical estimation was carried out for in vitro testing of plant growth promoting traits present in these isolates. PCR screening were performed for plant growth-promoting related genes involved in the biosynthesis of acid phosphatase (AcPho), indolepyruvate decarboxylase (ipdC), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (accd) and siderophore biosynthesis protein (asbA). 76% of the sacred grove isolates gave an amplified fragment for AcPho. Three of the isolates gave an amplified fragment for IpdC gene. Apart from 2 isolates, all the other isolates including the reference strains were positive for the amplification of the accd gene indicating their potential to produce ACC deaminase enzyme. 42% of the isolates gave an amplified fragment for asbA gene indicating the potential ability of these isolates to produce the catechol type siderophore, petrobactin. Overall findings indicated multiple PGP genetic traits present in these isolates which suggested that these isolates are capable of expressing multiple PGP traits. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of accd and asbA genes from the isolates revealed that asbA genes from Paenibacillus taichungiensis SG3 and Paenibacillus tylopili SG24 indicated the occurrence of intergeneric horizontal transfer between Paenibacillus and Bacillus. PMID:27111883

  9. Caracterização imunoquímica da ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano) oxidase em frutos climatéricos Immunochemical characterization of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid) oxidase in climacteric fruits

    CHAVES Ana Lúcia; Jaqueline Dettmann BIERHALS; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; SILVA Jorge Adolfo; Cesar Valmor ROMALDI

    1997-01-01

    Com o objetivo de caracterizar, por via imunoquímica, a enzima ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano) oxidase em frutos climatéricos, foram preparados anticorpos policlonais específicos para esta proteína. Utilizou-se, como antígeno, uma proteína recombinante, produzida em Escherichia coli K38/pGP1,2, contendo o vetor de expressão pT7-7A4 no qual foi inserido um clone de DNA da ACC oxidase. A especificidade dos anticorpos foi demonstrada pela técnica de "Western blot", a partir de extr...

  10. UOP ACC 422 / Assignmentcloud.com

    admn

    2015-01-01

    ACC 422 Week 1 DQ 1 To purchase this material click http://www.assignmentcloud.com/ACC-422/ACC-422-Week-1-DQ-1 Consider how an organization must manage cash, receivables, and inventory. Which of the three variables is the most important to manage? Is one more susceptible to fraud and errors than the others? Explain your answer. How would a misstatement in each affect the organization? For more classes visit www.assignmentcloud.com

  11. Radiolabeling of a wound-inducible pyridoxal phosphate utilizing protein from tomato: evidence for its identification as ACC synthase

    Aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, a pyridoxal phosphate utilizing enzyme, catalyzes the conversion of S-adenosylmethionine to ACC, the rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone, ethylene. Ethylene, besides being involved in normal plant growth processes, is also produced in response to stress, e.g. wounding, pathogen infection, etc. The authors report the partial purification (400 fold) of ACC synthase from wounded pink tomato pericarp by classical techniques including ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and phenyl sepharose chromatography. Further purification results in a decrease in specific activity apparently due to the instability of the enzyme and the low levels present in plant tissue. Radiolabeling of a pyridoxal phosphate-utilizing protein in the ACC synthase enriched fraction was achieved. Evidence that this radiolabeled protein is ACC synthase will be presented. Amino acid sequence determination of putative ACC synthase-derived peptides is underway

  12. Minimal impact of age and housing temperature on the metabolic phenotype of Acc2-/- mice.

    Brandon, Amanda E; Stuart, Ella; Leslie, Simon J; Hoehn, Kyle L; James, David E; Kraegen, Edward W; Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J

    2016-03-01

    An important regulator of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is the allosteric inhibition of CPT-1 by malonyl-CoA produced by the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2). Initial studies suggested that deletion of Acc2 (Acacb) increased fat oxidation and reduced adipose tissue mass but in an independently generated strain of Acc2 knockout mice we observed increased whole-body and skeletal muscle FAO and a compensatory increase in muscle glycogen stores without changes in glucose tolerance, energy expenditure or fat mass in young mice (12-16 weeks). The aim of the present study was to determine whether there was any effect of age or housing at thermoneutrality (29 °C; which reduces total energy expenditure) on the phenotype of Acc2 knockout mice. At 42-54 weeks of age, male WT and Acc2(-/-) mice had similar body weight, fat mass, muscle triglyceride content and glucose tolerance. Consistent with younger Acc2(-/-) mice, aged Acc2(-/-) mice showed increased whole-body FAO (24 h average respiratory exchange ratio=0.95±0.02 and 0.92±0.02 for WT and Acc2(-/-) mice respectively, PFAO in mice, but this has little impact on body composition or insulin action. PMID:26668208

  13. ACC 491 uop course tutorial/uop help

    petor nex

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     ACC 491 Week 1 Individual Assignment Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 2 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 Week 2 Team Assignment Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 1 ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 2 ACC 491 week 3 Individual Assignments From the Text ACC 491 week 3 Team Assignments From the Text ...

  14. ACC 490 uop course tutorial/uop help

    antony

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 490 Week 1 – DQ 1  ACC 490 Week 1 – DQ 2 ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Ch. 1 Textbook Exercise ACC 490 Week 2 Learning Team Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper ACC 490 Week 2 – DQ 1 ACC 490 Week 2 – DQ 2 ACC 490 Week 3 Individual Ch. 5, 6, & 7 Textbook Exercises ACC 490 Week 3 L...

  15. ACC 205(NEW) UOP COURSE TUTORIAL/UOPHELP

    MADHU

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 1 Accounting Equation ACC 205 Week 1 DQ 2 Accounts ACC 205 Week 1 Exercise Assignment Basic Accounting Equations ACC 205 Week 1 Journal Balance Sheet Journal ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 1 Accounting Cycle ACC 205 Week 2 DQ 2 Bank Reconciliation ACC 205 Week 2 Exercise Assignment Revenue and Expenses ACC 205 Week 2 Journal Income Statement Journal ACC 205 Week 3 DQ 1 LIFO vs. FIFO (New) ...

  16. Characterization of Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria from Mn-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana and their impact on Mn accumulation of hybrid penisetum.

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Wei; He, Lin-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Three hundred Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Mn-hyperaccumulator, Phytolacca americana, grown at different levels of Mn (0, 1, and 10mM) stress. Under no Mn stress, 90%, 92%, and 11% of the bacteria produced indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, respectively. Under Mn stress, 68-94%, 91-92%, and 21-81% of the bacteria produced IAA, siderophore, and ACC deaminase, respectively. Greater percentages of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria were found in the Mn-treated P. americana. Furthermore, the ratios of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria were significantly higher in the Mn treated plant leaves, while the ratio of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria was significantly higher in the Mn treated-roots. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, Mn-resistant bacteria were affiliated with 10 genera. In experiments involving hybrid penisetum grown in soils treated with 0 and 1000mgkg(-1) of Mn, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the root (ranging from 6.4% to 18.3%) and above-ground tissue (ranging from 19.3% to 70.2%) mass and total Mn uptake of above-ground tissues (64%) compared to the control. Furthermore, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the ratio of IAA-producing bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of hybrid penisetum grown in Mn-added soils. The results showed the effect of Mn stress on the ratio of the plant growth-promoting factor-producing endophytic bacteria of P. americana and highlighted the potential of endophytic bacterium as an inoculum for enhanced phytoremediation of Mn-polluted soils by hybrid penisetum plants. PMID:26114256

  17. Responses of Dendrobium 'darrenn glory' and Mokara 'calypso jumbo' orchids to 1-methylcyclopropene and aqueous ozone postharvest treatments

    Parviz Almasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOrchids possess a very special place amongst ornamental plants. But high ethylene sensitivity and early flower senescence of orchid result in a short vase life and rapid quality deterioration which is of great concern for the growers, traders and consumers. An attempt was made to study the influence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP (0 and 300 nL L–1 and аquеous ozone (0 and 5.2 nL L–1 in prolonging vase life and maintaining quality of two cut orchid hybrids Dendrobium 'Darren Glory' (DDG and Mokara “Calypso Jumbo” (MCJ. Results showed that orchid hybrids exhibited differences in their ethylene sensitivity, vase life, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC content and ACC oxidase activities. Pre-treatment with 1-MCP resulted in reduced ethylene production, vase life, ACC content and ACC oxidase activities, but increased bud opening %. Pre-treatment with аquеous ozone failed to influence all those parameters except bud opening %. Interaction effects of hybrid and 1-MCP were significant for ethylene production, hybrid and ozone for vas life, 1-MCP and ozone for bud opening %, and hybrid, 1-MCP and ozone for ethylene production and vase life. Aqueous ozone markedly contributed to the inhibition of microbial growth in vase solution. Pre-treatment of the cut orchid flowers with 300 nL L–11-MCP, followed by using 5.2 mg L–1 aqueous ozone as the vase solution could be recommended to maintain quality and extend vase life of both the DDG and MCJ orchid hybrids.

  18. Assessing the allelotypic effect of two aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase-encoding genes MdACS1 and MdACS3a on fruit ethylene production and softening in Malus

    Dougherty, Laura; Zhu, Yuandi; Xu, Kenong

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone ethylene largely determines apple fruit shelf life and storability. Previous studies demonstrated that MdACS1 and MdACS3a, which encode 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACS), are crucial in apple fruit ethylene production. MdACS1 is well-known to be intimately involved in the climacteric ethylene burst in fruit ripening, while MdACS3a has been regarded a main regulator for ethylene production transition from system 1 (during fruit development) to system 2 (during fruit ripening). However, MdACS3a was also shown to have limited roles in initiating the ripening process lately. To better assess their roles, fruit ethylene production and softening were evaluated at five time points during a 20-day post-harvest period in 97 Malus accessions and in 34 progeny from 2 controlled crosses. Allelotyping was accomplished using an existing marker (ACS1) for MdACS1 and two markers (CAPS866 and CAPS870) developed here to specifically detect the two null alleles (ACS3a-G289V and Mdacs3a) of MdACS3a. In total, 952 Malus accessions were allelotyped with the three markers. The major findings included: The effect of MdACS1 was significant on fruit ethylene production and softening while that of MdACS3a was less detectable; allele MdACS1–2 was significantly associated with low ethylene and slow softening; under the same background of the MdACS1 allelotypes, null allele Mdacs3a (not ACS3a-G289V) could confer a significant delay of ethylene peak; alleles MdACS1–2 and Mdacs3a (excluding ACS3a-G289V) were highly enriched in M. domestica and M. hybrid when compared with those in M. sieversii. These findings are of practical implications in developing apples of low and delayed ethylene profiles by utilizing the beneficial alleles MdACS1-2 and Mdacs3a. PMID:27231553

  19. ACC 491 UOP Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    apj

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ACC 491 Week 1 Individual Assignment Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper (UOP Course) ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 1 (UOP Course) ACC 491 Week 1 DQ 2 (UOP Course) ACC 491 week 2 Individual Assignments From the Text (UOP Course) ACC 491 Week 2 Team Assignment Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper (UOP Course) ACC 491 Week 2 DQ 1 (UOP Course) AC...

  20. ACC 546 uop course tutorial/uop help

    randon

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   ACC 546 Week 1 Individual Assignment Auditing Introduction Letter ACC 546 Week 2 Individual Assignment Beginning the Audit Report ACC 546 Week 3 Individual Assignment The Audit Report and Internal Control Evaluation ACC 546 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment Audit Program Design Part I ACC 546 Week 5 Learning Team Assignment Audit Program Design Part II ACC 546 Week 6 Individual Assignment Audit Program Design...

  1. Calcium ion dependency of ethylene production in segments of primary roots of Zea mays

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Ca2+ on ethylene production in 2-cm long apical segments from primary roots of corn (Zea mays L., B73 x Missouri 17) seedlings. The seedlings were raised under different conditions of Ca2+ availability. Low-Ca and high-Ca seedlings were raised by soaking the grains and watering the seedlings with distilled water or 10 mM CaCl2, respectively. Segments from high-Ca roots produced more than twice as much ethylene as segments from low-Ca roots. Indoleacetic acid (IAA; 1 micromole) enhanced ethylene production in segments from both low-Ca and high-Ca roots but auxin-induced promotion of ethylene production was consistently higher in segments from high-Ca roots. Addition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to root segments from low-Ca seedlings doubled total ethylene production and the rate of production remained fairly constant during a 24 h period of monitoring. In segments from high-Ca seedlings ACC also increased total ethylene production but most of the ethylene was produced within the first 6 h. The data suggest that Ca2+ enhances the conversion of ACC to ethylene. The terminal 2 mm of the root tip were found to be especially important to ethylene biosynthesis by apical segments and, experiments using 45Ca2+ as tracer indicated that the apical 2 mm of the root is the region of strongest Ca2+ accumulation. Other cations such as Mn2+, Mg2+, and K+ could largely substitute for Ca2+. The significance of these findings is discussed with respect to recent evidence for gravity-induced Ca2+ redistribution and its relationship to the establishment of asymmetric growth during gravitropic curvature.

  2. Arabidopsis Hexokinase-Like1 and Hexokinase1 Form a Critical Node in Mediating Plant Glucose and Ethylene Responses

    Karve, Abhijit A [ORNL; Xioxia, Xia [Clemson University; Moore, Brandon [Clemson University

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hexokinase-like1 (HKL1) lacks Glc phosphorylation activity and has been shown to act as a negative regulator of plant growth. Interestingly, the protein has a largely conserved Glc binding domain and protein overexpression was shown previously to promote seedling tolerance to exogenous 6% (w/v) Glc. Since these phenotypes occur independently of cellular Glc signaling activities, we have tested whether HKL1 might promote crosstalk between the normal antagonists Glc and ethylene. We show that repression by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) of the Glc-dependent developmental arrest of wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings requires the HKL1 protein. We also describe an unusual root hair phenotype associated with growth on high Glc media that occurs prominently in HKL1 overexpression lines and in gin2-1, a null mutant of hexokinase1 (HXK1). Seedlings of these lines produce bulbous root hairs with an enlarged base, after transfer from agar plates with normal media to plates with 6% Glc. Seedling transfer to plates with 2% Glc plus ACC mimics the high Glc affect in the HKL1 overexpression line, but not in gin2-1. A similar ACC-stimulated, bulbous root hair phenotype also was observed in wild-type seedlings transferred to plates with 9% Glc. From transcript expression analyses, we found that HKL1 and HXK1 have differential roles in Glc-dependent repression of some ethylene biosynthesis genes. Since we show by co-immunoprecipitation assays that HKL1 and HXK1 can interact, these two proteins likely form a critical node in Glc signaling that mediates overlapping, but also distinct cellular responses to Glc and ethylene treatments.

  3. Coupling of Physiological and Proteomic Analysis to Understand the Ethylene- and Chilling-Induced Kiwifruit Ripening Syndrome.

    Minas, Ioannis S; Tanou, Georgia; Karagiannis, Evangelos; Belghazi, Maya; Molassiotis, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson, cv. "Hayward"] is classified as climacteric fruit and the initiation of endogenous ethylene production following harvest is induced by exogenous ethylene or chilling exposure. To understand the biological basis of this "dilemma," kiwifruit ripening responses were characterized at 20°C following treatments with exogenous ethylene (100 μL L(-1), 20°C, 24 h) or/and chilling temperature (0°C, 10 days). All treatments elicited kiwifruit ripening and induced softening and endogenous ethylene biosynthesis, as determined by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content and ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) enzyme activities after 10 days of ripening at 20°C. Comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE-PAGE) and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) revealed 81 kiwifruit proteins associated with ripening. Thirty-one kiwifruit proteins were identified as commonly regulated by the three treatments accompanied by dynamic changes of 10 proteins specific to exogenous ethylene, 2 to chilling treatment, and 12 to their combination. Ethylene and/or chilling-responsive proteins were mainly involved in disease/defense, energy, protein destination/storage, and cell structure/cell wall. Interactions between the identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, allowing a more complete insight into biological pathways and molecular functions affected by ripening. The present approach provides a quantitative basis for understanding the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening and climacteric fruit ripening in general. PMID:26913040

  4. Coupling of physiological and proteomic analysis to understand the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening syndrome

    Ioannis S Minas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson, cv. ‘Hayward’ is classified as climacteric fruit and the initiation of endogenous ethylene production following harvest is induced by exogenous ethylene or chilling exposure. To understand the biological basis of this ‘dilemma’, kiwifruit ripening responses were characterized at 20 oC following treatments with exogenous ethylene (100 μL L-1, 20 oC, 24 h or/and chilling temperature (0 oC, 10 d. All treatments elicited kiwifruit ripening and induced softening and endogenous ethylene biosynthesis, as determined by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC content and ACC synthase (ACS and ACC oxidase (ACO enzyme activities after 10 d of ripening at 20 oC. Comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE-PAGE and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS revealed 81 kiwifruit proteins associated with ripening. Thirty-one kiwifruit proteins were identified as commonly regulated by the three treatments accompanied by dynamic changes of 10 proteins specific to exogenous ethylene, 2 to chilling treatment and 12 to their combination. Ethylene and/or chilling-responsive proteins were mainly involved in disease/defense, energy, protein destination/storage and cell structure/cell wall. Interactions between the identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, allowing a more complete insight into biological pathways and molecular functions affected by ripening. The present approach provides a quantitative basis for understanding the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening and climacteric fruit ripening in general.

  5. Fruit ripening regulation of α-mannosidase expression by the MADS Box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR and ethylene

    Mohammad eIrfan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Mannosidase (α-Man, a fruit ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzyme, is involved in ripening-associated fruit softening process. However, the regulation of fruit-ripening specific expression of α-Man is not well understood. We have identified and functionally characterized the promoter of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum α-Man to provide molecular insights into its transcriptional regulation during fruit ripening. Fruit ripening-specific activation of the α-Man promoter was revealed by analysing promoter driven expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUS reporter in transgenic tomato. We found that RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN, a MADS box family transcription factor acts as positive transcriptional regulator of α-Man during fruit ripening. RIN directly bound to the α-Man promoter sequence and promoter activation/α-Man expression was compromised in rin mutant fruit. Deletion analysis revealed that a promoter fragment (567 bp upstream of translational start site that contained three CArG boxes (binding sites for RIN was sufficient to drive GUS expression in fruits. In addition, α-Man expression was down-regulated in fruits of Nr mutant which is impaired in ethylene perception and promoter activation/α-Man expression was induced in wild type following treatment with a precursor of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC. Although, α-Man expression was induced in rin mutant after ACC treatment, the transcript level was less as compared to ACC-treated wild type. Taken together, these results suggest RIN-mediated direct transcriptional regulation of α-Man during fruit ripening and ethylene may acts in RIN-dependent and -independent ways to regulate α-Man expression.

  6. Fruit Ripening Regulation of α-Mannosidase Expression by the MADS Box Transcription Factor RIPENING INHIBITOR and Ethylene.

    Irfan, Mohammad; Ghosh, Sumit; Meli, Vijaykumar S; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Vinay; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-01-01

    α-Mannosidase (α-Man), a fruit ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzyme, is involved in ripening-associated fruit softening process. However, the regulation of fruit-ripening specific expression of α-Man is not well understood. We have identified and functionally characterized the promoter of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) α-Man to provide molecular insights into its transcriptional regulation during fruit ripening. Fruit ripening-specific activation of the α-Man promoter was revealed by analysing promoter driven expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter in transgenic tomato. We found that RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a MADS box family transcription factor acts as positive transcriptional regulator of α-Man during fruit ripening. RIN directly bound to the α-Man promoter sequence and promoter activation/α-Man expression was compromised in rin mutant fruit. Deletion analysis revealed that a promoter fragment (567 bp upstream of translational start site) that contained three CArG boxes (binding sites for RIN) was sufficient to drive GUS expression in fruits. In addition, α-Man expression was down-regulated in fruits of Nr mutant which is impaired in ethylene perception and promoter activation/α-Man expression was induced in wild type following treatment with a precursor of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Although, α-Man expression was induced in rin mutant after ACC treatment, the transcript level was less as compared to ACC-treated wild type. Taken together, these results suggest RIN-mediated direct transcriptional regulation of α-Man during fruit ripening and ethylene may acts in RIN-dependent and -independent ways to regulate α-Man expression. PMID:26834776

  7. Regulatory mechanisms of ethylene biosynthesis in response to various stimuli during maturation and ripening in fig fruit (Ficus carica L.).

    Owino, W O; Manabe, Y; Mathooko, F M; Kubo, Y; Inaba, A

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain a greater uniformity of maturation, the growth of the fig fruit (Ficus carica L.) can be stimulated by the application of either olive oil, ethrel/ethephon or auxin. The three treatments induce ethylene production in figs. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms responsible for oil, auxin and ethylene induced ethylene production in figs. The ethylene production in response to olive oil, auxin, and propylene treatments and during ripening were all induced by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and inhibited by propylene indicating a negative feedback regulation mechanism. Three 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase genes (Fc-ACS1, Fc-ACS2 and Fc-ACS3) and one ACC oxidase gene (Fc-ACO1) were isolated and their expression patterns in response to either oil, propylene or auxin treatment in figs determined. The expression patterns of Fc-ACS1 and Fc-ACO1 were clearly inhibited by 1-MCP and induced by propylene in oil treated and ripe fruits indicating positive regulation by ethylene, whereas Fc-ACS2 gene expression was induced by 1-MCP and inhibited by propylene indicating negative regulation by ethylene. The Fc-ACS3 mRNA showed high level accumulation in the auxin treated fruit. The inhibition of Fc-ACS3 gene by 1-MCP in oil treated and in ripe fruits suggests that auxin and ethylene modulate the expression of this gene by multi-responsive signal transduction pathway mechanisms. We further report that the olive oil-induced ethylene in figs involves the ACC-dependent pathway and that multiple ethylene regulatory pathways are involved during maturation and ripening in figs and each specific pathway depends on the inducer/stimulus. PMID:16889975

  8. Ethylene is involved in strawberry fruit ripening in an organ-specific manner.

    Merchante, Catharina; Vallarino, José G; Osorio, Sonia; Aragüez, Irene; Villarreal, Natalia; Ariza, María T; Martínez, Gustavo A; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Civello, Marcos P; Fernie, Alisdair R; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-11-01

    The fruit of the strawberry Fragaria×ananassa has traditionally been classified as non-climacteric because its ripening process is not governed by ethylene. However, previous studies have reported the timely endogenous production of minor amounts of ethylene by the fruit as well as the differential expression of genes of the ethylene synthesis, reception, and signalling pathways during fruit development. Mining of the Fragaria vesca genome allowed for the identification of the two main ethylene biosynthetic genes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase. Their expression pattern during fruit ripening was found to be stage and organ (achene or receptacle) specific. Strawberry plants with altered sensitivity to ethylene could be employed to unravel the role of ethylene in the ripening process of the strawberry fruit. To this end, independent lines of transgenic strawberry plants were generated that overexpress the Arabidopsis etr1-1 mutant ethylene receptor, which is a dominant negative allele, causing diminished sensitivity to ethylene. Genes involved in ethylene perception as well as in its related downstream processes, such as flavonoid biosynthesis, pectin metabolism, and volatile biosynthesis, were differently expressed in two transgenic tissues, the achene and the receptacle. The different transcriptional responsiveness of the achene and the receptacle to ethylene was also revealed by the metabolic profiling of the primary metabolites in these two organs. The free amino acid content was higher in the transgenic lines compared with the control in the mature achene, while glucose and fructose, and citric and malic acids were at lower levels. In the receptacle, the most conspicuous change in the transgenic lines was the depletion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates at the white stage of development, most probably as a consequence of diminished respiration. The results are discussed in the context of the importance of

  9. Potential of Pseudomonas putida PCI2 for the Protection of Tomato Plants Against Fungal Pathogens.

    Pastor, Nicolás; Masciarelli, Oscar; Fischer, Sonia; Luna, Virginia; Rovera, Marisa

    2016-09-01

    Tomato is one of the most economically attractive vegetable crops due to its high yields. Diseases cause significant losses in tomato production worldwide. We carried out Polymerase Chain Reaction studies to detect the presence of genes encoding antifungal compounds in the DNA of Pseudomonas putida strain PCI2. We also used liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify the production of compounds that increase the resistance of plants to diseases from culture supernatants of PCI2. In addition, we investigated the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase in PCI2. Finally, PCI2 was used for inoculation of tomato seeds to study its potential biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum MR193. The obtained results showed that no fragments for the encoding genes of hydrogen cyanide, pyoluteorin, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, or phenazine-1-carboxylic acid were amplified from the DNA of PCI2. On the other hand, PCI2 produced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in Luria-Bertani medium and grew in a culture medium containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. We observed a reduction in disease incidence from 53.33 % in the pathogen control to 30 % in tomato plants pre-inoculated with PCI2 as well as increases in shoot and root dry weights in inoculated plants, as compared to the pathogenicity control. This study suggests that inoculation of tomato seeds with P. putida PCI2 increases the resistance of plants to root rot caused by F. oxysporum and that PCI2 produces compounds that may be involved at different levels in increasing such resistance. Thus, PCI2 could represent a non-contaminating management strategy potentially applicable in vegetable crops such as tomato. PMID:27246499

  10. Ozone stress induces the expression of ACC synthase in potato plants

    Schlagnhaufer, C.D.; Arteca, R.N.; Pell, E.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1993-05-01

    When potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Norland) are subjected to oxone stress ethylene is emitted. Increases in ethylene production are often the result of increased expression of the enzyme ACC synthase. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to clone a cDNA encoding an ozone-induced ACC synthase. After treating potato plants with 300 ppb ozone for 4 h, RNA was extracted using a guanidinium isothiocyanate method. Using degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to several conserved regions of ACC synthase sequences reported from different plant tissues as primers, we were able to reverse transcribe the RNA and amplify a cDNA for ACC synthase. The clone is 1098 bp in length encoding for 386 amino acids comprising [approximately]80% of the protein. Computer analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that our clone is 50-70% homologous with ACC synthase genes cloned from other plant tissues. Using the cDNA as a probe in northern analysis we found that there is little or no expression in control tissue: however there is a large increase in the expression of the ACC synthase message in response to ozone treatment.

  11. ACC 490 UOP Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    apj

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+   ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 1 DQ 1 (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 1 DQ 2 (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Ch. 1 Textbook Exercises (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 2 Learning Team Auditing, Attestation, and Assurance Services Paper (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 2 DQ 1 (UOP Course) ACC 490 Week 2 DQ 2 (UOP Cou...

  12. acc490v1uopcoursesTutorial /uophelp

    franklin

    2015-01-01

     For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 490 Week 1 Individual AssignmentCh 1 and Ch 4 Questions ACC 490 Week 1 Team Assignment Ch 1 and Ch 4 Questions ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Assignment Ch 6, Ch 7 and Ch 9 Exercise ACC 490 Week 2 Team Assignment Case 6-30& Case 9-29 ACC 490 Week 3 Individual AssignmentCh 8, Ch 10 and Ch 10 Exercise ACC 490 Week 3 Team Assign...

  13. ACC 490 VER 1 uop course tutorial/uop help

    kenanta

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 490 Week 1 Individual AssignmentCh 1 and Ch 4 Questions ACC 490 Week 1 Team Assignment Ch 1 and Ch 4 Questions ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Assignment Ch 6, Ch 7 and Ch 9 Exercise ACC 490 Week 2 Team Assignment Case 6-30& Case 9-29 ACC 490 Week 3 Individual AssignmentCh 8, Ch 10 and Ch 10 Exercise ACC 490 Week 3 Team Assignment A...

  14. ACC 490 Ver1 Tutorial Course/Uoptutorial

    nina

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com     ACC 490 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper ACC 490 Week 1 Individual Assignment Ch 1 & Ch 4 Questions ACC 490 Week 1 Team Assignment Ch 1 & Ch 4 Questions ACC 490 Week 2 Individual Assignment Ch 6, Ch 7 & Ch 9 Exercise ACC 490 Week 2 Team Assignment Case 6-30 & Case 9-29 ACC 490 Week 3 Individual Assignment Ch 8, Ch 10 & Ch 10 Exercise ACC 490 Week 3 T...

  15. The effect of ACC vehicles to mixed traffic flow consisting of manual and ACC vehicles

    Xie Dong-Fan; Gao Zi-You; Zhao Xiao-Mei

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) system on traffic flow by using simulations. The multiple headway and velocity difference (MHVD) model is used to depict the motion of ACC vehicles, and the simulation results are compared with the optimal velocity (OV) model which is used to depict the motion of manual vehicles.Compared the cases between the manual and the ACC vehicle flow, the fundamental diagram can be classified into four regions: I, II, III, IV. In low and high density the flux of the two models is the same; in region Ⅱ the free flow region of the MHVD model is enlarged, and the flux of the MHVD model is larger than that of the OV model; in region Ⅲ serious jams occur in the OV model while the ACC system suppresses the jams in the MHVD model and the traffic flow is in order, but the flux of the OV model is larger than that of the MHVD model. Similar phenomena also appeared in mixed traffic flow which consists of manual and ACC vehicles. The results indicate that ACC vehicles have significant effect on traffic flow. The improvement induced by ACC vehicles decreases with the increasing proportion of ACC vehicles.

  16. Auxin autonomy in cultured tobacco teratoma tissues transformed by an auxin-mutant strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Campell, B R; Su, L Y; Pengelly, W L

    1992-08-01

    We have studied the mechanism of auxin autonomy in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) crowngall tissues transformed by the auxin-mutant (tms (-)) A66 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Normally, tms (-) tobacco tumor tissues require the formation of shoots to exhibit auxin-independent growth in culture. We have isolated from tms (-) tobacco cells several stable variants that are fully hormone-independent and grow rapidly as friable, unorganized tissues, thus mimicking the growth and morphology of tms (+) tobacco cells that produce high levels of auxin. However, none of the variants contained the high levels of auxin found in tms (+) tumor cells. The variants could be divided into two classes with respect to their response to applied auxin. The first class was highly sensitive to applied auxin: low concentrations (1 μM) of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) severely inhibited growth and markedly stimulated the accumulation of the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). The second class of variants showed a low sensitivity to applied auxin: growth was promoted by concentrations of NAA up to 10 μM, and growth inhibition and high ACC levels were observed only at high NAA concentrations (100 μM). Unorganized variants with low auxin sensitivity were also isolated from a variant line with high auxin sensitivity. The isolation of tumor cells that exhibited the growth phenotype of tms (+) cells while retaining the low auxin content and low auxin sensitivity of tms (-) cells indicates that full hormone autonomy, characteristic of wild-type crown-gall tumors, can be achieved by a mechanism that is independent of changes in the auxin physiology of the cells. PMID:24178208

  17. Bacterial Modulation of Plant Ethylene Levels.

    Gamalero, Elisa; Glick, Bernard R

    2015-09-01

    A focus on the mechanisms by which ACC deaminase-containing bacteria facilitate plant growth.Bacteria that produce the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, when present either on the surface of plant roots (rhizospheric) or within plant tissues (endophytic), play an active role in modulating ethylene levels in plants. This enzyme activity facilitates plant growth especially in the presence of various environmental stresses. Thus, plant growth-promoting bacteria that express ACC deaminase activity protect plants from growth inhibition by flooding and anoxia, drought, high salt, the presence of fungal and bacterial pathogens, nematodes, and the presence of metals and organic contaminants. Bacteria that express ACC deaminase activity also decrease the rate of flower wilting, promote the rooting of cuttings, and facilitate the nodulation of legumes. Here, the mechanisms behind bacterial ACC deaminase facilitation of plant growth and development are discussed, and numerous examples of the use of bacteria with this activity are summarized. PMID:25897004

  18. Biosynthesis of ethylene from methionine in aminoethoxyvinylglycine-resistant avocado tissue.

    Baker, J E; Anderson, J D; Adams, D O; Apelbaum, A; Lieberman, M

    1982-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) insensitivity in avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lula, Haas, and Bacon) tissue was due to an alternate pathway of ethylene biosynthesis from methionine. AVG, at 0.1 millimolar, had little or no inhibitory effect on either total ethylene production or [(14)C] ethylene production from [(14)C]methionine in avocado tissue at various stages of ripening. However, aminoxyacetic acid (AOA), which inhibits 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (the AVG-sensitive enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis), inhibited ethylene production in avocado tissue. Total ethylene production was stimulated, and [(14)C]ethylene production from [(14)C]methionine was lowered by treating avocado tissue with 1 millimolar ACC. An inhibitor of methionine adenosyltransferase (EC 2.5.1.6), l-2-amino-4-hexynoic acid (AHA), at 1.5 millimolar, effectively inhibited [(14)C]ethylene production from [(14)C]methionine in avocado tissue but had no effect on total ethylene production during a 2-hour incubation. Rates of [(14)C]AVG uptake by avocado and apple (Malus domestica Borkh., Golden Delicious) tissues were similar, and [(14)C]AVG was the only radioactive compound in alcohol-soluble fractions of the tissues. Hence, AVG-insensitivity in avocado tissue does not appear to be due to lack of uptake or to metabolism of AVG by avocado tissue. ACC synthase activity in extracts of avocado tissue was strongly inhibited (about 60%) by 10 micromolar AVG. Insensitivity of ethylene production in avocado tissue to AVG may be due to inaccessibility of ACC synthase to AVG. AVG-resistance in the avocado system is, therefore, different from that of early climacteric apple tissue, in which AVG-insensitivity of total ethylene production appears to be due to a high level of endogenous ACC relative to its rate of conversion to ethylene. However, the sensitivity of the avocado system to AOA and AHA, dilution of labeled ethylene production by ACC

  19. Bioaugmentation with Endophytic Bacterium E6S Homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii Enhances Metal Rhizoaccumulation in Host Sedum plumbizincicola

    Ma, Ying; Zhang, Chang; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena; Luo, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Application of hyperaccumulator-endophyte symbiotic systems is a potential approach to improve phytoremediation efficiency, since some beneficial endophytic bacteria are able to detoxify heavy metals, alter metal solubility in soil, and facilitate plant growth. The objective of this study was to isolate multi-metal resistant and plant beneficial endophytic bacteria and to evaluate their role in enhancing plant growth and metal accumulation/translocation. The metal resistant endophytic bacterial strain E6S was isolated from stems of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola growing in metalliferous mine soils using Dworkin and Foster salts minimal agar medium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as the sole nitrogen source, and identified as homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, partial 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Strain E6S showed high level of resistance to various metals (Cd, Zn, and Pb). Besides utilizing ACC, strain E6S exhibited plant beneficial traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Inoculation with E6S significantly increased the bioavailability of Cd, Zn, and Pb in soil. In addition, bacterial cells bound considerable amounts of metal ions in the following order: Zn > Cd >Pb. Inoculation of E6S significantly stimulated plant biomass, uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd, Zn, and Pb. However, E6S greatly reduced the root to shoot translocation of Cd and Zn, indicating that bacterial inoculation assisted the host plant to uptake and store heavy metals in its root system. Inoculation with the endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to A. piechaudii can improve phytostabilization of metalliferous soils due to its effective ability to enhance in situ metal rhizoaccumulation in plants. PMID:26870079

  20. Bioaugmentation with Endophytic Bacterium E6S Homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii Enhances Metal Rhizoaccumulation in Host Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Ma, Ying; Zhang, Chang; Oliveira, Rui S; Freitas, Helena; Luo, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Application of hyperaccumulator-endophyte symbiotic systems is a potential approach to improve phytoremediation efficiency, since some beneficial endophytic bacteria are able to detoxify heavy metals, alter metal solubility in soil, and facilitate plant growth. The objective of this study was to isolate multi-metal resistant and plant beneficial endophytic bacteria and to evaluate their role in enhancing plant growth and metal accumulation/translocation. The metal resistant endophytic bacterial strain E6S was isolated from stems of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola growing in metalliferous mine soils using Dworkin and Foster salts minimal agar medium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as the sole nitrogen source, and identified as homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, partial 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Strain E6S showed high level of resistance to various metals (Cd, Zn, and Pb). Besides utilizing ACC, strain E6S exhibited plant beneficial traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Inoculation with E6S significantly increased the bioavailability of Cd, Zn, and Pb in soil. In addition, bacterial cells bound considerable amounts of metal ions in the following order: Zn > Cd >Pb. Inoculation of E6S significantly stimulated plant biomass, uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd, Zn, and Pb. However, E6S greatly reduced the root to shoot translocation of Cd and Zn, indicating that bacterial inoculation assisted the host plant to uptake and store heavy metals in its root system. Inoculation with the endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to A. piechaudii can improve phytostabilization of metalliferous soils due to its effective ability to enhance in situ metal rhizoaccumulation in plants. PMID:26870079

  1. Bioaugmentation with endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii enhances metal rhizoaccumulation in host Sedum plumbizincicola

    Ying eMa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of hyperaccumulator–endophyte symbiotic systems is a potential approach to improve phytoremediation efficiency, since some beneficial endophytic bacteria are able to detoxify heavy metals, alter metal solubility in soil and facilitate plant growth. The objective of this study was to isolate multi-metal resistant and plant beneficial endophytic bacteria and to evaluate their role in enhancing plant growth and metal accumulation/translocation. The metal resistant endophytic bacterial strain E6S was isolated from stems of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola growing in metalliferous mine soils using Dworkin and Foster salts minimal agar medium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC as the sole nitrogen source, and identified as homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, partial 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Strain E6S showed high level of resistance to various metals (Cd, Zn and Pb. Besides utilizing ACC, strain E6S exhibited plant beneficial traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Inoculation with E6S significantly increased the bioavailability of Cd, Zn and Pb in soil. In addition, bacterial cells bound considerable amounts of metal ions in the following order: Zn ˃ Cd ˃ Pb. Inoculation of E6S significantly stimulated plant biomass, uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd, Zn and Pb. However, E6S greatly reduced the root to shoot translocation of Cd and Zn, indicating that bacterial inoculation assisted the host plant to uptake and store heavy metals in its root system. Inoculation with the endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to A. piechaudii can improve phytostabilization of metalliferous soils due to its effective ability to enhance in situ metal rhizoaccumulation in plants.

  2. Effects of ethylene on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity in Bermuda grass under low temperature.

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone ethylene has been reported to mediate plant response to cold stress. However, it is still debated whether the effect of ethylene on plant response to cold stress is negative or positive. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of ethylene in the cold resistance of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L).Pers.). Under control (warm) condition, there was no obvious effect of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or the antagonist Ag(+) of ethylene signaling on electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Under cold stress conditions, ACC-treated plant leaves had a greater level of EL and MDA than the untreated leaves. However, the EL and MDA values were lower in the Ag(+) regime versus the untreated. In addition, after 3 days of cold treatment, ACC remarkably reduced the content of soluble protein and also altered antioxidant enzyme activity. Under control (warm) condition, there was no significant effect of ACC on the performance of photosystem II (PS II) as monitored by chlorophyll α fluorescence transients. However, under cold stress, ACC inhibited the performance of PS II. Under cold condition, ACC remarkably reduced the performance index for energy conservation from excitation to the reduction of intersystem electron acceptors (PI(ABS)), the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0), the quantum yield of electron transport flux from Q(A) to Q(B) (φE0), and the efficiency/probability of electron transport (ΨE0). Simultaneously, ACC increased the values of specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) and dissipation (DI0/RC) after 3 days of cold treatment. Additionally, under cold condition, exogenous ACC altered the expressions of several related genes implicated in the induction of cold tolerance (LEA, SOD, POD-1 and CBF1, EIN3-1, and EIN3-2). The present study thus suggests that ethylene affects the cold tolerance of Bermuda grass by impacting the antioxidant system

  3. Effects of abiotic stress on gene transcription in European beech: ozone affects ethylene biosynthesis in saplings of Fagus sylvatica L.

    Betz GA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ozone (150-190 nl L-1; 8h/d on transcription levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of the stress hormone ethylene, and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, was analysed in leaves of European beech saplings. Ozone-induced leaf lesions appeared 7 weeks after onset of ozone exposure. Cell lesion formation was preceded by persistent increases in ethylene emission, in the level of its malonylated precursor ACC, and in the transcript levels of specific ACC synthase 1 (ACS1, ACS2, ACC oxidase 1 (ACO1, and ACO2. Our results demonstrate that mechanisms similar to those operating in herbaceous plants may determine beech saplings responses to ozone exposure.

  4. ACC 290new Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    welcome1358

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+   ACC 290 Finals Question 1 Jackson Company recorded the following cash transactions for the year: Paid $135,000 for salaries. Paid $60,000 to purchase office equipment. Paid $15,000 for utilities. Paid $6,000 in dividends. Collected $245,000 from customers.  Question 2 Which of the following describes the classification and normal balance ...

  5. ACC 290new UOP Courses / uoptutorial

    jani

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 290 Finals Question 1 Jackson Company recorded the following cash transactions for the year: Paid $135,000 for salaries. Paid $60,000 to purchase office equipment. Paid $15,000 for utilities. Paid $6,000 in dividends. Collected $245,000 from customers.    Question 2 Which of the following describes the classification and normal balance of the Unearned Rent Revenue accou...

  6. Role for the banana AGAMOUS-like gene MaMADS7 in regulation of fruit ripening and quality.

    Liu, Juhua; Liu, Lin; Li, Yujia; Jia, Caihong; Zhang, Jianbin; Miao, Hongxia; Hu, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-01

    MADS-box transcription factors play important roles in organ development. In plants, most studies on MADS-box genes have mainly focused on flower development and only a few concerned fruit development and ripening. A new MADS-box gene named MaMADS7 was isolated from banana fruit by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on a MADS-box fragment obtained from a banana suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. MaMADS7 is an AGAMOUS-like MADS-box gene that is preferentially expressed in the ovaries and fruits and in tobacco its protein product localizes to the nucleus. This study found that MaMADS7 expression can be induced by exogenous ethylene. Ectopic expression of MaMADS7 in tomato resulted in broad ripening phenotypes. The expression levels of seven ripening and quality-related genes, ACO1, ACS2, E4, E8, PG, CNR and PSY1 in MaMADS7 transgenic tomato fruits were greatly increased while the expression of the AG-like MADS-box gene TAGL1 was suppressed. Compared with the control, the contents of β-carotene, lycopene, ascorbic acid and organic acid in transformed tomato fruits were increased, while the contents of glucose and fructose were slightly decreased. MaMADS7 interacted with banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase gene 1 (MaACO1) and tomato phytoene synthase gene (LePSY1) promoters. Our results indicated that MaMADS7 plays an important role in initiating endogenous ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening. PMID:25980771

  7. ACC 490 V4 UOP Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    apj

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+   ACC 490 Version 4 Week 1 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper (UOP Course) ACC 490 Version 4 Week 1 Individual Assignment Ch 1 and Ch 4 Questions (UOP Course) ACC 490 Version 4 Week 1 Team Assignment Ch 1 and Ch 4 Questions (UOP Course) ACC 490 Version 4 Week 2 Individual Assignment Ch 6, Ch 7 and Ch 9 Exercise (UOP Course) ACC 490 Version 4 Week 2 Team As...

  8. Biotechnological applications of serpentine soil bacteria for phytoremediation of trace metals.

    Rajkumar, Mani; Vara Prasad, Majeti Narasimha; Freitas, Helena; Ae, Noriharu

    2009-01-01

    Serpentine or ultramafic soils are produced by weathering and pedogenesis of ultramafic rocks that are characterized by high levels of Ni, Cr, and sometimes Co, but contain low levels of essential nutrients such as N, P, K, and Ca. A number of plant species endemic to serpentine soils are capable of accumulating exceptionally high concentrations of Ni, Zn, and Co. These plants are known as metal "hyperaccumulators." The function of hyperaccumulation depends not only on the plant, but also on the interaction of the plant roots with rhizosphere microbes and the concentrations of bioavailable metals in the soil. The rhizosphere provides a complex and dynamic microenvironment where microorganisms, in association with roots, form unique communities that have considerable potential for the detoxification of hazardous materials. The rhizosphere bacteria play a significant role on plant growth in serpentine soils by various mechanisms, namely, fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, utilization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) as the sole N source, production of siderophores, or production of plant growth regulators (hormones). Further, many microorganisms in serpentine soil are able to solubilize "unavailable" forms of heavy metal-bearing minerals by excreting organic acids. In addition, the metal-resistant serpentine isolates increase the efficiency of phytoextraction directly by enhancing the metal accumulation in plant tissues and indirectly by promoting the shoot and root biomass of hyperaccumulators. Hence, isolation of the indigenous and stress-adapted beneficial bacteria serve as a potential biotechnological tool for inoculation of plants for the successful restoration of metal-contaminated ecosystems. In this study, we highlight the diversity and beneficial features of serpentine bacteria and discuss their potential in phytoremediation of serpentine and anthropogenically metal-contaminated soils. PMID:19514893

  9. Arsenic-tolerant plant-growth-promoting bacteria isolated from arsenic-polluted soils in South Korea.

    Shagol, Charlotte C; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Kim, Kiyoon; Sundaram, Subbiah; Sa, Tongmin

    2014-01-01

    The Janghang smelter in Chungnam, South Korea started in 1936 was subsequently shutdown in 1989 due to heavy metal (loid) pollution concerns in the vicinity. Thus, there is a need for the soil in the area to be remediated to make it usable again especially for agricultural purposes. The present study was conducted to exploit the potential of arsenic (As)-tolerant bacteria thriving in the vicinity of the smelter-polluted soils to enhance phytoremediation of hazardous As. We studied the genetic and taxonomic diversity of 21 As-tolerant bacteria isolated from soils nearer to and away from the smelter. These isolates belonging to the genera Brevibacterium, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Rhodococcus, Rahnella, and Paenibacillus, could tolerate high concentrations of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) with the minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 3 to >20 mM for NaAsO2 and 140 to 310 mM NaH2AsO4 · 7H2O, respectively. All isolates exhibited As(V) reduction except Pseudomonas koreensis JS123, which exhibited both oxidation and reduction of As. Moreover, all the 21 isolates produced indole acetic acid (IAA), 13 isolates exhibited 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, 12 produced siderophore, 17 solubilized phosphate, and 13 were putative nitrogen fixers under in vitro conditions. Particularly, Rhodococcus aetherivorans JS2210, P. koreensis JS2214, and Pseudomonas sp. JS238 consistently increased root length of maize in the presence of 100 and 200 μM As(V). Possible utilization of these As-tolerant plant-growth-promoting bacteria can be a potential strategy in increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation in As-polluted soils. PMID:24737020

  10. Increased levels of IAA are required for system 2 ethylene synthesis causing fruit softening in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch)

    Tatsuki, Miho; Nakajima, Naoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Shimada, Takehiko; Nakano, Michiharu; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Hayama, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Hirohito; Nakamura, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of melting-flesh peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars produce high levels of ethylene caused by high expression of PpACS1 (an isogene of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase), resulting in rapid fruit softening at the late-ripening stage. In contrast, the fruit of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to low expression of PpACS1. To elucidate the mechanism for suppressing PpACS1 expression in stony hard peaches, a microarray analysi...

  11. Responses of ethylene and ACC in rice grains to soil moisture and their relations to grain filling

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to-investigate ethylene and 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in rice grains and root bleeding sap during the grain filling period and their relationship to the grain filling rate.Two high lodging-resistant rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars were grown in pots or tanks.Three treatments,including well watered (WW),moderate soil-drying (MD) and severe soil-drying (SD),were conducted from 9 days of post-anthesis until maturity.The effects of chemical regulators on the concentrations of ethylene and ACC in the grains were also studied.The results show that MD significantly increased the grainfilling rate and grain weight,whereas SD significantly reduced the grain-filling rate and grain weight.Concentrations of ethylene and ACC in the grains were very high at the early grain filling stage and then sharply decreased during the linear period of grain growth.MD reduced the ACC concentrations and ethylene evolution rate,whereas SD remarkably increased the ACC concentrations and ethylene evolution rate.Both the ethylene evolution rate in rice grains and the ACC concentrations in the root-bleeding sap were significantly and positively correlated with the ACC concentrations in rice grains.The ethylene evolution rate was significantly and negatively correlated with the grain-filling rate.The application of amino-ethoxyvinylglycine (AVG),an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis,at 9-13 days of postanthesis significantly reduced the ACC concentrations and ethylene evolution rate of grains,but significantly enhanced the activities of sucrose synthase,ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase and soluble starch synthase.The results were reversed when ethephon,an ethylenereleasing agent,was applied.The results suggest that moderate soil drying during the grain-filling period in rice could inhibit the production of ethylene and ACC and therefore accelerate grain filling and increase grain weight.

  12. ACC 291 NEW Tutorial/Uoptutorial

    Giselle

    2015-01-01

    ACC 291 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE QUESTION 207 ON JANUARY 1, A MACHINE WITH A USEFUL LIFE OF FIVE YEARS AND A RESIDUAL VALUE OF $40,000 WAS PURCHASED FOR $120,000. WHAT IS THE DEPRECIATION EXPENSE FOR YEAR 2 UNDER THE DOUBLE-DECLINING-BALANCE METHOD OF DEPRECIATION? IFRS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION 01 AS A RECENT GRADUATE OF STATE UNIVERSITY YOU'RE AWARE THAT IFRS REQUIRES COMPONENT DEPRECIATION FOR PLANT ASSETS. A FRIEND HAS ASKED YOU TO SUCCINCTLY EXPLAIN WHAT COMPONENT DEPREC...

  13. ACC 291 New Tutorial Course/Uoptutorial

    vani

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com   ACC 291 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE QUESTION 207 ON JANUARY 1, A MACHINE WITH A USEFUL LIFE OF FIVE YEARS AND A RESIDUAL VALUE OF $40,000 WAS PURCHASED FOR $120,000. WHAT IS THE DEPRECIATION EXPENSE FOR YEAR 2 UNDER THE DOUBLE-DECLINING-BALANCE METHOD OF DEPRECIATION? IFRS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION 01 AS A RECENT GRADUATE OF STATE UNIVERSITY YOU'RE AWARE THAT IFRS REQUIRES COMPONENT DEPRECIATION FOR PLANT ASS...

  14. Effect of IAA produced by Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 on cotton growth under salt stress.

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Zaiqiang; Yao, Lixia; Yue, Haitao; Li, Hui; Li, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 isolated with ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase activity as the sole nitrogen source could obviously promote cotton seedling growth under salt stress and produce phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The amount of IAA produced by the strain Rs-5 was measured, and the effect of IAA on cotton growth under salt stress was studied. Different treatments were set to treat cotton seeds with fermentation broth containing strain Rs-5 (FB), strain Rs-5, fermentation broth with bacteria removed (FB-NB), fermentation broth without bacteria or IAA (FB-NB-NI) and single IAA solutions (SI) according to the IAA concentration after strain Rs-5 culturing of 48, 72 and 120 h. The germination rate, dry weight, plant height, root length and malondialdehyde (MDA), proline and endogenous IAA content in roots were determined. The results showed that both IAA produced by strain Rs-5 and the strain were effective in promoting cotton growth under salt stress. The growth and ability to resist salt stress of cotton seedlings were increased with the enhancement of IAA concentration. The treatment of FB containing bacteria and IAA at 120 h obtained the best state of cotton growth, when the IAA content was the highest in the fermentation broth (42.14 μg·L(-1)). The germination rate, dry weight, plant height and root length were increased by 29.4%, 24.3%, 27.2% and 27.2% , respectively, compared to the saline control. The strain Rs-5 and/or IAA could obviously reduce the MDA and proline content and increase the endogenous IAA content in cotton seedlings. However, the efficacy of other components in the fermentation broth was inconspicuous. PMID:23518519

  15. Alternative rooting induction of semi-hardwood olive cuttings by several auxin-producing bacteria for organic agriculture systems

    M. C. Montero-Calasanz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Southern Spain is the largest olive oil producer region in the world. In recent years organic agriculture systems have grown exponentially so that new alternative systems to produce organic olive cuttings are needed. Several bacterial isolates, namely Pantoea sp. AG9, Chryseobacterium sp. AG13, Chryseobacterium sp. CT348, Pseudomonas sp. CT364 and Azospirillum brasilense Cd (ATCC 29729, have been used to induce rooting in olive semi-hardwood cuttings of Arbequina, Hojiblanca and Picual cultivars of olive (Olea europea L. The first four strains were previously selected as auxin-producing bacteria and by their ability to promote rooting in model plants. They have been classified on the basis of their 16S rDNA gene sequence. The known auxin producer A. brasilense Cd strain has been used as a reference. The inoculation of olive cuttings was performed in two different ways: (i by dipping cuttings in a liquid bacterial culture or (ii by immersing them in a paste made of solid bacterial inoculant and sterile water. Under nursery conditions all of the tested bacterial strains were able to induce the rooting of olive cuttings to a similar or greater extent than the control cuttings treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The olive cultivars responded differently depending on the bacterial strain and the inoculation method. The strain that consistently gave the best results was Pantoea sp. AG9, the only one of the tested bacterial strains to express the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase. The results are also discussed in terms of potential commercial interest and nursery feasibility performance of these strains.

  16. Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action

    Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ► Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ► Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ► Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ► Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene.

  17. Assessing the effects of heavy metals in ACC deaminase and IAA production on plant growth-promoting bacteria.

    Carlos, Mendoza-Hernández José; Stefani, Perea-Vélez Yazmin; Janette, Arriola-Morales; Melani, Martínez-Simón Sara; Gabriela, Pérez-Osorio

    2016-01-01

    This study poses a methodology in order to simultaneously quantify ACC deaminase and IAA levels in the same culture medium. Ten bacterial strains isolated from plant rhizosphere naturally settled in mining residues were chosen. These bacterial strains were characterized as PGPB, and all of them showed at least three characteristics (indole-3 acetic acid and siderophore production, ACC deaminase enzyme activity, and inorganic phosphate solubilization). Taxonomic identification showed that the strains belong to Enterobacter, Serratia, Klebsiella, and Escherichia genera. Similarly, both the ACC deaminase enzyme activity and the IAA synthesis in the presence of Cu, As, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Mn were measured. The results showed that both the ACC deaminase enzyme activity and the IAA synthesis were higher with the Pb, As, and Cu treatments than with the Escherichia N16, Enterobacter K131, Enterobacter N9, and Serratia K120 control treatments. On the other hand, Ni, Cd, and Mn negatively affected both the ACC deaminase enzyme activity and the IAA production on every bacterium except on the Klebsiella Mc173 strain. Serratia K120 bacterium got a positive correlation between ACC deaminase and IAA in the presence of every heavy metal, and it also promoted Helianthus annuus plant growth, showing a potential use in phytoremediation systems. PMID:27296962

  18. 24 CFR 982.154 - ACC reserve account.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ACC reserve account. 982.154... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.154 ACC reserve account. (a) HUD may establish and maintain an unfunded reserve account for the PHA program from available budget authority under the consolidated...

  19. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  20. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  1. Overexpression of ACC gene from oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi enhanced the lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with increased levels of glycerol 3-phosphate substrates.

    Wang, Jiancai; Xu, Ronghua; Wang, Ruling; Haque, Mohammad Enamul; Liu, Aizhong

    2016-06-01

    The conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is the rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, a gene coding for ACC was isolated and characterized from an oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of L. starkeyi acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (LsACC1) showed that the expression levels were upregulated with the fast accumulation of lipids. The LsACC1 was co-overexpressed with the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1), which regulates lipids biosynthesis by supplying another substrates glycerol 3-phosphate for storage lipid assembly, in the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further, the S. cerevisiae acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ScACC1) was transferred with GPD1 and its function was analyzed in comparison with LsACC1. The results showed that overexpressed LsACC1 and GPD1 resulted in a 63% increase in S. cerevisiae. This study gives new data in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of fatty acids and lipid biosynthesis in yeasts. PMID:26865376

  2. A Comparative Study of Ethylene Emanation upon Nitrogen Deficiency in Natural Accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana

    De Gernier, Hugues; De Pessemier, Jérôme; Xu, Jiajia; Cristescu, Simona M.; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Hermans, Christian

    2016-01-01

    An original approach to develop sustainable agriculture with less nitrogen fertilizer inputs is to tackle the cross-talk between nitrogen nutrition and plant growth regulators. In particular the gaseous hormone, ethylene, is a prime target for that purpose. The variation of ethylene production in natural accessions of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana was explored in response to the nitrate supply. Ethylene was measured with a laser-based photoacoustic detector. First, experimental conditions were established with Columbia-0 (Col-0) accession, which was grown in vitro on horizontal plates across a range of five nitrate concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10 mM). The concentrations of 1 and 10 mM nitrate were retained for further characterization. Along with a decrease of total dry biomass and higher biomass allocation to the roots, the ethylene production was 50% more important at 1 mM than at 10 mM nitrate. The total transcript levels of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASES (ACS) in roots and those of ACC OXIDASES (ACO) in shoots increased by 100% between the same treatments. This was mainly due to higher transcript levels of ACS6 and of ACO2 and ACO4 respectively. The assumption was that during nitrogen deficiency, the greater biomass allocation in favor of the roots was controlled by ethylene being released in the shoots after conversion of ACC originating from the roots. Second, biomass and ethylene productions were measured in 20 additional accessions. Across all accessions, the total dry biomass and ethylene production were correlated negatively at 1 mM but positively at 10 mM nitrate. Furthermore, polymorphism was surveyed in ACC and ethylene biosynthesis genes and gene products among accessions. Very few substitutions modifying the amino acids properties in conserved motifs of the enzymes were found in the accessions. Natural variation of ethylene production could be further explored to improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE), in particular by

  3. Physiology of Hormone Autonomous Tissue Lines Derived From Radiation-Induced Tumors of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Campell, B R; Town, C D

    1991-11-01

    gamma-Radiation-induced tumors of Arabidopsis thaliana L. have been produced as a novel approach to isolation of genes that regulate plant development. Tumors excised from irradiated plants are hormone autonomous in culture and have been maintained on hormone-free medium for up to 4 years. Five tumor tissue lines having different morphologies and growth rates were analyzed for auxin, cytokinin, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, ethylene production, and response to exogenous growth regulators. Normal tissues and two crown gall tissue lines were analyzed for comparison. Rosettes and whole seedlings each contained approximately 30 nanograms. (gram fresh weight)(-1) free indoleacetic acid (IAA), 150 nanograms. (gram fresh weight)(-1) ester-conjugated IAA, and 10 to 20 micrograms. (gram fresh weight)(-1) amide-conjugated IAA. The crown gall lines contained similar amounts of free and ester-conjugated IAA but less amide conjugates. Whereas three of the radiation-induced tumor lines had IAA profiles similar to normal tissues, one line had 10- to 100-fold more free IAA and three- to 10-fold less amide-conjugated IAA. The fifth line had normal free IAA levels but more conjugated IAA than control tissues. Whole seedlings contained approximately 2 nanograms. (gram fresh weight)(-1) of both zeatin riboside and isopentenyladenosine. The crown gall lines had 100- to 1000-fold higher levels of each cytokinin. In contrast, the three radiation-induced tumor lines analyzed contained cytokinin levels similar to the control tissue. The radiation-induced tumor tissues produced very little ethylene, although each contained relatively high levels of ACC. Normal callus contained similar amounts of ACC but produced several times more ethylene than the radiation-induced tumor lines. Each of the radiation-induced tumor tissues displayed a unique set of responses to exogenously supplied growth regulators. Only one tumor line showed the same response as normal callus to

  4. Physiology of Hormone Autonomous Tissue Lines Derived From Radiation-Induced Tumors of Arabidopsis thaliana 1

    Campell, Bruce R.; Town, Christopher D.

    1991-01-01

    γ-Radiation-induced tumors of Arabidopsis thaliana L. have been produced as a novel approach to isolation of genes that regulate plant development. Tumors excised from irradiated plants are hormone autonomous in culture and have been maintained on hormone-free medium for up to 4 years. Five tumor tissue lines having different morphologies and growth rates were analyzed for auxin, cytokinin, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, ethylene production, and response to exogenous growth regulators. Normal tissues and two crown gall tissue lines were analyzed for comparison. Rosettes and whole seedlings each contained approximately 30 nanograms· (gram fresh weight)−1 free indoleacetic acid (IAA), 150 nanograms· (gram fresh weight)−1 ester-conjugated IAA, and 10 to 20 micrograms· (gram fresh weight)−1 amide-conjugated IAA. The crown gall lines contained similar amounts of free and ester-conjugated IAA but less amide conjugates. Whereas three of the radiation-induced tumor lines had IAA profiles similar to normal tissues, one line had 10- to 100-fold more free IAA and three- to 10-fold less amide-conjugated IAA. The fifth line had normal free IAA levels but more conjugated IAA than control tissues. Whole seedlings contained approximately 2 nanograms· (gram fresh weight)−1 of both zeatin riboside and isopentenyladenosine. The crown gall lines had 100- to 1000-fold higher levels of each cytokinin. In contrast, the three radiation-induced tumor lines analyzed contained cytokinin levels similar to the control tissue. The radiation-induced tumor tissues produced very little ethylene, although each contained relatively high levels of ACC. Normal callus contained similar amounts of ACC but produced several times more ethylene than the radiation-induced tumor lines. Each of the radiation-induced tumor tissues displayed a unique set of responses to exogenously supplied growth regulators. Only one tumor line showed the same response as normal callus to

  5. Plant responses to short- and long-term exposures to high carbon dioxide levels in closed environments.

    Grodzinski, B; Woodrow, L; Leonardos, E D; Dixon, M; Tsujita, M J

    1996-01-01

    When higher plants are exposed to elevated levels of CO2 for both short- and long-term periods photosynthetic C-gain and photoassimilate export from leaves are generally increased. Water use efficiency is increased on a leaf area basis. During long-term exposures, photosynthesis rates on leaf and whole plants bases are altered in a species specific manner. The most common pattern in C3 plants is an enhanced rate of whole plant photosynthesis in a well irradiated canopy. Nevertheless, in some herbaceous species prolonged exposure to high CO2 results in remobilization of nitrogenous reserves (i.e., leaf protein degradation) and reduced rates of mature leaf photosynthesis when assayed at ambient CO2 and O2 levels. Both short- and long-term exposures to those CO2 levels (i.e., 100 to 2,000 microliter l-1) which modify photosynthesis and export, also modify both endogenous ethylene gas (C2H4) release, and substrate, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), saturated C2H4 release rates from irradiated leaves. Photosynthetically active canopy leaves contribute most of the C2H4 released from the canopy. Prolonged growth at high CO2 results in a persistent increase in the rate of endogenous C2H4 release from leaves which can, only in part, be attributed to the increase of the endogenous pools of C2H4 pathway intermediates (e.g., methionine, M-ACC, and ACC). The capacity for increasing the rate of C2H4 release in response to short-term exposures to varying CO2 levels does not decline after prolonged growth at high CO2. When leaves, whole plants, and model canopies of tomato plants are exposed to exogenous C2H4 a reduction in the rate of photosynthesis can, in each case, be attributed to the classical effects of C2H4 on plant development and morphology. The effect of C2H4 on CO2 gas exchange of plant canopies is shown to be dependent on the canopy leaf area index. PMID:11538799

  6. Enhancement of drought stress tolerance in crops by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Vurukonda, Sai Shiva Krishna Prasad; Vardharajula, Sandhya; Shrivastava, Manjari; SkZ, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Drought is one of the major constraints on agricultural productivity worldwide and is likely to further increase. Several adaptations and mitigation strategies are required to cope with drought stress. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could play a significant role in alleviation of drought stress in plants. These beneficial microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere/endo-rhizosphere of plants and impart drought tolerance by producing exopolysaccharides (EPS), phytohormones, 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, volatile compounds, inducing accumulation of osmolytes, antioxidants, upregulation or down regulation of stress responsive genes and alteration in root morphology in acquisition of drought tolerance. The term Induced Systemic Tolerance (IST) was coined for physical and chemical changes induced by microorganisms in plants which results in enhanced tolerance to drought stresses. In the present review we elaborate on the role of PGPR in helping plants to cope with drought stress. PMID:26856449

  7. Cloning, expression patterns, and preliminary characterization of AccCPR24, a novel RR-1 type cuticle protein gene from Apis cerana cerana.

    Chu, Xiaoqian; Lu, Wenjing; Zhang, Yuanying; Guo, Xingqi; Sun, Rujiang; Xu, Baohua

    2013-11-01

    Cuticular proteins (CPs) are key components of insect cuticle, a structure that plays a pivotal role in insect development and defense. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of a CP gene from Apis cerana cerana (AccCPR24). An amino acid sequence alignment indicated that AccCPR24 contains the conserved Rebers and Riddiford consensus sequence and shares high similarity with the genes from other hymenopteran insects. We then isolated the genomic DNA and found that the first intron, which is present in other CP genes, is absent in AccCPR24. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed that AccCPR24 is highly expressed in the late pupal stage and midgut. Expression was inhibited by an exogenous ecdysteroid in vitro but was enhanced by this hormone in vivo; environmental stressors, such as heavy metals and pesticides, also influenced gene expression. In addition, a disc diffusion assay showed that AccCPR24 enhanced the ability of bacterial cells to resist multiple stresses. We infer from our results that AccCPR24 acts in honeybee development and in protecting these insects from abiotic stresses. PMID:24115354

  8. Structural Evidence for Direct Interactions Between the BRCT Domains of Human BRCA1 and a Phospho-Peptide from Human ACC1

    Shen,Y.; Tong, L.

    2008-01-01

    The tandem BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domains are phospho-serine/threonine recognition modules essential for the function of BRCA1. Recent studies suggest that acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), an enzyme with crucial roles in de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and lipogenesis and essential for cancer cell survival, may be a novel binding partner for BRCA1, through interactions with its BRCT domains. We report here the crystal structure at 3.2 Angstroms resolution of human BRCA1 BRCT domains in complex with a phospho-peptide from human ACC1 (p-ACC1 peptide, with the sequence 1258-DSPPQ-pS-PTFPEAGH-1271), which provides molecular evidence for direct interactions between BRCA1 and ACC1. The p-ACC1 peptide is bound in an extended conformation, located in a groove between the tandem BRCT domains. There are recognizable and significant structural differences to the binding modes of two other phospho-peptides to these domains, from BACH1 and CtIP, even though they share a conserved pSer-Pro-(Thr/Val)-Phe motif. Our studies establish a framework for understanding the regulation of lipid biosynthesis by BRCA1 through its inhibition of ACC1 activity, which could be a novel tumor suppressor function of BRCA1.

  9. The effect of electric field on callus induction with rape hypocotyls

    The influence of electric field treatment on dedifferentiation and calli formation on rape hypocotyls was investigated. Segments, 10 mm long, of the upper part of rape (Brassica napus L., cv. GorczaΔski) hypocotyls were stimulated by different combinations of voltage/time (1.5 V/120 h, 3 V/3 h, 10 V/15 min and 30 V/30 s) under in vitro conditions. With all electric field treatments, segments oriented with their apical part towards the cathode produced more calli as compared to control (non-treated with electric field). Under opposite orientation slight inhibition of callus growth was observed. As the strongest effect on callus growth was observed after treatment with 30 V/30 s, this electric field treatment was selected for following analyses: the incorporation of [14C]-2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and [14C]-BAP (benzylaminopurine) from the culture medium, changes in ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) level and the redox activity in apical and bottom parts of hypocotyls during 18 d of culture. In contrast to changes in fresh weight, electric field treatment (30 V/30 s) stimulated a higher accumulation of 2,4-D and BAP in basal parts of hypocotyls than in apical ones. Moreover, orienting the apical part towards the cathode resulted in lower uptake of hormones as compared with the opposite orientation. The ACC concentration increased, especially in the basal parts of hypocotyls, independently on electric field application. However, the highest level was observed after electric field treatment with orientation of the apical part towards the anode. The distribution of oxidative substances (measured as the amount of ferric ions) between the apical and bottom part of hypocotyls was not changed when the apical parts were oriented towards the cathode. Under these conditions a decrease in apical and an increase in basal parts was observed during culture. Opposite orientation influenced the redistribution of oxidative substances from the first day of

  10. The effect of electric field on callus induction with rape hypocotyls

    Filek, M.; Holda, M. [Inst. of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Machackova, I.; Krekule, J. [Inst. of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha (Czech Republic)

    2005-12-01

    The influence of electric field treatment on dedifferentiation and calli formation on rape hypocotyls was investigated. Segments, 10 mm long, of the upper part of rape (Brassica napus L., cv. Gorcza{delta}ski) hypocotyls were stimulated by different combinations of voltage/time (1.5 V/120 h, 3 V/3 h, 10 V/15 min and 30 V/30 s) under in vitro conditions. With all electric field treatments, segments oriented with their apical part towards the cathode produced more calli as compared to control (non-treated with electric field). Under opposite orientation slight inhibition of callus growth was observed. As the strongest effect on callus growth was observed after treatment with 30 V/30 s, this electric field treatment was selected for following analyses: the incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and [{sup 14}C]-BAP (benzylaminopurine) from the culture medium, changes in ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) level and the redox activity in apical and bottom parts of hypocotyls during 18 d of culture. In contrast to changes in fresh weight, electric field treatment (30 V/30 s) stimulated a higher accumulation of 2,4-D and BAP in basal parts of hypocotyls than in apical ones. Moreover, orienting the apical part towards the cathode resulted in lower uptake of hormones as compared with the opposite orientation. The ACC concentration increased, especially in the basal parts of hypocotyls, independently on electric field application. However, the highest level was observed after electric field treatment with orientation of the apical part towards the anode. The distribution of oxidative substances (measured as the amount of ferric ions) between the apical and bottom part of hypocotyls was not changed when the apical parts were oriented towards the cathode. Under these conditions a decrease in apical and an increase in basal parts was observed during culture. Opposite orientation influenced the redistribution of oxidative substances from the

  11. CAPS OpenACC Compilers: Performance and Portability

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The announcement late 2011 of the new OpenACC directive-based programming standard supported by CAPS, CRAY and PGI compilers has open up the door to more scientific applications that can be ported on many-core systems. Following a porting methodology, this talk will first review the principles of programming with OpenACC and then the advanced features available in the CAPS compilers to further optimize OpenACC applications: library integration, tuning directives with auto-tune mechanisms to build applications adaptive to different GPUs. CAPS compilers use hardware vendors' backends such as NVIDIA CUDA and OpenCL making them the only OpenACC compilers supporting various many-core architectures. About the speaker Stéphane Bihan is co-funder and currently Director of Sales and Marketing at CAPS enterprise. He has held several R&D positions in companies such as ARC international plc in London, Canon Research Center France, ACE compiler experts in Amsterdam and the INRIA r...

  12. Human Behavior Model Based Control Program for ACC Mobile Robot

    Claudiu Pozna; Fritz Troester

    2006-01-01

    Present work is a part of the ACC autonomous car project. This paper will focuson the control program architecture. To design this architecture we will start from thehuman driver behavior model. Using this model we have constructed a three level controlprogram. Preliminary results are presented.

  13. Human Behavior Model Based Control Program for ACC Mobile Robot

    Claudiu Pozna

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Present work is a part of the ACC autonomous car project. This paper will focuson the control program architecture. To design this architecture we will start from thehuman driver behavior model. Using this model we have constructed a three level controlprogram. Preliminary results are presented.

  14. Characterization of an Apis cerana cerana cytochrome P450 gene (AccCYP336A1) and its roles in oxidative stresses responses.

    Zhu, Ming; Zhang, Weixing; Liu, Feng; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Han; Xu, Baohua

    2016-06-15

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450), widely distributed multifunctional enzymes, that play an important role in the oxidative metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Studies have found that these enzymes show peroxidase-like activity and may thus be involved in protecting organisms against reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work, Apis cerana cerana was used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of P450 family genes in resisting ROS damage. A cytochrome P450 gene was isolated, AccCYP336A1. The open reading frame (ORF) of AccCYP336A1 is 1491bp in length and encodes a predicted protein of 496 amino acids. The obtained amino acid sequence of AccCYP336A1 shared a high sequence identity with homologous proteins and contained the highly conserved features of this protein family. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that AccCYP336A1 was present in some fast developmental stages and had a higher expression in the epidermis than in other tissues. Additionally, the expression levels of AccCYP336A1 were up-regulated by cold (4°C), heat (42°C), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, H2O2 and pesticide (thiamethoxam, deltamethrin, methomyl and phoxim) treatments. These results were confirmed by the western blot assays. Furthermore, the recombinant AccCYP336A1 protein acted as an antioxidant that resisted paraquat-induced oxidative stress. Taken together, these results suggest that AccCYP336A1 may play a very significant role in antioxidant defense against ROS damage. PMID:26877110

  15. Arthrobacter pokkalii sp nov, a Novel Plant Associated Actinobacterium with Plant Beneficial Properties, Isolated from Saline Tolerant Pokkali Rice, Kerala, India

    Krishnan, Ramya; Menon, Rahul Ravikumar; Tanaka, Naoto; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Rameshkumar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    A novel yellow colony-forming bacterium, strain P3B162T was isolated from the pokkali rice rhizosphere from Kerala, India, as part of a project study aimed at isolating plant growth beneficial rhizobacteria from saline tolerant pokkali rice and functionally evaluate their abilities to promote plant growth under saline conditions. The novel strain P3B162T possesses plant growth beneficial traits such as positive growth on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. In addition, it also showed important phenotypic characters such as ability to form biofilm and utilization of various components of plant root exudates (sugars, amino acids and organic acids), clearly indicating its lifestyle as a plant rhizosphere associated bacterium. Taxonomically, the novel strain P3B162T was affiliated to the genus Arthrobacter based on the collective results of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses. Moreover, molecular analysis using 16S rRNA gene showed Arthrobacter globiformis NBRC 12137T, Arthrobacter pascens DSM 20545T and Arthrobacter liuii DSXY973T as the closely related phylogenetic neighbours, showing more than 98% 16S rRNA similarity values, whereas the recA gene analysis displayed Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T as the nearest neighbour with 94.7% sequence similarity and only 91.7% to Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T and 88.7% to Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain P3B162T, Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T, Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T and Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T was below 50%. In addition, the novel strain P3B162T can be distinguished from its closely related type strains by several phenotypic characters such as colony pigment, tolerance to NaCl, motility, reduction of nitrate, hydrolysis of DNA, acid from sucrose, cell wall sugars and cell wall peptidoglycan structure. In conclusion, the combined results of this study support the

  16. Arthrobacter pokkalii sp nov, a Novel Plant Associated Actinobacterium with Plant Beneficial Properties, Isolated from Saline Tolerant Pokkali Rice, Kerala, India.

    Krishnan, Ramya; Menon, Rahul Ravikumar; Tanaka, Naoto; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Rameshkumar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    A novel yellow colony-forming bacterium, strain P3B162T was isolated from the pokkali rice rhizosphere from Kerala, India, as part of a project study aimed at isolating plant growth beneficial rhizobacteria from saline tolerant pokkali rice and functionally evaluate their abilities to promote plant growth under saline conditions. The novel strain P3B162T possesses plant growth beneficial traits such as positive growth on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. In addition, it also showed important phenotypic characters such as ability to form biofilm and utilization of various components of plant root exudates (sugars, amino acids and organic acids), clearly indicating its lifestyle as a plant rhizosphere associated bacterium. Taxonomically, the novel strain P3B162T was affiliated to the genus Arthrobacter based on the collective results of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses. Moreover, molecular analysis using 16S rRNA gene showed Arthrobacter globiformis NBRC 12137T, Arthrobacter pascens DSM 20545T and Arthrobacter liuii DSXY973T as the closely related phylogenetic neighbours, showing more than 98% 16S rRNA similarity values, whereas the recA gene analysis displayed Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T as the nearest neighbour with 94.7% sequence similarity and only 91.7% to Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T and 88.7% to Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain P3B162T, Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T, Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T and Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T was below 50%. In addition, the novel strain P3B162T can be distinguished from its closely related type strains by several phenotypic characters such as colony pigment, tolerance to NaCl, motility, reduction of nitrate, hydrolysis of DNA, acid from sucrose, cell wall sugars and cell wall peptidoglycan structure. In conclusion, the combined results of this study support the

  17. The Studies of the Reactions of 2, 4, 6-Triphenylpyrylium Tetrafluoroborate with Amino Acids

    Shrong Shi LIN; Xian Jing KONG; Jing Yuan LIU; Cheng Yong LI

    2003-01-01

    The reactions of triphenylpyrylium salt 1 with various amino acids were explored andcompared. The reactions with most α-amino acids yielded decarboxylation products 2 viadecarboxylation. The reactions with glutamic acid, lysine and ACC (1-aminocyclopropyl-carboxylic acid) gave triphenylpyridine 8, dimer 9 and acid 5a-acc, respectively. The reactionswith β and γ-amino acids yielded triphenylpyridine by intramolecular elimination.

  18. Ervaringen met Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) in een korte praktijkproef.

    Oei, H.-l.

    2003-01-01

    Experiences with Advanced Cruise Control in traffic; a limited experiment. Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) is an ordinary cruise control in which the desired speed is installed manually, but in which the headway time to the vehicle in front is also taken into account. If the headway time becomes less than the installed critical threshold value, the system brakes the vehicle gradually. If the vehicle in front is no longer there, or the headway time is greater than the threshold value, the instal...

  19. Comparison of Bayesian Sample Size Criteria: ACC, ALC, and WOC

    Cao, Jing; Lee, J. Jack; Alber, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenge for implementing performance based Bayesian sample size determination is selecting which of several methods to use. We compare three Bayesian sample size criteria: the average coverage criterion (ACC) which controls the coverage rate of fixed length credible intervals over the predictive distribution of the data, the average length criterion (ALC) which controls the length of credible intervals with a fixed coverage rate, and the worst outcome criterion (WOC) which ensures the des...

  20. Utilizing the Trispyrazolyl Borate Ligand for the Mimicking of O2-Activating Mononuclear Nonheme Iron Enzymes.

    Sallmann, Madleen; Limberg, Christian

    2015-10-20

    Mononuclear, O2-activating nonheme iron enzymes are a fascinating class of metalloproteines, capable of realizing the most different reactions, ranging from C-H activation, via O atom transfer to C-C bond cleavage, in the course of O2 activation. They can lead us the way to achieve similar reactions with comparable efficiency and selectivity in chemical laboratories, which would be highly desirable aiming at accessing value-added products or to achieve degradation of unwanted compounds. Hence, these enyzmes motivate attempts to construct artificial low-molecular weight analogues, mimicking structural or functional characteristics. Such models can, for instance, provide insights about which of the features inherent to an active site are essential and guarantee the enzyme function, and from this kind of information the minimal requirements for a biomimetic or bioinspired complex that may be applied in catalysis can be derived. On the other hand, they can contribute to an understanding of the enzyme functioning. In order to create such replicates, it is important to faithfully mimic the surroundings of the iron centers in their active sites. Most of them feature two histidine residues and one carboxylate donor, while a few exhibit a deceptively simple (His)3Fe active site. For the simulation of these, the trispyrazolyl borate ligand (Tp) particularly offers itself, as the facial arrangement of three pyrazole donors is reminiscent of the three histidine-derived imidazole donors. The focus of this Account will be on bioinorganic/biomimetic research from our laboratory utilizing Tp ligands to develop molecular models for (i) two representatives of the (His)3Fe-enzyme family, namely, the cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and acetyl acetone dioxygenase (Dke1), (ii) a related but less well-explored variant of the CDO-the 2-aminoethanethiol dioxygenase-as well as (iii) the 2-His-1-carboxylate representative 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO). The CDO catalyzes the

  1. Wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase complements an ACC1 null mutation in yeast

    Joachimiak, M.; Tevzadze, G.; Podkowinski, J; Haselkorn, R.; Gornicki, P.

    1997-01-01

    Spores harboring an ACC1 deletion derived from a diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, in which one copy of the entire ACC1 gene is replaced with a LEU2 cassette, fail to grow. A chimeric gene consisting of the yeast GAL10 promoter, yeast ACC1 leader, wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) cDNA, and yeast ACC1 3′ tail was used to complement a yeast ACC1 mutation. The complementation demonstrates that active wheat ACCase can be produced in yeast. At low concentrations of galactose,...

  2. Reward salience and risk aversion underlie differential ACC activity in substance dependence

    William H. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex, especially the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, has long been implicated in cognitive control and error processing. Although the association between ACC and behavior has been established, it is less clear how ACC contributes to dysfunctional behavior such as substance dependence. Evidence from neuroimaging studies investigating ACC function in substance users is mixed, with some studies showing disengagement of ACC in substance dependent individuals (SDs, while others show increased ACC activity related to substance use. In this study, we investigate ACC function in SDs and healthy individuals performing a change signal task for monetary rewards. Using a priori predictions derived from a recent computational model of ACC, we find that ACC activity differs between SDs and controls in factors related to reward salience and risk aversion between SDs and healthy individuals. Quantitative fits of a computational model to fMRI data reveal significant differences in best fit parameters for reward salience and risk preferences. Specifically, the ACC in SDs shows greater risk aversion, defined as concavity in the utility function, and greater attention to rewards relative to reward omission. Furthermore, across participants risk aversion and reward salience are positively correlated. The results clarify the role that ACC plays in both the reduced sensitivity to omitted rewards and greater reward valuation in SDs. Clinical implications of applying computational modeling in psychiatry are also discussed.

  3. Ethylene evolution and endo-beta-mannanase activity during lettuce seed germination at high temperature Evolução de etileno e atividade da enzima endo-beta-mananase durante a germinação de sementes de alface sob altas temperaturas

    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures during lettuce seed imbibition can delay or completely inhibit germination and the endosperm layer appears to restrict the radicle protrusion. The role of endo-beta-mannanase during lettuce seed germination at 35°C and the influence of ethylene in endo-beta-mannanase regulation were investigated. Seeds of 'Dark Green Boston' (DGB and 'Everglades' (EVE were germinated in water, or 10 mmol L-1 of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, or 10 mmol L-1 of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, or 20 mmol L-1 of silver thiosulphate (STS. Seeds were also primed in polyethylene glycol (PEG, or PEG + ACC, PEG + AVG, or PEG + STS. Untreated seeds germinated 100% at 20°C. At 35°C, EVE seeds germinated 100%, whereas DGB seeds germinated only 33%. Seed priming or adding ACC during incubation increased germination at 35°C. Higher ethylene evolution was detected in EVE than in DGB during germination at 35°C. AVG did not inhibit seed germination of DGB at 35°C, but STS did. Higher endo-beta-mannanase activity was observed in EVE compared with DGB seeds. Providing ACC either during priming or during germination increased endo-beta-mannanase activity, whereas AVG and STS led to decreased or no activity. Ethylene may overcome the inhibitory effect of high temperature in thermosensitive lettuce seeds due to increased endo-beta-mannanase, possibly leading to weakening of the endosperm.Altas temperaturas durante a embebição das sementes de alface podem atrasar ou inibir a germinação e o endosperma parece ser o responsável na restrição da protrusão da radícula. O envolvimento da enzima endo-beta-mananase durante a germinação de sementes de alface a 35°C e a influência do etileno na regulagem desta enzima foram estudados. Sementes das cultivares Dark Green Boston (DGB e Everglades (EVE foram germinadas em água ou em soluções de 10 mmol L-1 de 1-aminociclopropano-1-ácido carboxilico (ACC, 10 mmol L-1 de amino-etoxi-vinil-glicina (AVG

  4. Short-term aluminium-induced changes in barley root tips.

    Zelinová, Veronika; Halušková, Lubica; Huttová, Jana; Illéš, Peter; Mistrík, Igor; Valentovičová, Katarína; Tamás, Ladislav

    2011-07-01

    The short-term exposure of barley roots to low Al concentration caused significant root growth inhibition and radial swelling of roots. During Al treatment, the radial expansion of root cells occurred in root tissues representing elongation zone and meristem. Both low pH and Al treatments caused significant disruption of cell membranes in swollen roots. In contrast to Evans blue uptake callose formation was observed only at higher Al concentrations and was detected in both swollen and adjacent root areas. Similarly to Al, exogenous short-term application of indole-3-acetic acid, polar transport inhibitor triiodobenzoic acid, ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid or H(2)O(2) evoked root growth inhibition and radial cell expansion in barley root tip too. PMID:20734093

  5. Phylogeny and functions of bacterial communities associated with field-grown rice shoots.

    Okubo, Takashi; Ikeda, Seishi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Ohshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Sato, Tadashi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-09-17

    Metagenomic analysis was applied to bacterial communities associated with the shoots of two field-grown rice cultivars, Nipponbare and Kasalath. In both cultivars, shoot microbiomes were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (51-52%), Actinobacteria (11-15%), Gammaproteobacteria (9-10%), and Betaproteobacteria (4-10%). Compared with other rice microbiomes (root, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere) in public databases, the shoot microbiomes harbored abundant genes for C1 compound metabolism and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate catabolism, but fewer genes for indole-3-acetic acid production and nitrogen fixation. Salicylate hydroxylase was detected in all microbiomes, except the rhizosphere. These genomic features facilitate understanding of plant-microbe interactions and biogeochemical metabolism in rice shoots. PMID:25130883

  6. Plant growth-promoting traits of yeasts isolated from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of Drosera spatulata Lab.

    Fu, Shih-Feng; Sun, Pei-Feng; Lu, Hsueh-Yu; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Xiao, Hong-Su; Fang, Wei-Ta; Cheng, Bai-You; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms can promote plant growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. Compared with the use of bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, the use of yeasts as plant growth-promoting (PGP) agents has not been extensively investigated. In this study, yeast isolates from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of the medicinally important plant Drosera spatulata Lab. were assessed for their PGP traits. All isolates were tested for indole-3-acetic acid-, ammonia-, and polyamine-producing abilities, calcium phosphate and zinc oxide solubilizing ability, and catalase activity. Furthermore, the activities of siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes were assessed. The antagonistic action of yeasts against pathogenic Glomerella cingulata was evaluated. The cocultivation of Nicotiana benthamiana with yeast isolates enhanced plant growth, indicating a potential yeast-plant interaction. Our study results highlight the potential use of yeasts as plant biofertilizers under controlled and field conditions. PMID:26895872

  7. Plant growth-promoting and rhizosphere-competent Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae strain BIHB 723 from the cold deserts of the Himalayas.

    Gulati, Arvind; Vyas, Pratibha; Rahi, Praveen; Kasana, Ramesh Chand

    2009-04-01

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strain BIHB 723 isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippophae rhamnoides was identified as Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, carbon source utilization pattern, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain exhibited the plant growth-promoting attributes of inorganic and organic phosphate solubilization, auxin production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, ammonia generation, and siderophore production. A significant increase in the growth of pea, chickpea, maize, and barley was recorded for inoculations under controlled conditions. Field testing with the pea also showed a significant increment in plant growth and yield. The rifampicin mutant of the bacterial strain effectively colonized the pea rhizosphere without adversely affecting the resident microbial populations. PMID:19137371

  8. Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production.

  9. The glossyhead1 Allele of ACC1 Reveals a Principal Role for Multidomain Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in the Biosynthesis of Cuticular Waxes by Arabidopsis

    Lu, S.; Xu, C.; Zhao, H.; Parsons, E. P.; Kosma, D. K.; Xu, X.; Chao, D.; Lohrey, G.; Bangarusamy, D. K.; Wang, G.; Bressan, R. A.; Jenks, M. A.

    2011-11-01

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C{sub 20:0} or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling.

  10. The glossyhead1 allele of acc1 reveals a principal role for multidomain acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes by Arabidopsis

    Lu, Shiyou

    2011-09-23

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C 20:0 or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Driver behavior analysis during ACC activation and deactivation in a real traffic environment

    Pauwelussen, J.; Feenstra, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    For the development of a traffic-simulation model to estimate the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems on traffic safety, throughput, and environment, data of a field operational test (FOT) were analyzed, in which vehicles were equipped with ACC and lane-departure warning (LDW) systems. T

  12. ACCE/ACS National Educator and Leader of the Year Winners: AEC Congratulates These Outstanding Educators

    Australian Educational Computing, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ACCE/ACS National Educator and Leader of the Year winners. Anne Mirtschin is the recipient of the ACCE/ACS 2012 Educator of the Year Award. Mirtschin is an innovative teacher at Hawkesdale P-12 College a small rural school that is isolated culturally and geographically. She uses online tools and technology to create…

  13. Differential feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in pulp and peel tissues of banana fruit.

    Inaba, Akitsugu; Liu, Xuejun; Yokotani, Naoki; Yamane, Miki; Lu, Wang-Jin; Nakano, Ryohei; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2007-01-01

    The feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in banana [Musa sp. (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Grand Nain] fruit was investigated in an attempt to clarify the opposite effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor, before and after the onset of ripening. 1-MCP pre-treatment completely prevented the ripening-induced effect of propylene in pre-climacteric banana fruit, whereas treatment after the onset of ripening stimulated ethylene production. In pre-climacteric fruit, higher concentrations of propylene suppressed ethylene production more strongly, despite their earlier ethylene-inducing effect. Exposure of the fruit ripened by propylene to 1-MCP increased ethylene production concomitantly with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase activity and ACC content, and prevented a transient decrease in MA-ACS1 transcripts in the pulp tissues. In contrast, in the peel of ripening fruit, 1-MCP prevented the increase in ethylene production and subsequently the ripening process by reduction of the increase in MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 transcripts and of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities. These results suggest that ethylene biosynthesis in ripening banana fruit may be controlled negatively in the pulp tissue and positively in the peel tissue. This differential regulation by ethylene in pulp and peel tissues was also observed for MA-PL, MA-Exp, and MA-MADS genes. PMID:17185740

  14. Crystallization of recombinant 1-amino cyclo propane-1-carboxylate (Acc) oxidase

    Watanabe, L.; Arni, R.K. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Dilley, D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Biophysics

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Ethylene is an important harmone in plant biology because it activates gene expression with consequences at all phases of plant growth and development spanning seed germination to fruit ripening and senesense of plant organs. In climacteric fruits, the sharp increase in ethylene production at the onset of ripening is throught to trigger the changes in colour, aroma, texture and flavour. The final step in ethylene biosynthesis is catalyzed by ACC oxidase. Biothechnological methods have been used to inhibit ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in tomato by down-regulating ACC synthase and ACC oxidase gene expression using the antisense RNA strategy. A similar goal has been achieved by overexpressing a bacterial ACC deaminase or a viral-S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene, which reduces the availability of the ethylene precursors., ACC and S-adenosylmethionine, respectively. C0{sub 2} at concentrations commonly found in the intracellular space of plant tissues is required to active ACC oxidase to produce ethylene and can elevate enzyme activity 20-fold in a concentration dependent manner. Consequently, the intracellular ethylene level is modulated from low inactive levels when C0{sub 2} is not limiting and this may alter gene expression. ACC oxidase undergoes catalytic inactivation as the reaction to make ethylene procedes and this too may involve CO{sub 2}. It has been suggested that CO{sub 2}acts as a modulator of ACC oxidase activity and therby helps regulate ethylene levels in the cell and thus may explain many ethylene related phenomena in plant biology. CO{sub 2} is know to affect O{sub 2} binding in hemoglobin and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco). Catalytic inactivation is a common phenomena in enzyme turnover, ACC oxidase is a Fe{sup +2}/ascorbate requiring enzyme and this makes it a prime candidate for metal ion oxidation-based inactivation. Charentais melon with an antisense ACC oxidase cDNA. A trangenic line exhibits reduction

  15. Crystallization of recombinant 1-amino cyclo propane-1-carboxylate (Acc) oxidase

    Full text. Ethylene is an important harmone in plant biology because it activates gene expression with consequences at all phases of plant growth and development spanning seed germination to fruit ripening and senesense of plant organs. In climacteric fruits, the sharp increase in ethylene production at the onset of ripening is throught to trigger the changes in colour, aroma, texture and flavour. The final step in ethylene biosynthesis is catalyzed by ACC oxidase. Biothechnological methods have been used to inhibit ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in tomato by down-regulating ACC synthase and ACC oxidase gene expression using the antisense RNA strategy. A similar goal has been achieved by overexpressing a bacterial ACC deaminase or a viral-S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene, which reduces the availability of the ethylene precursors., ACC and S-adenosylmethionine, respectively. C02 at concentrations commonly found in the intracellular space of plant tissues is required to active ACC oxidase to produce ethylene and can elevate enzyme activity 20-fold in a concentration dependent manner. Consequently, the intracellular ethylene level is modulated from low inactive levels when C02 is not limiting and this may alter gene expression. ACC oxidase undergoes catalytic inactivation as the reaction to make ethylene procedes and this too may involve CO2. It has been suggested that CO2acts as a modulator of ACC oxidase activity and therby helps regulate ethylene levels in the cell and thus may explain many ethylene related phenomena in plant biology. CO2 is know to affect O2 binding in hemoglobin and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco). Catalytic inactivation is a common phenomena in enzyme turnover, ACC oxidase is a Fe+2/ascorbate requiring enzyme and this makes it a prime candidate for metal ion oxidation-based inactivation. Charentais melon with an antisense ACC oxidase cDNA. A trangenic line exhibits reduction of ethylene production and inhibition of

  16. Astronomical Image Compression Techniques Based on ACC and KLT Coder

    Schindler, J.; Páta, P.; Klíma, M.; Fliegel, K.

    This paper deals with a compression of image data in applications in astronomy. Astronomical images have typical specific properties -- high grayscale bit depth, size, noise occurrence and special processing algorithms. They belong to the class of scientific images. Their processing and compression is quite different from the classical approach of multimedia image processing. The database of images from BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System) has been chosen as a source of the testing signal. BOOTES is a Czech-Spanish robotic telescope for observing AGN (active galactic nuclei) and the optical transient of GRB (gamma ray bursts) searching. This paper discusses an approach based on an analysis of statistical properties of image data. A comparison of two irrelevancy reduction methods is presented from a scientific (astrometric and photometric) point of view. The first method is based on a statistical approach, using the Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) with uniform quantization in the spectral domain. The second technique is derived from wavelet decomposition with adaptive selection of used prediction coefficients. Finally, the comparison of three redundancy reduction methods is discussed. Multimedia format JPEG2000 and HCOMPRESS, designed especially for astronomical images, are compared with the new Astronomical Context Coder (ACC) coder based on adaptive median regression.

  17. Astronomical Image Compression Techniques Based on ACC and KLT Coder

    J. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a compression of image data in applications in astronomy. Astronomical images have typical specific properties — high grayscale bit depth, size, noise occurrence and special processing algorithms. They belong to the class of scientific images. Their processing and compression is quite different from the classical approach of multimedia image processing. The database of images from BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System has been chosen as a source of the testing signal. BOOTES is a Czech-Spanish robotic telescope for observing AGN (active galactic nuclei and the optical transient of GRB (gamma ray bursts searching. This paper discusses an approach based on an analysis of statistical properties of image data. A comparison of two irrelevancy reduction methods is presented from a scientific (astrometric and photometric point of view. The first method is based on a statistical approach, using the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT with uniform quantization in the spectral domain. The second technique is derived from wavelet decomposition with adaptive selection of used prediction coefficients. Finally, the comparison of three redundancy reduction methods is discussed. Multimedia format JPEG2000 and HCOMPRESS, designed especially for astronomical images, are compared with the new Astronomical Context Coder (ACC coder based on adaptive median regression.

  18. OpenARC: Extensible OpenACC Compiler Framework for Directive-Based Accelerator Programming Study

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Directive-based, accelerator programming models such as OpenACC have arisen as an alternative solution to program emerging Scalable Heterogeneous Computing (SHC) platforms. However, the increased complexity in the SHC systems incurs several challenges in terms of portability and productivity. This paper presents an open-sourced OpenACC compiler, called OpenARC, which serves as an extensible research framework to address those issues in the directive-based accelerator programming. This paper explains important design strategies and key compiler transformation techniques needed to implement the reference OpenACC compiler. Moreover, this paper demonstrates the efficacy of OpenARC as a research framework for directive-based programming study, by proposing and implementing OpenACC extensions in the OpenARC framework to 1) support hybrid programming of the unified memory and separate memory and 2) exploit architecture-specific features in an abstract manner. Porting thirteen standard OpenACC programs and three extended OpenACC programs to CUDA GPUs shows that OpenARC performs similarly to a commercial OpenACC compiler, while it serves as a high-level research framework.

  19. Contrôle d'accès aux expériences et au tunnel de l'accélérateur LHC

    Cennini, E

    1998-01-01

    Le "LHC-Access and Interlock Working Group" réunit des représentants des divisions ST, SL, LHC et TIS. Il est chargé de définir une nouvelle philosophie pour les systèmes de Contrôle d'Accès et de Verrouillage des Faisceaux du LHC ainsi qu'obtenir l'approbation des comités LHC-TC, LHC-TCC et LEMIC. Cette philosophie constituera la base de la spécification technique de ces systèmes. Les sujets principaux traités sont la classification des zones d'accès en fonctions des risques, l'identification des emplacements des EIS-accès en fonction des contraintes de trafic, de sécurité et d'encombrement, ainsi que la définition du concept de patrouille de fermeture des zones radiations. La spécificité du LHC, quant aux risques qu'il présente, implique un changement considérable du point de vue du Contrôle d'Accès. Il est impératif de préparer les utilisateurs à un changement de comportement afin d'accroître la sécurité ainsi que de respecter les procédures et les règles d'accès.

  20. IMPACC: A Tightly Integrated MPI+OpenACC Framework Exploiting Shared Memory Parallelism

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    We propose IMPACC, an MPI+OpenACC framework for heterogeneous accelerator clusters. IMPACC tightly integrates MPI and OpenACC, while exploiting the shared memory parallelism in the target system. IMPACC dynamically adapts the input MPI+OpenACC applications on the target heterogeneous accelerator clusters to fully exploit target system-specific features. IMPACC provides the programmers with the unified virtual address space, automatic NUMA-friendly task-device mapping, efficient integrated communication routines, seamless streamlining of asynchronous executions, and transparent memory sharing. We have implemented IMPACC and evaluated its performance using three heterogeneous accelerator systems, including Titan supercomputer. Results show that IMPACC can achieve easier programming, higher performance, and better scalability than the current MPI+OpenACC model.

  1. Mechanisms of placebo analgesia: rACC recruitment of a subcortical antinociceptive network.

    Bingel, U; Lorenz, J; Schoell, E; Weiller, C; Büchel, C

    2006-01-01

    Placebo analgesia is one of the most striking examples of the cognitive modulation of pain perception and the underlying mechanisms are finally beginning to be understood. According to pharmacological studies, the endogenous opioid system is essential for placebo analgesia. Recent functional imaging data provides evidence that the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) represents a crucial cortical area for this type of endogenous pain control. We therefore hypothesized that placebo analgesia recruits other brain areas outside the rACC and that interactions of the rACC with these brain areas mediate opioid-dependent endogenous antinociception as part of a top-down mechanism. Nineteen healthy subjects received and rated painful laser stimuli to the dorsum of both hands, one of them treated with a fake analgesic cream (placebo). Painful stimulation was preceded by an auditory cue, indicating the side of the next laser stimulation. BOLD-responses to the painful laser-stimulation during the placebo and no-placebo condition were assessed using event-related fMRI. After having confirmed placebo related activity in the rACC, a connectivity analysis identified placebo dependent contributions of rACC activity with bilateral amygdalae and the periaqueductal gray (PAG). This finding supports the view that placebo analgesia depends on the enhanced functional connectivity of the rACC with subcortical brain structures that are crucial for conditioned learning and descending inhibition of nociception. PMID:16364549

  2. Identification of acid-sensing ion channels in adenoid cystic carcinomas

    Tissue acidosis is an important feature of tumor. The response of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) cells to acidic solution was studied using whole-cell patch-clamp recording in the current study. An inward, amiloride-sensitive Na+ current was identified in cultured ACC-2 cells while not in normal human salivary gland epithelial cells. Electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the currents suggest that heteromeric acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) containing 2a and 3 may be responsible for the proton-induced currents in the majority of ACC-2 cells. Consistent with it, analyses of RT-PCR and Western blotting demonstrated the presences of ASIC2a and 3 in ACC-2 cells. Furthermore, we observed the enhanced expression of ASIC2a and 3 in the sample of ACC tissues. These results indicate that the functional expression of ASICs is characteristic feature of ACC cells

  3. OpenACC to FPGA: A Framework for Directive-based High-Performance Reconfigurable Computing

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a directive-based, high-level programming framework for high-performance reconfigurable computing. It takes a standard, portable OpenACC C program as input and generates a hardware configuration file for execution on FPGAs. We implemented this prototype system using our open-source OpenARC compiler; it performs source-to-source translation and optimization of the input OpenACC program into an OpenCL code, which is further compiled into a FPGA program by the backend Altera Offline OpenCL compiler. Internally, the design of OpenARC uses a high- level intermediate representation that separates concerns of program representation from underlying architectures, which facilitates portability of OpenARC. In fact, this design allowed us to create the OpenACC-to-FPGA translation framework with minimal extensions to our existing system. In addition, we show that our proposed FPGA-specific compiler optimizations and novel OpenACC pragma extensions assist the compiler in generating more efficient FPGA hardware configuration files. Our empirical evaluation on an Altera Stratix V FPGA with eight OpenACC benchmarks demonstrate the benefits of our strategy. To demonstrate the portability of OpenARC, we show results for the same benchmarks executing on other heterogeneous platforms, including NVIDIA GPUs, AMD GPUs, and Intel Xeon Phis. This initial evidence helps support the goal of using a directive-based, high-level programming strategy for performance portability across heterogeneous HPC architectures.

  4. Positive coping styles and perigenual ACC volume: two related mechanisms for conferring resilience?

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure has been linked to increased rates of depression and anxiety in adults, particularly in females, and has been associated with maladaptive changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is an important brain structure involved in internalizing disorders. Coping styles are important mediators of the stress reaction by establishing homeostasis, and may thus confer resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Anatomical scans were acquired in 181 healthy participants at age 25 years. Positive coping styles were determined using a self-report questionnaire (German Stress Coping Questionnaire, SVF78) at age 22 years. Adult anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed at ages 22, 23 and 25 years with the Young Adult Self-Report. Information on previous internalizing diagnoses was obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years). Positive coping styles were associated with increased ACC volume. ACC volume and positive coping styles predicted anxiety and depression in a sex-dependent manner with increased positive coping and ACC volume being related to lower levels of psychopathology in females, but not in males. These results remained significant when controlled for previous internalizing diagnoses. These findings indicate that positive coping styles and ACC volume are two linked mechanisms, which may serve as protective factors against internalizing disorders. PMID:26743466

  5. Anthropogenic increase in carbon dioxide compromises plant defense against invasive insects

    Zavala, J.; Casteel, C.; DeLucia, E.; Berenbaum, M. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), a consequence of anthropogenic global change, can profoundly affect the interactions between crop plants and insect pests and may promote yet another form of global change: the rapid establishment of invasive species. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the susceptibility of soybean plants grown under field conditions to the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) and to a variant of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) resistant to crop rotation by down-regulating gene expression related to defense signaling [lipoxygenase 7 (lox7), lipoxygenase 8 (lox8), and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (acc-s)]. The down-regulation of these genes, in turn, reduced the production of cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CystPIs), which are specific deterrents to coleopteran herbivores. Beetle herbivory increased CystPI activity to a greater degree in plants grown under ambient than under elevated CO{sub 2}. Gut cysteine proteinase activity was higher in beetles consuming foliage of soybeans grown under elevated CO{sub 2} than in beetles consuming soybeans grown in ambient CO{sub 2}, consistent with enhanced growth and development of these beetles on plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. These findings suggest that predicted increases in soybean productivity under projected elevated CO{sub 2} levels may be reduced by increased susceptibility to invasive crop pests.

  6. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site

    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors. - Using transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as phytoremediation methods increased plant tolerance at a metal-contaminated field site under low flood conditions

  7. Accès à l’information : vers une plus grande transparence

    Ouimet, André

    2015-01-01

    Les valeurs qui sous-tendent les lois sur l’accès à l’information ont un caractère largement universel et associent étroitement démocratie, transparence et reddition de comptes. Dans ce contexte, inévitablement, les progrès récents de la démocratie dans le monde amènent un nombre croissant de pays à faire preuve de plus de transparence et à adopter en conséquence des lois favorisant l’accès à l’information sous toutes ses formes. Dans ce texte, l’auteur discute de diverses lois d’accès à l’in...

  8. ACC interleukin-10 gene promoter haplotype as a breast cancer risk factor predictor among Jordanian females

    Atoum MF

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manar Fayiz Atoum Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Introduction: Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a multifactorial cytokine with a complex biological role in breast cancer. The aims of this study were to investigate any association between IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms, 1082A>/G, -819T>C, and -592A>C, or haplotypes and breast cancer risk among Jordanian women and to evaluate any association between the most common haplotype with clinicopathological features of breast cancer.Patients and methods: A total of 202 breast cancer patients and 210 age-matched healthy control subjects were genotyped for -1082A/G, -819T/C, and -592A/C single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Study patients and control subjects were recruited from Prince Hamzah Hospital, Amman, Jordan (2012–2013. Ethical approval and signed consent forms were signed by all participants. DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction fragments were amplified and restriction digested by MnII, MaeIII, and RsaI.Results: This study showed no statistically significant difference between -1082A/G, -819T/C, and -592A/C IL-10 genotypes or alleles among breast cancer patients or controls. Four different haplotypes ATA, ACC, GTA, and ACA within the IL-10 promoter gene were determined among both breast cancer and control groups. The most frequent haplotype was ACC among breast cancer patients and controls (41.6% and 40.7%, respectively. No statistical differences in these haplotypes among breast cancer patients or controls were determined. Analysis of the most common ACC haplotype showed statistical difference in positive estrogen receptor (P=0.022, positive progesterone receptor (P=0.004, cancer grade (P=0.0001, and cancer stage (P=0.009 among the ACC haplotype compared to non-ACC haplotype.Conclusion: To our

  9. Summary of EuCARD WP4 Accelerator Science Networks "AccNet" 2009-2013

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    This presentation reviews the activities, achievements and conclusions of EuCARD Work Package 4 "Accelerator Science Networks" (AccNet) over the full duration of the EuCARD programme, from 1 April 2009 to 31 July 2013. AccNet comprised three networks, "EuroLumi" focusing on high-intensity high-brightness accelerators and colliders (LHC upgrades, FAIR, etc.), "RFTech" addressing all aspects of RF technologies, and "EuroNNAc" on novel accelerators [added in 2010]. Invited presentation at the final EuCARD Annual Meeting "EuCARD 2013," CERN, 10 June 2013.

  10. Waste management facility accident analysis (WASTE ACC) system: software for analysis of waste management alternatives

    This paper describes the Waste Management Facility Accident Analysis (WASTEunderscoreACC) software, which was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to support the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). WASTEunderscoreACC is a decision support and database system that is compatible with Microsoft reg-sign Windows trademark. It assesses potential atmospheric releases from accidents at waste management facilities. The software provides the user with an easy-to-use tool to determine the risk-dominant accident sequences for the many possible combinations of process technologies, waste and facility types, and alternative cases described in the WM PEIS. In addition, its structure will allow additional alternative cases and assumptions to be tested as part of the future DOE programmatic decision-making process. The WASTEunderscoreACC system demonstrates one approach to performing a generic, systemwide evaluation of accident risks at waste management facilities. The advantages of WASTEunderscoreACC are threefold. First, the software gets waste volume and radiological profile data that were used to perform other WM PEIS-related analyses directly from the WASTEunderscoreMGMT system. Second, the system allows for a consistent analysis across all sites and waste streams, which enables decision makers to understand more fully the trade-offs among various policy options and scenarios. Third, the system is easy to operate; even complex scenario runs are completed within minutes

  11. Le Service Accueil et Contrôle d'Accès

    Ducastel, C

    1999-01-01

    L'utilisateur qui vient au CERN pour la première fois, est accueilli généralement par les membres du service 'Accueil et Contrôle d'Accès'. Cet utilisateur sera tout d'abord orienté vers un des postes d'hôtesses d'accueil en charge de l'enregistrement et de la délivrance de cartes CERN. Les informations seront saisies et immédiatement disponibles et transmises, via le système AMS, aux équipements de contrôle d'accès et à la Centrale de Surveillance des accès, chargée de la supervision de tout le dispositif de contrôle d'accès au domaine. Ces contrôles aux entrées et accueil des visiteurs individuels sont complétés par des missions de surveillance à l'intérieur du Domaine pour les agents, et par des travaux de gestions de dossiers administratifs (service enregistrement) pour les hôtesses. Un contrat commun assure une uniformité de formation des agents et hôtesses. Ce contrat est assorti d'une clause de Bonus Malus afin de tendre vers une optimisation des performances.

  12. Frontal and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC) theta EEG in depression: implications for treatment outcome?

    Arns, M.W.; Etkin, A.; Hegerl, U.; Williams, L.M.; DeBattista, C.; Palmer, D.M.; Fitzgerald, P.B.; Harris, A.; deBeuss, R.; Gordon, E.

    2015-01-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), elevated theta current density in the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), as estimated by source localization of scalp-recorded electroencenphalogram (EEG), has been associated with response to antidepressant treatments, whereas elevated frontal theta has been link

  13. Analisis Model Peramalan Status Kredit Kendaraan Bermotor pada Astra Credit Companies (ACC Cabang X Periode 2011

    Tomy Gurtama Soemapradja

    2012-04-01

    variable that significantly to the car loan status at Astra Credit Companies (ACC, and further continue to arrange prediction model of loan status and measure its accuracy level.. The statistic test shows there are 2 independent variables affect to dependent variable significantly, where models accuracy level achieves 100%.

  14. ''Yeelen Kura'', the new light. 1. the Acces programs in Mali. 2 the Acces approach; ''Yeelen Kura'', nouvelle lumiere. 1. les programmes Acces au Mali. 2. l'approche Acces

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    In order to help the developing countries, EDF began in 2001 the Acces program. This program aims at installing in rural area, rentable projects of decentralized electrification. This document presents the economic aspects of the first installation, in Mali. (A.L.B.)

  15. Citrate effects on amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) structure, stability, and crystallization

    Tobler, Dominique Jeanette; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego; Dideriksen, Knud;

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of citrate in the crystallization kinetics of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is essential to explain the formation mechanisms, stabilities, surface properties, and morphologies of CaCO3 biominerals. It also contributes to deeper insight into fluid-mineral inte...

  16. 24 CFR 969.107 - HUD approval of demolition or disposition before ACC expiration.

    2010-04-01

    ... a project pursuant to HUD approval in accordance with 24 CFR part 970. Subject to the requirements of 24 CFR part 970, HUD may authorize a PHA to demolish or dispose of public housing at any time... disposition before ACC expiration. 969.107 Section 969.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...

  17. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome

    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  18. Towards a multi-node OpenACC Implementation of the ICON Model

    Sawyer, Will; Zaengl, Guenther; Linardakis, Leonidas

    2014-05-01

    We have ported the Icosahedral Non-hydrostatic (ICON) model's dynamics solver to Graphical Processing Units (GPUs), which is a task within the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Second Implementation Phase (2IP) Work Package 8 (WP8). Initial single-node OpenCL and CUDA-Fortran implementations of ICON's non-hydrostatic dynamical core (NHDC) resulted in a maximum factor of two speedup over the latest CPU nodes, e.g., a dual-socket Intel Sandybridge. While this performance was promising, ICON developers viewed neither OpenCL nor CUDA-Fortran as viable programming paradigms for the actual production code, and suggested instead the OpenACC standard as the proper paradigm for the multi-node GPU implementation, which was then undertaken in WP8. We will present the results of the multi-node OpenACC implementation of the ICON NHDC for hybrid multicore platforms. The code baseline is the ICON "DSL" (Domain Specific Language) testbed code, which is essentially a stripped-down version of the ICON model for dynamics simulations only. We will discuss on the OpenACC directives used for the port of the computational as well as the communication code to GPUs, and report the resulting GPU performance on NVIDIA K20x as compared to contemporary CPU architectures. In addition, the future roadmap for an accelerated ICON version will be presented. As a first step, we are now incorporating the OpenACC directives into the ICON development trunk, based on the feedback given to us from the ICON developers at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) and the German Weather Service (DWD). Moreover, we plan to port the ICON Climate physical parameterizations stemming from the ECHAM model to OpenACC. This step should enable the full ICON on many core platforms which support OpenACC. The resulting model should benefit climate researchers world-wide who plan to transition from ECHAM to ICON in the coming years.

  19. Evaluation of Varying Biochars as Carrier Materials for Bacterial Soil Inoculants

    Hale, Lauren; Crowley, David

    2014-05-01

    The incorporation of biochar into agricultural soils for carbon sequestration and improved soil fertility creates an opportunity to simultaneously deliver plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Many characteristics of biochar materials indicate that these particles could be conducive as inoculum carriers. This could provide a value-added component for biochar marketing and has an advantage over traditional carrier materials, which can be unsustainable or expensive to produce. Here, we assessed the suitability of 10 biochar types, made from 5 feedstocks at 2 pyrolysis temperatures (300°C and 600°C), to serve as carriers for 2 model PGPR strains, Enterobacter cloacae UW5 and Pseudomonas putida UW4. All biochars were characterized based on BET specific surface area, C-N content, pH, EC, and their abilities to adsorb bacterial cells from a liquid inoculum. Further studies incorporated qPCR to quantify the survival of inoculants after introduction into soils via biochar carriers. The biochars that performed well were further assayed for their influence on PGPR traits, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and auxin production. Peat and vermiculite served as traditional carrier materials to which we compared the biochars. Our findings indicated that biochars varied in their interactions with our model PGPR strains. Based on our analysis several biochar types were able to serve as carriers which were as good, if not better than, the traditional carrier materials. Future work should seek to assess shelf life and varying inoculation methods for the biochar-inoculant complexes.

  20. 一株促生拮抗木霉菌的鉴定%Identification of an Antagonistic Trichoderma spp.Strain with Plant Growth-Promoting Activity

    赵姣; 赵蕾

    2013-01-01

    A strain of Trichoderma spp. LT19 was isolated from soil in Shandong Province, which showed a broad inhibition spectrum against various soil - borne plant phytopathogenic fungi. It also exhibited some plant growth - promoting attributes such as phosphate solubilization, indol - 3 - acetic (IAA) productivity, 1 - aminocyclopropane - 1 -carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity and siderophore (S) synthesis ability. The pot experiments showed that inoculation with the strain could increase the biomass of cucumber seedlings. Based on its morphology and ITS gene sequences, the strain LT19 was identified as Trichoderma asperellum.%从采集的植物根际土壤中分离到一株对黄瓜具有拮抗作用的木霉菌LT19,该菌能够促进黄瓜幼苗的生长,并具有溶磷、产嗜铁素、IAA及ACC脱氨酶的能力,显示了该菌在防治作物病害以及促进作物生长方面潜在的应用价值.根据形态特征与ITS序列分析,将其鉴定为棘孢木霉(Trichoderma asperellum).

  1. Poplar and its bacterial endophytes: coexistence and harmony

    van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Monchy, S.; Schwender, J.; Miller, L.; Ferrieri, R.; Rogers, A.; Zhu, W.; Weyens, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.

    2009-09-01

    Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an improved understanding of the interaction between poplar and its endophytic bacteria has the potential to provide major breakthroughs that will improve the productivity of poplar. Endophytic bacteria can improve plant growth and development in a direct or indirect way. Direct plant growth promoting mechanisms may involve nitrogen fixation, production of plant growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, and suppression of stress ethylene synthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Endophytic bacteria can indirectly benefit the plant by preventing the growth or activity of plant pathogens through competition for space and nutrients, antibiosis, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of pathogen-produced enzymes or toxins, and through systemic induction of plant defense mechanisms. Examples of applications for custom endophyte-host partnerships include improved productivity and establishment of poplar trees on marginal soils and the phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. A systems biology approach to understand the synergistic interactions between poplar and its beneficial endophytic bacteria represents an important field of research, which is facilitated by the recent sequencing of the genomes of poplar and several of its endophytic bacteria.

  2. C-terminal phosphorylation is essential for regulation of ethylene synthesizing ACC synthase enzyme.

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2013-02-01

    The genetic and molecular biological studies mainly in Arabidopsis and in some other plants have begun to uncover the various components of ripening signaling pathway in plants. Although transcriptional regulation of major ripening genes have been studied in detail, information on role of phosphorylation in regulating the activity and stability of core ripening pathway associated proteins in relation to ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening is still limited. Recently we have demonstrated the evidence for post-translational regulation of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1), the rate limiting step enzyme regulating ripening ethylene production in banana, through phosphorylation at the C-terminal Ser 476 and 479 residues by a 41-kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase. (1) Here we have further discussed role of protein phosphorylation in regulation of stability and activity of ACS enzymes and the mechanistic and evolutionary perspective of phosphorylation pattern of Type I ACC synthase enzymes. PMID:23221778

  3. Analysis of an ACC System for Sliding Mode and MPC under Transitional Manoeuvers

    Zeeshan Ali Memon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two different control algorithms, sliding mode and MPC (Model Predictive Control are employed to analyse the performance of a linear vehicle model equipped with an ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control system. Both controllers are analysed under critical TM (Transitional Maneuvers to investigate their suitability for the ACC system. The simulation results, for the same scenario, from both controllers\\' approach have been compared. The results show that the MPC is more robust than the SMC (Sliding Model Controller. The results show that the SMC algorithm is not suitable for the proposed vehicle model. The shortcomings of the SMC have been highlighted and the comparisons are made with the previous studies. The proposed approach can be useful for the selection of the appropriate controller for the given application.

  4. Un accélérateur de particules pour sonder l'Univers

    Iliopoulos, Jean

    2011-01-01

    L'accélérateur de particules du CERN est la plus grande machine jamais construite par l'homme. Son but est d'accélérer deux faisceaux de protons en sens inverse, de les porter à une collision frontale, et d'étudier les produits de cette collision. Pourquoi ? La première réponse est de voir l'accélérateur comme un microscope. Avec lui notre pouvoir de résolution sera augmenté et révolutionnera ainsi notre compréhension de l'infiniment petit. La seconde réponse est de le voir comme un télescope. La densité d'énergie produite pendant la collision ressemble à celle qui a prévalu pendant les premières fractions de seconde de l'histoire de l'Univers. Il nous offre donc un moyen d'étudier les mécanismes physiques qui sont à l'origine de la création de la matière dans le Cosmos.

  5. WASTE-ACC: A computer model for analysis of waste management accidents

    Nabelssi, B.K.; Folga, S.; Kohout, E.J.; Mueller, C.J.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

    1996-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory has developed WASTE-ACC, a computational framework and integrated PC-based database system, to assess atmospheric releases from facility accidents. WASTE-ACC facilitates the many calculations for the accident analyses necessitated by the numerous combinations of waste types, waste management process technologies, facility locations, and site consolidation strategies in the waste management alternatives across the DOE complex. WASTE-ACC is a comprehensive tool that can effectively test future DOE waste management alternatives and assumptions. The computational framework can access several relational databases to calculate atmospheric releases. The databases contain throughput volumes, waste profiles, treatment process parameters, and accident data such as frequencies of initiators, conditional probabilities of subsequent events, and source term release parameters of the various waste forms under accident stresses. This report describes the computational framework and supporting databases used to conduct accident analyses and to develop source terms to assess potential health impacts that may affect on-site workers and off-site members of the public under various DOE waste management alternatives.

  6. Trait impulsivity is related to ventral ACC and amygdala activity during primary reward anticipation.

    Kerr, Kara L; Avery, Jason A; Barcalow, Joel C; Moseman, Scott E; Bodurka, Jerzy; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Simmons, W Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Trait impulsivity is characterized by behavioral disinhibition and rash decision-making that contribute to many maladaptive behaviors. Previous research demonstrates that trait impulsivity is related to the activity of brain regions underlying reward sensitivity and emotion regulation, but little is known about this relationship in the context of immediately available primary reward. This is unfortunate, as impulsivity in these contexts can lead to unhealthy behaviors, including poor food choices, dangerous drug use and risky sexual practices. In addition, little is known about the relationship between integration of reward and affective neurocircuitry, as measured by resting-state functional connectivity, and trait impulsivity in everyday life, as measured with a commonly used personality inventory. We therefore asked healthy adults to undergo a functional magnetic resonance imaging task in which they saw cues indicating the imminent oral administration of rewarding taste, as well as a resting-state scan. Trait impulsivity was associated with increased activation during anticipation of primary reward in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and amygdala. Additionally, resting-state functional connectivity between the ACC and the right amygdala was negatively correlated with trait impulsivity. These findings demonstrate that trait impulsivity is related not only to ACC-amygdala activation but also to how tightly coupled these regions are to one another. PMID:24526181

  7. WASTE-ACC: A computer model for analysis of waste management accidents

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory has developed WASTE-ACC, a computational framework and integrated PC-based database system, to assess atmospheric releases from facility accidents. WASTE-ACC facilitates the many calculations for the accident analyses necessitated by the numerous combinations of waste types, waste management process technologies, facility locations, and site consolidation strategies in the waste management alternatives across the DOE complex. WASTE-ACC is a comprehensive tool that can effectively test future DOE waste management alternatives and assumptions. The computational framework can access several relational databases to calculate atmospheric releases. The databases contain throughput volumes, waste profiles, treatment process parameters, and accident data such as frequencies of initiators, conditional probabilities of subsequent events, and source term release parameters of the various waste forms under accident stresses. This report describes the computational framework and supporting databases used to conduct accident analyses and to develop source terms to assess potential health impacts that may affect on-site workers and off-site members of the public under various DOE waste management alternatives

  8. ACCTuner: OpenACC Auto-Tuner For Accelerated Scientific Applications

    Alzayer, Fatemah

    2015-05-17

    We optimize parameters in OpenACC clauses for a stencil evaluation kernel executed on Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) using a variety of machine learning and optimization search algorithms, individually and in hybrid combinations, and compare execution time performance to the best possible obtained from brute force search. Several auto-tuning techniques – historic learning, random walk, simulated annealing, Nelder-Mead, and genetic algorithms – are evaluated over a large two-dimensional parameter space not satisfactorily addressed to date by OpenACC compilers, consisting of gang size and vector length. A hybrid of historic learning and Nelder-Mead delivers the best balance of high performance and low tuning effort. GPUs are employed over an increasing range of applications due to the performance available from their large number of cores, as well as their energy efficiency. However, writing code that takes advantage of their massive fine-grained parallelism requires deep knowledge of the hardware, and is generally a complex task involving program transformation and the selection of many parameters. To improve programmer productivity, the directive-based programming model OpenACC was announced as an industry standard in 2011. Various compilers have been developed to support this model, the most notable being those by Cray, CAPS, and PGI. While the architecture and number of cores have evolved rapidly, the compilers have failed to keep up at configuring the parallel program to run most e ciently on the hardware. Following successful approaches to obtain high performance in kernels for cache-based processors using auto-tuning, we approach this compiler-hardware gap in GPUs by employing auto-tuning for the key parameters “gang” and “vector” in OpenACC clauses. We demonstrate results for a stencil evaluation kernel typical of seismic imaging over a variety of realistically sized three-dimensional grid configurations, with different truncation error orders

  9. Conditioning hulls and end fittings of recycled used fuel: the La Hague ACC facility

    In the early 1990's, an objective was established to significantly reduce the volume of residual waste spent fuel, via the process of compaction, combined with the idea of achieving a standard canister CSD-C as its brother, the so called CSD-V (Conteneur Standard de Dechets Vitrifies in French or Universal Canister of Vitrified Waste), the concept of the Hulls and Ends Compaction Facility (ACC Atelier de Compactage des Coques in French) was born. It took ten years to design, build and develop this facility before hot start up in May 2002, at the AREVA NC La Hague site. In this paper, we explain the solutions devised to reduce waste volume by a factor of 4 through compaction and without the addition of a matrix such as concrete. Moreover the external shape of the CSD-C, identical to the CSD-V one, allows optimized handling and transfer operations of the canisters throughout all stages from production to disposal. Each step of the process will be presented: reception of hulls and ends fittings, separation and filling of casings, drying, compaction, welding. Operating results achieved from 2002 to 2008 will also be presented from both the perspective of the number of canisters produced and the volume reduction factor. During these years, improvements have been made to increase the performance of equipment and to optimize the structure of running and automation. So more than 7500 CSD C have been produced during this time. Thanks to the original design of ACC the production line can process technological waste devoted to intermediate level waste disposal. In this way, melters issued from vitrification facilities may be compacted in order to benefit from this volume reduction. Finally we present the extension of ACC's operating capabilities to include other kind of waste, such as technological waste containing a small quantity of organic, or future fuels currently in development (new types of cladding) or. with increased burn-up. Thus, the ACC facility meets its

  10. Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the proliferation, apoptosis of ACC-2 cell and Survivin gene expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of lacrimal gland

    Li-Xiao Zhou; Yu Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) on the proliferation, apoptosis of ACC-2 cell and Survivin gene expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of lacrimal gland. Methods:ACC-2 cell in human with ACC of lacrimal gland was in vitro cultured. MTT method was used for cell proliferation detection. Annexin V/PI double-staining flow cytometer was used to detect cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Survivin gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: EGB had inhibitory effect on the proliferation of ACC-2 cell with significant dose-effect relationship, and there was statistical difference when compared with the control group (P<0.01). The inhibitory concentration 50 % (IC50) is 88 mg/L. The flow cytometer test indicated that EGB can gradually increase ACC-2 cell in G0-G1 stage and decrease it in G2-M and S stage. With the increase of dose, the apoptosis rate of ACC-2 cell was obviously increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). EGB had certain inhibitory effect on Survivin gene expression of ACC-2 cell, and Survivin gene expression was decreased with the increasing of the EGB concentration (P<0.01). Conclusions:EGB can effectively inhibit Survivin gene expression of ACC-2 cell in human with ACC of lacrimal gland, induce the apoptosis of ACC-2 cell and inhibit tumor cell proliferation.

  11. Stabilization of amorphous calcium carbonate by phosphate rich organic matrix proteins and by single phosphoamino acids.

    Bentov, Shmuel; Weil, Simy; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir; Berman, Amir

    2010-08-01

    Stable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a unique material produced naturally exclusively as a biomineral. It was demonstrated that proteins extracted from biogenic stable ACC induce and stabilize synthetic ACC in vitro. Polyphosphate molecules were similarly shown to induce amorphous calcium carbonate formation in vitro. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that biogenic ACC induction and stabilization is mediated by the phosphorylated residues of phosphoproteins. We show that extracellular organic matrix extracted from gastroliths of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus induce stable ACC formation in vitro. The proteinaceous fraction of this organic matrix is highly phosphorylated and is incorporated into the ACC mineral phase during precipitation. We have identified the major phosphoproteins of the organic matrix and showed that they have high calcium binding capacity. Based on the above, in vitro precipitation experiments with single phosphoamino acids were performed, indicating that phosphoserine or phosphothreonine alone can induce the formation of highly stable ACC. The results indicate that phosphoproteins may play a major role in the control of ACC formation and stabilization and that their phosphoamino acid moieties are key components in this process. PMID:20416381

  12. Molecular cloning, expression, and stress response of the estrogen-related receptor gene (AccERR) from Apis cerana cerana

    Zhang, Weixing; Zhu, Ming; Zhang, Ge; Liu, Feng; Wang, Hongfang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2016-04-01

    Estrogen-related receptor (ERR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has been implicated in diverse physiological processes involving the estrogen signaling pathway. However, little information is available on ERR in Apis cerana cerana. In this report, we isolated the ERR gene and investigated its involvement in antioxidant defense. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that the highest mRNA expression occurred in eggs during different developmental stages. The expression levels of AccERR were highest in the muscle, followed by the rectum. The predicted transcription factor binding sites in the promoter of AccERR suggested that AccERR potentially functions in early development and in environmental stress responses. The expression of AccERR was induced by cold (4 °C), heat (42 °C), ultraviolet light (UV), HgCl2, and various types of pesticides (phoxim, deltamethrin, triadimefon, and cyhalothrin). Western blot was used to measure the expression levels of AccERR protein. These data suggested that AccERR might play a vital role in abiotic stress responses.

  13. L'intégration des accélérateurs du CERN

    Chemli, S; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    L?intégration du LHC a ouvert des perspectives pour une gestion plus complète des accélérateurs du CERN. La base de données LAYOUT a permis d'assurer la continuité des phases de définition optique du projet, d'intégration 3D et de contrôles de conformité des installations. Les scans et modélisations 3D en couches des installations réalisées constituent un outil déterminant pour la préparation des interventions dans le cadre des procédures de sécurité ALARA. Il est proposé de reproduire cette méthodologie pour les nouveaux projets comme pour les accélérateurs existants. La mise à jour de l'anneau SPS dans LAYOUT semble être la priorité. La base de données SURVEY contient déjà une vue d'ensemble des accélérateurs, chaque composant étant référencé dans le Système de Coordonnées du CERN, selon les définitions théoriques "sources" au 1/100 mm. Base pour l'alignement, elle stocke également les positions réelles des machines. Elle complète ainsi l'information linéaire de LAY...

  14. Capteurs monopodes pour mesures accélérométriques

    Delaite, R.; Valentin, J.-P.

    1993-08-01

    A new design for accelerometric measurements sensors is described. It uses a plate vibrating in thickness shear mode, maintained by the means of a single holder located at the crystal edge. This mounting does cancel the mechanical and thermal stresses which generally modify the sensor output signal. So the ratio signal/noise of a thickness shear accelerometer is improved and the intrinsic sensitivity is multiplied by a factor 40, by comparison with the sensitivity of a thickness shear plate bonded by the means of two opposite holders. Un nouveau dispositif destiné aux mesures d'accélération est présenté. Il met en œuvre une lame vibrant en cisaillement d'épaisseur, fixée à sa structure de maintien par l'intermédiaire d'une unique liaison. Ce montage permet d'éliminer les contraintes mécaniques et thermiques qui perturbent habituellement le signal de mesure, et qui sont liées soit au montage des éléments du capteur, soit aux variations rapides de température qui interviennent lors de la mise en fonctionnement du capteur. Le rapport signal/bruit d'un accéléromètre à lame vibrant en cisaillement d'épaisseur s'en trouve amélioré et la sensibilité à l'accélération est multipliée par un facteur 40, comparée à celle d'un capteur qui serait constitué d'une lame vibrant en cisaillement d'épaisseur, fixée par deux liaisons diamétralement opposées.

  15. Higher order modes HOMs in coupled cavities of the FLASH module ACC39

    Shinton, I R R; Li, Z; Zhang, P

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the higher order modes (HOM’s) in the 3.9GHz bunch shaping cavities installed in the FLASH facility at DESY. A suite of finite element computer codes (including HFSS and ACE3P) and globalised scattering matrix calculations (GSM) are used to investigate the modes in these cavities. This study is primarily focused on the dipole component of the multiband expansion of the wakefield, with the emphasis being on the development of a HOM-based BPM system for ACC39. Coupled inter-cavity modes are simulated together with a limited band of trapped modes.

  16. Simulations of Higher Order Modes in the ACC39 Module of FLASH

    Shinton, I R R; Li, Z; Zhang, P

    2012-01-01

    This study is focused on the development of a HOMbased BPM system for the ACC39 module currently installed and in operation at FLASH. A similar system is anticipated to be installed at XFEL. Coupled inter-cavity modes are simulated together with a limited band of trapped modes. A suite of finite element computer codes (including HFSS and ACE3P) and globalised scattering matrix calculations (GSM) are used to investigate the modes in these cavities with a view to providing guidance on their use as a cavity beam diagnostic.

  17. Higher Order Modes in Coupled Cavities of the Flash Module ACC39

    Shinton, I R R; Li, Z; Zhang, P

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the higher order modes (HOM's) in the 3.9GHz bunch shaping cavities installed in the FLASH facility at DESY. A suite of finite element computer codes (including HFSS and ACE3P) and globalised scattering matrix calculations (GSM) are used to investigate the modes in these cavities. This study is primarily focused on the dipole component of the multiband expansion of the wakefield, with the emphasis being on the development of a HOM-based BPM system for ACC39. Coupled inter-cavity modes are simulated together with a limited band of trapped modes.

  18. New Method for Confirming the Desired Safety Headway Distance and Desired Deceleration in ACC System

    ZHANG Jing-bo; LIU Zhao-du; SONG Ming; QI Zhi-quan

    2005-01-01

    A new method of confirming the desired safety headway distance and desired deceleration is put forward according to the detected static or moving target and its simulation results in Matlab are also presented.The validity of the algorithm to calculate the reference speeds of both the ACC vehicle and the targeted car according to the vector quadrangle composed of the relative distance, the relative azimuth angle, the relative speeds of the vehicles has also been demonstrated through numerical example in Matlab. New laws to obtain the desired deceleration by estimating the braking force according to the vehicle analyses force equation are established too.

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Analysis of β- CT Subunit Gene accD in Brassica napus and Its Molecular Evolution%油菜β-CT亚基编码基因accD的SNPs分析及其分子进化

    付三雄; 戚存扣; 张洁夫; 陈锋; 顾慧; 陈松; 浦惠明; 龙卫华; 胡茂龙; 高建芹

    2011-01-01

    以含油量不同的32份甘蓝型油菜自交纯合系为材料,用直接测序法筛查β-CT亚基的accD编码基因DNA序列的单核苷酸多态性,包括98%的编码区序列共1380 bp.在32份材料中只在材料18和20两个材料中发现了一个相同的SNP,SNP频率为1/1380,单倍型多态性指数Hd =0.121;核苷酸多态性π=0.00009,θ=0.00018.Tajima’sD值为不显著负值,Fu&Li’s检测,各个参数均为不显著正值,Z检验结果中(dN -ds)值也为不显著正值,说明accD基因没有偏离中性进化.系统发育树表明,accD基因在所选的32个油菜材料中是高度保守的,与拟南芥的序列相似度高达95.7%,说明accD基因在物种间也是高度保守的.暗示其在种子油脂合成过程中起着不可替代的作用,此外说明,仅用β-CT亚基编码基因的单核苷酸多态性还不能解释含油量复杂的表现型,还需在更大的群体资源中扩增accD编码基因和其它亚基编码基因进行单核苷酸多态性与含油量表型的相关性研究.%Taking 32 selflng homozygous lines of Brassica napus L. With different oil contents as test materials, the single nucleo-tide polymorphisms (SNPs) of β -CT subunit gene accD were screened by using direct sequencing method, it included 98% coding sequence, and its size was 1380 bp. Only one same SNP was found in accession 18 and accession 20 among all 32 accessions. Thus, SNP frequency was 1 SNP per 1380 bp, haplotype diversity index Hd =0.121, nucleotide diversity π =0.00009 and θ =0.00018. The results of Tajima' s D tests in all regions of this gene expressed no significantly negative. All indexes of Fu & Li' s tests and the value of dN - ds in Z - test expressed no significantly positive, it indicated that accD gene did not deviate from the Neutral Evolution. In addition, the phylogenetic tree showed that the accD gene in 32 accessions was quite conservative during the evolution. The sequence similarity between this accD gene and that in

  20. Characterization of Cu(II-ACC Complexes and Conversion of the Bound ACC into Ethylene in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide. Detection of a Brown Intermediate at Low Temperature

    Wadih Ghattas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two copper(II-ACC complexes were prepared and characterized: [Cu(bpy(ACC(H2O]⋅CO4 (1 and [Cu(ACC2]3⋅4H2O (2. Their crystallographic structures are described and analyzed. Spectroscopic characterizations (UV-visible and EPR confirm that the structure is maintained in solution. These complexes are able to produce ethylene in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in an “ACC Oxidase-like” reaction in water and in methanol. The conversion of ACC into ethylene depends on the amount of base, and, in methanol, 3 equivalents of NaOH are needed for optimum activity. The base is proposed to play a role in H2O2 deprotonation. The presence of an exogenic ligand (bpy is important for the reactivity and may stabilize a reaction intermediate. Indeed, a brown intermediate with an absorption band centered at 433 nm can be detected at low temperature when 1 is treated with 10 equivalents of H2O2.

  1. Identification and characterization of an Apis cerana cerana Delta class glutathione S-transferase gene ( AccGSTD) in response to thermal stress

    Yan, Huiru; Jia, Haihong; Wang, Xiuling; Gao, Hongru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2013-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multifunctional enzyme super family that plays a pivotal role in both insecticide resistance and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we identified a single-copy gene, AccGSTD, as being a Delta class GST in the Chinese honey bee ( Apis cerana cerana). A predicted antioxidant response element, CREB, was found in the 1,492-bp 5'-flanking region, suggesting that AccGSTD may be involved in oxidative stress response pathways. Real-time PCR and immunolocalization studies demonstrated that AccGSTD exhibited both developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns. During development, AccGSTD transcript was increased in adults. The AccGSTD expression level was the highest in the honey bee brain. Thermal stress experiments demonstrated that AccGSTD could be significantly upregulated by temperature changes in a time-dependent manner. It is hypothesized that high expression levels might be due to the increased levels of oxidative stress caused by the temperature challenges. Additionally, functional assays of the recombinant AccGSTD protein revealed that AccGSTD has the capability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. Taken together, these data suggest that AccGSTD may be responsible for antioxidant defense in adult honey bees.

  2. Identification and characterization of an Apis cerana cerana Delta class glutathione S-transferase gene (AccGSTD) in response to thermal stress.

    Yan, Huiru; Jia, Haihong; Wang, Xiuling; Gao, Hongru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2013-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multifunctional enzyme super family that plays a pivotal role in both insecticide resistance and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we identified a single-copy gene, AccGSTD, as being a Delta class GST in the Chinese honey bee (Apis cerana cerana). A predicted antioxidant response element, CREB, was found in the 1,492-bp 5'-flanking region, suggesting that AccGSTD may be involved in oxidative stress response pathways. Real-time PCR and immunolocalization studies demonstrated that AccGSTD exhibited both developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns. During development, AccGSTD transcript was increased in adults. The AccGSTD expression level was the highest in the honey bee brain. Thermal stress experiments demonstrated that AccGSTD could be significantly upregulated by temperature changes in a time-dependent manner. It is hypothesized that high expression levels might be due to the increased levels of oxidative stress caused by the temperature challenges. Additionally, functional assays of the recombinant AccGSTD protein revealed that AccGSTD has the capability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. Taken together, these data suggest that AccGSTD may be responsible for antioxidant defense in adult honey bees. PMID:23275971

  3. Early steps of adventitious rooting: morphology, hormonal profiling and carbohydrate turnover in carnation stem cuttings.

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Fernández-García, Nieves; Nicolás, Carlos; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. A detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in the basal region of cultivated carnation cuttings during the early stages of adventitious rooting was carried out and the physiological modifications induced by exogenous auxin application were studied. To this end, the endogenous concentrations of five major classes of plant hormones [auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid] and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were analyzed at the base of stem cuttings and at different stages of adventitious root formation. We found that the stimulus triggering the initiation of adventitious root formation occurred during the first hours after their excision from the donor plant, due to the breakdown of the vascular continuum that induces auxin accumulation near the wounding. Although this stimulus was independent of exogenously applied auxin, it was observed that the auxin treatment accelerated cell division in the cambium and increased the sucrolytic activities at the base of the stem, both of which contributed to the establishment of the new root primordia at the stem base. Further, several genes involved in auxin transport were upregulated in the stem base either with or without auxin application, while endogenous CK and SA concentrations were specially affected by exogenous auxin application. Taken together our results indicate significant crosstalk between auxin levels, stress hormone homeostasis and sugar availability in the base of the stem cuttings in carnation during the initial steps of adventitious rooting. PMID:24117983

  4. ACLY and ACC1 Regulate Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis by Modulating ETV4 via α-ketoglutarate.

    Melissa M Keenan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to propagate a solid tumor, cancer cells must adapt to and survive under various tumor microenvironment (TME stresses, such as hypoxia or lactic acidosis. To systematically identify genes that modulate cancer cell survival under stresses, we performed genome-wide shRNA screens under hypoxia or lactic acidosis. We discovered that genetic depletion of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA or ACC1 or ATP citrate lyase (ACLY protected cancer cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Additionally, the loss of ACLY or ACC1 reduced levels and activities of the oncogenic transcription factor ETV4. Silencing ETV4 also protected cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis and led to remarkably similar transcriptional responses as with silenced ACLY or ACC1, including an anti-apoptotic program. Metabolomic analysis found that while α-ketoglutarate levels decrease under hypoxia in control cells, α-ketoglutarate is paradoxically increased under hypoxia when ACC1 or ACLY are depleted. Supplementation with α-ketoglutarate rescued the hypoxia-induced apoptosis and recapitulated the decreased expression and activity of ETV4, likely via an epigenetic mechanism. Therefore, ACC1 and ACLY regulate the levels of ETV4 under hypoxia via increased α-ketoglutarate. These results reveal that the ACC1/ACLY-α-ketoglutarate-ETV4 axis is a novel means by which metabolic states regulate transcriptional output for life vs. death decisions under hypoxia. Since many lipogenic inhibitors are under investigation as cancer therapeutics, our findings suggest that the use of these inhibitors will need to be carefully considered with respect to oncogenic drivers, tumor hypoxia, progression and dormancy. More broadly, our screen provides a framework for studying additional tumor cell stress-adaption mechanisms in the future.

  5. CALIBRATION AND HOT TESTING OF THE ADVANCED NUCLEAR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS USED FOR WASTE CHARACTERIZATION IN COGEMA'S NEW ACC COMPACTION FACILITY

    Spent nuclear fuel from commercial power reactors is reprocessed at the COGEMA plant in La Hague. After shearing and dissolution of the fuel assemblies, the hulls and nozzles are sent to COGEMA's new compaction facility (ACC) to reduce the final volume of waste. Technological waste generated in the reprocessing plant is also sent to the ACC facility. Compacted waste is characterized by two measurement stations: a gamma spectrometry station and an active and passive neutron measurement station. The main purpose of these measurement stations is to determine the guaranteed nuclear parameters of the compacted waste and their associated uncertainties: (1) total U and Pu masses, (2) Pu, Cm, and total alpha activities, (3) 137Cs, 90Sr-90Y,241Pu beta activities, (4) decay heat. After giving a description of the measurement stations, this paper will describe the qualification tests performed in the context of the ACC project. The extensive calibration tests performed on site with different sources and different waste matrices will be described (approximately 500 neutron and gamma experiments). Hot tests that were conducted after hot start-up at the end of 2001 and prior to the start of commercial operation will be also presented. A number of drums produced by the upstream facilities were introduced one by one into the ACC facility in order to avoid mixing of different fuel assemblies. This procedure allows comparison between characterization performed in the upstream facilities on the basis of fuel data available before processing and the measurements performed on the new ACC stations. These comparisons showed good agreement between the different methods of characterization and thus validated the innovative technologies and methods used by COGEMA for compacted waste generated by the ACC facility

  6. Acceleration of a Particle-in-Cell Code for Space Plasma Simulations with OpenACC

    Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano; Vaivads, Andris; Vencels, Juris; Deca, Jan; Lapenta, Giovanni; Hart, Alistair; Laure, Erwin

    2015-04-01

    We simulate space plasmas with the Particle-in-cell (PIC) method that uses computational particles to mimic electrons and protons in solar wind and in Earth magnetosphere. The magnetic and electric fields are computed by solving the Maxwell's equations on a computational grid. In each PIC simulation step, there are four major phases: interpolation of fields to particles, updating the location and velocity of each particle, interpolation of particles to grids and solving the Maxwell's equations on the grid. We use the iPIC3D code, which was implemented in C++, using both MPI and OpenMP, for our case study. By November 2014, heterogeneous systems using hardware accelerators such as Graphics Processing Unit (GPUs) and the Many Integrated Core (MIC) coprocessors for high performance computing continue growth in the top 500 most powerful supercomputers world wide. Scientific applications for numerical simulations need to adapt to using accelerators to achieve portability and scalability in the coming exascale systems. In our work, we conduct a case study of using OpenACC to offload the computation intensive parts: particle mover and interpolation of particles to grids, in a massively parallel Particle-in-Cell simulation code, iPIC3D, to multi-GPU systems. We use MPI for inter-node communication for halo exchange and communicating particles. We identify the most promising parts suitable for GPUs accelerator by profiling using CrayPAT. We implemented manual deep copy to address the challenges of porting C++ classes to GPU. We document the necessary changes in the exiting algorithms to adapt for GPU computation. We present the challenges and findings as well as our methodology for porting a Particle-in-Cell code to multi-GPU systems using OpenACC. In this work, we will present the challenges, findings and our methodology of porting a Particle-in-Cell code for space applications as follows: We profile the iPIC3D code by Cray Performance Analysis Tool (CrayPAT) and identify

  7. Dos accésits V Edición del Premio MECD - Universia a la iniciativa OCW 2011

    Ministerio de Educación Cultura y Deporte y Universia

    2012-01-01

    Los dos accésits están dotados de 3.000 euros para el autor o autores de la asignatura de grado o posgrado oficial ganadora y 1.000 euros para la oficina OCW de la universidad ganadora del accésit, cada uno. El Open Course Ware es uno de los mejores exponentes de este movimiento global que promueve el acceso al conocimiento de forma libre y sin restricciones. A través del OCW site, los profesores de enseñanza superior ofrecen en abierto sus materiales docentes. Los objetos educativos en abier...

  8. Increased expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in the valproic acid model of autism

    Chen, Jianling; Wu, Wei; Fu, Yingmei; Yu, Shunying; Cui, Donghong; Zhao, Min; Du, Yasong; Li, Jijun; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in enzymes associated with fatty acid synthesis, namely fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the valproic acid (VPA)-induced animal model of autism. In this model, pregnant rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of VPA, and prefrontal cortex and cerebellum samples from their pups were analyzed. The results of western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that the protein and mRNA expression levels of FASN, ACC and phospho-ACC (pACC) were increased in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the VPA model of autism. Furthermore, in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the VPA model of autism, AMPK expression is increased, whereas PI3K and Akt expression are unchanged. This suggests that disorder of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/FASN and/or adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/ACC pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of autism. It is hypothesized that fatty acid synthesis participates in autism through PI3K/Akt/FASN and AMPK/ACC pathways. PMID:27602061

  9. Transgenic rice with inducible ethylene production exhibits broad-spectrum disease resistance to the fungal pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani.

    Helliwell, Emily E; Wang, Qin; Yang, Yinong

    2013-01-01

    Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) are the two most devastating diseases of rice (Oryza sativa), and have severe impacts on crop yield and grain quality. Recent evidence suggests that ethylene (ET) may play a more prominent role than salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in mediating rice disease resistance. In this study, we attempt to genetically manipulate endogenous ET levels in rice for enhancing resistance to rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Transgenic lines with inducible production of ET were generated by expressing the rice ACS2 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis) transgene under control of a strong pathogen-inducible promoter. In comparison with the wild-type plant, the OsACS2-overexpression lines showed significantly increased levels of the OsACS2 transcripts, endogenous ET and defence gene expression, especially in response to pathogen infection. More importantly, the transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance to a field isolate of R. solani, as well as different races of M. oryzae. Assessment of the growth rate, generational time and seed production revealed little or no differences between wild type and transgenic lines. These results suggest that pathogen-inducible production of ET in transgenic rice can enhance resistance to necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens without negatively impacting crop productivity. PMID:23031077

  10. Isolation and characterization of novel plant growth promoting Micrococcus sp NII-0909 and its interaction with cowpea.

    Dastager, Syed G; Deepa, C K; Pandey, Ashok

    2010-12-01

    A phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strain NII-0909 isolated from the Western ghat forest soil in India was identified as Micrococcus sp on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, carbon source utilization pattern, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain exhibited the plant growth-promoting attributes of phosphate solubilization, auxin production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, and siderophore production. It was able to solubilize (122.4μg of Ca(3)PO(4) ml(-1)), and produce IAA (109μgml(-1)) at 30°C. P-solubilizing activity of the strain NII-0909 was associated with the release of organic acids and a drop in the pH of the NBRIP medium. HPLC analysis detected two organic acids in the course of P-solubilization. A significant increase in the growth of cow pea was recorded for inoculations under controlled conditions. Scanning electron microscopic study revealed the root colonization of strain on cow pea seedlings. These results demonstrate that isolates NII-0909 has the promising PGPR attributes to be develop as a biofertilizer to enhance soil fertility and promote the plant growth. PMID:20951599

  11. A portable platform for accelerated PIC codes and its application to GPUs using OpenACC

    Hariri, F; Jocksch, A; Lanti, E; Progsch, J; Messmer, P; Brunner, S; Gheller, G; Villard, L

    2016-01-01

    We present a portable platform, called PIC_ENGINE, for accelerating Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes on heterogeneous many-core architectures such as Graphic Processing Units (GPUs). The aim of this development is efficient simulations on future exascale systems by allowing different parallelization strategies depending on the application problem and the specific architecture. To this end, this platform contains the basic steps of the PIC algorithm and has been designed as a test bed for different algorithmic options and data structures. Among the architectures that this engine can explore, particular attention is given here to systems equipped with GPUs. The study demonstrates that our portable PIC implementation based on the OpenACC programming model can achieve performance closely matching theoretical predictions. Using the Cray XC30 system, Piz Daint, at the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS), we show that PIC_ENGINE running on an NVIDIA Kepler K20X GPU can outperform the one on an Intel Sandybridge ...

  12. ACCES I/O Products公司高速USB 2.0模块

    2005-01-01

    ACCES I/O Products公司推出USB-DIO-32模型,据称该USB设备可用于向任何具有USB端口的PC或嵌入式系统添加便携、易于安装的数字I/O和计数器功能。该装置提供了USB总线的最高速度,与USB1.1和USB 2.0端口完全兼容。装置可即插即用,允许在USB端口需要附加I/O时进行快速连接或断开连接。

  13. Qualification accélérée des composants SiP

    Regard, C.

    2010-01-01

    NXP Semiconductor à Caen ayant des compétences dans le développement destechnologies System in Package (SiP) et NXP Semiconductor à Eindhoven ayant unespécialité en qualification virtuelle, deux partenariats ont été mis en place pour réaliser uneétude sur la qualification accélérée des composants SiP. Une thèse orientée simulations a étéréalisée à l'université de Delft (Pays-Bas) par Xiaosong Ma et dirigée par Kaspar Jansen, enparallèle une thèse plus expérimentale a été réalisée avec l'unive...

  14. Summary of EuCARD-AccNet CERN-GSI Workshop on Electron Cloud

    Rumolo, G; Boine-Frankenheim, O

    2011-01-01

    The bilateral CERN-GSI Electron Cloud Workshop was organized with the main goal to review the status of CERN and GSI electron cloud studies in order to find synergies between the two laboratories and to define a common strategy for future developments in terms of simulation tools, diagnostics and mitigation techniques. The workshop took place on 7–8 March 2011 at CERN (BE Auditorium) and welcomed 30 registered participants coming from CERN, GSI, INFN-LNF, KEK, CELLS, CINVESTAV, TUD, and several other institutes. It was supported by CERN and GSI, and sponsored by the European Commission under the FP7 “Research Infrastructures” project EuCARD (grant agreement no.227579), work package “Accelerator Science Networks” (AccNet).

  15. Cloning and sequence of cDNA encoding 1-aminocyclo- propane-1-carboxylate oxidase in Vanda flowers

    Pattana Srifah Huehne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO gene in the final step of ethylene biosynthesis was isolated from ethylene-sensitive Vanda Miss Joaquim flowers. This consists of 1,242 base pairs (bp encoding for 326 amino acid residues. To investigate the specific divergence in orchid ACO sequences, the deduced Vanda ACO was aligned with five other orchid ACOs. The results reveal that the ACO sequences within Doritaenopsis, Phalaenopsis and Vanda show highly conserved and almost 95% identical homology, while the ACOs isolated from Cymbidium, Dendrobium and Cattleya are 8788% identical to Vanda ACO. In addition, the 2-oxoglutarate- Fe(II_oxygenase (Oxy domain of orchid ACOs consists of a higher degree of amino acid conservation than that of the non-haem dioxygenase (DIOX_N domain. The overall homology regions of Vanda ACO are commonly folded into 12 α-helices and 12 β-sheets similar to the three dimensional template-structure of Petunia ACO. This Vanda ACO cloned gene is highly expressed in flower tissue compared with root and leaf tissues. In particular, there is an abundance of ACO transcript accumulation in the column followed by the lip and the perianth of Vanda Miss Joaquim flowers at the fully-open stage.

  16. Investigations on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent plant processes: ethylene biosynthesis and cyanide-resistant respiration

    Two oxygen-dependent plant processes were investigated. A cell-free preparation from pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) was used to study ethylene biosynthesis from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was investigated in studies with 14C-butyl gallate and other respiratory effectors. Ethylene biosynthesis was not due to a specific enzyme, or oxygen radicals. Rather, hydrogen peroxide, generated at low levels, coupled with endogenous manganese produced ethylene. 14C-butyl gallate bound specifically to mitochondria from cyanide-sensitive and -resistant higher plants and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. The amount of gallate bound was similar for all higher plant mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria bound very little 14C-butyl gallate. Plant mitochondria in which cyanide-resistance was induced bound as much 14C-butyl gallate as before induction. However mitochondria from recently harvested white potato tubers did not bind the gallate. The observations suggest that an engaging factor couples with a gallate binding site in the mitochondrial membrane. With skunk cabbage spadix mitochondria the I50 for antimycin A inhibition of oxygen uptake was decreased by salicylhydroxamic acid pretreatment; this was also true for reverse order additions. No shift was observed with mung bean hypocotyl or Jerusalem artichoke tuber mitochondria

  17. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature. PMID:26934782

  18. Synergistic effect of ethylene inhibitors and putrescine on shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus Bailey) in vitro.

    Pua, E C; Sim, G E; Chi, G L; Kong, L F

    1996-05-01

    The role of ethylene and putrescine on shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of Chinese radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus Bailey cv. Red Coat) was investigated. Explants were recalcitrant in culture, but exogenous application of ethylene inhibitor [20-30 μM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) or AgNO3] enhanced shoot regeneration of explants grown on medium supplemented with 2 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine and 1 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. The best regeneration occurred in the medium containing AgNO3 in combination with AVG. Culture medium solidified with agarose in the presence of AgNO3 but not AVG was also beneficial to shoot regeneration. Exogenous putrescine, 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate had no effect on shoot regeneration. However, regeneration was greatly promoted by 10-25 mM putrescine in combination with 30 μM AgNO3 or AVG. Explants with high regenerability grown in the presence of AgNO3 or in combination with putrescine emanated high levels of ethylene throughout the 21-d culture period. By contrast, AVG or putrescine alone resulted in a decrease in ethylene production. For rooting of shoot cuttings, IAA and IBA at 1-5 mg/l were more effective than NAA. PMID:24178611

  19. Investigations on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent plant processes: ethylene biosynthesis and cyanide-resistant respiration

    Stegink, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Two oxygen-dependent plant processes were investigated. A cell-free preparation from pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) was used to study ethylene biosynthesis from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was investigated in studies with /sup 14/C-butyl gallate and other respiratory effectors. Ethylene biosynthesis was not due to a specific enzyme, or oxygen radicals. Rather, hydrogen peroxide, generated at low levels, coupled with endogenous manganese produced ethylene. /sup 14/C-butyl gallate bound specifically to mitochondria from cyanide-sensitive and -resistant higher plants and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. The amount of gallate bound was similar for all higher plant mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria bound very little /sup 14/C-butyl gallate. Plant mitochondria in which cyanide-resistance was induced bound as much /sup 14/C-butyl gallate as before induction. However mitochondria from recently harvested white potato tubers did not bind the gallate. The observations suggest that an engaging factor couples with a gallate binding site in the mitochondrial membrane. With skunk cabbage spadix mitochondria the I/sub 5//sup 0/ for antimycin A inhibition of oxygen uptake was decreased by salicylhydroxamic acid pretreatment; this was also true for reverse order additions. No shift was observed with mung bean hypocotyl or Jerusalem artichoke tuber mitochondria.

  20. Changes in the population of seed bacteria of transgenerationally Cd-exposed Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Truyens, S; Weyens, N; Cuypers, A; Vangronsveld, J

    2013-11-01

    Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. Nevertheless, the role of endophytic bacteria present in seeds has not been investigated in depth. In this study, the cultivable endophytic population of seeds from Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to 2 μm cadmium for several generations (Cd seeds) was compared with a population isolated from seeds of plants that were never exposed to Cd (control seeds). We observed obvious differences between the two types of seed concerning genera present and phenotypic characteristics of the different isolates. Sinorhizobium sp. and Micrococcus sp. were only found in control seeds, while Pseudomonas sp., Bosea sp. and Paenibacillus sp. were only found in Cd seeds. Sphingomonas sp., Rhizobium sp., Acidovorax sp., Variovorax sp., Methylobacterium sp., Bacillus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. occurred in varying numbers in both types of seed. Metal tolerance and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity were predominantly found in strains isolated from Cd seeds, while the production of siderophores, indole-3-acetic acid and organic acids was more prevalent in endophytes isolated from control seeds. These data support the hypothesis that certain endophytes are selected for transfer to the next generation and that their presence might be important for subsequent germination and early seedling development. PMID:23252960

  1. Implementation and efficiency analysis of parallel computation using OpenACC: a case study using flow field simulations

    Zhang, Shanghong; Yuan, Rui; Wu, Yu; Yi, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    The Open Accelerator (OpenACC) application programming interface is a relatively new parallel computing standard. In this paper, particle-based flow field simulations are examined as a case study of OpenACC parallel computation. The parallel conversion process of the OpenACC standard is explained, and further, the performance of the flow field parallel model is analysed using different directive configurations and grid schemes. With careful implementation and optimisation of the data transportation in the parallel algorithm, a speedup factor of 18.26× is possible. In contrast, a speedup factor of just 11.77× was achieved with the conventional Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) parallel mode on a 20-kernel computer. These results demonstrate that optimised feature settings greatly influence the degree of speedup, and models involving larger numbers of calculations exhibit greater efficiency and higher speedup factors. In addition, the OpenACC parallel mode is found to have good portability, making it easy to implement parallel computation from the original serial model.

  2. Isolation and characterization of novel bacteria containing acc deaminase from the rhizosphere resource on dry-farming lands

    Soil-microbe-plant interactions are known to be intricate and they can greatly influence the crop vigor and yield. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC deaminase can markedly affect plant metabolic processes under stress conditions. In the present study, we isolated 300 bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of maize or apple grown in drought-hit soil including four different locations of the Loess Plateau, China. Of all isolated strains, four with ACC deaminase activity (ranging from 28.88 to 155.12 nmol alpha-ketobutyrate mg-1 h-1) were further studied by determining their biological characters and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. All four strains showed positive performance in terms of arabinose, citrate utilization, urease, indol, glucose and melibiose. In connection with the results of biochemical characters and phylogenetic analysis, these strains commonly belong to three different genera: Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Raoultella and four different species: Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella variicola, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Raoultella planticola. Although some researchers have reported their performance under stress conditions, we are the first to report Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella variicola and Raoultella planticola containing ACC deaminase under drought stress. These findings are a reasonable explanation to their superb ability of causing stress-resistance in maize (Zea mays) or apple (Malus domestica) plants. The presence of diverse PGPR possessing potential ACC deaminase activity may be beneficial for enhancing crop production under different stress conditions. (author)

  3. Sound the Alarm: The Effect of Narcissism on Retaliatory Aggression Is Moderated by dACC Reactivity to Rejection.

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Narcissists behave aggressively when their egos are threatened by interpersonal insults. This effect has been explained in terms of narcissists' motivation to reduce the discrepancy between their grandiose self and its threatened version, though no research has directly tested this hypothesis. If this notion is true, the link between narcissism and retaliatory aggression should be moderated by neural structures that subserve discrepancy detection, such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). This study tested the hypothesis that narcissism would only predict greater retaliatory aggression in response to social rejection when the dACC was recruited by the threat. Thirty participants (15 females; Mage  = 18.86, SD = 1.25; 77% White) completed a trait narcissism inventory, were socially accepted and then rejected while undergoing fMRI, and then could behave aggressively toward one of the rejecters by blasting him or her with unpleasant noise. When narcissists displayed greater dACC activation during rejection, they behaved aggressively. But there was only a weak or nonsignificant relation between narcissism and aggression among participants with a blunted dACC response. Narcissism's role in aggressive retaliation to interpersonal threats is likely determined by the extent to which the brain's discrepancy detector registers the newly created gap between the grandiose and threatened selves. PMID:25564936

  4. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is required for full functionality and has a novel twist

    Madauss, Kevin P.; Burkhart, William A.; Consler, Thomas G.; Cowan, David J.; Gottschalk, William K.; Miller, Aaron B; Short, Steven A.; Tran, Thuy B.; Williams, Shawn P.; (GSKNC); (Duke); (UNC)

    2009-06-15

    Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) may prevent lipid-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, making the enzyme an attractive pharmaceutical target. Although the enzyme is highly conserved amongst animals, only the yeast enzyme structure is available for rational drug design. The use of biophysical assays has permitted the identification of a specific C-terminal truncation of the 826-residue human ACC2 carboxyl transferase (CT) domain that is both functionally competent to bind inhibitors and crystallizes in their presence. This C-terminal truncation led to the determination of the human ACC2 CT domain-CP-640186 complex crystal structure, which revealed distinctions from the yeast-enzyme complex. The human ACC2 CT-domain C-terminus is comprised of three intertwined -helices that extend outwards from the enzyme on the opposite side to the ligand-binding site. Differences in the observed inhibitor conformation between the yeast and human structures are caused by differing residues in the binding pocket.

  5. Expression of recombinant AccMRJP1 protein from royal jelly of Chinese honeybee in Pichia pastoris and its proliferation activity in an insect cell line

    Main royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1) is the most abundant member of the main royal jelly protein (MRJP) family among honeybees. Mature MRJP1 cDNA of the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana MRJP1, or AccMRJP1) was expressed in Pichia pastoris. SDS-PAGE showed that recombinant AccMRJP1 was identical in...

  6. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids abrogate mTORC1/2 signaling and inhibit adrenocortical carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Liu, Jun; Xu, Meinian; Zhao, Yongbin; Ao, Chunping; Wu, Yukun; Chen, Zhenguo; Wang, Bangqi; Bai, Xiaochun; Li, Ming; Hu, Weilie

    2016-06-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential for human health and have been reported to reduce the risk of cancer, inhibit the growth of various types of tumors both in vitro and in vivo, and affect adrenal function. However, their effects on adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) are not known. In the present study, we demonstrated that docosahexenoic acid (DHA) inhibited ACC cell proliferation, colony formation and cell cycle progression, and promoted apoptosis. In addition, ectopic expression of fat-1, a desaturase that converts n-6 to n-3 PUFAs endogenously, also inhibited ACC cell proliferation. Moreover, supplementing n-3 PUFAs in the diet efficiently prevented ACC cell growth in xenograft models. Notably, implanted ACC cells were unable to grow in fat-1 transgenic severe combined immune deficiency mice. Further study revealed that exogenous and endogenous n-3 PUFAs efficiently suppressed both mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2 signaling in ACC in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings provide comprehensive preclinical evidence that n-3 PUFAs efficiently prevent ACC growth by inhibiting mTORC1/2, which may have important implications in the treatment of ACC. PMID:27035283

  7. 汽车ABS/ASR/ACC集成化系统%Integrated ABS/ASR/ACC System for the Car

    刘昭度; 卢江; 时开斌; 安巍

    2001-01-01

    叙述了ACC系统和ABS/ASR系统在改善汽车高速行驶主动安全性方面的功用,阐述了ACC系统是ABS/ASR系统功能的延伸、逻辑的发展及它们之间的内在联系,指出了在ABS/ASR的基础上只需增加测距装置和添加巡航控制子程序,就可方便地实现ABS/ASR/ACC集成化系统,并给出了集成化系统的控制框图和控制方法,论述了ABS/ASR/ACC集成化系统比孤立的ABS/ASR和ACC系统的优越性.%The individual functions of ACC and ABS/ASR are described in the improvements of active safety while the road vehicles travel at a high speed. Being a logic extension of and many inherent connections with ABS/BSR, ACC is easily integrated with ABS/ASR to form an integrated system by adding the headway distance*$-detecting device to the existing ABS/ASR system and expanding the ABS/ASR software. The algorithm flowcharts and control methods of the ABS/ASR/ACC are given. The advantages of the ABS/ASR/ACC system compared with those using the stand alone systems ABS, ASR and ACC are mentioned in details.

  8. Induction of drought tolerance in cucumber plants by a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium strains.

    Chun-Juan Wang

    Full Text Available Our previous work showed that a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR strains (Bacillus cereus AR156, Bacillus subtilis SM21, and Serratia sp. XY21, termed as BBS for short, was a promising biocontrol agent. The present study investigated its effect on drought tolerance in cucumber plants. After withholding watering for 13 days, BBS-treated cucumber plants had much darker green leaves and substantially lighter wilt symptoms than control plants. Compared to the control, the BBS treatment decreased the leaf monodehydroascorbate (MDA content and relative electrical conductivity by 40% and 15%, respectively; increased the leaf proline content and the root recovery intension by 3.45-fold and 50%, respectively; and also maintained the leaf chlorophyll content in cucumber plants under drought stress. Besides, in relation to the control, the BBS treatment significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and mitigated the drought-triggered down-regulation of the expression of the genes cAPX, rbcL, and rbcS encoding cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxy/oxygenase (Rubisco large and small subunits, respectively, in cucumber leaves. However, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase activity was undetected in none of the culture solutions of three BBS constituent strains. These results indicated that BBS conferred induced systemic tolerance to drought stress in cucumber plants, by protecting plant cells, maintaining photosynthetic efficiency and root vigor and increasing some of antioxidase activities, without involving the action of ACC deaminase to lower plant ethylene levels.

  9. Effects of wintertime fasting and seasonal adaptation on AMPK and ACC in hypothalamus, adipose tissue and liver of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    Kinnunen, Sanni; Mänttäri, Satu; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Saarela, Seppo

    2016-02-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid with autumnal fattening and passive wintering strategy. We examined the effects of wintertime fasting and seasonality on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of metabolism, and its target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) on the species. Twelve farmed raccoon dogs (eleven females/one male) were divided into two groups: half were fasted for ten weeks in December-March (winter fasted) and the others were fed ad libitum (winter fed). A third group (autumn fed, eight females) was fed ad libitum and sampled in December. Total AMPK, ACC and their phosphorylated forms (pAMPK, pACC) were measured from hypothalamus, liver, intra-abdominal (iWAT) and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (sWAT). The fasted animals lost 32% and the fed 20% of their body mass. Hypothalamic AMPK expression was lower and pACC levels higher in the winter groups compared to the autumn fed group. Liver pAMPK was lower in the winter fasted group, with consistently decreased ACC and pACC. AMPK and pAMPK were down-regulated in sWAT and iWAT of both winter groups, with a parallel decline in pACC in sWAT. The responses of AMPK and ACC to fasting were dissimilar to the effects observed previously in non-seasonal mammals and hibernators. Differences between the winter fed and autumn fed groups indicate that the functions of AMPK and ACC could be regulated in a season-dependent manner. Furthermore, the distinctive effects of prolonged fasting and seasonal adaptation on AMPK-ACC pathway could contribute to the wintering strategy of the raccoon dog. PMID:26603554

  10. Successful treatment of c-kit-positive metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) with a combination of curcumin plus imatinib: A case report.

    Demiray, M; Sahinbas, H; Atahan, S; Demiray, H; Selcuk, D; Yildirim, I; Atayoglu, A T

    2016-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of the secretory glands. Conventional chemotherapy has poor effectiveness against metastatic ACC. Thus, a novel effective therapy is needed against metastatic ACC. A majority of ACCs (up to 94%) express c-kit. Imatinib is monoclonal antibody with specific activity against c-kit but has not been found to be effective in treating patients with ACC in which c-kit is overexpressed and activated. The NF-κB and mTOR pathways have been shown that ubiquitously and concurrently activated, indicating that the inhibition of these pathways may represent a novel treatment approach for patients with ACC. Curcumin has been shown to inhibit NF-κB and NF-κB-related pathways. 43-year-old patient was diagnosed ACC from submandibular salivary gland. After complete resection of tumor adjuvant radiotherapy was initiated. Seven years later multiple lung metastases were detected and ACC was confirmed by re-biopsy. First-line chemotherapy failed. NF-κB and c-kit were overexpressed in the metastatic specimens. Therefore, we treated the patient with metastatic chemoresistant ACC with imatinib 400mg/day and intravenous curcumin 225mg/m(2) twice a week plus oral bioavailable curcumin Arantal(®) 2×84mg/day. At 24 months, we observed near complete anatomic and complete metabolic response. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with a c-kit-positive ACC that is successfully treated with the combination of imatinib and curcumin in an integrative approach. PMID:27515884

  11. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. PMID:26805617

  12. Transgenic analysis reveals LeACS-1 as a positive regulator of ethylene-induced shikonin biosynthesis in Lithospermum erythrorhizon hairy roots.

    Fang, Rongjun; Wu, Fengyao; Zou, Ailan; Zhu, Yu; Zhao, Hua; Zhao, Hu; Liao, Yonghui; Tang, Ren-Jie; Yang, Tongyi; Pang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoming; Yang, Rongwu; Qi, Jinliang; Lu, Guihua; Yang, Yonghua

    2016-03-01

    The phytohormone ethylene (ET) is a crucial signaling molecule that induces the biosynthesis of shikonin and its derivatives in Lithospermum erythrorhizon shoot cultures. However, the molecular mechanism and the positive regulators involved in this physiological process are largely unknown. In this study, the function of LeACS-1, a key gene encoding the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase for ET biosynthesis in L. erythrorhizon hairy roots, was characterized by using overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) strategies. The results showed that overexpression of LeACS-1 significantly increased endogenous ET concentration and shikonin production, consistent with the up-regulated genes involved in ET biosynthesis and transduction, as well as the genes related to shikonin biosynthesis. Conversely, RNAi of LeACS-1 effectively decreased endogenous ET concentration and shikonin production and down-regulated the expression level of above genes. Correlation analysis showed a significant positive linear relationship between ET concentration and shikonin production. All these results suggest that LeACS-1 acts as a positive regulator of ethylene-induced shikonin biosynthesis in L. erythrorhizon hairy roots. Our work not only gives new insights into the understanding of the relationship between ET and shikonin biosynthesis, but also provides an efficient genetic engineering target gene for secondary metabolite production in non-model plant L. erythrorhizon. PMID:26780904

  13. Kiwifruit EIL and ERF Genes Involved in Regulating Fruit Ripening1[W

    Yin, Xue-ren; Allan, Andrew C.; Chen, Kun-song; Ferguson, Ian B.

    2010-01-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) is a climacteric fruit sensitive to low concentrations of ethylene. To investigate the transcriptional mechanisms underlying kiwifruit ethylene response, transcription factors encoding four EIN3-Like (EILs) and 14 Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) were cloned from kiwifruit. Expression of these transcription factors was examined during fruit development. The expression of transcripts of most AdERFs was higher during early fruit development, with the exception of AdERF3, which increased with maturity. Several AdERFs were apparently down-regulated by ethylene, as they were affected by the ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene and by antisense suppression of ACO (for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase) in the fruit. In contrast, AdEILs were constitutively expressed during fruit development and ripening. The transcription factors AdEIL2 and AdEIL3 activated transcription of the ripening-related genes AdACO1 and AdXET5 (xyloglucan endotransglycosylase gene) and, when overexpressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), stimulated ethylene production. The potential repressor AdERF9 suppressed this promoter activity. These results support a role for kiwifruit EILs and ERFs in transcriptional regulation of ripening-related genes and in the regulation of kiwifruit fruit-ripening processes. PMID:20457803

  14. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape

  15. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    Sheng Xiafang [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail: xfsheng604@sohu.com; Xia Juanjuan; Jiang Chunyu; He Linyan; Qian Meng [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape.

  16. Increased cadmium and lead uptake of a cadmium hyperaccumulator tomato by cadmium-resistant bacteria.

    He, Lin-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Jin; Ren, Gai-Di; Zhang, Yan-Feng; Qian, Meng; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2009-07-01

    Two cadmium (Cd)-resistant strains Pseudomonas sp. RJ10 and Bacillus sp. RJ16 were investigated for their effects on the soil Cd and lead (Pb) solubilization and promotion of plant growth and Cd and Pb uptakes of a Cd-hyperaccumulator tomato. In the heavy metal-contaminated inoculated soil, the CaCl(2)-extractable Cd and Pb were increased by 58-104% and 67-93%, respectively, compared to the uninoculation control. The bacteria produced indole acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Root elongation assay conducted on tomato under gnotobiotic conditions demonstrated increase in root elongation of inoculated tomato seedlings compared to the control plants. An increase in Cd and Pb contents of above-ground tissues varied from 92% to 113% and from 73% to 79% in inoculated plants growing in heavy metal-contaminated soil compared to the uninoculation control, respectively. These results show that the bacteria could be exploited for bacteria enhanced-phytoextraction of Cd- and Pb-polluted soils. PMID:19368973

  17. Characterization of bacteria in the rhizosphere soils of Polygonum pubescens and their potential in promoting growth and Cd, Pb, Zn uptake by Brassica napus.

    Jing, Yuan Xiao; Yan, Jun Lan; He, Huai Dong; Yang, Dan Jing; Xiao, Li; Zhong, Ting; Yuan, Ming; Cai, Xin De; Li, Shu Bin

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-enhanced phytoremediation has been considered as a promising measure for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this study, two bacterial strains JYX7 and JYX10 were isolated from rhizosphere soils of Polygonum pubescens grown in metal-polluted soil and identified as of Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp. based on 16S rDNA sequences, respectively. JYX7 and JYX10 showed high Cd, Pb and Zn tolerance and increased water-soluble Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in culture solution and metal-added soils. Two isolates produced plant growth-promoting substances such as indole acetic acid, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic deaminase, and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Based upon their ability in metal tolerance and solubilization, two isolates were further studied for their effects on growth and accumulation of Cd, Pb, and Zn in Brassica napus (rape) by pot experiments. Rapes inoculated with JYX7 and JYX10 had significantly higher dry weights, concentrations and uptakes of Cd, Pb, Zn in both above-ground and root tissues than those without inoculation grown in soils amended with Cd (25 mg kg(-1)), Pb (200 mg kg(-1)) or Zn (200 mg kg(-1)). The present results demonstrated that JYX7 and JYX10 are valuable microorganism, which can improve the efficiency of phytoremediation in soils polluted by Cd, Pb, and Zn. PMID:24912234

  18. A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings

    Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1998-10-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

  19. Bioaccumulation of nickel by E. sativa and role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) under nickel stress.

    Kamran, Muhammad Aqeel; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bibi, Sadia; Xu, Ren-kou; Amna; Monis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Bokhari, Habib; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-04-01

    Phytoremediation potential of plants can be enhanced in association with microbes. Further, many plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria can improve growth under stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) on nickel (Ni) uptake and on growth of Eruca sativa (E. sativa). Three different levels of Ni (low; 150 ug/g, medium; 250 ug/g and high; 500 ug/g) were applied to the soil containing E. sativa seedlings, with or without P. putida. Ni-toxicity was measured by metamorphic parameters including shoot length, root length, biomass, chlorophyll and proline and Ni contents. Inoculation with P. putida increased 34% and 41% in root and shoot length and 38% and 24% in fresh, dry weight respectively, as compared to non-inoculated plants. Similarly, Ni uptake increased by up to 46% following P. putida inoculation as compared to non-inoculated plants. Indole acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) activity in the growing media enhanced growth and Ni uptake in E. sativa. The present results offer insight on Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), such as P. putida, for the potential to enhance the plant growth by inhibiting the adverse effects of Ni in E. sativa. PMID:26773835

  20. Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Orhan, Furkan

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, 18 halotolerant and halophilic bacteria have been investigated for their plant growth promoting abilities in vitro and in a hydroponic culture. The bacterial strains have been investigated for ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase production, phosphate solubilisation and nitrogen fixation activities. Of the tested bacteria, eight were inoculated with Triticum aestivum in a hydroponic culture. The investigated bacterial strains were found to have different plant-growth promoting activities in vitro. Under salt stress (200mM NaCl), the investigated bacterial strains significantly increased the root and shoot length and total fresh weight of the plants. The growth rates of the plants inoculated with bacterial strains ranged from 62.2% to 78.1%. Identifying of novel halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that promote plant growth can be used as alternatives for salt sensitive plants. Extensive research has been conducted on several halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains to investigate their plant growth promoting activities. However, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to inoculate these bacterial strains with wheat. PMID:27133557

  1. Phosphate availability alters architecture and causes changes in hormone sensitivity in the Arabidopsis root system.

    López-Bucio, José; Hernández-Abreu, Esmeralda; Sánchez-Calderón, Lenin; Nieto-Jacobo, María Fernanda; Simpson, June; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2002-05-01

    The postembryonic developmental program of the plant root system is plastic and allows changes in root architecture to adapt to environmental conditions such as water and nutrient availability. Among essential nutrients, phosphorus (P) often limits plant productivity because of its low mobility in soil. Therefore, the architecture of the root system may determine the capacity of the plant to acquire this nutrient. We studied the effect of P availability on the development of the root system in Arabidopsis. We found that at P-limiting conditions (increase in auxin sensitivity in the roots of P-deprived Arabidopsis seedlings. It was also found that the axr1-3, axr2-1, and axr4-1 Arabidopsis mutants have normal responses to low P availability conditions, whereas the iaa28-1 mutant shows resistance to the stimulatory effects of low P on root hair and lateral root formation. Analysis of ethylene signaling mutants and treatments with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid showed that ethylene does not promote lateral root formation under P deprivation. These results suggest that in Arabidopsis, auxin sensitivity may play a fundamental role in the modifications of root architecture by P availability. PMID:12011355

  2. Accumulation fatty acids of in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense

    Leyva, Luis A.; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  3. Accumulation of fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense [corrected].

    Leyva, Luis A; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae. PMID:25129521

  4. Myocardial hypertrophy and the maturation of fatty acid oxidation in the newborn human heart.

    Yatscoff, Michael A; Jaswal, Jagdip S; Grant, Meghan R; Greenwood, Rachel; Lukat, Trish; Beker, Donna L; Rebeyka, Ivan M; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2008-12-01

    After birth dramatic decreases in cardiac malonyl CoA levels result in the rapid maturation of fatty acid oxidation. We have previously demonstrated that the decrease in malonyl CoA is due to increased activity of malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD), and decreased activity of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), enzymes which degrade and synthesize malonyl CoA, respectively. Decreased ACC activity corresponds to an increase in the activity of 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), which phosphorylates and inhibits ACC. These alterations are delayed by myocardial hypertrophy. As rates of fatty acid oxidation can influence the ability of the heart to withstand an ischemic insult, we examined the expression of MCD, ACC, and AMPK in the newborn human heart. Ventricular biopsies were obtained from infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Immunoblot analysis showed a positive correlation between MCD expression and age. In contrast, a negative correlation in both ACC and AMPK expression and age was observed. All ventricular samples displayed some degree of hypertrophy, however, no differences in enzyme expression were found between moderate and severe hypertrophy. This indicates that increased expression of MCD, and the decreased expression of ACC and AMPK are important regulators of the maturation of fatty acid oxidation in the newborn human heart. PMID:18614968

  5. Joint INFN-CERN-EuCARD-AccNet Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects

    Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank; ECLOUD'12

    2013-01-01

    This report contains the Proceedings of the Joint INFN-Frascati, INFN-Pisa, CERN-LER and EuCARD-AccNet Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects, “ECLOUD12”, held at La Biodola, Isola d’Elba, from 5 to 9 June 2012. The ECLOUD12 workshop reviewed many recent electron-cloud (EC) observations at existing storage rings, EC predictions for future accelerators, electron-cloud studies at DAFNE, EC mitigation by clearing electrodes and graphite/carbon coatings, modeling of incoherent EC effects, self-consistent simulations, synergies with other communities like the Valencia Space Consortium and the European Space Agency. ECLOUD12 discussed new EC observations at existing machines including LHC, CesrTA, PETRA-3, J-PARC, and FNAL MI; latest experimental efforts to characterize the EC – including EC diagnostics, experimental techniques, mitigation techniques such as coating and conditioning, advanced chemical and physical analyses of various vacuum-chamber surfaces, beam instabilities and emittance growth –; the...

  6. Physical mapping of three fruit ripening genes:Endopolygalacturonase,ACC oxidase and ACC synthase from apple(Malus x domestica) in an apple rootstock A106(Malus sieboldii

    ZHUJIMEI; SEGARDINER; 等

    1995-01-01

    The apple rootstock,A106(Malus sieboldii),had 17 bivalents in pollen mother cells at meiotic metaphase 1,and 17 chromosomes in a haploid pollen cell.Karyotypes were prepared from root-tip cells with 2n=34 chromosomes,Seven out of 82 karyotypes(8.5%) showed one pari of satellites at the end of the short arm of chromosome 3.C-bands were shown on 6 pairs of chromosomes 2,4,6,8,14,and 16 near the telomeric regions of short arms.Probes for three ripening-related genes from Malus x domestica:endopolygalacturonase(EPG,0.6kb),ACC oxidase(1.2kb),and ACC synthase(2kb)were hybridized in situ to metaphase chromosomes of A106.Hybridization sites for the EPG gene were observed on the long arm of chromosome 14 in 15 out of 16 replicate spreads and proximal to the centromere of chromosomes 6 and 11.For the ACC oxidase gene,hylridization sites were observed in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosomes 5 and 11 in 87% and 81% of 16 spreads respectively,proxiaml to the centromere of chromosome 1 in 81% of the spreads,and on the long arm of chromosome 13 in 50% of the spreads. Physical mapping of three fruit ripening genes in an apple rootstock A106.Twenty five spreads were studied for the ACC synthase gene and hybridization sites were observed in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosome 12 in 96% of the spreads.chromosomes 9 and 10 in 76% of the spreads,and chromosome 17 in 56% of the spreads.

  7. Characterization of a Decapentapletic Gene (AccDpp from Apis cerana cerana and Its Possible Involvement in Development and Response to Oxidative Stress.

    Guilin Li

    Full Text Available To tolerate many acute and chronic oxidative stress-producing agents that exist in the environment, organisms have evolved many classes of signal transduction pathways, including the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ signal pathway. Decapentapletic gene (Dpp belongs to the TGFβ superfamily, and studies on Dpp have mainly focused on its role in the regulation of development. No study has investigated the response of Dpp to oxidative pressure in any organism, including Apis cerana cerana (A. cerana cerana. In this study, we identified a Dpp gene from A. cerana cerana named AccDpp. The 5΄ flanking region of AccDpp had many transcription factor binding sites that relevant to development and stress response. AccDpp was expressed at all stages of A. cerana cerana, with its highest expression in 15-day worker bees. The mRNA level of AccDpp was higher in the poison gland and midgut than other tissues. Furthermore, the transcription of AccDpp could be repressed by 4°C and UV, but induced by other treatments, according to our qRT-PCR analysis. It is worth noting that the expression level of AccDpp protein was increased after a certain time when A. cerana cerana was subjected to all simulative oxidative stresses, a finding that was not completely consistent with the result from qRT-PCR. It is interesting that recombinant AccDpp restrained the growth of Escherichia coli, a function that might account for the role of the antimicrobial peptides of AccDpp. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that AccDpp might be implicated in the regulation of development and the response of oxidative pressure. The findings may lay a theoretical foundation for further genetic studies of Dpp.

  8. Les inégalités d'accès à l'enseignement supérieur

    Duru-Bellat, Marie; Kieffer, Annick; Reimer, David

    2010-01-01

    ’élargissement considérable de l’accès à ce diplôme tend à reporter l’influence des origines sociales au moment de l’orientation effective vers les filières et les spécialités du supérieur : l’existence de la filière des grandes écoles est un facteur déterminant à ce stade. En revanche, il n’existe pas en France de...... sociales, en revanche, cette diversification peut éventuellement jouer dans le sens opposé, au profit d’une certaine reproduction sociale. On compare ici la France et l’Allemagne (dans les limites de l’ex-RFA) sur le plan des inégalités sociales d’accès au supérieur. Les structures éducatives apparaissent...

  9. La place des revues dans la communication scientifique en régime de libre accès

    Jaffrin, Ivan; Parisot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    En guise d’introduction au dossier que publie la Revue européenne des sciences sociales sur les enjeux du libre accès en sciences humaines et sociales, le présent article revient sur la polémique qui a suivi, en France, dans le secteur des SHS, la publication de la Recommandation de la Commission européenne du 17 juillet 2012 relative à « l’accès aux informations scientifiques et à leur conservation ». Après avoir observé les argumentations en présence et analysé les stratégies des différents...

  10. A comparison of native GPU computing versus OpenACC for implementing flow-routing algorithms in hydrological applications

    Rueda, Antonio J.; Noguera, José M.; Luque, Adrián

    2016-02-01

    In recent years GPU computing has gained wide acceptance as a simple low-cost solution for speeding up computationally expensive processing in many scientific and engineering applications. However, in most cases accelerating a traditional CPU implementation for a GPU is a non-trivial task that requires a thorough refactorization of the code and specific optimizations that depend on the architecture of the device. OpenACC is a promising technology that aims at reducing the effort required to accelerate C/C++/Fortran code on an attached multicore device. Virtually with this technology the CPU code only has to be augmented with a few compiler directives to identify the areas to be accelerated and the way in which data has to be moved between the CPU and GPU. Its potential benefits are multiple: better code readability, less development time, lower risk of errors and less dependency on the underlying architecture and future evolution of the GPU technology. Our aim with this work is to evaluate the pros and cons of using OpenACC against native GPU implementations in computationally expensive hydrological applications, using the classic D8 algorithm of O'Callaghan and Mark for river network extraction as case-study. We implemented the flow accumulation step of this algorithm in CPU, using OpenACC and two different CUDA versions, comparing the length and complexity of the code and its performance with different datasets. We advance that although OpenACC can not match the performance of a CUDA optimized implementation (×3.5 slower in average), it provides a significant performance improvement against a CPU implementation (×2-6) with by far a simpler code and less implementation effort.

  11. An Improved Low Complex Spatially Scalable ACC-DCT Based Video Compression Method

    G.Suresh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a low complex Scalable ACC-DCT based video compression approach which tends to hard exploit the pertinent temporal redundancy in the video frames to improve compression efficiency with less processing complexity. Generally, video signal has high temporal redundancies due to the high correlation between successive frames. Actually, this redundancy has not been exposed enough by current video compression techniques. Our model consists on 3D to 2D transformation of the video frames that allows exploring the temporal redundancy of the video using 2D transforms and avoiding the computationally demanding motion compensation step. This transformation turns the spatial temporal correlation of the video into high spatial correlation. Indeed, this technique transforms each group of pictures (GOP to one picture (Accordion Representationeventually with high spatial correlation. This model is also incorporated with up/down sampling method (SVC which is based on a combination of the forward and backward type discrete cosine transform (DCT coefficients. As this kernel has various symmetries for efficient computation, a fast algorithm of DCT-based Scalability concept is also proposed. For further improvement of the scalable performance, an adaptive filtering method is introduced, which appliesdifferent weighting parameters to DCT coefficients. Thus, thedecorrelation of the resulting pictures by the DCT makes efficient energy compaction, and therefore produces a high video compression ratio. Many experimental tests had been conducted to prove the method efficiency especially in high bit rate and with slow motion video. The proposed method seems to be well suitable for video surveillance applications and for embedded video compression systems.

  12. Circumpolar Estimates of Isopycnal Mixing in the ACC from Argo Floats

    Roach, C. J.; Balwada, D.; Speer, K. G.

    2015-12-01

    There are few direct observations of cross-stream isopycnal mixing in the interior of the Southern Ocean, yet such measurements are needed to determine the role of eddies transporting properties across the ACC, and key to progress toward testing theories of meridional overturning. In light of this we examine if it is possible to obtain estimates of mixing from Argo float trajectories. We divided the Southern Ocean into overlapping 15ο longitude bins before estimating mixing. Resulting diffusivities ranged from 300 to 3000 m2s-1, with peaks corresponding to the Scotia Sea; Kerguelen and Campbell Plateaus. Comparison of our diffusivities with previous regional studies demonstrated good agreement. Tests of the methodology in the DIMES region found that mixing from Argo floats agreed closely with mixing from RAFOS floats. To further test the method we used the Southern Ocean State Estimate velocity fields to advect particles with Argo and RAFOS float like behaviours. Stirring estimates from the particles agreed well with each other in the Kerguelen Island region, South Pacific and Scotia Sea, despite the differences in the imposed behaviour. Finally, these estimates were compared to mixing length suppression theory presented in Ferrari and Nikurashin 2010. This mixing length suppression theory quantifies horizontal diffusivity similar to Prandtl (1925), but the mixing length is suppressed in the presence of mean flows and eddy phase speeds. Our results suggest that the theory can explain both the structure and magnitude of mixing using mean flow data. An exception is near the Kerguelen and Campbell Plateaus where theory under-estimates mixing relative to our results.

  13. Improving polyketide and fatty acid synthesis by engineering of the yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    Choi, Jin Wook; Da Silva, Nancy A

    2014-10-10

    Polyketides and fatty acids are important in the production of pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, and biofuels. The synthesis of the malonyl-CoA building block, catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc1), is considered a limiting step to achieving high titers of polyketides and fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acc1 is deactivated by AMP-activated serine/threonine protein kinase (Snf1) when glucose is depleted. To prevent this deactivation, the enzyme was aligned with the Rattus norvegicus (rat) Acc1 to identify a critical amino acid (Ser-1157) for phosphorylation and deactivation. Introduction of a S1157A mutation into Acc1 resulted in 9-fold higher specific activity following glucose depletion. The enzyme was tested in yeast engineered to produce the polyketide 6-methylsalisylic acid (6-MSA). Both 6-MSA and native fatty acid levels increased by 3-fold. Utilization of this modified Acc1 enzyme will also be beneficial for other products built from malonyl-CoA. PMID:25078432

  14. Doctors' knowledge, attitudes, and compliance with 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Singapore

    Setia S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sajita Setia,1 Selwyn Sze-Wang Fung,2 David D Waters3 1Medical Affairs, Pfizer Pte Ltd, Singapore; 2Regional Medical Affairs, Pfizer Pte Ltd, Hong Kong; 3Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: There is an unmet need for strategies to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Singapore. The main objective of this study was to investigate Singapore physicians’ response to the 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA guidelines for treatment of cholesterol and their impact on clinical practice. Methods: This survey was conducted in two stages, qualitative and quantitative. Physicians were initially screened on the basis of an initial screener questionnaire, and eligible physicians were then included in the study. Results: Qualitative (n=19 and quantitative (n=66 surveys were completed by eligible physicians from Singapore. Physicians were less familiar with the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines (35% as compared with the Singapore Ministry of Health (MoH lipid guidelines 2006 (49%. Of the physicians whose opinion was sought on the ACC/AHA guidelines, more than 50% disagreed with the definition of high-, moderate-, and low-intensity statin therapy; recommendation of atorvastatin 40–80 mg and rosuvastatin 20–40 mg as medications for high-intensity statin therapy; and classification of individuals who would benefit from moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy. Most physicians assumed that Asians may be intolerant to high-intensity statin therapy. Conclusion: Although embracing the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines in clinical practice is expected to provide better clinical care to patients, our study revealed high reluctance by physicians, especially in the use of high-dose statins. However, ACC/AHA guidelines can be easily adopted in Asia as there is a wealth of data available for atorvastatin in primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with

  15. The rhizosphere bacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 containing ACC deaminase does not increase systemic ABA signaling in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Dodd, Ian C.; Jiang, Fan; Teijeiro, Rosalia Garcia; Belimov, Andrey A.; Hartung, Wolfram

    2009-01-01

    Soil inoculation with the ACC deaminase-containing rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 increased pea (Pisum sativum) growth and yield in both well watered and drying soil, with an attenuation of systemic ACC signaling likely key in the latter case.1 However, inoculated plants also had increased xylem ABA concentrations (which may also promote growth) in drying soil. Possible mediation of ABA levels by V. paradoxus 5C-2 was investigated in two experiments in which maize (Zea mays) growth ...

  16. A novel 1-Cys thioredoxin peroxidase gene in Apis cerana cerana: characterization of AccTpx4 and its role in oxidative stresses.

    Huaxia, Yifeng; Wang, Fang; Yan, Yan; Liu, Feng; Wang, Hongfang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2015-07-01

    Thioredoxin peroxidase (Tpx), also named peroxiredoxin (Prx), is an important peroxidase that can protect organisms against stressful environments. AccTpx4, a 1-Cys thioredoxin peroxidase gene from the Chinese honey bee Apis cerana cerana, was cloned and characterized. The AccTpx4 gene encodes a protein that is predicted to contain the conserved PVCTTE motif from 1-Cys peroxiredoxin. Quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) and Western blotting revealed that AccTpx4 was induced by various oxidative stresses, such as cold, heat, insecticides, H(2)O(2), and HgCl(2). The in vivo peroxidase activity assay showed that recombinant AccTpx4 protein could efficiently degrade H(2)O(2) in the presence of DL-dithiothreitol (DTT). In addition, disc fusion assays revealed that AccTpx4 could function to protect cells against oxidative stresses. These results indicate that AccTpx4 plays an important role in oxidative stress responses and may contribute to the conservation of honeybees. PMID:25971604

  17. Sulfuric acid leaching of mechanically activated manganese carbonate ore

    Yıldız, Kenan

    2000-01-01

    Acidic leaching of mechanically activated manganese ore from Denizli – Tavas was investigated. The ore was activated mechanically in a planetary mill and the amorphisation in manganese structure was analyzed with X-ray diffraction. The parameters in acidic leaching of the ore were milling time, acid concentration and time. All experiments were performed at 25°C with solid to liquid ratio: 1/10. The activation procedure led to amorphization and structural disordering in manganese ore and acce...

  18. Whole genome sequencing and analysis of plant growth promoting bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plantation crops coconut, cocoa and arecanut.

    Alka Gupta

    Full Text Available Coconut, cocoa and arecanut are commercial plantation crops that play a vital role in the Indian economy while sustaining the livelihood of more than 10 million Indians. According to 2012 Food and Agricultural organization's report, India is the third largest producer of coconut and it dominates the production of arecanut worldwide. In this study, three Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR from coconut (CPCRI-1, cocoa (CPCRI-2 and arecanut (CPCRI-3 characterized for the PGP activities have been sequenced. The draft genome sizes were 4.7 Mb (56% GC, 5.9 Mb (63.6% GC and 5.1 Mb (54.8% GB for CPCRI-1, CPCRI-2, CPCRI-3, respectively. These genomes encoded 4056 (CPCRI-1, 4637 (CPCRI-2 and 4286 (CPCRI-3 protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both CPCRI-1 and CPCRI-3 belonged to Enterobacteriaceae family, while, CPCRI-2 was a Pseudomonadaceae family member. Functional annotation of the genes predicted that all three bacteria encoded genes needed for mineral phosphate solubilization, siderophores, acetoin, butanediol, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase, chitinase, phenazine, 4-hydroxybenzoate, trehalose and quorum sensing molecules supportive of the plant growth promoting traits observed in the course of their isolation and characterization. Additionally, in all the three CPCRI PGPRs, we identified genes involved in synthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which recently has been proposed to aid plant growth. The PGPRs also carried genes for central carbohydrate metabolism indicating that the bacteria can efficiently utilize the root exudates and other organic materials as energy source. Genes for production of peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases that confer resistance to oxidative stresses in plants were identified. Besides these, genes for heat shock tolerance, cold shock tolerance and glycine-betaine production that enable bacteria to survive abiotic stress were also identified.

  19. XBAT35, a Novel Arabidopsis RING E3 Ligase Exhibiting Dual Targeting of Its Splice Isoforms,Is Involved in Ethylene-Mediated Regulation of Apical Hook Curvature

    Sofia D.Carvalho; Rita Saraiva; Teresa M.Maia; Isabel A.Abreu; Paula Duque

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis XBAT35 is one of five structurally related ankyrin repeat-containing Really interesting New Gene (RING) E3 ligases involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation,which plays key roles in a wide range of cellular processes.Here,we show that the XBAT35 gene undergoes alternative splicing,generating two transcripts that are constitutively expressed in all plant tissues.The two splice variants derive from an exon skipping event that excludes an in-frame segment from the XBAT35 precursor mRNA,giving rise to two protein isoforms that differ solely in the presence of a nuclear localization signal (NLS).Transient expression assays indicate that the isoform lacking the NLS localizes in the cytoplasm of plant cells,whereas the other is targeted to the nucleus,accumulating in nuclear speckles.Both isoforms are functional E3 ligases,as assessed by in vitro ubiquitination assays.Two insertion mutant alleles and RNA-interference (RNAi) silencing lines for XBAT35 display no evident phenotypes under normal growth conditions,but exhibit hypersensitivity to the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) during apical hook exaggeration in the dark,which is rescued by an inhibitor of ethylene perception.Independent expression of each XBAT35 splice variant in the mutant background indicates that the two isoforms may differentially contribute to apical hook formation but are both functional in this ethylene-mediated response.Thus,XBAT35 defines a novel player in ethylene signaling involved in negatively regulating apical hook curvature,with alternative splicing controlling dual targeting of this E3 ubiquitin ligase to the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments.

  20. Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils

    Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuss, Alexandra; Zethner, Gehard; Spiegel, Heide; Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Xaver Hölzl, Franz; Preinstorfer, Claudia; Haslmayr, Hans Peter; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils. The project funded by the Klima- und Energiefonds, Austrian Climate Research Programme, 4th call Authors: Katrin Sedy, Alexandra Freudenschuss, Gerhard Zethner (Environment Agency Austria), Heide Spiegel (Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety), Uwe Franko, Ralf Gründling (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research) Climate change will affect plant productivity due to weather extremes. However, adverse effects could be diminished and satisfying production levels may be maintained with proper soil conditions. To sustain and optimize the potential of agricultural land for plant productivity it will be necessary to focus on preserving and increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is strongly influenced by management practice. The present management is affected by management practices that tend to speed up carbon loss. Crop rotation, soil cultivation and the management of crop residues are very important measures to influence carbon dynamics and soil fertility. For the future it will be crucial to focus on practical measures to optimize SOC and to improve soil structure. To predict SOC turnover the existing humus balance model the application of the "Carbon Candy Balance" was verified by results from Austrian long term field experiments and field data of selected farms. Thus the main aim of the project is to generate a carbon balancing tool box that can be applied in different agricultural production regions to assess humus dynamics due to agricultural management practices. The toolbox will allow the selection of specific regional input parameters for calculating the C-balance at field level. However farmers or other interested user can also apply their own field data to receive the result of C-dynamics under certain management practises within the next 100 years. At regional level the impact of predefined changes in agricultural management

  1. La gestió i la comunicació en l'accés a les universitats de Catalunya

    Prujà i Noè, Jesús M.

    2003-01-01

    A partir de les teories sobre la demanda social de l'escola francesa de Chevalier i Loschak que afirmen, entre altres qüestions, que tota política pública resulta substancialment inamovible quan els operadors públics que en són responsables es troben satisfets amb la seva oferta, aquesta tesi doctoral planteja la hipòtesi que la política d'accés a les universitats públiques catalanes entre 1987 i 1997, que ha generat -i general- una insatisfacció objectiva en una part important de la ciutad...

  2. Simulations of higher order modes simulations of higher order modes in the ACC39 module of FLASH

    Shinton, I R R; Li, Z; Zhang, P

    2012-01-01

    This study is focused on the development of a HOM-based BPM system for the ACC39 module currently installed and in operation at FLASH. A similar system is anticipated to be installed at XFEL. Coupled inter-cavity modes are simulated together with a limited band of trapped modes. A suite of finite element computer codes (including HFSS and ACE3P) and globalised scattering matrix calculations (GSM) are used to investigate the modes in these cavities with a view to providing guidance on their use as a cavity beam diagnostic.

  3. Reward Sensitivity of ACC as an Intermediate Phenotype between DRD4-521T and Substance Misuse.

    Baker, Travis E; Stockwell, Tim; Barnes, Gordon; Haesevoets, Roderick; Holroyd, Clay B

    2016-03-01

    The development and expression of the midbrain dopamine system is determined in part by genetic factors that vary across individuals such that dopamine-related genes are partly responsible for addiction vulnerability. However, a complete account of how dopamine-related genes predispose individuals to drug addiction remains to be developed. Adopting an intermediate phenotype approach, we investigated whether reward-related electrophysiological activity of ACC-a cortical region said to utilize dopamine reward signals to learn the value of extended, context-specific sequences of goal-directed behaviors-mediates the influence of multiple dopamine-related functional polymorphisms over substance use. We used structural equation modeling to examine whether two related electrophysiological phenomena associated with the control and reinforcement learning functions of ACC-theta power and the reward positivity-mediated the relationship between the degree of substance misuse and genetic polymorphisms that regulate dopamine processing in frontal cortex. Substance use data were collected from 812 undergraduate students. One hundred ninety-six returned on a subsequent day to participate in an electrophysiological experiment and to provide saliva samples for DNA analysis. We found that these electrophysiological signals mediated a relationship between the DRD4-521T dopamine receptor genotype and substance misuse. Our results provide a theoretical framework that bridges the gap between genes and behavior in drug addiction and illustrate how future interventions might be individually tailored for specific genetic and neurocognitive profiles. PMID:26601911

  4. Politique CERN pour le contrôle d'accès à son domaine et description de l'implantation en cours

    Jacot, C

    1998-01-01

    Une volonté politique claire émanant de la direction du CERN et de l'Access Control Panel a chargé la section ST/MC/AC de mettre en place un concept de contrôle d'accès global et cohérent pour l'ensemble des accès au domaine et aux sites de ses accélérateurs. Cela implique que depuis l'accueil et l'enregistrement des personnes jusqu'à la gestion, la surveillance du domaine ainsi que les installations techniques de contrôle d'accès, tous ces services qui sont complémentaires sont désormais rassemblés dans une seule section. Un projet de management des autorisations fortement informatisé ainsi que la productions des cartes CERN sont en cours d'installation. De nombreuses autres installations de contrôle d'accès sont opérationnelles et d'autres sont en cours de réalisation. Toutes seront ensuite intégrées et supervisées depuis une centrale située dans le bâtiment 120, cette dernière est exploitée par une société de surveillance au bénéfice d'un contrat avec le CERN.

  5. Efficience et économie d’échelle. Une étude sur l’édition de revues en libre accès

    Frantsvåg, Jan Erik

    2012-01-01

    L’article analyse la distribution des éditeurs de revues en libre accès en fonction de leur taille et discute l’impact de cette distribution sur l’édition scientifique, sous l’aspect de l’efficience économique. L’analyse exploite l’information sur les revues en libre accès et leurs éditeurs du répertoire DOAJ et, à titre comparatif, l’information sur l’édition des revues scientifiques du Ulrichsweb. Le DOAJ contient 3921 éditeurs de revues en libre accès (OA). 95,8% des éditeurs publient jus...

  6. The Effect of MethyI Jasmonate on Ethylene Production, ACC Oxidase Activity and Carbon Dioxide Evolution in the Yellowish-Tangerine Tomato Fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    Janusz Czapski; Artur Miszczak; Marian Saniewski

    2013-01-01

    The yellowish-tangerine tomato (cv. Bursztyn) in the green, light yellow and yellow stages of ripening were treated with 0.1% and 1.0% of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) in lanolin paste and kept for several days and then they were evaluated for production of ethylene, ACC oxidase activity and CO2 evolution. Production of endogenous ethylene in mature green fruits was low and increased during ripening. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity in all investigated stages of fruit...

  7. Promoção de crescimento e controle de tombamento de plântulas de pepino por rizobactérias Growth promotion and damping-off control of cucumber seedling by rhizobacteria

    Cleusa Maria Mantovanello Lucon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de rizobactérias, no crescimento de plântulas de pepino e no controle de tombamento, causado por Pythium aphanidermatum. Foram realizados em laboratório ensaios de: degradação de 1-aminociclopropano-1-carboxilato (ACC; colonização das raízes de plântulas de pepino; e pareamento de culturas. A identificação dos melhores isolados foi feita pela determinação das seqüências do gene 16S rDNA. Trinta e sete isolados, dos 165 testados, aumentaram a massa de matéria seca das plantas de pepino em até 63%. Desses, somente um isolado (N13 - Pseudomonas fluorescens reduziu o tombamento de plântulas em 25%; 21 isolados inibiram o crescimento micelial de P. aphanidermatum, colonizaram o sistema radicular das plantas de pepino e cresceram em presença de ACC como única fonte de nitrogênio. Dos dez isolados que apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, cinco foram identificados como pertencentes aos gêneros Bacillus, quatro Pseudomonas e um Stenotrophomonas. Dos 165 isolados de rizobactérias testados, sete possuem potencial para promover o crescimento de plantas de pepino e um para controlar o tombamento causado por P. aphanidermatum.The aim of this work was to evaluate the rhizobacteria effect on cucumber seedling growth and in the control of damping-off disease Pythium aphanidermatum. In laboratory, the following tests were carried out: degradation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC; colonization of cucumber root system; and, the capacity to antagonize the pathogen. The best isolates were identified through determination of 16S rDNA gene sequences. Thirty-seven isolates, among 165 tested, enhanced the dry weight of cucumber plants in up to 63%. From these 37, only one isolate (N13 - Pseudomonas fluorescens reduced the incidence of pre-emergence damping-off disease by 25%; 21 isolates antagonized P. aphanidermatum in vitro, colonized the cucumber roots, and degradated ACC, as the only

  8. Vers de nouveaux agencements pour l'organisation et l'accès à l'information scientifique

    Commandré, Monique; Riccio, Pierre-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Face à la prolifération de l'information numérique, nous interrogeons le niveau de performativité des ontologies comme dispositif de médiation entre des données préexistantes dans les interfaces d'édition numérique et un projet d'apprentissage et / ou de veille scientifique. Notre contribution, illustrée par deux études de cas, propose une ingénierie de la médiation intégrée s'appuyant sur un modèle en trois niveaux pour l'organisation et l'accès à l'information scientifique.

  9. Quels modèles pour analyser l’accès à l’information dans les organisations ?

    Ihadjadene, Madjid; Chaudiron, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous montrons l’évolution des modèles visant à expliciter les pratiques d’accès à l’information qui sont passés d’une perspective centrée sur le processus et sa décomposition en tâches à une perspective plus globale intégrant les différents éléments du contexte, notamment professionnel, pour s’élargir enfin à la question des pratiques informationnelles. Nous présentons dans la première section quelques modèles, issus des sciences de l’information, qui sont représentatifs des...

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS ON THE ULTRASOUND USE IN FASTFINDING AND CREATING THE ACCES TO THE CALCIFIED CANNALS AND ABLATION OF THE PULPOLITES

    Oana Elena AMZA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment with ultrasounds, two categories of devices are used, which work on theprinciple of the magnetostriction phenomenon or the principle of pieso-electrictricity. The mostimportant part of an endodontic ultrasound device is the ultra-acoustic system which must becalculated, projected and made in such way so th exercise a certain type of ultrasound (asked bythat application which together with the endodontic instrument acoustically activated to worktogether in resonance regime. In order to find the hidden canals calcified and for an easiermaking of the acces to the root canals is suggested an endodontic instrument with an activespecific part and with a central canal which allows the penetration of a cooling fluid in the workarea and in order to create the phenomenon of ultrasound cavity

  11. Ethanolic Extract of Vitis thunbergii Exhibits Lipid Lowering Properties via Modulation of the AMPK-ACC Pathway in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Chun-Hsu Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitis thunbergii (VT is a wild grape that has been shown to provide various cardioprotective effects. The present study was designed to examine whether a VT extract could reduce serum lipid levels and prevent atherogenesis in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model. At the end of an 8-week study, our results showed that a VT extract supplement markedly suppressed the serum levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, reduced lipid accumulation in liver tissues, and limited aortic fatty streaks. Our findings suggest that the VT extract activated AMPK (5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase with subsequent inhibition of the activation of ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Our results suggest that this VT extract could be further developed as a potential lipid-lowering agent and as a natural health food to prevent atherogenesis.

  12. 2015 ACC Health Policy Statement on Cardiovascular Team-Based Care and the Role of Advanced Practice Providers.

    Brush, John E; Handberg, Eileen M; Biga, Cathleen; Birtcher, Kim K; Bove, Alfred A; Casale, Paul N; Clark, Michael G; Garson, Arthur; Hines, Jerome L; Linderbaum, Jane A; Rodgers, George P; Shor, Robert A; Thourani, Vinod H; Wyman, Janet F

    2015-05-19

    The mission of the American College of Cardiology is "to transform cardiovascular care and improve heart health." Cardiovascular team-based care is a paradigm for practice that can transform care, improve heart health, and help meet the demands of the future. One strategic goal of the College is to help members successfully transition their clinical practices to the future, with all its complexity, challenges, and opportunities. The ACC's strategic plan is aligned with the triple aim of improved care, improved population health, and lower costs per capita. The traditional understanding of quality, access, and cost is that you cannot improve one component without diminishing the others. With cardiovascular team-based care, it is possible to achieve the triple aim of improving quality, access, and cost simultaneously to also improve cardiovascular health. Striving to serve the best interests of patients is the true north of our guiding principles. Cardiovascular team-based care is a model that can improve care coordination and communication and allow each team member to focus more on the quality of care. In addition, the cardiovascular team-based care model increases access to cardiovascular care and allows expansion of services to populations and geographic areas that are currently underserved. This document will increase awareness of the important components of cardiovascular team-based care and create an opportunity for more discussion about the most creative and effective means of implementing it. We hope that this document will stimulate further discussions and activities within the ACC and beyond about team-based care. We have identified areas that need improvement, specifically in APP education and state regulation. The document encourages the exploration of collaborative care models that should enable team members to optimize their education, training, experience, and talent. Improved team leadership, coordination, collaboration, engagement, and efficiency

  13. Elevated expression of fatty acid synthase and nuclear localization of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C are common among human gliomas.

    Wakamiya, Tomihiro; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Hamasaki, Hideomi; Honda, Hiroyuki; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Yoshimoto, Koji; Iwaki, Toru

    2014-10-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C), a brain-specific isoform of the CPT1 family, are upregulated in certain types of cancers, including gliomas. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis, and its phosphorylated form inhibits lipid synthesis. We examined the expression and subcellular localization of these fatty acid metabolism-related molecules in human gliomas. We performed immunostaining of two glioma cell lines (U373MG and U87MG) and 41 surgical specimens of diffuse gliomas with various histological grades (21 with the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1(IDH1) R132H mutation and 20 without the mutation). In the cultured glioma cells, CPT1C and phosphorylated ACC (p-ACC) were mainly localized to the nuclei, whereas FASN localized to the cytoplasm. In the surgical specimens, most glioma tissues showed nuclear staining for CPT1C and p-ACC, and cytoplasmic staining for FASN, regardless of the genetic status of IDH1 and the histological grade. Therefore, elevated cytoplasmic expression of FASN and nuclear localization of CPT1C are common among human diffuse gliomas, which may be regulated by the differential phosphorylation status of ACC in the cellular compartment. PMID:24984811

  14. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)- and (−)-Clusianone and (+)- and (−)Clusianone Methyl Enol Ether via ACC Alkylation and Evaluation of their Anti-HIV Activity

    Garnsey, Michelle R.; Matous, James A.; Kwiek, Jesse J; Coltart, Don M.

    2011-01-01

    The total asymmetric synthesis of (+)- and (−)-clusianone and (+)- and (−)-clusianone methyl enol ether is reported. Asymmetric induction is achieved through the use of ACC alkylation, providing the key intermediates with an er of 99:1. The four synthetic compounds were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity. Both (+)- and (−)-clusianone displayed significant anti-HIV activity.

  15. Effects of Acute Exercise and Chronic Exercise on the Liver Leptin-AMPK-ACC Signaling Pathway in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes

    Xuejie Yi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effects of acute and chronic exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism in liver of rats with type 2 diabetes caused by a high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ. Methods. Animals were classified into control (CON, diabetes (DC, diabetic chronic exercise (DCE, and diabetic acute exercise (DAE groups. Results. Compared to CON, the leptin levels in serum and liver and ACC phosphorylation were significantly higher in DC, but the levels of liver leptin receptor, AMPKα1/2, AMPKα1, and ACC proteins expression and phosphorylation were significantly lower in DC. In addition, the levels of liver glycogen reduced significantly, and the levels of TG and FFA increased significantly in DC compared to CON. Compared to DC, the levels of liver AMPKα1/2, AMPKα2, AMPKα1, and ACC phosphorylation significantly increased in DCE and DAE. However, significant increase of the level of liver leptin receptor and glycogen as well as significant decrease of the level of TG and FFA were observed only in DEC. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that both acute and chronic exercise indirectly activated the leptin-AMPK-ACC signaling pathway and increased insulin sensitivity in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. However, only chronic and long-term exercise improved glucose and lipid metabolism of the liver.

  16. The bacterial signal transduction protein GlnB regulates the committed step in fatty acid biosynthesis by acting as a dissociable regulatory subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    Gerhardt, Edileusa C M; Rodrigues, Thiago E; Müller-Santos, Marcelo; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Forchhammer, Karl; Huergo, Luciano F

    2015-03-01

    Biosynthesis of fatty acids is one of the most fundamental biochemical pathways in nature. In bacteria and plant chloroplasts, the committed and rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis is catalyzed by a multi-subunit form of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme (ACC). This enzyme carboxylates acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA, which in turn acts as the building block for fatty acid elongation. In Escherichia coli, ACC is comprised of three functional modules: the biotin carboxylase (BC), the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) and the carboxyl transferase (CT). Previous data showed that both bacterial and plant BCCP interact with signal transduction proteins belonging to the PII family. Here we show that the GlnB paralogues of the PII proteins from E. coli and Azospirillum brasiliense, but not the GlnK paralogues, can specifically form a ternary complex with the BC-BCCP components of ACC. This interaction results in ACC inhibition by decreasing the enzyme turnover number. Both the BC-BCCP-GlnB interaction and ACC inhibition were relieved by 2-oxoglutarate and by GlnB uridylylation. We propose that the GlnB protein acts as a 2-oxoglutarate-sensitive dissociable regulatory subunit of ACC in Bacteria. PMID:25557370

  17. Truffles regulate plant root morphogenesis via the production of auxin and ethylene.

    Splivallo, Richard; Fischer, Urs; Göbel, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr

    2009-08-01

    Truffles are symbiotic fungi that form ectomycorrhizas with plant roots. Here we present evidence that at an early stage of the interaction, i.e. prior to physical contact, mycelia of the white truffle Tuber borchii and the black truffle Tuber melanopsorum induce alterations in root morphology of the host Cistus incanus and the nonhost Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; i.e. primary root shortening, lateral root formation, root hair stimulation). This was most likely due to the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and ethylene by the mycelium. Application of a mixture of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and IAA fully mimicked the root morphology induced by the mycelium for both host and nonhost plants. Application of the single hormones only partially mimicked it. Furthermore, primary root growth was not inhibited in the Arabidopsis auxin transport mutant aux1-7 by truffle metabolites while root branching was less effected in the ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-LH. The double mutant aux1-7;ein2-LH displayed reduced sensitivity to fungus-induced primary root shortening and branching. In agreement with the signaling nature of truffle metabolites, increased expression of the auxin response reporter DR5GFP in Arabidopsis root meristems subjected to the mycelium could be observed, confirming that truffles modify the endogenous hormonal balance of plants. Last, we demonstrate that truffles synthesize ethylene from l-methionine probably through the alpha-keto-gamma-(methylthio)butyric acid pathway. Taken together, these results establish the central role of IAA and ethylene as signal molecules in truffle/plant interactions. PMID:19535471

  18. Perspectives of plant-associated microbes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    Rajkumar, M; Sandhya, S; Prasad, M N V; Freitas, H

    2012-01-01

    "Phytoremediation" know-how to do-how is rapidly expanding and is being commercialized by harnessing the phyto-microbial diversity. This technology employs biodiversity to remove/contain pollutants from the air, soil and water. In recent years, there has been a considerable knowledge explosion in understanding plant-microbes-heavy metals interactions. Novel applications of plant-associated microbes have opened up promising areas of research in the field of phytoremediation technology. Various metabolites (e.g., 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, organic acids, etc.) produced by plant-associated microbes (e.g., plant growth promoting bacteria, mycorrhizae) have been proposed to be involved in many biogeochemical processes operating in the rhizosphere. The salient functions include nutrient acquisition, cell elongation, metal detoxification and alleviation of biotic/abiotic stress in plants. Rhizosphere microbes accelerate metal mobility, or immobilization. Plants and associated microbes release inorganic and organic compounds possessing acidifying, chelating and/or reductive power. These functions are implicated to play an essential role in plant metal uptake. Overall the plant-associated beneficial microbes enhance the efficiency of phytoremediation process directly by altering the metal accumulation in plant tissues and indirectly by promoting the shoot and root biomass production. The present work aims to provide a comprehensive review of some of the promising processes mediated by plant-associated microbes and to illustrate how such processes influence heavy metal uptake through various biogeochemical processes including translocation, transformation, chelation, immobilization, solubilization, precipitation, volatilization and complexation of heavy metals ultimately facilitating phytoremediation. PMID:22580219

  19. Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.)%桑树MaACS和MaACO基因的鉴定和表达模式研究

    Chang-ying LIU; Shu-mei HAN; Cheng LU; Mao-de YU; Rui-hua LÜ; Jun LI; Ai-chun ZHAO; Xi-ling WANG; Umuhoza DIANE; Xiao-hong WANG; Chuan-hong WANG; Ya-sheng YU

    2014-01-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal se-quences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demon-strated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon.%研究目的:分离和鉴定桑树中参与乙烯生物合成的酶的编码基因MaACS 和MaACO,研究其表达模式。创新要点:基于最新公布的桑树基因组数据库数据,获得5个MaACS 基因和2个MaACO 基因,对其进行了生物信息分析,同时鉴定了其在不同桑树组织中、不同发育时期桑椹中和不同激素作用下的表达模式。研究方法:通过生物信息学方法筛选和鉴定基因,利用荧光定量逆转录聚合酶链式反应(qRT-PCR)分析基因的表达量。重要结论:MaACS 和MaACO 基因在根、茎、叶等不同组织中呈现出不同的表达模式,在桑椹发育过程中呈现出两种表达模式,其表达量被脱落酸和乙烯利上调。

  20. Cloning and Expression Analysis of OnA CO2 Gene from Onc idium Gower Ramsey%文心兰OnA CO2基因的克隆及表达分析

    田晓岩; 石乐松; 潘英文; 刘进平

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene plays an important regulatory role on many developmental processes such as cut flower and fruit senescence, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxid ase (ACO) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of ethylene. OnACO2 gene (GenBank accession number is KP410730) was cloned from Oncidium Gower Ramsey using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology, with a full-length cDNA of 1 376 bp, presumably encoding a non-transmembrane protein of 324 amino acid, with a molecular weight of 36 413.5 and an isoelectric point (IP) of 5.71. The deduced OnACO2 protein sequence contains DIOX_N and 20G-FeII_Oxy domains and shares a sequence similarity of 66%~91%with OnACO1 and ACO proteins in other plant species. The molecular weight of recombinant protein obtained in the prokaryotic expression was consistent with its theoretic molecular weight. The expression patterns of OnA CO2 gene were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the relative expression was highest in gynandria, followed by sepals, lateral petals and leaves, lowest in roots, stems and lip petals. During the senescence of Oncidium cut flower, expression level of OnA CO2 in different parts of the flower increased dramatically, followed by the corresponding sharp increase in ethylene production. The space-time specific expression of OnA CO2 gene in Onc idium flower senescence indicated that the cloned OnA CO2 was a function gene for the flower senescence. As the OnA CO2 is an important candidate gene for Onc idium flower anti-senescence improvement via molecule modification, the results will lay a foundation for gene engineering of Oncidium cut flower senescence.%乙烯对植物的许多发育过程如切花和果实衰老发挥重要的调控作用,而1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸(ACC)氧化酶(ACO)是乙烯生物合成中的限速酶。本研究利用RACE技术克隆得到文心兰OnA CO2基因(GenBank登录号为KP410730) cDNA,全长1376 bp

  1. The bZIP Protein VIP1 Is Involved in Touch Responses in Arabidopsis Roots.

    Tsugama, Daisuke; Liu, Shenkui; Takano, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    VIP1 is a bZIP transcription factor in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). VIP1 transiently accumulates in the nucleus when cells are exposed to hypoosmotic conditions, but its physiological relevance is unclear. This is possibly because Arabidopsis has approximately 10 close homologs of VIP1 and they function redundantly. To examine their physiological roles, transgenic plants overexpressing a repression domain-fused form of VIP1 (VIP1-SRDXox plants), in which the gene activation mediated by VIP1 is expected to be repressed, were generated. Because hypoosmotic stress can mimic mechanical stimuli (e.g. touch), the touch-induced root-waving phenotypes and gene expression patterns in those transgenic plants were examined. VIP1-SRDXox plants exhibited more severe root waving and lower expression of putative VIP1 target genes. The expression of the VIP1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein partially suppressed the VIP1-SRDX-induced increase in root waving when expressed in the VIP1-SRDXox plants. These results suggest that VIP1 can suppress the touch-induced root waving. The VIP1-SRDX-induced increase in root waving was also suppressed when the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid or the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, which is known to activate auxin biosynthesis, was present in the growth medium. Root cap cells with the auxin marker DR5rev::GFP were more abundant in the VIP1-SRDXox background than in the wild-type background. Auxin is transported via the root cap, and the conditions of outermost root cap layers were abnormal in VIP1-SRDXox plants. These results raise the possibility that VIP1 influences structures of the root cap and thereby regulates the local auxin responses in roots. PMID:27208231

  2. Deciphering Staphylococcus sciuri SAT-17 Mediated Anti-oxidative Defense Mechanisms and Growth Modulations in Salt Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Akram, Muhammad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohsin; Azeem, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad T; Saleem, Seemab; Riaz, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity severely affects plant nutrient use efficiency and is a worldwide constraint for sustainable crop production. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, with inherent salinity tolerance, are able to enhance plant growth and productivity by inducing modulations in various metabolic pathways. In the present study, we reported the isolation and characterization of a salt-tolerant rhizobacterium from Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth]. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed its lineage to Staphylococcus sciuri and it was named as SAT-17. The strain exhibited substantial potential of phosphate solubilization as well as indole-3-acetic acid production (up to 2 M NaCl) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (up to 1.5 M NaCl). Inoculation of a rifampicin-resistant derivative of the SAT-17 with maize, in the absence of salt stress, induced a significant increase in plant biomass together with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes. The derivative strain also significantly accumulated nutrients in roots and shoots, and enhanced chlorophyll and protein contents in comparison with non-inoculated plants. Similar positive effects were observed in the presence of salt stress, although the effect was more prominent at 75 mM in comparison to higher NaCl level (150 mM). The strain survived in the rhizosphere up to 30 days at an optimal population density (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1)). It was concluded that S. sciuri strain SAT-17 alleviated maize plants from salt-induced cellular oxidative damage and enhanced growth. Further field experiments should be conducted, considering SAT-17 as a potential bio-fertilizer, to draw parallels between PGPR inoculation, elemental mobility patterns, crop growth and productivity in salt-stressed semi-arid and arid regions. PMID:27375588

  3. CSR1, the sole target of imidazolinone herbicide in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Tinker, Nicholas; Colville, Adam; Miki, Brian

    2007-09-01

    The imidazolinone-tolerant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, csr1-2(D), carries a mutation equivalent to that found in commercially available Clearfield crops. Despite their widespread usage, the mechanism by which Clearfield crops gain imidazolinone herbicide tolerance has not yet been fully characterized. Transcription profiling of imazapyr (an imidazolinone herbicide)-treated wild-type and csr1-2(D) mutant plants using Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip microarrays was performed to elucidate further the biochemical and genetic mechanisms of imidazolinone resistance. In wild-type shoots, the genes which responded earliest to imazapyr treatment were detoxification-related genes which have also been shown to be induced by other abiotic stresses. Early-response genes included steroid sulfotransferase (ST) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), as well as members of the glycosyltransferase, glutathione transferase (GST), cytochrome P450, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) and alternative oxidase (AOX) protein families. Later stages of the imazapyr response involved regulation of genes participating in biosynthesis of amino acids, secondary metabolites and tRNA. In contrast to the dynamic changes in the transcriptome profile observed in imazapyr-treated wild-type plants, the transcriptome of csr1-2(D) did not exhibit significant changes following imazapyr treatment, compared with mock-treated csr1-2(D). Further, no substantial difference was observed between wild-type and csr1-2(D) transcriptomes in the absence of imazapyr treatment. These results indicate that CSR1 is the sole target of imidazolinone and that the csr1-2(D) mutation has little or no detrimental effect on whole-plant fitness. PMID:17693453

  4. Rapidly induced chemical defenses in maize stems and their effects on short-term growth of Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Dafoe, Nicole J; Huffaker, Alisa; Vaughan, Martha M; Duehl, Adrian J; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A

    2011-09-01

    Plants damaged by insect herbivory often respond by inducing a suite of defenses that can negatively affect an insect's growth and fecundity. Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer, ECB) is one of the most devastating insect pests of maize, and in the current study, we examined the early biochemical changes that occur in maize stems in response to ECB herbivory and how these rapidly induced defenses influence the growth of ECB. We measured the quantities of known maize defense compounds, benzoxazinoids and the kauralexin class of diterpenoid phytoalexins. ECB herbivory resulted in decreased levels of the benzoxazinoid, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (DIMBOA-Glc), and a corresponding increase in 2-(2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (HDMBOA-Glc). Total quantities of benzoxazinoids and kauralexins were increased as early as 24 h after the initiation of ECB feeding. The plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET), and the transcripts encoding their key biosynthetic enzymes also accumulated in response to ECB herbivory, consistent with a role in defense regulation. The combined pharmacological application of JA and the ET precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to stem internode tissue likewise resulted in changes in benzoxazinoids similar to that observed with ECB damage. Despite the fact that maize actively mounts a defense response to ECB stem feeding, no differences in percent weight gain were observed between ECB larvae that fed upon non-wounded control tissues compared to tissues obtained from plants previously subjected to 24 h ECB stem herbivory. These rapid defense responses in maize stems do not appear to negatively impact ECB growth, thus suggesting that ECB have adapted to these induced biochemical changes. PMID:21833765

  5. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering] [and others

    2012-02-15

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg{sup -1}) and Cd (50 mg kg{sup -1}) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. (orig.)

  6. L’accès aux ressources d’une formation guidé par des ontologies

    Marie-Hélène Abel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available [Français] Beaucoup de ressources sont mises à contribution pour supporter une formation de type e-learning. L’un des objectifs du projet MEMORAe est de rendre ces ressources plus accessibles aux apprenants. Ce projet propose une approche fondée sur une mémoire organisationnelle de l’ensemble des notions et des ressources de la formation. Un principe est d’indexer ces ressources sur les concepts d’ontologie. Nous décrivons les moyens déployés à cette fin. Nous présentons les scénarios par lesquels les apprenants accèdent aux connaissances en parcourant ces ontologies. Enfin, nous illustrons notre propos à l’aide de deux applications actuellement mises en place en université. [English] Many resources are now available in order to support e-learning. One objective of the MEMORAe project is to make these resources more accessible to the students. This project proposes an approach based on an organizational memory of the notions and resources of the formation. A principle is to index these resources on the concepts of some ontologies. We describe the means implemented in this aim. We present the manner in which the students reach the knowledge, by moving in these ontologies. At last, we illustrate our presentation by means of two applications recently set up in some universities.

  7. EFFECT OF WALNUT HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES, ACID COPPER CHROMATE, AND BORIC ACID ON WHITE-ROT DECAY RESISTANCE OF TREATED BEECH SAPWOOD

    Vahid Feraydoni,; Seyyed Khalil Hosseinihashemi

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the individual and interaction effects of wood extractives, acid copper chromate (ACC), and boric acid (B) on the resistance to fungus of treated wood species. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) heartwood extractives were extracted with hot water, methanol, and ethanol solvents. Test specimens were prepared from beech sapwood (Fagus orientalis) to meet BS 838 (1961) requirements, then exposed to white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, for 14 weeks under laboratory conditions. Extra...

  8. The Andromonoecious Sex Determination Gene Predates the Separation of Cucumis and Citrullus Genera

    Boualem, Adnane; Lemhemdi, Afef; Sari, Marie-Agnes; Pignoly, Sarah; Troadec, Christelle; Abou Choucha, Fadi; Solmaz, Ilknur; Sari, Nebahat; Dogimont, Catherine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of sex determination in plants requires the cloning and the characterization of sex determination genes. Monoecy is characterized by the presence of both male and female flowers on the same plant. Andromonoecy is characterized by plants carrying both male and bisexual flowers. In watermelon, the transition between these two sexual forms is controlled by the identity of the alleles at the A locus. We previously showed, in two Cucumis species, melon and cucumber, that the transition from monoecy to andromonoecy results from mutations in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) gene, ACS-7/ACS2. To test whether the ACS-7/ACS2 function is conserved in cucurbits, we cloned and characterized ClACS7 in watermelon. We demonstrated co-segregation of ClACS7, the homolog of CmACS-7/CsACS2, with the A locus. Sequence analysis of ClACS7 in watermelon accessions identified three ClACS7 isoforms, two in andromonoecious and one in monoecious lines. To determine whether the andromonoecious phenotype is due to a loss of ACS enzymatic activity, we expressed and assayed the activity of the three protein isoforms. Like in melon and cucumber, the isoforms from the andromonoecious lines showed reduced to no enzymatic activity and the isoform from the monoecious line was active. Consistent with this, the mutations leading andromonoecy were clustered in the active site of the enzyme. Based on this, we concluded that active ClACS7 enzyme leads to the development of female flowers in monoecious lines, whereas a reduction of enzymatic activity yields hermaphrodite flowers. ClACS7, like CmACS-7/CsACS2 in melon and cucumber, is highly expressed in carpel primordia of buds determined to develop carpels and not in male flowers. Based on this finding and previous investigations, we concluded that the monoecy gene, ACS7, likely predated the separation of the Cucumis and Citrullus genera. PMID:27171236

  9. Heat treatment of peach fruit: modifications in the extracellular compartment and identification of novel extracellular proteins.

    Bustamante, Claudia A; Budde, Claudio O; Borsani, Julia; Lombardo, Verónica A; Lauxmann, Martin A; Andreo, Carlos S; Lara, María V; Drincovich, María F

    2012-11-01

    Ripening of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit is accompanied by dramatic cell wall changes that lead to softening. Post-harvest heat treatment is effective in delaying softening and preventing some chilling injury symptoms that this fruit exhibits after storage at low temperatures. In the present work, the levels of twelve transcripts encoding proteins involved in cell wall metabolism, as well as the differential extracellular proteome, were examined after a post-harvest heat treatment (HT; 39 °C for 3 days) of "Dixiland" peach fruit. A typical softening behaviour, in correlation with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase-1 (PpACO1), was observed for peach maintained at 20 °C for 3 days (R3). Six transcripts encoding proteins involved in cell wall metabolism significantly increased in R3 with respect to peach at harvest, while six showed no modification or even decreased. In contrast, after HT, fruit maintained their firmness, exhibiting low PpACO1 level and significant lower levels of the twelve cell wall-modifying genes than in R3. Differential proteomic analysis of apoplastic proteins during softening and after HT revealed a significant decrease of DUF642 proteins after HT; as well as an increase of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) after softening. The presence of GAPC in the peach extracellular matrix was further confirmed by in situ immunolocalization and transient expression in tomato fruit. Though further studies are required to establish the function of DUF642 and GAPC in the apoplast, this study contributes to a deeper understanding of the events during peach softening and after HT with a focus on this key compartment. PMID:22902552

  10. Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Lolium perenne and their potential to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons and promote plant growth.

    Kukla, M; Płociniczak, T; Piotrowska-Seget, Z

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of twenty-nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the tissues of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to promote plant growth and the degradation of hydrocarbon. Most of the isolates belonged to the genus Pseudomonas and showed multiple plant growth-promoting abilities. All of the bacteria that were tested exhibited the ability to produce indole-3-acetic acid and were sensitive to streptomycin. These strains were capable of phosphate solubilization (62%), cellulolytic enzyme production (62%), a capacity for motility (55%) as well as for the production of siderophore (45%), ammonium (41%) and hydrogen cyanide (38%). Only five endophytes had the emulsification ability that results from the production of biosurfactants. The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) gene (acdS) was found in ten strains. These bacteria exhibited ACCD activities in the range from 1.8 to 56.6 μmol of α-ketobutyrate mg(-1)h(-1), which suggests that these strains may be able to modulate ethylene levels and enhance plant growth. The potential for hydrocarbon degradation was assessed by PCR amplification on the following genes: alkH, alkB, C23O, P450 and pah. The thirteen strains that were tested had the P450 gene but the alkH and pah genes were found only in the Rhodococcus fascians strain (L11). Four endophytic bacteria belonging to Microbacterium sp. and Rhodococcus sp. (L7, S12, S23, S25) showed positive results for the alkB gene. PMID:24954306

  11. Characterization of endophytic Rahnella sp. JN6 from Polygonum pubescens and its potential in promoting growth and Cd, Pb, Zn uptake by Brassica napus.

    He, Huaidong; Ye, Zhihong; Yang, Danjing; Yan, Junlan; Xiao, Li; Zhong, Ting; Yuan, Ming; Cai, Xinde; Fang, Zhanqiang; Jing, Yuanxiao

    2013-02-01

    Microbe-assisted phytoremediation has been considered as a promising measure for the remediation of heavy metal-polluted soils. In this study, a metal-tolerance and plant growth-promoting endophytic bacterium JN6 was firstly isolated from roots of Mn-hyperaccumulator Polygonum pubescens grown in metal-contaminated soil and identified as Rahnella sp. based on 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strain JN6 showed very high Cd, Pb and Zn tolerance and effectively solubilized CdCO(3), PbCO(3) and Zn(3)(PO(4))(2) in culture solution. The isolate produced plant growth-promoting substances such as indole-3-acetic acid, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic deaminase, and also solubilized inorganic phosphate. Based upon its ability in metal tolerance and solubilization, the isolate JN6 was further studied for its effects on the growth and accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in Brassica napus (rape) by pot experiments. Rape plants inoculated with the isolate JN6 had significantly higher dry weights, concentrations and uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn in both above-ground and root tissues than those without inoculation grown in soils amended with Cd (25 mg kg(-1)), Pb (200 mg kg(-1)) or Zn (200 mg kg(-1)). The isolate also showed a high level of colonization in tissue interior of rapes. The present results demonstrated that Rahnella sp. JN6 is a valuable microorganism, which can cost-effectively improve the efficiency of phytoremediation in soils contaminated by Cd, Pb and Zn. PMID:23177711

  12. Assessment of bacterial communities and characterization of lead-resistant bacteria in the rhizosphere soils of metal-tolerant Chenopodium ambrosioides grown on lead-zinc mine tailings.

    Zhang, Wen-hui; Huang, Zhi; He, Lin-yan; Sheng, Xia-fang

    2012-06-01

    Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soils of metal tolerant and accumulating Chenopodium ambrosioides grown in highly and moderately lead-zinc mine tailings contaminated-soils as well as the adjacent soils with low metal contamination were characterized by using cultivation-independent and cultivation techniques. A total of 69, 73, and 83 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) having 84.8-100% similarity with the closest match in the database were detected among high, moderate, and low-contamination soil clone libraries, respectively. These OTUs had a Shannon diversity index value in the range of 4.06-4.30. There were 9, 10, and 14 bacterial genera specific to high, moderate, and low metal-contaminated soil clone libraries, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Pb-resistant isolates belonged to 8 genera. Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter were predominant among the isolates. Most of the isolates (82-86%) produced indole acetic acid and siderophores. More strains from the highly metal-contaminated soil produced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase than the strains from the moderately and lowly metal-contaminated soils. In experiments involving canola grown in quartz sand containing 200 mg kg(-1) of Pb, inoculation with the isolated Paenibacillus jamilae HTb8 and Pseudomonas sp. GTa5 was found to significantly increase the above-ground tissues dry weight (ranging from 19% to 36%) and Pb uptake (ranging from 30% to 40%) compared to the uninoculated control. These results show that C. ambrosioides harbor different metal-resistant bacterial communities in their rhizosphere soils and the isolates expressing plant growth promoting traits may be exploited for improving the phytoextraction efficiency of Pb-polluted environment. PMID:22397839

  13. The Effect of MethyI Jasmonate on Ethylene Production, ACC Oxidase Activity and Carbon Dioxide Evolution in the Yellowish-Tangerine Tomato Fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellowish-tangerine tomato (cv. Bursztyn in the green, light yellow and yellow stages of ripening were treated with 0.1% and 1.0% of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me in lanolin paste and kept for several days and then they were evaluated for production of ethylene, ACC oxidase activity and CO2 evolution. Production of endogenous ethylene in mature green fruits was low and increased during ripening. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity in all investigated stages of fruit ripening. Slices excised from mature green fruits produced highest amount of carbon dioxide as compared to more advanced stages of ripening. JA-Me in O,1 % and 1,0% concentrations increased significantly CO2 evolution in green fruits, while in light yellow and yellow fruits only higher concentration of JA-Me stimulated carbon dioxide production.

  14. Amélioration des accélérateurs laser-plasma : vers un laser à électrons libres compact

    Lehe, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    Lorsque l'on focalise une impulsion laser courte et intense dans un gazsous-dense, celle-ci peut accélérer une fraction des électrons du gaz,et ainsi générer un faisceau d'électrons ayant une énergie de quelquescentaines de MeV. Ce phénomène, connu sous le nom d'accélérationlaser-plasma, pourrait avoir de nombreuses applications,notamment pour la réalisation de sources de rayons Xultra-intenses appelées lasers à électrons libres (LEL). Cependant,ces applications nécessitent que le faisceau d'...

  15. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Laboratoire de l`Accélérateur Linéaire in Orsay

    2013-01-01

    The `Laboratoire de l`Accélérateur Linéaire` (LAL, CNRS/IN2P3 and University Paris Sud) is a major French laboratory for basic science, located on the Orsay campus. Its core research field is particle physics but the lab is also involved in several other fields: astroparticles, ultra-high energetic phenomena in the Universe, astrophysics, cosmology and R&D on accelerators.

  16. Inoculation with Pseudomonas spp.containing ACC-deaminase partially eliminates the effects of drought stress on growth,yield,and ripening of pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    M.ARSHAD; B.SHAHAROONA; T.MAHMOOD

    2008-01-01

    Two preselected plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyelopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)deaminase (EC 4.1.99.4) were used to investigate their potential to ameliorate the effects of drought stress on growth,yield,and ripening of pea (Pisum sativum L.).Inoculated and uninoculated (control) seeds of pea cultivar 2000 were sown in pots (four seeds pot-1) and placed in a wire house.The plants were exposed to drought stress at different stages of growth (vegetative,flowering,and pod formation) by skipping the respective irrigation.Results revealed that inoculation of peas with PGPR containing ACC-deaminase significantly decreased the "drought stress imposed effects" on the growth and yield of peas.Exposure of plants to drought stress at vegetative growth stage significantly decreased shoot growth by 41% in the ease of uninoculated plants,whereas,by only 18% in the case of inoculated plants compared to nonstressed unlnoculated controlGrain yield was decreased when plants were exposed to drought stress at the flowering and pod formation stage,but inoculation resulted in better grain yield (up to 62% and 40% higher,respectively) than the respective uninoculated nonstressed control.Ripening of pods was also delayed in plants inoculated with PGPR,which may imply decreased endogenous ethylene production in inoculated plants.This premise is further supported by the observation that inoculation with PGPR reduced the intensity of classical "triple" response in etiolated pea seedlings,caused by externally applied ACC.It is very probable that the drought stress induced inhibitory effects of ethylene could be partially or completely eliminated by inoculation with PGPR containing ACC-deaminase.

  17. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)- and (−)-Clusianone and (+)- and (−)Clusianone Methyl Enol Ether via ACC Alkylation and Evaluation of their Anti-HIV Activity

    Garnsey, Michelle R.; Matous, James A.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Coltart, Don M.

    2011-01-01

    The total asymmetric synthesis of (+)- and (−)-clusianone and (+)- and (−)-clusianone methyl enol ether is reported. Asymmetric induction is achieved through the use of ACC alkylation, providing the key intermediates with an er of 99:1. The four synthetic compounds were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity. Both (+)- and (−)-clusianone displayed significant anti-HIV activity. PMID:21414776

  18. AccPbFRET: An ImageJ plugin for semi-automatic, fully corrected analysis of acceptor photobleaching FRET images

    Vereb György; Szöllősi János; Roszik János (1979-) (biofizikus)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The acceptor photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method is widely used for monitoring molecular interactions in cells. This method of FRET, while among those with the simplest mathematics, is robust, self-controlled and independent of fluorophore amounts and ratios. Results AccPbFRET is a user-friendly, efficient ImageJ plugin which allows fully corrected, pixel-wise calculation and detailed, ROI (region of interest)-based analysis of FRET efficien...

  19. Combined treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma with cetuximab and IMRT plus C12 heavy ion boost: ACCEPT [ACC, Erbitux® and particle therapy

    Hinke Axel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local control in adjuvant/definitive RT of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is largely dose-dependent leading to the establishment of particle therapy in this indication. However, even modern techniques leave space for improvement of local control by intensification of local treatment. Radiation sensitization by exploitation of high EGFR-expression in ACC with the EGFR receptor antibody cetuximab seems promising. Methods/design The ACCEPT trial is a prospective, mono-centric, phase I/II trial evaluating toxicity (primary endpoint: acute and late effects and efficacy (secondary endpoint: local control, distant control, disease-free survival, overall survival of the combined treatment with IMRT/carbon ion boost and weekly cetuximab in 49 patients with histologically proven (≥R1-resected, inoperable or Pn+ ACC. Patients receive 18 GyE carbon ions (6 fractions and 54 Gy IMRT (2.0 Gy/fraction in combination with weekly cetuximab throughout radiotherapy. Discussion The primary objective of ACCEPT is to evaluate toxicity and feasibility of cetuximab and particle therapy in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT 01192087 EudraCT number: 2010 - 022425 - 15

  20. ''Autonomous driving'' at Heilbronn university. The ACC (Automotive Competence Center) project ''Fahrautomat''; ''Autonomes Fahren'' an der Hochschule Heilbronn. Das ACC (Automotive Competence Center) Projekt ''Fahrautomat''

    Kirchgaessner, D.; Troester, F. [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    The Heilbronn ACC was founded in 2004. It works on selected aspects of motor car technology and cooperates with the regional car parts supplier industries. Several teams carry out research on different aspects of the motor car. The author intends to provide an outline of the activities in automatic driving, i.e. driverless car control for car test purposes. (orig.)

  1. Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

  2. Surveillance of Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Anthropometric Variables among Four International Cricket Teams Competed in ACC Premier League Malaysia 2014

    Srinivas Mondam, Rahul Shaik, Jalaj Jalaja Prakash, Jeffrey Low Fook, Sirisha Nekkanti

    2016-04-01

    limbs and lower back. The incidence of acute problems is more in elbow and upper back regions. This may be acute injuries but not due to chronic over use. The anthropometric variations between groups participated in ACC premier league, Malaysia 2014 was also significantly differing from each other.

  3. Open problems in CEM: Porting an explicit time-domain volume-integral- equation solver on GPUs with OpenACC

    Ergül, Özgür

    2014-04-01

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) are gradually becoming mainstream in high-performance computing, as their capabilities for enhancing performance of a large spectrum of scientific applications to many fold when compared to multi-core CPUs have been clearly identified and proven. In this paper, implementation and performance-tuning details for porting an explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT)-based time-domain volume-integral-equation (TDVIE) solver onto GPUs are described in detail. To this end, a high-level approach, utilizing the OpenACC directive-based parallel programming model, is used to minimize two often-faced challenges in GPU programming: developer productivity and code portability. The MOT-TDVIE solver code, originally developed for CPUs, is annotated with compiler directives to port it to GPUs in a fashion similar to how OpenMP targets multi-core CPUs. In contrast to CUDA and OpenCL, where significant modifications to CPU-based codes are required, this high-level approach therefore requires minimal changes to the codes. In this work, we make use of two available OpenACC compilers, CAPS and PGI. Our experience reveals that different annotations of the code are required for each of the compilers, due to different interpretations of the fairly new standard by the compiler developers. Both versions of the OpenACC accelerated code achieved significant performance improvements, with up to 30× speedup against the sequential CPU code using recent hardware technology. Moreover, we demonstrated that the GPU-accelerated fully explicit MOT-TDVIE solver leveraged energy-consumption gains of the order of 3× against its CPU counterpart. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Desenvolupament d'una plataforma basada en Android d'accés a dades en edificis en cas d'emergència

    Bestard Martí, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Desenvolupament d'una plataforma basada en Android d'accés a dades en edificis en cas d'emergències. [ANGLÈS] This project aims to address the creation of an application targeted for mobile platforms to access important information on emergency scenarios. This application will enable the person who uses it to get a quick easy recognition by building a map with icons. This map will include among others: access points to important elements of emergency (fire hydrants, machinery, location of ...

  5. Integrated use of Rhizobium leguminosarum, Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Enriched Compost for Improving Growth, Nodulation and Yield of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. Uso Integrado de Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rizobacterias Promotoras de Crecimiento Vegetal y Compost Enriquecido para Mejorar el Crecimiento, Nodulación y Rendimiento de Lenteja (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Muhammad Asif Iqbal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of high bacterial population in the rhizosphere improves the efficiency of these organisms. This high bacterial population can be maintained by the application of enriched compost which supports their growth and activities. Thus integrated use of Rhizobium, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC-deaminase and P-enriched compost (PEC could be highly effective for promoting growth, nodulation, and yield of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.. A field study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Rhizobium, PGPR containing ACC-deaminase and PEC for promoting growth of lentil. For this study, the soil type was sandy clay loam soil having pH 7.6; EC (electrical conductivity 2.8 dS m-1; organic matter (OM 0.59%; total N 0.032%; available P 7.9 mg kg-1, and extractable K 129 mg kg-1. Treatments were replicated thrice, using randomized complete block (RCB design. Results showed that the integrated use of R. leguminosarum with Pseudomonas spp. containing ACC-deaminase along with PEC was highly effective and caused up to 73.5, 73.9, 74.4, 67.5, 73.3, 65.8, 40.5, and 52.5% increase in fresh biomass, grain yield, straw yield, pods plant-1, nodule plant-1, nodule dry weight plant-1, 1000-grain weight, and N content in grain of lentil, respectively, as compared to respective control. It is concluded that integrated use of R. leguminosarum with Pseudomonas spp. having trait ACC-deaminase plus PEC would be an effective approach for better nodulation which consequently improved yield of lentil under natural conditions.La mantención de una alta población bacteriana en la rizósfera mejora la eficiencia de estos organismos. Esta población bacteriana puede ser mantenida por la aplicación de compost enriquecido que mantiene su crecimiento y actividades. Por lo tanto, el uso integrado de Rhizobium, rhizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal (PGPR conteniendo 1-aminociclopropano-1

  6. La Course des Accélérateurs de Particules vers les Hautes Energies et la Log Périodicité

    Ivan Brissaud

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plusieurs familles d'accélérateurs de particules se sont succédées grâce à des innovations notables depuis le cyclotron de Lawrence jusqu'au LHC du CERN. Chaque saut d'innovation a permis des gains en énergie importants, nécessaires pour l'obtention d'avancées scientifiques significatives. Les différentes caractéristiques de ces sauts sont mises en évidence montrant que l'ensemble des accélérateurs constitue un système complexe. Une loi log périodique permet de rendre compte de la chronologie de ces innovations comme elle le fait pour de nombreux phénomènes naturels (séismes, avalanches.. ou économiques (krach... En conclusion, des techniques autres que celles utilisées depuis le début du XXe siècle semblent nécessaires dans l'avenir pour maintenir le haut niveau scientifique de la Physique des Particules.

  7. Référentiel aspad D83 contrôle d'accès : document technique pour la conception et l'installation

    2012-01-01

    Le référentiel APSAD D83 a pour objectif d’accompagner les utilisateurs, prescripteurs, concepteurs et installateurs dans la conduite d'un projet de contrôle des accès physiques. Qu'il s'agisse d'éviter les pénétrations de personnes pouvant constituer une menace ou de filtrer les flux, il définit tous les paramètres à prendre en compte pour formuler un choix technologique adapté aux impératifs de sûreté du site et à son budget. La méthode utilisée comprend une analyse des besoins et des risques, la conception et la réalisation du système de contrôle d'accès, la formation des utilisateurs et la maintenance. Cette édition de novembre 2012 du référentiel APSAD D83 annule et remplace l’édition d’octobre 2005 du référentiel CNPP 5083.

  8. Les accélérateurs de particules : vecteurs de découvertes, moteurs de développement.

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    English version follows Les accélérateurs de particules : vecteurs de découvertes, moteurs de développement. par Dr. Philippe Lebrun Les accélérateurs de particules existent depuis plus d’un siècle comme instruments de recherche fondamentale qui ont permis la découverte des particules élémentaires et leur étude à des échelles toujours plus fines. Épousant les technologies émergentes dont ils ont stimulé les progrès, ils se sont développés de manière exponentielle tout au long du XXe siècle, pour être aujourd’hui les grands outils de la recherche en physique des particules, mais aussi – comme puissantes sources de rayonnements permettant de sonder la matière – en physique atomique et moléculaire, en physique d...

  9. AccPbFRET: An ImageJ plugin for semi-automatic, fully corrected analysis of acceptor photobleaching FRET images

    Vereb György

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acceptor photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET method is widely used for monitoring molecular interactions in cells. This method of FRET, while among those with the simplest mathematics, is robust, self-controlled and independent of fluorophore amounts and ratios. Results AccPbFRET is a user-friendly, efficient ImageJ plugin which allows fully corrected, pixel-wise calculation and detailed, ROI (region of interest-based analysis of FRET efficiencies in microscopic images. Furthermore, automatic registration and semi-automatic analysis of large image sets is provided, which are not available in any existing FRET evaluation software. Conclusion Despite of the widespread applicability of the acceptor photobleaching FRET technique, this is the first paper where all possible sources of major errors of the measurement and analysis are considered, and AccPbFRET is the only program which provides the complete suite of corrections – for registering image pairs, for unwanted photobleaching of the donor, for cross-talk of the acceptor and/or its photoproduct to the donor channel and for partial photobleaching of the acceptor. The program efficiently speeds up the analysis of large image sets even for novice users and is freely available.

  10. STUDIES ON INHIBITION MECHANISM OF GERMINATION BY ETHYLENE IN SALT-STRESSED ALFALFA SEEDS%乙烯消减盐抑制苜蓿种子萌发的机理研究

    李振国; 倪君蒂

    2001-01-01

    0.25 mol/L的 NaCl 胁迫下的苜蓿种子转变1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸(ACC)和乙烯 利为乙烯的能力明显降低.加入外源乙烯能引发受NaCl胁迫48 h的苜蓿种子迅速萌发,但对 种子内的Na+含量无明显影响.在种子吸涨过程中,外源乙烯对受 NaCl胁迫的种子的水分 吸收也无影响. 外源乙烯能显著地提高NaCl胁迫下种子的呼吸速率和ATP含量.对乙烯消减 盐抑制苜蓿种子萌发的作用机理进行了讨论. 图6 表1 参21%The ability of alfalfa seeds to convert various concentration of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic a cid (ACC) and ethephon (ETH) to ethylene was found much lower under saline (c(NaCl)=0.25 mol/L) than under no-saline condition. Addition of exogeno us ethylene (φ=3 μL/L) could trigger rapid germination of alfalfa seed stressed by 0.25 mol / L NaCl solution for 48 h, but did not affect Na+ conte nt in NaCl-stressed seeds. During the imbibition of seeds, addition of exogenou s ethylene also did not affect the water uptake of the NaCl-stressed seeds. The results showed no obvious difference in water or Na+ content in the seeds str essed by NaCl in either the presence or the absence of exogenous ethylene. Exoge nous ethylene greatly increased respiratory rate and ATP level in NaCl-stressed alfalfa seeds. It is presumed that enhancement of ATP formation is an importan t mechanism by which the inhibition of germination of salt-stressed alfalfa see ds is alleviated by ethylene. Mechanism of alleviation of inhibition by ethylene in salt-stressed alfalfa seeds was discussed. Fig 6, Tab 1, Ref 21

  11. EFFECT OF WALNUT HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES, ACID COPPER CHROMATE, AND BORIC ACID ON WHITE-ROT DECAY RESISTANCE OF TREATED BEECH SAPWOOD

    Vahid Feraydoni,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the individual and interaction effects of wood extractives, acid copper chromate (ACC, and boric acid (B on the resistance to fungus of treated wood species. Walnut (Juglans regia L. heartwood extractives were extracted with hot water, methanol, and ethanol solvents. Test specimens were prepared from beech sapwood (Fagus orientalis to meet BS 838 (1961 requirements, then exposed to white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, for 14 weeks under laboratory conditions. Extractives of walnut heartwood contributed to increased resistance against fungus attack in the presence of B preservative only. The lowest weight loss (0.12% occurred in the samples treated with 3.5% hot water extract and 1% boric acid, and the highest weight loss occurred in the control samples (23.7%. Results indicated that there was significant difference between the weight loss and actual retention for all treatments, but there was not any significant difference between the weight loss of treatments containing B preservative. The weight loss of samples treated with hot water extract (18.32% was less than samples treated with methanol and ethanol extracts (21.5% and 23.1%, respectively. There was significant difference between the individual and interaction effects of wood extractives on the resistance to fungus of treated wood species. An emulsified mixture of B and walnut heartwood extractives controlled decay fungus on beech wood better than the mixture of ACC and walnut heartwood extractives, but ACC alone controlled decay fungus on beech wood better than the emulsified mixture of ACC and walnut heartwood extractives.

  12. Les effets de la vente en ligne sur les inégalités territoriales d'accès au commerce. Vers un nivellement des disparités urbain-périurbain ?

    BELIN-MUNIER, Christine; BELTON CHEVALLIER, Leslie; Carrouet, Guillaume; CHRETIEN, Julie; Dablanc, Laetitia; DE CONNINCK, Frédéric; FORTIN, François; JEGOU, Anne; MORGANTI, Eléonora; MOTTE BAUMVOL, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    L’accessibilité géographique des populations aux biens est différenciée selon les espaces. Les populations des centres-villes peuvent accéder à pieds, à proximité de leur domicile à des magasins offrant un large choix de biens, alors que les populations périurbaines doivent parcourir plusieurs kilomètres en voiture pour accéder au premier magasin de proximité. Depuis les années 1990, le commerce à destination des particuliers (business-to-consumer) connaît de fortes évolutions, avec le dévelo...

  13. Gut Microbial Fatty Acid Metabolites Reduce Triacylglycerol Levels in Hepatocytes.

    Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Furumoto, Hidehiro; Zheng, Jiawen; Kim, Young-Il; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxy and oxo fatty acids were recently found to be produced as intermediates during gut microbial fatty acid metabolism. Lactobacillus plantarum produces these fatty acids from unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of these gut microbial fatty acid metabolites on the lipogenesis in liver cells. We screened their effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells treated with a synthetic liver X receptor α (LXRα) agonist (T0901317). The results showed that 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (18:1) (HYA), 10-hydroxy-6(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) (γHYA), 10-oxo-12(Z)-18:1 (KetoA), and 10-oxo-6(Z),12(Z)-18:2 (γKetoA) significantly decreased SREBP-1c mRNA expression induced by T0901317. These fatty acids also downregulated the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes by suppressing LXRα activity and inhibiting SREBP-1 maturation. Oral administration of KetoA, which effectively reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) expression in HepG2 cells, for 2 weeks significantly decreased Srebp-1c, Scd-1, and Acc2 expression in the liver of mice fed a high-sucrose diet. Our findings suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of the fatty acid metabolites produced by L. plantarum can be exploited in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or dyslipidemia. PMID:26399511

  14. LES EFFETS DU BENEVOLAT SUR L'ACCES A L'EMPLOI : UNE EXPERIENCE CONTROLEE SUR DES JEUNES QUALIFIES D'ILE DE FRANCE

    Bougard, Jonathan; Brodaty, Thomas; Emond, Céline; L'Horty, Yannick; Du Parquet, Loïc; Petit, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    L'objet de cette étude est d'évaluer l'effet d'activités de bénévolat pendant les études universitaires sur l'accès à l'emploi en Ile-de-France de jeunes qualifiés. L'étude est réalisée sur données expérimentales de testing. Elle rend compte de la valorisation par les employeurs de la mise en évidence dans une candidature d'activités de bénévolat dans l'une des associations suivantes : les Scouts et Guides de France, une fédération sportive, la Croix Rouge Française, la Protection Civile, l'A...

  15. Brevets pharmaceutiques, génériques et santé publique. Le cas de l’accès aux traitements antirétroviraux

    Coriat, Benjamin; Orsi, Fabienne

    2006-01-01

    En 1994, la signature des ADPIC a signifié l’entrée dans un monde régi par le type de droits de propriété intellectuelle qui s’était établi dans les pays les plus développés. Une série de problèmes nouveaux, notamment pour ce qui concerne l’accès aux soins des pays à bas revenus, ont alors surgi. En se basant sur le cas de la lutte contre l’épidémie du Sida, l’article explore les contradictions et les tensions qu’a fait naître la signature des ADPIC en matière de Santé publique....

  16. Etat de l'art des méthodes d'accès multi-canal pour les réseaux locaux sans fil

    Senoussi Hissein, Mahamat Habib; Van Den Bossche, Adrien; Val, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Au cours de cette dernière décennie, on constate un grand progrès dans le domaine des réseaux locaux sans fil. Leur déploiement se manifeste dans plusieurs domaines d'applications. Cependant, ces applications font face à plusieurs obstacles dus à une gestion difficile à l'accès au médium. Ceci mène le plus souvent à certains problèmes tels que : les collisions, la dégradation du débit et l'augmentation des délais. Pour surmonter ces défis, des travaux de recherches se sont focalisés sur de no...

  17. Etude de la représentivité d'un essai de vieillissement accéléré par un calcul de champs tridimensionnel

    Vitet, Sylvain; Krähenbühl, Laurent; Wanser, Sven; Ben Driss, Khaled

    1991-01-01

    L'essai de vieillissement accéléré est utilisé par EDF pour qualifier les isolateurs composite utilisés sur son réseau. Cette communication justifie, grâce à des caiculs de champs, l'emploi d'une maquette MT pour la qualification d'isolateur HT au cours de cet essai. Elle montre toutefois que pour la qualification d'appareils, à enveloppe synthétique, dotés de parties internes actives, l'utilisation d'une maquette est plus difficile. De plus, la modélisation de la couche de pollution présente...

  18. Accès et recours aux soins de santé dans la sous-préfecture de Ouessè (Bénin)

    Richard, Jean-Luc; Chiffelle, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    Cette thèse de géographie de la santé, plus spécifiquement de géographie des services et soins de santé, décrit une région rurale du Bénin central - la sous-préfecture de Ouessè - à travers les comportements de recherche de soins de santé de ses habitants. Au moyen du concept central d'accès, dont plusieurs dimensions sont explicitées et analysées, nous avons confronté les caractéristiques de la population, y compris ses besoins de santé, à celles de l'offre de soins. La thèse défendue tout à...

  19. Desenvolupament d'una xarxa telemàtica per a proveir accés a Internet en un petit municipi

    Mundó Ferrús, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    El projecte presenta el desplegament d'una infraestructura d'accés a Internet sense fils per a un territori d'uns 7 Km2. Per tant, els principals components del projecte són la memòria tècnica -capítols 2 a 14- i una memòria econòmica -capítol 15-. Al llarg de la memòria tècnica, es presenta la problemàtica, les possibles solucions tècniques, el maquinari proposat, la parametrització de la xarxa, la proposta per a un règim de coubicació, el pla de manteniment de la infraestructura i el pla d...

  20. Mobilité et accès à la ville pour le travail des populations pauvres du périurbain d’Oran

    Rebouha, Fafa; Pochet, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Dans la métropole d’Oran, les espaces périurbains sont marqués à la fois par le sous-équipement et une offre en transport qui ne répond pas aux besoins de déplacements de leurs résidents. Dans ce contexte d’urbanisation très rapide, la population, souvent pauvre, qui habite le périurbain connaît des difficultés pour satisfaire ses besoins de mobilité. Il s’agit de connaître dans quelle mesure ces difficultés de déplacements pour accéder aux lieux d’emplois contribuent à renforcer les situatio...

  1. Accélération d’électrons et rayonnement betatron générés par sillage laser dans des tubes capillaires

    Ju, Jinchuan

    2013-01-01

    Cette thèse porte sur le rayonnement X bêtatron généré par des électrons accélérés par sillage laser plasma dans des tubes capillaires diélectriques. En l’état actuel de la technologie des impulsions laser multi-térawatts, on peut produire des faisceaux ayant une intensité crête élevée, de l’ordre de 1018 W/cm2 dans le plan focal. Une telle impulsion laser se propageant au sein d’un gaz sous-dense conduit à des phénomènes d’interaction laser-plasma non-linéaires, tels que la création d’une bu...

  2. Implicacions de la revisió per parells (peer review) per a les revistes electròniques i en accés obert

    Serrat-Brustenga, Marta

    2011-01-01

    El sistema de revisió per parells (peer review) esdevé clau en el sistema de publicació científic. El present treball explora les modalitats d'aquest procés de revisió en revistes electròniques de les àrees de la física i la informàtica i, d'una manera especial, en revistes d'accés obert. S'ha dissenyat i enviat una enquesta en línia a 193 publicacions periòdiques per obtenir dades sobre la revisió que porten a terme per als seus articles i es conclou que actualment no hi ha una diferència su...

  3. L’archéologie et la datation par spectrométriede masse couplée à un accélérateur (Sma)

    Oberlin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    La mise en service, à Saclay, d’Artemis, spectromètre de masse couplé à un accélérateur entièrement dédié à la mesure du carbone 14 (14C) a, entre autres objectifs, de répondre aux attentes de la communauté archéologique en matière de datations. En effet, la datation par le 14C est de loin la technique la plus connue et la plus utilisée en archéologie. Elle a conduit depuis sa mise au point dans les années 1950, à l’élaboration d’un véritable calendrier carbone 14 retraçant toutes les étapes ...

  4. 基于ADAMS和MATLAB联合的汽车ACC系统仿真%Co-simulation study on vehicle ACC system based on ADAMS and MATLAB

    时培成; 汪太平

    2006-01-01

    利用ADAMS/Car建立整车多体动力学模型,在MATLAB/Simulink环境中建立自适应巡航控制(ACC)系统模型,并将ACC系统控制程序导入到ADAMS软件中,以实现带有控制的车辆机电一体化联合仿真.各种工况下对ACC系统控制过程中车辆动态特性的仿真结果表明:所建立的整车系统模型和联合仿真分析方法是正确的.

  5. Characterization of a novel trans-sialidase of Trypanosoma brucei procyclic trypomastigotes and identification of procyclin as the main sialic acid acceptor

    1993-01-01

    Here we report the presence of a trans-sialidase on the surface of Trypanosoma brucei culture-derived procyclic trypomastigotes. The enzyme is not detected in lysates of bloodstream trypomastigotes enriched for either stumpy or slender forms. The trans-sialidase catalyzes the transfer of alpha(2-3)-linked sialic acid residues to lactose. beta-galactopyranosyl residues are at least 100 times better acceptors for sialic acid than alpha-galactopyranosyl residues. In the absence of efficient acce...

  6. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines

    The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular (CV) diseases, improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research, and develop guidelines, standards and policies that promot...

  7. Performance of a Code Migration for the Simulation of Supersonic Ejector Flow to SMP, MIC, and GPU Using OpenMP, OpenMP+LEO, and OpenACC Directives

    C. Couder-Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A serial source code for simulating a supersonic ejector flow is accelerated using parallelization based on OpenMP and OpenACC directives. The purpose is to reduce the development costs and to simplify the maintenance of the application due to the complexity of the FORTRAN source code. This research follows well-proven strategies in order to obtain the best performance in both OpenMP and OpenACC. OpenMP has become the programming standard for scientific multicore software and OpenACC is one true alternative for graphics accelerators without the need of programming low level kernels. The strategies using OpenMP are oriented towards reducing the creation of parallel regions, tasks creation to handle boundary conditions, and a nested control of the loop time for the programming in offload mode specifically for the Xeon Phi. In OpenACC, the strategy focuses on maintaining the data regions among the executions of the kernels. Experiments for performance and validation are conducted here on a 12-core Xeon CPU, Xeon Phi 5110p, and Tesla C2070, obtaining the best performance from the latter. The Tesla C2070 presented an acceleration factor of 9.86X, 1.6X, and 4.5X compared against the serial version on CPU, 12-core Xeon CPU, and Xeon Phi, respectively.

  8. A Different Pattern of Production and Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species in Halophytic Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea) Plants in Comparison to Arabidopsis thaliana and Its Relation to Salt Stress Signaling

    Pilarska, Maria; Wiciarz, Monika; Jajić, Ivan; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Dobrev, Petre; Vanková, Radomíra; Niewiadomska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Isolated thylakoids from halophytic Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea) produces more H2O2 in comparison to glycophytic Arabidopsis thaliana. The first objective of this study was to verify whether this feature is relevant also to the intact chloroplasts and leaves. Enhanced H2O2 levels in chloroplasts and leaves of E. salsugineum were positively verified with several methods (electron microscopy, staining with Amplex Red and with diaminobenzidine). This effect was associated with a decreased ratio of O2•–/H2O2 in E. salsugineum in comparison to A. thaliana as detected by electron paramagnetic resonance method. As a next step, we tested how this specific ROS signature of halophytic species affects the antioxidant status and down-stream components of ROS signaling. Comparison of enzymatic antioxidants revealed a decreased activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), enhanced activity of glutathione peroxidase, and the presence of thylakoid-bound forms of iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) and APX in E. salsugineum. These cues were, however, independent from application of salt stress. The typical H2O2-dependent cellular responses, namely the levels of glucosinolates and stress-related hormones were determined. The total glucosinolate content in E. salsugineum water-treated leaves was higher than in A. thaliana and increased after salinity treatment. Treatment with salinity up-regulated all of tested stress hormones, their precursors and catabolites [abscisic acid (ABA), dihydrophaseic acid, phaseic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine] in A. thaliana, whereas in E. salsugineum only a stimulation in ethylene synthesis and ABA catabolism was noted. Obtained results suggest that constitutively enhanced H2O2 generation in chloroplasts of E. salsugineum might be a crucial component of stress-prepardeness of this halophytic species. It shapes a very efficient

  9. A Different Pattern of Production and Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species in Halophytic Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea) Plants in Comparison to Arabidopsis thaliana and Its Relation to Salt Stress Signaling.

    Pilarska, Maria; Wiciarz, Monika; Jajić, Ivan; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Dobrev, Petre; Vanková, Radomíra; Niewiadomska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Isolated thylakoids from halophytic Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea) produces more H2O2 in comparison to glycophytic Arabidopsis thaliana. The first objective of this study was to verify whether this feature is relevant also to the intact chloroplasts and leaves. Enhanced H2O2 levels in chloroplasts and leaves of E. salsugineum were positively verified with several methods (electron microscopy, staining with Amplex Red and with diaminobenzidine). This effect was associated with a decreased ratio of [Formula: see text]/H2O2 in E. salsugineum in comparison to A. thaliana as detected by electron paramagnetic resonance method. As a next step, we tested how this specific ROS signature of halophytic species affects the antioxidant status and down-stream components of ROS signaling. Comparison of enzymatic antioxidants revealed a decreased activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), enhanced activity of glutathione peroxidase, and the presence of thylakoid-bound forms of iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) and APX in E. salsugineum. These cues were, however, independent from application of salt stress. The typical H2O2-dependent cellular responses, namely the levels of glucosinolates and stress-related hormones were determined. The total glucosinolate content in E. salsugineum water-treated leaves was higher than in A. thaliana and increased after salinity treatment. Treatment with salinity up-regulated all of tested stress hormones, their precursors and catabolites [abscisic acid (ABA), dihydrophaseic acid, phaseic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine] in A. thaliana, whereas in E. salsugineum only a stimulation in ethylene synthesis and ABA catabolism was noted. Obtained results suggest that constitutively enhanced H2O2 generation in chloroplasts of E. salsugineum might be a crucial component of stress-prepardeness of this halophytic species. It shapes a very

  10. Immigration(s et accès aux soins en Guyane Immigration(s and access to health care in French Guyana

    Estelle Carde

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available L’immigration en Guyane est plurielle. Aux migrants caribéens que la précarité et les violences politiques ont chassés de chez eux se mêlent des migrants partis de France métropolitaine pour goûter à l’exotisme de cette société française sise en Amérique du Sud. Cette pluralité se retrouve lorsque les premiers, usagers étrangers du système de soins, rencontrent des professionnels qui, bien que français, sont soit autochtones, soit eux-mêmes migrants. Ces usagers étrangers sont parfois victimes de discriminations opérées par des professionnels autochtones qui les suspectent de venir profiter indûment du système de soins local. Si ces discriminations ont également cours ailleurs en France, elles sont exacerbées en Guyane par l’importance des flux migratoires et des difficultés socio-économiques. Une autre figure de l’accès aux soins en contexte d’immigration, plus spécifique à la Guyane, est celle de professionnels migrants qui attribuent à certains de leurs usagers étrangers, au nom de leur identité ethnique, une autochtonie que ne leur reconnaît pas la loi. Enfin, les enjeux de l’accès aux soins en contexte d’immigration s’articulent à l’ensemble des rapports sociaux inégalitaires qui traversent la société guyanaise.Immigration in French Guyana is plural. Caribbean migrants, driven away by poverty and political violence, mix with migrants who left metropolitan France to taste the exotism of this French society in South America. This plurality shapes access to health care, since foreign users meet French professionals who are either native or migrants. These foreigners may be victims of discrimination on the part of native professionals who suspect them of taking advantage of the local health care system. Whereas such discrimination exists elsewhere in France, the situation seems exacerbated in French Guyana by the importance of the migratory flows and socioeconomic difficulties. Migrant

  11. Amino acids

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  12. Selected aspects of social cognition in patient with total agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC and Arnold-Chiari desease – case study

    Daniluk, Beata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The goal of the research was a characteristic of emotional-social competencies and communicative abilities in a 16-years old patient with ACC and Arnold-Chiari disease and higher than average intelligence. Method. RHLB-PL was applied. Results. Total score in RHLB-PL suggested language and communication impairment. The greatest problems were observed in the field of behavioral self-control and discourse abilities. The patient had difficulties in the topic of the discourse maintaining, resisting from production of unconnected topics and comments, interject inappropriate remarks. Problems in humor comprehension and the dissociation between relative high level of written metaphors analysis abilities and low level of Picture Metaphors perception and explanation were observed. Linguistic Prosody was average. Conclusion. Patient M.J. with agenesis of corpus callosum presented high number of deficits typical in right hemisphere damage patients. It is possible to explain that fact in the context of interhemispheric transfer disorders, specially when complex material was processed.

  13. Decay kinetics model of available chlorine in slightly acidic electrolyzed water in storage and disinfection process%微酸性电解水储藏和杀菌过程中有效氯衰减的动力学模型

    和劲松; 祁凡雨; 叶章颖; 杨楠; 魏晓明; 朱松明

    2013-01-01

      为探明微酸性电解水(slightly acidic electrolyzed water, SAEW)在储藏及杀菌过程中理化指标的变化规律,将SAEW置于25、30、35、40、50℃环境温度下,测定其主要理化特性参数pH值、氧化还原电位(ORP),以及有效氯质量浓度(ACC)随储藏时间(0~12 d)的变化,同时也测定了 SAEW 对大肠杆菌(ATCC 25922)杀菌过程中ACC的变化规律。SAEW的pH值随储藏时间的延长而增大,ORP和ACC则减小,且储藏温度越高,各理化特性参数的变化幅度越大;在 SAEW 对大肠杆菌的杀菌过程中,ACC 值不断降低。同时对储藏过程及杀菌过程中的有效氯衰减建立动力学模型,拟合后决定系数均达0.90以上。结果表明储藏温度和储藏时间对SAEW的理化特性参数有明显影响,且储藏过程与杀菌过程中的有效氯衰减符合一级动力学模型。相关研究结果为SAEW在农业、食品、医疗及环保等领域的应用提供了参考。%Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) with pH 5.0–6.5 is produced by electrolysis of dilute hydrochloric acid or salt solution in a chamber without membrane. SAEW can effectively kill various pathogenic bacteria as one of the most potential green disinfectants. However, SAEW is susceptible to be exposed to time, air, and illumination etc. To study SAEW during storage and disinfection, the variations of pH value, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and available chlorine concentration (ACC) were analyzed under different storage temperatures (25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, and 50°C) for 12 days. Furthermore, variations in ACC during Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) disinfection were investigated. The results showed that the pH increased, but the ORP and ACC decreased during storage. When SAEW was stored in a transparent bottle at 25°C for 12 days, the ACC of SAEW was decreased from 20.53mg/L to 5.06mg/L, and the ORP of SAEW was also decreased from 821mv to 641 mv, while pH was

  14. Inibição da síntese da ACC (ácido 1-carboxílico-1-aminociclopropano) oxidase em maçãs frigoconservadas em atmosfera controlada

    Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Jaqueline Dettmann BIERHALS; SILVA Jorge Adolfo; ROMBALDI Cesar Valmor

    1999-01-01

    Foi estudada a expressão da ACC oxidase em maçãs, cv. Jonagold, colhidas no estádio pré-climatérico e armazenadas sob refrigeração em atmosfera normal (0ºC, 95% UR - AN) e controlada (0ºC, 95% UR, 1,5% O2 e 2,5% CO2 - AC), durante 180 dias. Na instalação do experimento, aos 90 e aos 120 dias, foram coletadas amostras para a determinação da firmeza de polpa, da acidez total titulável, dos sólidos solúveis totais, da produção de etileno, da atividade ACC oxidase e para a detecção imunoquímica d...

  15. Les effets de la livraison à domicile sur l’accès aux produits alimentaires : le cas des grandes surfaces alimentaires et des cybermarchés de l’aire urbaine dijonnaise

    MOTTE BAUMVOL, Benjamin; BELTON CHEVALLIER, Leslie; SCHOELZEL, Miriam; CARROUET, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    L’accessibilité des populations aux Grandes Surfaces Alimentaires (GSA) est différenciée selon les espaces. Si une très grande majorité de périurbains n’éprouvent pas de difficultés pour y accéder, certains y font face plus difficilement. Pour ces ménages en particulier, la livraison à domicile, constitue un moyen d’améliorer leur accès en supprimant les difficultés liées aux déplacements. A partir d’une recension de l’offre et d’une enquête par entretiens ...

  16. Differences in cerebral response to esophageal acid stimuli and psychological anticipation in GERD subtypes - An fMRI study

    Liu Jian-Yu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether there are differences in the cerebral response to intraesophageal acid and psychological anticipation stimuli among subtypes of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Methods Thirty nine patients with GERD and 11 healthy controls were enrolled in this study after gastroscopy and 24 hr pH monitoring. GERD subjects were divided into four subgroups: RE (reflux esophagitis, NERD+ (non-erosive reflux disease with excessive acid reflux, NERD-SI+ (normal acid exposure and positive symptom index and NERD-SI+ (normal acid exposure and negative symptom index, but responded to proton pump inhibitor trial. Cerebral responses to intraesophageal acid and psychological anticipation were evaluated with fMRI. Results During intraesophageal acid stimulation, the prefrontal cortex (PFC region was significantly activated in all subgroups of GERD; the insular cortex (IC region was also activated in RE, NERD+ and NERD-SI- groups; the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC region was activated only in RE and NERD-SI- groups. The RE subgroup had the shortest peak time in the PFC region after acid was infused, and presented the greatest change in fMRI signals in the PFC and ACC region (P = 0.008 and P = 0.001, respectively. During psychological anticipation, the PFC was significantly activated in both the control and GERD groups. Activation of the IC region was found in the RE, NERD-SI+ and NERD-SI- subgroups. The ACC was activated only in the NERD-SI+ and NERD-SI- subgroups. In the PFC region, the NERD-SI- subgroup had the shortest onset time (P = 0.008 and peak time (P Conclusions The four subgroups of GERD patients and controls showed distinctly different activation patterns and we therefore conclude GERD patients have different patterns of visceral perception and psychological anticipation. Psychological factors play a more important role in NERD-SI+ and NERD-SI- groups than in RE and NERD+ groups.

  17. The common traits of the ACC and PFC in anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Jing Shang

    fear, and the importance of the ventral anterior cingulate (ACC/medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in mediating anxiety symptoms.

  18. Dutch randomized trial comparing standard catheter-directed thrombolysis versus Ultrasound-accElerated Thrombolysis for thromboembolic infrainguinal disease (DUET: design and rationale

    Fioole Bram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of thrombosed infrainguinal native arteries and bypass grafts has increased over the years. Main limitation of this treatment modality, however, is the occurrence of bleeding complications. Low intensity ultrasound (US has been shown to accelerate enzymatic thrombolysis, thereby reducing therapy time. So far, no randomized trials have investigated the application of US-accelerated thrombolysis in the treatment of thrombosed infra-inguinal native arteries or bypass grafts. The DUET study (Dutch randomized trial comparing standard catheter-directed thrombolysis versus Ultrasound-accElerated Thrombolysis for thrombo-embolic infrainguinal disease is designed to assess whether US-accelerated thrombolysis will reduce therapy time significantly compared with standard catheter-directed thrombolysis. Methods/design Sixty adult patients with recently (between 1 and 7 weeks thrombosed infrainguinal native arteries or bypass grafts with acute limb ischemia class I or IIa, according to the Rutherford classification for acute ischemia, will be randomly allocated to either standard thrombolysis (group A or US-accelerated thrombolysis (group B. Patients will be recruited from 5 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands during a 2-year period. The primary endpoint is the duration of catheter-directed thrombolysis needed for uninterrupted flow in the thrombosed infrainguinal native artery or bypass graft, with outflow through at least 1 crural artery. Discussion The DUET study is a randomized controlled trial that will provide evidence of whether US-accelerated thrombolysis will significantly reduce therapy time in patients with recently thrombosed infrainguinal native arteries or bypass grafts, without an increase in complications. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72676102

  19. Accélération du temps, crise du futur, crise de la politique Acceleration of time, the crisis of the future, the crisis of politics

    Carmen Leccardi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aujourd'hui, les sociétés occidentales ressemblent de plus en plus à des "nanocraties" – c'est ainsi qu'il a été proposé de les rebaptiser d'après la prééminence absolue, en leur sein, de la dimension de la vitesse. En d'autres termes, à notre époque les démocraties seraient devenues le règne des espaces temporels toujours plus restreints dont la nanoseconde peut être considérée comme le symbole.Mais quelles sont les retombées de ce processus sur l’idée de futur ?Si au cours du XXe siècle, l'image du futur en tant qu'espace regorgeant de possibilités s'est progressivement affaiblie, c'est essentiellement ce nouveau siècle qui a mis en relief le croisement entre l'accélération sociale d'un côté, et la crise du futur de l'autre.L'augmentation du rythme de vie ainsi que l'accélération des processus de transformation économique, sociale et technologique, annihilent le futur. En raison de la pression temporelle ainsi produite, le futur a tendance à se replier sur le présent, se consume avant même d’être représenté. À leur tour, les nouveaux idéaux d’instantanéité et de mobilité ont une incidence négative sur la conception de la politique en tant que champ d'action ouvert pour le contrôle des processus de changement, et la mettent en crise.Dans les conclusions l’article indique toutefois la possibilité d’une vision de la politique à même de se soustraire aux impératifs de l’accélération. Une telle vision s’allie aux « savoirs situés » féminins, à la multiplicité des temps et à la centralité de la vie quotidienne qu’ils renferment. Ensemble, ils disposeraient peut-être encore du potentiel de reconstruction de formes d’agora.Today, Western societies appear more and more like ‘nanocracies‘, as it has been proposed to rename them, because of the absolute pre-eminence of the dimension of speed within them. In other words, democracies in our time have arguably become the reign

  20. Ca2+- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channel activators in the 5β-cholanic acid-3α-ol analogue series with modifications in lateral chain

    Bukiya, Anna N.; Patil, Shivaputra; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane; Dopico, Alex M.

    2012-01-01

    Large conductance, calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels regulate various physiological processes and represent an attractive target for drug discovery. Numerous BK channel activators are available. However, these agents usually interact with the ubiquitously distributed channel-forming subunit and thus cannot selectively target a particular tissue. Here, we performed structure-activity relationship study of lithocholic acid (LCA), a cholane that activates BK channels via the acc...

  1. TransStats_ACC8993

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — First Porting Results Accidents were ported by Project TMIS Consultant staff during Phase 1A. QC (Quality Control) code "0" was assigned to those records that...

  2. A first insight into the occurrence and expression of functional amoA and accA genes of autotrophic and ammonia-oxidizing bathypelagic Crenarchaeota of Tyrrhenian Sea

    Yakimov, Michail M.; Cono, Violetta La; Denaro, Renata

    2009-05-01

    The autotrophic and ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeal assemblage at offshore site located in the deep Mediterranean (Tyrrhenian Sea, depth 3000 m) water was studied by PCR amplification of the key functional genes involved in energy (ammonia mono-oxygenase alpha subunit, amoA) and central metabolism (acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha subunit, accA). Using two recently annotated genomes of marine crenarchaeons, an initial set of primers targeting archaeal accA-like genes was designed. Approximately 300 clones were analyzed, of which 100% of amoA library and almost 70% of accA library were unambiguously related to the corresponding genes from marine Crenarchaeota. Even though the acetyl-CoA carboxylase is phylogenetically not well conserved and the remaining clones were affiliated to various bacterial acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase genes, the pool of archaeal sequences was applied for development of quantitative PCR analysis of accA-like distribution using TaqMan ® methodolgy. The archaeal accA gene fragments, together with alignable gene fragments from the Sargasso Sea and North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (ALOHA Station) metagenome databases, were analyzed by multiple sequence alignment. Two accA-like sequences, found in ALOHA Station at the depth of 4000 m, formed a deeply branched clade with 64% of all archaeal Tyrrhenian clones. No close relatives for residual 36% of clones, except of those recovered from Eastern Mediterranean, was found, suggesting the existence of a specific lineage of the crenarchaeal accA genes in deep Mediterranean water. Alignment of Mediterranean amoA sequences defined four cosmopolitan phylotypes of Crenarchaeota putative ammonia mono-oxygenase subunit A gene occurring in the water sample from the 3000 m depth. Without exception all phylotypes fell into Deep Marine Group I cluster that contain the vast majority of known sequences recovered from global deep-sea environment. Remarkably, three phylotypes accounted for 91% of all Mediterranean

  3. Downregulation of de Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Moderately Obese Women

    Esther Guiu-Jurado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes in human adipose tissue from moderately obese women. We used qRT-PCR and Western Blot to analyze visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SAT adipose tissue mRNA expression involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis (ACC1, FAS, fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, PPARδ and inflammation (IL6, TNFα, in normal weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m2, n = 35 and moderately obese women (BMI 30–38 kg/m2, n = 55. In SAT, ACC1, FAS and PPARα mRNA expression were significantly decreased in moderately obese women compared to controls. The downregulation reported in SAT was more pronounced when BMI increased. In VAT, lipogenic-related genes and PPARα were similar in both groups. Only PPARδ gene expression was significantly increased in moderately obese women. As far as inflammation is concerned, TNFα and IL6 were significantly increased in moderate obesity in both tissues. Our results indicate that there is a progressive downregulation in lipogenesis in SAT as BMI increases, which suggests that SAT decreases the synthesis of fatty acid de novo during the development of obesity, whereas in VAT lipogenesis remains active regardless of the degree of obesity.

  4. ACC oxidase and miRNA 159a, and their involvement in fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB) via sex ratio determination in oil palm.

    Somyong, Suthasinee; Poopear, Supannee; Sunner, Supreet Kaur; Wanlayaporn, Kitti; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Ukoskit, Kittipat; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tragoonrung, Somvong

    2016-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) is the most productive oil-bearing crop, yielding more oil per area than any other oil-bearing crops. However, there are still efforts to improve oil palm yield, in order to serve consumer and manufacturer demand. Oil palm produces female and male inflorescences in an alternating cycle. So, high sex ratio (SR), the ratio of female inflorescences to the total inflorescences, is a favorable trait in term of increasing yields in oil palm. This study aims to understand the genetic control for SR related traits, such as fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB), by characterizing genes at FFB quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage 10 (chromosome 6) and linkage 15 (chromosome 10). Published oil palm sequences at the FFB QTLs were used to develop gene-based and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We used the multiple QTL analysis model (MQM) to characterize the relationship of new markers with the SR traits in the oil palm population. The RNA expression of the most linked QTL genes was also evaluated in various tissues of oil palm. We identified EgACCO1 (encoding aminocyclopropane carboxylate (ACC) oxidase) at chromosome 10 and EgmiR159a (microRNA 159a) at chromosome 6 to be the most linked QTL genes or determinants for FFB yield and/or female inflorescence number with a phenotype variance explained (PVE) from 10.4 to 15 % and suggest that these play the important roles in sex determination and differentiation in oil palm. The strongest expression of EgACCO1 and the predicted precursor of EgmiR159a was found in ovaries and, to a lesser extent, fruit development. In addition, highly normalized expression of EgmiR159a was found in female flowers. In summary, the QTL analysis and the RNA expression reveal that EgACCO1 and EgmiR159a are the potential genetic factors involved in female flower determination and hence would affect yield in oil palm. However, to clarify how these genetic factors regulate female flower determination, more investigation

  5. Acid Rain.

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  6. DNA Three Way Junction Core Decorated with Amino Acids-Like Residues-Synthesis and Characterization.

    Addamiano, Claudia; Gerland, Béatrice; Payrastre, Corinne; Escudier, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Construction and physico-chemical behavior of DNA three way junction (3WJ) functionalized by protein-like residues (imidazole, alcohol and carboxylic acid) at unpaired positions at the core is described. One 5'-C(S)-propargyl-thymidine nucleotide was specifically incorporated on each strand to react through a post synthetic CuACC reaction with either protected imidazolyl-, hydroxyl- or carboxyl-azide. Structural impacts of 5'-C(S)-functionalization were investigated to evaluate how 3WJ flexibility/stability is affected. PMID:27563857

  7. Le droit des auteurs à mettre en accès libre leurs propres résultats de recherche [Authors' right to provide open access to their own research results.

    Bosc, H.

    2003-01-01

    Les chercheurs n’attendent pas de revenus directs de leurs publications. Ils ne vendent pas leurs publications : ils les donnent gratuitement aux périodiques. Ils souhaitent seulement que leurs publications soient utilisées et citées au maximum par les autres chercheurs, et ce maximum de « rentabilité » est donné par Internet. Pour parvenir à cette rentabilité maximum, il faut soit publier dans des revues en libre accès soit auto-archiver le double des publications publiées dans des ...

  8. Folic Acid

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  9. Complete genome sequence of Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T), a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L.

    Qin, Sheng; Feng, Wei-Wei; Xing, Ke; Bai, Juan-Luan; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Wei-Jie; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2015-12-20

    Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) is a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from the oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L. collected from dry-hot valley, in Sichuan, China. The complete genome sequence of this actinomycete consists of one chromosome (11,759,770bp) with no plasmid. From the genome, we identified gene clusters responsible for polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthesis of natural products, and genes related to the plant growth promoting, such as zeatin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) and siderophore. The complete genome information may be useful to understand the beneficial interactions between K. phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) and host plants. PMID:26516119

  10. Le programme ARTEMIS : nouvel outil pour la datation radiocarbone AMS (Spectromètre de Masse par Accélérateur et nouvelles problématiques

    Cyrille Billard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La mise en route du nouvel équipement ARTEMIS (Accélérateur pour la Recherche en sciences de la Terre, Environnement, Muséologie, Implanté à Saclay à partir de 2004 ouvre de nouvelles perspectives scientifiques et conduit à de nouvelles procédures de soumission des échantillons destinés à une datation 14C. Le MCC dispose aujourd’hui de droits alloués aux services régionaux de l'archéologie, services du ministère de la Culture, confrontés à ce type de demandes (musées, monuments historiques. Il impose désormais une nouvelle démarche de programmation scientifique des datations, associant une analyse critique des demandes.Since 2004, the availability at Saclay of a new ARTEMIS installation (Accélérateur pour la Recherche en sciences de la Terre, Environnement, Muséologie has opened new scientific perspectives and led to new procedures for submitting samples for carbon-14 dating. The French Ministry of Culture has the possibility of using this tool for radiocarbon dating at the request of its regional archaeological services or other services, such as museums and the historic monuments administration. This use now implies a new approach to the scientific planning for dating problems, associated with a critical analysis of the requests.

  11. Improved ethyl caproate production of Chinese liquor yeast by overexpressing fatty acid synthesis genes with OPI1 deletion.

    Chen, Yefu; Luo, Weiwei; Gong, Rui; Xue, Xingxiang; Guan, Xiangyu; Song, Lulu; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-09-01

    During yeast fermentation, ethyl esters play a key role in the development of the flavor profiles of Chinese liquor. Ethyl caproate, an ethyl ester eliciting apple-like flavor, is the characteristic flavor of strong aromatic liquor, which is the best selling liquor in China. In the traditional fermentation process, ethyl caproate is mainly produced at the later fermentation stage by aroma-producing yeast, bacteria, and mold in a mud pit instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the expense of grains and fermentation time. To improve the production of ethyl caproate by Chinese liquor yeast (S. cerevisiae) with less food consumption and shorter fermentation time, we constructed three recombinant strains, namely, α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1), and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2) with OPI1 (an inositol/choline-mediated negative regulatory gene) deletion, respectively. In the liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate, the contents of ethyl caproate produced by α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 increased by 0.40-, 1.75-, and 0.31-fold, correspondingly, compared with the initial strain α5. The contents of other fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0) also increased. In comparison, the content of FAEEs produced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1 significantly improved. Meanwhile, the contents of acetyl-CoA and ethyl acetate were enhanced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1. Overall, this study offers a promising platform for the development of pure yeast culture fermentation of Chinese strong aromatic liquor without the use of a mud pit. PMID:27344573

  12. The ACC/AHA 2013 guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: the good the bad and the uncertain: a comparison with ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias 2011.

    Ray, Kausik K; Kastelein, John J P; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Nicholls, Stephen J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ballantyne, Christie M; Catapano, Alberico L; Reiner, Željko; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2014-04-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the most important public health problem of our time in both Europe and the rest of the world, accounting for the greatest expenditure in most healthcare budgets. Achieving consistency of clinical care, incorporating new evidence and their synthesis into practical recommendations for clinicians is the task of various guideline committees throughout the world. Any change in a set of guidelines therefore can have far reaching consequences, particularly if they appear to be at variance with the existing guidelines. The present article discusses the recent American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines 2013 on the control of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults. When compared with the ESC/EAS guidelines on lipid modification in 2011, the ACC/AHA guidelines of 2013 differ markedly. Specifically, (i) the scope is limited to randomized trials only, which excludes a significant body of data and promotes essentially a statin centric approach only; (ii) the abolition of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in favour of specific statin regimens that produce a 30-50% reduction in LDL-C we believe will confuse many physicians and miss the opportunity for medication adherence and patient engagement in self-management; (iii) the absence of target LDL-C levels in very high-risk patients with high absolute risk or residual risk factors will discourage clinicians to consider the addition of lipid modification treatments and individualize patient care; (iv) a reduction in the threshold for treatment in primary prevention will result in a greater number of patients being prescribed statin therapy, which is potentially good in young patients with high life time risk, but will result in a very large number of older patients offered therapy; and (v) the mixed pool risk calculator used to asses CVD risk in the guidelines for primary prevention has not

  13. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid with...... the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for...

  14. Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Repeat Region 529 bp (NCBI Acc. No. AF146527 as a Probe Candidate for Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis

    Dyah Ayu Oktavianie A Pratama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available generated by an Adobe application 11.5606             Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is commonly asymptomatic. The availability of confirmative and accurate detection system is really needed. This research was aimed to develop a molecular diagnosis based on the conserved and high copy number repeat region of Toxoplasma gondii with hibridization method. Nucleic acid was isolated from tachyzoites. The repeat region of T. gondii was amplified using PuRe Taq Ready To Go-PCR Beads (Amersham Bioscience,  forward primer 5’- GAC TCG GGC CCA GCT GCG  -3’ and reverse primer 5’- CCT CTC CTA CCC CTC CTC -3’. The amplicon was sequenced using ABI Prism 3100-Avant Genetic Analyzer (PT. Charoen Pokphand, Jakarta. Probe was labeled using digoxigenin-11-dUTP. Application of probe to detect it’s complementary nucloeic acid was done by hibridization method. The research concluded that probe toxo-103 bp was highly homolog with several strain of T. gondii and it has no homology either with host’s genome or other parasites which have close genetic relationship with T. gondii.   Hybridization analysis showed that probe could detect the complementary nucleic acid up to 10 ng/ul concentration.       Normal 0 36 false false false

  15. DNA Three Way Junction Core Decorated with Amino Acids-Like Residues-Synthesis and Characterization †

    Claudia Addamiano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Construction and physico-chemical behavior of DNA three way junction (3WJ functionalized by protein-like residues (imidazole, alcohol and carboxylic acid at unpaired positions at the core is described. One 5′-C(S-propargyl-thymidine nucleotide was specifically incorporated on each strand to react through a post synthetic CuACC reaction with either protected imidazolyl-, hydroxyl- or carboxyl-azide. Structural impacts of 5′-C(S-functionalization were investigated to evaluate how 3WJ flexibility/stability is affected.

  16. [Gastric Acid].

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  17. Méthode de vieillissement accéléré au dioxyde de chlore : application au polyamide 66 non stabilisé et non chargé

    Dauseins, J.; El Mazry, Chaker; Mallet, J; Colin, Xavier; CORREC, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Dans l'objectif d'étudier à long terme des accessoires utilisés dans les réseaux intérieurs d'eau, le Centre scientifique et technique du bâtiment (CSTB) a mis au point un banc d'essai de vieillissement accéléré au dioxyde de chlore sur sa plateforme expérimentale Aquasim. Les premières études réalisées avec le banc montrent que ce désinfectant de l'eau potable attaque aussi les matériaux polymères. Initialement utilisé pour détruire les micro-organismes, il n'est pas totalement sélectif puis...

  18. Équité socio-spatiale d’accès aux soins périnatals en milieu urbain : utilisation des techniques géographiques pour la planification sanitaire

    Charreire, Hélène; Combier, Évelyne

    2009-01-01

    La ville, parce qu’elle concentre le potentiel humain et les services sur de faibles distances physiques, est souvent perçue comme le lieu où tout est accessible. Mais dans le domaine de la santé, proximité n’implique pas systématiquement accessibilité. D’autres formes de déterminants – sociaux, culturels– freinent le recours aux soins de la population. En santé périnatale, les difficultés d’accès aux soins peuvent se traduire par des retards de prise en charge de la grossesse (après le premi...

  19. Vers un mode opératoire performant et discrimant de carbonatation accélérée des bétons pour ouvrages d'art

    Villain, G.; Cochet, D.; Olivier, G; Thiery, M

    2007-01-01

    Afin de proposer un mode opératoire de carbonatation accélérée performant qui permette de caractériser des bétons de porosités variées, différents modes opératoires ont été appliqués à quatre bétons de résistances moyennes à la compression comprises entre 25 et 55 MPa. L'étude a porté essentiellement sur le prétraitement des éprouvettes, qui conditionne leur teneur en eau, paramètre auquel la carbonatation est très sensible. Trois modes de séchage ont été comparés : le mode opératoire AFPC-AF...

  20. Os acessos fixos à internet no Brasil e suas tecnologias L'accès à l'internet fixe en Brésil et ses technologies Internet access in Brazil and its technologies

    Marcelo Paiva da Motta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar os padrões espaciais do acesso à internet no Brasil e suas diferentes tecnologias, contrapondo à ideia de anulação do espaço, que é frequentemente associada ao seu uso. Mostramos que, tanto nos acessos em geral quanto nos desagregados por tipo de tecnologia, a distribuição espacial da internet em sua dimensão do consumo segue os padrões preexistentes da geografia econômica do país e da hierarquia urbana. O aplicação de um modelo aditivo generalizado (GAM, correlacionando o nível dos acessos à internet com o PIB municipal, além de corroborar esta ideia central, aponta que há áreas específicas no país onde o papel das instituições locais é importante, potencializando a quantidade dos acessos, nomeadamente o estado do Paraná.L'objectif de cette étude est d'analyser la répartition spatiale de l'accès à Internet et à ses différentes technologies au Brésil, en s'opposant à l'idée de disparition de l'espace qui est souvent associée à l’usage d’Internet. Nous montrons qu’au niveau des accès en général, comme au niveau des différents types de technologie, la distribution spatiale d'Internet en matière de consommation suit la géographie économique du pays ainsi que la hiérarchie urbaine. L'application d'un modèle additif généralisé (GAM, en corrélant du niveau d'accès à Internet au PIB municipal, soutient cette idée centrale et montre également qu'il y a des zones spécifiques dans le pays où le rôle des institutions locales est important en augmentant la quantité d'accès, comme c’est le cas dans l'état du Paraná.The objective of this paper is to analyze the spatial pattern of internet access in Brazil in its different technologies, opposing the idea of annihilation of space which is often associated to its use. We show, both in the access in general and in each of its several technologies, that the internet spatial distribution in the consumption

  1. Handling Uncertainty in Accessing Petroleum Exploration Data Traitement de l'incertain dans l'accès aux données d'exploration pétrolière

    Chung P. W. H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of uncertainty in accessing petroleum exploration databases. Two distinct forms of uncertainty are identified : the uncertainty in the user's requirements, and the uncertainty in the data held. A general mechanism is described which is applicable to both. Cet article traite du rôle de l'incertitude dans l'accès aux bases de données d'exploration pétrolière. Deux sortes distinctes d'incertitudes sont identifiées : l'incertitude au niveau des requêtes de l'utilisateur et l'incertitude attachée aux données stockées. Nous décrivons un mécanisme général qui s'applique à ces deux types d'incertitude.

  2. Etude théorique des paramètres principaux réglant la sensibilité des capteurs d'accélération à cristal de quartz

    Delaite, R.; Aïch, Y.

    1994-10-01

    A theoretical analysis of quartz accelerometers is performed to determine their optimal mechanical and sensitivity performances. A general analytical model is used to investigate the parameters and their effects on the sensitivity of these sensors. The analysis of physical characteristics shows that feasibility and performances depend on three factors such as dimensions of the quartz plate, quantity of holders located at the crystal edge and location of these holders with respect to the crystal's crystallographic reference. This study is applied to various design sensors with different supporting quartz crystal. The conditions on parameters are given to achieve optimum performances. Une étude théorique de la sensibilité des capteurs d'accélération à cristal de quartz est présentée. Son but est d'optimiser les performances mécaniques et métrologiques de ces capteurs. Les paramètres sensibles sont mis en évidence. L'analyse des caractéristiques physiques démontre que la faisabilité et les performances des accéléromètres à quartz dépendent, pour une coupe donnée du cristal, de trois facteurs : les dimensions de la lame de quartz, le nombre de liaisons à la périphérie du cristal et la position de ces liaisons par rapport à la référence cristallographique. L'étude est appliquée aux cas des capteurs bipodes, multipodes et monopodes. Pour chaque type de capteur, les valeurs des paramètres sensibles correspondant aux performances optimales sont précisées.

  3. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression. PMID:26582037

  4. Metabolic pathway engineering for fatty acid ethyl ester production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using stable chromosomal integration.

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters are fatty acid derived molecules similar to first generation biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters; FAMEs) which can be produced in a microbial cell factory. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a suitable candidate for microbial large scale and long term cultivations, which is the typical industrial production setting for biofuels. It is crucial to conserve the metabolic design of the cell factory during industrial cultivation conditions that require extensive propagation. Genetic modifications therefore have to be introduced in a stable manner. Here, several metabolic engineering strategies for improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in S. cerevisiae were combined and the genes were stably expressed from the organisms' chromosomes. A wax ester synthase (ws2) was expressed in different yeast strains with an engineered acetyl-CoA and fatty acid metabolism. Thus, we compared expression of ws2 with and without overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs SE (L641P) ) and further evaluated additional overexpression of a mutant version of acetyl-CoA decarboxylase (ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) ) and the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1). The combined engineering efforts of the implementation of ws2, ADH2, ALD6 and acs SE (L641P) , ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) and ACB1 in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking storage lipid formation (are1Δ, are2Δ, dga1Δ and lro1Δ) and β-oxidation (pox1Δ) resulted in a 4.1-fold improvement compared with sole expression of ws2 in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25422103

  5. Folic acid

    ... include leafy vegetables (such as spinach, broccoli, and lettuce), okra, asparagus, fruits (such as bananas, melons, and ... Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) is used to treat parasite infections. Folic acid might decrease the effectiveness of ...

  6. Folic Acid

    Full Text Available ... March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March ... your baby. Learn how you can get the right amout of folic acid before and during pregnancy ...

  7. ACID RAIN

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  8. Folic Acid

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Folic acid ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  9. Folic Acid

    Full Text Available ... Folic acid Description | Related videos | Most played video E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  10. Okadaic acid

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... endosomes (TWEEs) occurred unimpeded in the presence of OA, FM condensed in larger subapical structures by 1 h, implying a perturbed endosomal trafficking/maturation. The fluorescent lysosomotropic agent Lysotracker revealed induction of large lysosomal structures by OA. Endocytosis from the brush border...

  11. Effects of feeding transgenic corn with mCry1Ac or maroACC gene to laying hens for 12 weeks on growth, egg quality and organ health.

    Zhong, R Q; Chen, L; Gao, L X; Zhang, L L; Yao, B; Yang, X G; Zhang, H F

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feeding two transgenic corn lines containing the mCry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis strain (BT-799) and the maroACC gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain (CC-2), respectively, on growth, egg quality and organ health indicators. Expression of the mCry1Ac gene confers resistance to Pyrausta nubilalis and the maroACC gene confers tolerance to herbicides. Healthy hens (n=96 placed in cages; 3 hens/cage) were randomly assigned to one of four corn-soybean meal dietary treatments (8 cages/treatment) formulated with the following corn: non-transgenic near-isoline control corn (control), BT-799 corn, CC-2 corn and commercially available non-transgenic reference corn (reference). The experiment was divided into three 4-week phases (week 1 to 4, week 5 to 8 and week 9 to 12), during which hens were fed mash diets. Performance (BW, feed intake and egg production) and egg quality were determined. Following slaughter at the end of 12 weeks of feeding (n=8/treatment), carcass yield and organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidneys, stomach and ovary) were recorded; organs and intestines were sampled for histological analysis. Analysis of serum biochemistry parameters to assess the liver and kidney function were performed. No differences in BW, egg production and production efficiency were observed between hens consuming the control diet and hens consuming the BT-799 or CC-2 diet. Haugh unit measures and egg component weights were similar between the control and test groups. Carcass yield was not affected by the diet treatment. Similar organosomatic indices and serum parameters did not indicate the characteristics of organ dysfunction. All observed values of the BT-799 and CC-2 groups were within the calculated tolerance intervals. This research indicates that the performance, egg quality, organ health and carcass yield of laying hens fed diets containing the BT-799 or CC-2 corn line were similar

  12. Enhanced Amelioration of High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Docosahexaenoic Acid and Lysine Supplementations

    Hsin-Yu Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is the most common pathological condition in the liver. Here, we generated high-fat diet-(HFD- induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in mice and tested the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and lysine during a four-week regular chow (RCfeeding. Our results showed that 1% lysine and the combination of 1% lysine + 1% DHA reduced body weight. Moreover, serum triglyceride levels were reduced by 1% DHA and 1% lysine, whereas serum alanine transaminase activity was reduced by 1% DHA and 1% DHA + 0.5% lysine. Switching to RC reduced hepatic lipid droplet accumulation, which was further reduced by the addition of DHA or lysine. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines were suppressed by DHA and combinations of DHA + lysine, whereas the mRNA for the lipogenic gene, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, was suppressed by DHA. In the gonadal adipose tissues, combinations of DHA and lysine inhibited mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes, including ACC1, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, and perilipin. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, in conjunction with RC-induced benefits, supplementation with DHA or lysine further ameliorated the high-fat diet-induced NAFLD and provided an alternative strategy to treat, and potentially prevent, NAFLD.

  13. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  14. Ascorbic Acid

    Cevi-Bid® ... If you become pregnant while taking ascorbic acid, call your doctor. ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call ...

  15. Stearic Acid

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  16. Mefenamic Acid

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  17. Quantitative determination of amino acids in earthworm meal (Eisenia andrei) by a Surveyor HPLC system in conjunction with pre-column 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate derivatization

    Ovalles-Dur??n, J.F.; Medina, A.; M??rquez, Elil; Rochette, Julie; Morillo, Marielba; Luna, Jos?? Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the integration of the AccQ???Tag derivatization system with the Finnigan Surveyor Plus HPLC system to determine the amino acids (aa) composition of earthworm meal protein post-hydrolysis. Materials and Methods: In lab cultivated earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were reduced to flour which was then hydrolyzed with 6M HCl at 110 ??C for 24 hours in a closed system. The hydrolysis product was neutralized and their aa were derivatized with 6-aminoqu...

  18. Isoproterenol stimulates 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and fatty acid oxidation in neonatal hearts.

    Jaswal, Jagdip S; Lund, Chad R; Keung, Wendy; Beker, Donna L; Rebeyka, Ivan M; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2010-10-01

    Isoproterenol increases phosphorylation of LKB, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), enzymes involved in regulating fatty acid oxidation. However, inotropic stimulation selectively increases glucose oxidation in adult hearts. In the neonatal heart, fatty acid oxidation becomes a major energy source, while glucose oxidation remains low. This study tested the hypothesis that increased energy demand imposed by isoproterenol originates from fatty acid oxidation, secondary to increased LKB, AMPK, and ACC phosphorylation. Isolated working hearts from 7-day-old rabbits were perfused with Krebs solution (0.4 mM palmitate, 11 mM glucose, 0.5 mM lactate, and 100 mU/l insulin) with or without isoproterenol (300 nM). Isoproterenol increased myocardial O(2) consumption (in J·g dry wt(-1)·min(-1); 11.0 ± 1.4, n = 8 vs. 7.5 ± 0.8, n = 6, P < 0.05), and the phosphorylation of LKB (in arbitrary density units; 0.87 ± 0.09, n = 6 vs. 0.59 ± 0.08, n = 6, P < 0.05), AMPK (0.82 ± 0.08, n = 6 vs. 0.51 ± 0.06, n = 6, P < 0.05), and ACC-β (1.47 ± 0.14, n = 6 vs. 0.97 ± 0.07, n = 6, P < 0.05), with a concomitant decrease in malonyl-CoA levels (in nmol/g dry wt; 0.9 ± 0.9, n = 8 vs. 7.5 ± 1.3, n = 8, P < 0.05) and increase in palmitate oxidation (in nmol·g dry wt(-1)·min(-1); 272 ± 45, n = 8 vs. 114 ± 9, n = 6, P < 0.05). Glucose and lactate oxidation were increased (in nmol·g dry wt(-1)·min(-1); 253 ± 75, n = 8 vs. 63 ± 15, n = 9, P < 0.05 and 246 ± 43, n = 8 vs. 82 ± 11, n = 6, P < 0.05, respectively), independent of alterations in pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphorylation, but occurred secondary to a decrease in acetyl-CoA content and acetyl-CoA-to-free CoA ratio. As acetyl-CoA levels decrease in response to isoproterenol, despite an acceleration of the rates of palmitate and carbohydrate oxidation, these data suggest net rates of acetyl-CoA utilization exceed the net rates of acetyl-CoA generation. PMID:20656883

  19. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  20. [Screening and identification of indoleacetic acid producing endophytic bacterium in Panax ginseng].

    Jiang, Yun; Tian, Lei; Chen, Chang-qing; Zhang, Guan-jun; Li, Tong; Chen, Jing-xiu; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria which was producing indoleacetic acid was screened from Panax ginseng by using the Salkowski method. The active strain was also tested for its ability of nitrogen fixation by using the Ashby agar plates, the PKV plates and quantitative analysis of Mo-Sb-Ascrobiology acid colorimetry was used to measure its ability of phosphate solubilization, for its ability of potassium solubilization the silicate medium and flame spectrophotometry was used, for its ability of producing siderophores the method detecting CAS was used, for its ability of producing ACC deaminase the Alpha ketone butyric acid method was applied. And the effect on promoting growth of seed by active strain was tested. The results showed that the indoleacetic acid producing strain of JJ5-2 was obtained from 118 endophytes, which the content of indoleacetic acid was 10.2 mg x L(-1). The JJ5-2 strain also had characteristics of phosphate and potassium solubilization, nitrogen fixation, producing siderophores traits, and the promoting germination of ginseng seeds. The JJ5-2 strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis by analyzing morphology, physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:26080547

  1. L’accès du plus grand nombre aux services essentiels ne se fera pas sans une implication du secteur privé et sans une tarification adéquate de ces services

    Luc Rigouzzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La couverture, via le secteur privé, des besoins en services de base (eau, énergie, services financiers, logement,.. des populations des pays en développement est une nécessité si l’on veut essayer de faire reculer la pauvreté.  Toutefois les financements privés « classiques » ne s’orientent pas spontanément vers ces secteurs notamment en raison du refus de faire  « payer » un service essentiel à des populations pauvres, sujet qui a fait souvent l’objet de campagnes de rejets de la part d’acteurs de la société civile. De très nombreux exemples montrent pourtant que, compte tenu de l’impact de ces services sur leur qualité de vie, les consommateurs  de ces pays, notamment du « bas de la pyramide » sont disposés à les payer pourvus qu’ils aient accès à un service de qualité. Dans ces secteurs, le coût nominal du service  importe beaucoup moins que son coût d’opportunité et l’impact qu’aura ce service sur la vie des bénéficiaires.  Bien souvent ce service peut même être  payé ex ante ce qui peut permettre aux familles de mieux contrôler les dépenses qu’elles peuvent y consacrer. Il faut toutefois distinguer la fourniture de services essentiels de celles de bien de consommation courante et bien entendu éviter les dérives. En tout état de cause la possibilité de construire des modèles équilibrés financièrement conditionne  la mobilisation de financement en quantité suffisante de la part des  acteurs financiers locaux et internationaux. Dans ce domaine comme dans d’autres, la voie est donc probablement la voie du juste milieu,  en évitant les excès d’une sur-tarification, mais en acceptant de conserver des modèles économiques rentables. Ceux-ci doivent  permettre aux investisseurs d’avoir des résultats qui les conduisent à accroitre et poursuivre leurs investissements, et  d’augmenter le plus rapidement possible le nombre de bénéficiaires. Prétendre construire

  2. Fructose containing sugars modulate mRNA of lipogenic genes ACC and FAS and protein levels of transcription factors ChREBP and SREBP1c with no effect on body weight or liver fat.

    Janevski, Mile; Ratnayake, Sunil; Siljanovski, Svetlana; McGlynn, Maree A; Cameron-Smith, David; Lewandowski, Paul

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-glucose, high-fructose and high-sucrose diets on weight gain, liver lipid metabolism and gene expression of proteins involved with hepatic fat metabolism. Rats were fed a diet containing either 60% glucose, 60% fructose, 60% sucrose, or a standard chow for 28 days. Results indicated that high-fructose and high-sucrose diets were associated with higher mRNA levels of gene transcripts involved with fat synthesis; ACC, FAS and ChREBP, with no change in SREBP-1C mRNA. The protein level of ChREBP and SREBP1c was similar in liver homogenates from all groups, but were higher in nuclear fractions from the liver of high-fructose and high-sucrose fed rats. The mRNA level of gene transcripts involved with fat oxidation was the same in all three diets, whilst a high-fructose diet was associated with greater amount of mRNA of the fat transporter CD36. Despite the changes in mRNA of lipogenic proteins, the body weight of animals from each group was the same and the livers from rats fed high-fructose and high-sucrose diets did not contain more fat than control diet livers. In conclusion, changing the composition of the principal monosaccharide in the diet to a fructose containing sugar elicits changes in the level of hepatic mRNA of lipogenic and fat transport proteins and protein levels of their transcriptional regulators; however this is not associated with any changes in body weight or liver fat content. PMID:22159273

  3. Le détournement de nature humoristique en tant que marqueur freinant ou accélérant la circulation du discours [Humorous defacement as marker slowing down or speeding up discourse circulation

    Frédéric Pugnière-Saavedra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available À travers deux types de détournement phrastiques: l’un patronymique et l’autre sémantico-interdiscursif extraits du programme télévisuel Les Deschiens (Canal+, nous montrerons qu’il s’agit d’une catégorie discursive qui ne se limite pas à produire un effet perlocutoire humoristique en superposant deux réalités (dont une va dans un sens, et la seconde dans un autre avec une intention nette de privilégier la seconde dans la situation de communication donnée. En recouvranten creux, un large spectre d’interprétations possibles, le détournement créé un effet stylistique et contribue à accélérer lacirculation du discours en créant de la connivence avec le récepteur s’il est perçu ou à freiner la circulation du discours en créant au mieux un sentiment d’indifférence, au pire de rejet, s’il n’est pas perçu.Through two types of diversion of sentence patterns: one surname and the other semantic-interdiscursive excerpts from television programs (Les Deschiens, Canal+, it is shown that it is a discursive category not only limited to produce a humorous perlocutionaryeffect by superposing two realities (one goes in one direction and the second in another with a clear intention to focus on the second one in the given situation of communication. By covering a gap a widespectrum of possible interpretations, diversion creates a stylistic effect and helps accelerate the flow of discourse in creating connivance with the receiver if it is perceived or to stop at best the flow of discourse by creating a sense of indifference and at worst, rejection, if not seen.

  4. Drug Redeployment to Kill Leukemia and Lymphoma Cells by Disrupting SCD1-Mediated Synthesis of Monounsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Southam, Andrew D; Khanim, Farhat L; Hayden, Rachel E; Constantinou, Julia K; Koczula, Katarzyna M; Michell, Robert H; Viant, Mark R; Drayson, Mark T; Bunce, Chris M

    2015-06-15

    The redeployed drug combination of bezafibrate and medroxyprogesterone acetate (designated BaP) has potent in vivo anticancer activity in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) patients; however, its mechanism-of-action is unclear. Given that elevated fatty acid biosynthesis is a hallmark of many cancers and that these drugs can affect lipid metabolism, we hypothesized that BaP exerts anticancer effects by disrupting lipogenesis. We applied mass spectrometry-based lipidomics and gene and protein expression measurements of key lipogenic enzymes [acetyl CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1)] to AML and eBL cell lines treated with BaP. BaP treatment decreased fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis from (13)C D-glucose. The proportion of phospholipid species with saturated and monounsaturated acyl chains was also decreased after treatment, whereas those with polyunsaturated chains increased. BaP decreased SCD1 protein levels in each cell line (0.46- to 0.62-fold; P < 0.023) and decreased FASN protein levels across all cell lines (0.87-fold decrease; P = 1.7 × 10(-4)). Changes to ACC1 protein levels were mostly insignificant. Supplementation with the SCD1 enzymatic product, oleate, rescued AML and e-BL cells from BaP cell killing and decreased levels of BaP-induced reactive oxygen species, whereas supplementation with the SCD1 substrate (and FASN product), palmitate, did not rescue cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that the critical anticancer actions of BaP are decreases in SCD1 levels and monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that clinically available antileukemic and antilymphoma drugs targeting SCD1 have been reported. PMID:25943877

  5. Understanding Acid Rain

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  6. Dehydroabietic acid

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  7. Abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaeal accA and amoA genes in response to NO2-and NO3-of hot springs in Yunnan province%云南热泉中氨氧化古菌的accA基因与amoA基因丰度与环境因子NO2-和NO3-的相关性

    宋兆齐; 王莉; 周恩民; 王风平; 肖湘; 张传伦; 李文均

    2014-01-01

    [目的]氨氧化古菌(ammonia-oxidizing archaea,AOA)可能通过近期刚发现的3-羟基丙酸盐/4-羟基丁酸盐途径(3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle,HP/HB)来固定CO2,在海洋和土壤环境下进行化能自养型生长.云南热泉系统已被证明具有丰富的AOA多样性.本论文旨在调查云南不同热泉中,这种CO2固定途径的关健酶——乙酰辅酶A羧化酶基因accA和古菌氨单加氧酶基因amoA,及原核微生物16S rRNA基因的丰度变化,以及它们与环境因子的相关性.[方法]选择20处代表性热泉沉积物样品,通过荧光定量PCR技术,获得各目的基因丰度;利用R软件包对各样点地化参数进行主成分分析(Principal ComponentAnalysis,PCA),并通过Mantel test检验各目的基因和地化参数间的相关性.[结果]细菌和古菌16S rRNA基因的丰度范围分别在6.6×107至4.19×1011和1.27×106至1.51 ×1011拷贝/g沉积物;古菌accA和amoA基因的丰度范围为8.89×103至6.49×105和7.64×103至4.36×105拷贝/g沉积物,Mantel test结果显示accA和amoA基因丰度间具有极显著的相关性(R =0.98,P<0.001),两者又分别都与热泉内的NO2-和NO3-浓度存在显著相关,与pH值等其它环境因子没有明显统计学意义上的相关性.[结论]云南地区热泉间的细菌和古菌丰度,以及两者比例关系都存在较大差异;相关性的统计结果进一步证明了热泉环境下的氨氧化古菌是通过HP/HB途径进行CO2固定;本次研究并未发现氨氧化古菌的丰度与环境pH存在明显统计学意义上的相关性,这与常温土壤环境的相关研究结果存在不同.

  8. ACC 260 UOP Tutorial/Uoptutorial

    Giselle Isabel

    2015-01-01

    CheckPoint: Ethics in the Accounting Profession   · Resource: Business & Professional Ethics   · Due Date: Day 5 [post to the Individual forum]   · Answer questions 13 and 14 on p. 25 of the text.

  9. Retarded acid emulsion

    Fast, C.R.; Rixe, F.H.; Duffield, E.L. Jr.

    1972-08-01

    Compositions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations are described. Retarded acid emulsions of prolonged stability make it possible for the acid in this form to be displaced substantial distances out into the formation before becoming spent. The action of acid emulsions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations is prolonged by employing as the principal emulsifying agent an amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid. Acid emulsions employing the amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid exhibit greater stability than those employing the free acid. (8 claims)

  10. Plasma amino acids

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  11. Acid Lipase Disease

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, ... Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs when ...

  12. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  13. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  14. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available

  15. [6]-Gingerol inhibits de novo fatty acid synthesis and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity which triggers apoptosis in HepG2.

    Impheng, Hathaichanok; Richert, Lysiane; Pekthong, Dumrongsak; Scholfield, C Norman; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Pungpetchara, Ittipon; Srisawang, Piyarat

    2015-01-01

    The de novo fatty acid synthesis catalyzed by key lipogenic enzymes, including fatty acid synthase (FASN) has emerged as one of the novel targets of anti-cancer approaches. The present study explored the possible inhibitory efficacy of [6]-gingerol on de novo fatty acid synthesis associated with mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic induction in HepG2 cells. We observed a dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential accompanied by a reduction of fatty acid levels. [6]-gingerol administration manifested inhibition of FASN expression, indicating FASN is a major target of [6]-gingerol inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Indeed, we found that increased ROS generation could likely be a mediator of the anti-cancer effect of [6]-gingerol. A reduction of fatty acid levels and induction of apoptosis were restored by inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity, suggesting an accumulation of malonyl-CoA level could be the major cause of apoptotic induction of [6]-gingerol in HepG2 cells. The present study also showed that depletion of fatty acid following [6]-gingerol treatment caused an inhibitory effect on carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity (CPT-1), whereas C75 augmented CPT-1 activity, indicating that [6]-gingerol exhibits the therapeutic benefit on suppression of fatty acid β-oxidation. PMID:26101700

  16. Hypolipidemic Activity of Peony Seed Oil Rich in α-Linolenic, is Mediated Through Inhibition of Lipogenesis and Upregulation of Fatty Acid β-Oxidation.

    Su, Jianhui; Ma, Chaoyang; Liu, Chengxiang; Gao, Chuanzhong; Nie, Rongjing; Wang, Hongxin

    2016-04-01

    Peony seed oil (PSO) is a new resource food rich in α-Linolenic Acid(ALA) (38.66%). The objective of this study was to assess the modulatory effect of PSO on lipid metabolism. Lard oil, safflower oil (SFO), and PSO were fed to wistar rats with 1% cholesterol in the diet for 60 d. Serum and liver lipids showed significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in PSO fed rats compared to lard oil and SFO fed rats. ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), contents were significantly increased, whereas linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) levels decreased in serum and liver of PSO fed rats. Feeding PSO increased ALA level and decreased n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio. The hypolipidemic result of PSO indicated that PSO participated in the regulation of plasma lipid concentration and cholesterol metabolism in liver. The decreased expression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1C (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS)-reduced lipid synthesis; Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor (PPARα) accompanied by increase of uncoupling protein2 (UP2) and acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) stimulated lipid metabolism and exerted an antiobesity effect via increasing energy expenditure for prevention of obesity. PMID:26930155

  17. Altered Fatty Acid Metabolism-Related Gene Expression in Liver from Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Teresa Auguet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipid accumulation in the human liver seems to be a crucial mechanism in the pathogenesis and the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We aimed to evaluate gene expression of different fatty acid (FA metabolism-related genes in morbidly obese (MO women with NAFLD. Liver expression of key genes related to de novo FA synthesis (LXRα, SREBP1c, ACC1, FAS, FA uptake and transport (PPARγ, CD36, FABP4, FA oxidation (PPARα, and inflammation (IL6, TNFα, CRP, PPARδ were assessed by RT-qPCR in 127 MO women with normal liver histology (NL, n = 13, simple steatosis (SS, n = 47 and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 67. Liver FAS mRNA expression was significantly higher in MO NAFLD women with both SS and NASH compared to those with NL (p = 0.003, p = 0.010, respectively. Hepatic IL6 and TNFα mRNA expression was higher in NASH than in SS subjects (p = 0.033, p = 0.050, respectively. Interestingly, LXRα, ACC1 and FAS expression had an inverse relation with the grade of steatosis. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis. In conclusion, our results indicate that lipogenesis seems to be downregulated in advanced stages of SS, suggesting that, in this type of extreme obesity, the deregulation of the lipogenic pathway might be associated with the severity of steatosis.

  18. The Effects of ACC Deaminase-containing Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria on the Abiotic Stress Resistance of Plants%含ACC脱氨酶的PGPR在植物抗非生物胁迫中的作用研究进展

    史煦涵; 刘佳莉; 方芳; 郭长虹

    2012-01-01

    The inoculation on plants with the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR can reduce the content of ethylene,which can reduce the impact of abiotic stress on the growth and development of plants. This article analyzed and summarized the inoculation effect on plant with the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR under water,salinity,temperature and pollutants,and it concluded that PGPR could both promote the resistance and the tolerance to drought,flooding,salinity and recover the polluted soil via plant. At last,the future research directions were provided.%用含ACC脱氨酶的PGPR接种植物,可降低乙烯含量,从而减轻非生物胁迫对植物生长和发育产生的影响.归纳了水、盐碱、温度、污染物胁迫下含ACC脱氨酶的PGPR对植物的接种效应,得出PGPR可提高植物对干旱、水涝、盐碱胁迫及温度的抗性和耐受性,同时还可促进植物修复土壤污染.最后提出了展望.

  19. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  20. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry