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Sample records for 1-alkoxymethyl-2-methyl-5-hydroxypyridinium chloride homologues

  1. Biodegradation of diesel fuel by a microbial consortium in the presence of 1-alkoxymethyl-2-methyl-5-hydroxypyridinium chloride homologues

    Chrzanowski, L; Stasiewicz, M; Owsianiak, Mikolaj;

    2009-01-01

    Fast development of ionic liquids as gaining more and more attention valuable chemicals will undoubtedly lead to environmental pollution. New formulations and application of ionic liquids may result in contamination in the presence of hydrophobic compounds, such as petroleum mixtures. We hypothes...

  2. Pepsin homologues in bacteria

    Bateman Alex

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidase family A1, to which pepsin belongs, had been assumed to be restricted to eukaryotes. The tertiary structure of pepsin shows two lobes with similar folds and it has been suggested that the gene has arisen from an ancient duplication and fusion event. The only sequence similarity between the lobes is restricted to the motif around the active site aspartate and a hydrophobic-hydrophobic-Gly motif. Together, these contribute to an essential structural feature known as a psi-loop. There is one such psi-loop in each lobe, and so each lobe presents an active Asp. The human immunodeficiency virus peptidase, retropepsin, from peptidase family A2 also has a similar fold but consists of one lobe only and has to dimerize to be active. All known members of family A1 show the bilobed structure, but it is unclear if the ancestor of family A1 was similar to an A2 peptidase, or if the ancestral retropepsin was derived from a half-pepsin gene. The presence of a pepsin homologue in a prokaryote might give insights into the evolution of the pepsin family. Results Homologues of the aspartic peptidase pepsin have been found in the completed genomic sequences from seven species of bacteria. The bacterial homologues, unlike those from eukaryotes, do not possess signal peptides, and would therefore be intracellular acting at neutral pH. The bacterial homologues have Thr218 replaced by Asp, a change which in renin has been shown to confer activity at neutral pH. No pepsin homologues could be detected in any archaean genome. Conclusion The peptidase family A1 is found in some species of bacteria as well as eukaryotes. The bacterial homologues fall into two groups, one from oceanic bacteria and one from plant symbionts. The bacterial homologues are all predicted to be intracellular proteins, unlike the eukaryotic enzymes. The bacterial homologues are bilobed like pepsin, implying that if no horizontal gene transfer has occurred the duplication

  3. Fetal homologue of infant crying

    Gingras, J.; Mitchell, E; Grattan, K

    2005-01-01

    Four behavioural states are recognised in the human fetus and are comparable to those of the neonate: 1F (quiet sleep), 2F (active state), 3F (quiet awake), and 4F (active awake). State 5, or crying, is not considered to have a fetal correlate. In a study assessing the effects of exposure to tobacco and cocaine during pregnancy on fetal response and habituation to vibroacoustic stimulation, what appears to be the fetal homologue of crying was observed. These behaviours were seen on ultrasound...

  4. Crystal chemistry of sartorite homologues and related sulfosalts

    Berlepsch, Peter; Makovicky, Emil; Balic-Zunic, Tonci

    2001-01-01

    sartorite homologues, sulfosalt, crystal chemistry, coordination polyhedra, bond-pairs, crankshaft chains......sartorite homologues, sulfosalt, crystal chemistry, coordination polyhedra, bond-pairs, crankshaft chains...

  5. Crystal chemical formula for sartorite homologues

    Makovicky, Emil; Topa, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The members of the sartorite homologous series are complex sulfides Me 2+ 8N–16–2X Me 3+ 16+X Me + XS8N+8where Me 2+ is Pb and Me 3+ is As and Sb, whereas Me + is Ag and/or Tl. This paper presents calculation formulae for the homologue order N and for the separate substitution percentages for Tl...

  6. Monolayer structures of alkyl aldehydes: Odd-membered homologues

    Crystalline monolayers of three aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (C7, C9 and C11) at low coverages are observed by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction data is discussed and possible monolayer crystal structures are proposed; although unique structures could not be ascertained for all molecules. We conclude that the structures are flat on the surface, with the molecules lying in the plane of the layer. The C11 homologue is determined to have a plane group of either p2, pgb or pgg, and for the C7 homologue the p2 plane group is preferred.

  7. Chloride ingress prediction

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth and...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  8. Chloride ingress prediction

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...... marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  9. Chloride ingress prediction

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...

  10. Monolayer structures of alkyl aldehydes: Odd-membered homologues

    Phillips, T.K. [BP Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Clarke, S.M., E-mail: stuart@bpi.cam.ac.u [BP Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bhinde, T. [BP Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Castro, M.A.; Millan, C. [Instituto Ciencia de los Materiales de Sevilla, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica (CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla) (Spain); Medina, S. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion de la Universidad de Sevilla (CITIUS), Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-03-01

    Crystalline monolayers of three aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (C{sub 7}, C{sub 9} and C{sub 11}) at low coverages are observed by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction data is discussed and possible monolayer crystal structures are proposed; although unique structures could not be ascertained for all molecules. We conclude that the structures are flat on the surface, with the molecules lying in the plane of the layer. The C{sub 11} homologue is determined to have a plane group of either p2, pgb or pgg, and for the C{sub 7} homologue the p2 plane group is preferred.

  11. Transport mechanism of a glutamate transporter homologue GltPh

    Ji, Yurui; Postis, Vincent L.G.; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark; Goldman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate transporters are responsible for uptake of the neurotransmitter glutamate in mammalian central nervous systems. Their archaeal homologue GltPh, an aspartate transporter isolated from Pyrococcus horikoshii, has been the focus of extensive studies through crystallography, MD simulations and single-molecule FRET (smFRET). Here, we summarize the recent research progress on GltPh, in the hope of gaining some insights into the transport mechanism of this aspartate transporter. PMID:27284058

  12. Chloride ingress prediction

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  13. Optical and Static Kerr Effects in Phenylcyclohexane Homologues.

    Tyson, David George

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Since Kerr published his observation that a glass slab had the ability to change its optical transmission properties under the influence of an electric field in 1876, there have been many notable achievements in the field of electro-optics. Among them is the theoretical prediction of the optical Kerr effect (OKE) by Buckingham in 1956, and its subsequent practical realisation by Mayer and Gires in 1964. Whilst the electric Kerr effect (EKE) relies on the application of high voltage dc pulse, the OKE requires the high frequency electric field associated with a pulsed, high energy solid state laser beam. A detailed review of OKE forms part of the research activity described herein and was necessary to identify the equipment and techniques essential for its practical realisation in any of the three material classes reviewed. System design criteria were established from which an experimental system could be constructed to investigate the OKE and EKE behaviour of thermotropic materials. Liquid crystals (LC's) used in commercial display devices are a blend of several component LC's, tailored to produce a device capable of a wide operating temperature range, for example. These components form the centre of this investigation and represent a homologous series in that they contain a common core structure, but consecutive homologues vary from each other by a -CH_2 molecule. The experimental system is used to investigate the thermotropic behaviour of the birefringence, optical and dc Kerr constants and the molecular relaxation time of each phenylcyclohexane homologue. The data presented enable the pretransitional behaviour of each homologue to be investigated in addition to the odd-even effects exhibited by the series, leading to a discussion regarding their conformational structure.

  14. Monolayer structures of alkyl aldehydes: Odd-membered homologues

    Phillips, T. K.; Clarke, Stuart M.; Castro Arroyo, Miguel Ángel; Millán, Carmen; Medina, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline monolayers of three aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (C 7, C 9 and C 11) at low coverages are observed by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction data is discussed and possible monolayer crystal structures are proposed; although unique structures could not be ascertained for all molecules. We conclude that the structures are flat on the surface, with the molecules lying in the plane of the layer. The C 11 homologue...

  15. Identification of possible targets of the Aspergillus fumigatus CRZ1 homologue, CrzA

    Goldman Gustavo H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcineurin, a serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase, plays an important role in the control of cell morphology and virulence in fungi. Calcineurin regulates localization and activity of a transcription factor called CRZ1. Recently, we characterize Aspergillus fumigatus CRZ1 homologue, AfCrzA. Here, we investigate which pathways are influenced by A. fumigatus AfCrzA during a short pulse of calcium by comparatively determining the transcriptional profile of A. fumigatus wild type and ΔAfcrzA mutant strains. Results We were able to observe 3,622 genes modulated in at least one timepoint in the mutant when compared to the wild type strain (3,211 and 411 at 10 and 30 minutes, respectively. Decreased mRNA abundance in the ΔcrzA was seen for genes encoding calcium transporters, transcription factors and genes that could be directly or indirectly involved in calcium metabolism. Increased mRNA accumulation was observed for some genes encoding proteins involved in stress response. AfCrzA overexpression in A. fumigatus increases the expression of several of these genes. The deleted strain of one of these genes, AfRcnA, belonging to a class of endogenous calcineurin regulators, calcipressins, had more calcineurin activity after exposure to calcium and was less sensitive to menadione 30 μM, hydrogen peroxide 2.5 mM, EGTA 25 mM, and MnCl2 25 mM. We constructed deletion, overexpression, and GFP fusion protein for the closely related A. nidulans AnRcnA. GFP::RcnA was mostly detected along the germling, did not accumulate in the nuclei and its location is not affected by the cellular response to calcium chloride. Conclusion We have performed a transcriptional profiling analysis of the A. fumigatus ΔAfcrzA mutant strain exposed to calcium stress. This provided an excellent opportunity to identify genes and pathways that are under the influence of AfCrzA. AfRcnA, one of these selected genes, encodes a modulator of calcineurin

  16. Mass transport in aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride electrolytes

    Leaist, D.G.

    1986-09-01

    Conductimetric and diaphragm cell techniques have been used to measure ternary diffusion coefficients for aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride solutions at 25/sup 0/C. At low concentrations where Zn/sup 2 +/ is the major zinc-transporting species, the diffusion-induced electric field along zinc chloride concentration gradients drives large co-current flows of potassium chloride. In concentrated solutions where a large proportion of zinc diffusses as anionic ZnCl/sub 3//sup -/ and ZnCl/sub 4//sup 2 -/ complexes, flow of zinc chloride generates counterflow of potassium chloride. If a sharp zinc chloride is formed in an otherwise uniform solution of potassium chloride, coupled diffusion can concentrate potassium ions within the diffusion boundary. Equations are developed to predict multicomponent transport coefficients for zinc chloride in supporting electrolytes.

  17. Effects of homologues and analogues of palmitoylethanolamide upon the inactivation of the endocannabinoid anandamide

    Jonsson, Kent-Olov; Vandevoorde, Séverine; Lambert, Didier M; Tiger, Gunnar; Fowler, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of a series of homologues and analogues of palmitoylethanolamide to inhibit the uptake and fatty acid amidohydrolase (FAAH)-catalysed hydrolysis of [3H]-anandamide ([3H]-AEA) has been investigated.Palmitoylethanolamide and homologues with chain lengths from 12–18 carbon atoms inhibited rat brain [3H]-AEA metabolism with pI50 values of ∼5. Homologues with chain lengths ⩽eight carbon atoms gave

  18. Simulated moving bed separation of tocopherol homologues: simulation and experiments

    Yu-bin L(U); Bao-gen SU; Yi-wen YANG; Qi-long REN; Ping-dong WU

    2009-01-01

    Chromatograms of tocopherol homologues were obtained by a column of analytical size(inner diameter(ID)0.46 cm cm× 10 cm)packed with silica gel.Adsorption isotherms and film mass-transfer coefficient were estimated from the chromatograms by using a general rate model.which considers axial dispersion,external mass-transfer and intraparticle diffusion.Based on the obtained isotherms and mass-transfer coefficient.the separation process of tocopherol homologues on simulated moving impurities was separated on an SMB equipment.The SMB equipment was composed of 8 columns of ID 2 cm× 10 cm.with 2 columns in each section.The solid phase was silica gel,and the mobile phase was n-hexane/2-propanol(99/1 by volume).γ-and δ-tocopherols of purity greater than 98% were obtained with recovery greater than 98%.The effects of operating conditions (flow rates and switching time)on the performance of SMB were studied by both simulation and experiments.It was found that all the simulation results were quite close to the experimental results.We conclude that process development and optimization of operating conditions of SMB by simulation are feasible.

  19. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  20. PCDD/F catalysis by metal chlorides and oxides.

    Zhang, Mengmei; Yang, Jie; Buekens, Alfons; Olie, Kees; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    Model fly ash (MFA) samples were composed of silica, sodium chloride, and activated carbon, and doped with metal (0.1 wt% Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cd) chloride or oxide. Each sample was de novo tested at 350 °C for 1 h, in a flow of gas (N2, N2 + 10% O2, +21% O2 or +10% H2) to investigate the effect of metal catalyst and gas composition on PCDD/F formation. Total PCDD/F yield rises rapidly with oxygen content, while the addition of hydrogen inhibits the formation and chlorination of PCDD/F. The amount of PCDD on average rises linearly with the oxygen concentration, while that of PCDF follows a reaction order of about 1/2; thus the PCDF to PCDD ratio drops when more oxygen becomes available. Some samples do not follow this trend. Chlorides are much more active than oxides, yet there are marked differences between individual metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to study the signatures from all samples, showing their unique specificity and diversity. Each catalyst shows a different signature within its individual homologue groups, demonstrating that these signatures are not thermodynamically controlled. Average congener patterns do not vary considerably with oxygen content changing from oxidising (air) to reducing (nitrogen, hydrogen). PMID:27341157

  1. Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase

    Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A. (Harvard-Med); (HHMI)

    2010-03-19

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain {gamma}-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from cysteines of newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulphide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant.

  2. [Degradation of succinylcholine chloride].

    Németh, G; Török, I; Paál, T

    1993-05-01

    Quantitative thin-layer chormatographic method has been developed for the investigation of the degradation of injection formulations containing succinylcholinium chloride. The method is based on the denistometric determination of the main degradation product, choline at 430 nm after visualization with iodine vapour. The stability of the injection was investigated under various storage conditions and it has been stated that considerable decomposition takes place during as short a period as one week. PMID:8362654

  3. Homologue Pairing in Flies and Mammals: Gene Regulation When Two Are Involved

    Manasi S. Apte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome pairing is usually discussed in the context of meiosis. Association of homologues in germ cells enables chromosome segregation and is necessary for fertility. A few organisms, such as flies, also pair their entire genomes in somatic cells. Most others, including mammals, display little homologue pairing outside of the germline. Experimental evidence from both flies and mammals suggests that communication between homologues contributes to normal genome regulation. This paper will contrast the role of pairing in transmitting information between homologues in flies and mammals. In mammals, somatic homologue pairing is tightly regulated, occurring at specific loci and in a developmentally regulated fashion. Inappropriate pairing, or loss of normal pairing, is associated with gene misregulation in some disease states. While homologue pairing in flies is capable of influencing gene expression, the significance of this for normal expression remains unknown. The sex chromosomes pose a particularly interesting situation, as females are able to pair X chromosomes, but males cannot. The contribution of homologue pairing to the biology of the X chromosome will also be discussed.

  4. SLAH1, a homologue of the slow type anion channel SLAC1, modulates shoot Cl − accumulation and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Qiu, Jiaen

    2016-06-23

    Salinity tolerance is correlated with shoot chloride (Cl–) exclusion in multiple crops, but the molecular mechanisms of long-distance Cl– transport are poorly defined. Here, we characterize the in planta role of AtSLAH1 (a homologue of the slow type anion channel-associated 1 (SLAC1)). This protein, localized to the plasma membrane of root stelar cells, has its expression reduced by salt or ABA, which are key predictions for a protein involved with loading Cl– into the root xylem. Artificial microRNA knockdown mutants of AtSLAH1 had significantly reduced shoot Cl− accumulation when grown under low Cl–, whereas shoot Cl– increased and the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio decreased following AtSLAH1 constitutive or stelar-specific overexpression when grown in high Cl–. In both sets of overexpression lines a significant reduction in shoot biomass over the null segregants was observed under high Cl– supply, but not low Cl– supply. Further in planta data showed AtSLAH3 overexpression increased the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio, consistent with AtSLAH3 favouring nitrate transport. Heterologous expression of AtSLAH1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to no detectible transport, suggesting the need for post-translational modifications for AtSLAH1 to be active. Our in planta data are consistent with AtSLAH1 having a role in controlling root-to-shoot Cl– transport.

  5. Structural insights of a hormone sensitive lipase homologue Est22.

    Huang, Jing; Huo, Ying-Yi; Ji, Rui; Kuang, Siyun; Ji, Chaoneng; Xu, Xue-Wei; Li, Jixi

    2016-01-01

    Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols into fatty acids and glycerol, thus playing key roles in energy homeostasis. However, the application of HSL serving as a pharmaceutical target and an industrial biocatalyst is largely hampered due to the lack of high-resolution structural information. Here we report biochemical properties and crystal structures of a novel HSL homologue esterase Est22 from a deep-sea metagenomic library. Est22 prefers short acyl chain esters and has a very high activity with substrate p-nitrophenyl butyrate. The crystal structures of wild type and mutated Est22 with its product p-nitrophenol are solved with resolutions ranging from 1.4 Å to 2.43 Å. The Est22 exhibits a α/β-hydrolase fold consisting with a catalytic domain and a substrate-recognizing cap domain. Residues Ser188, Asp287, and His317 comprise the catalytic triad in the catalytic domain. The p-nitrophenol molecule occupies the substrate binding pocket and forms hydrogen bonds with adjacent residues Gly108, Gly109, and Gly189. Est22 exhibits a dimeric form in solution, whereas mutants D287A and H317A change to polymeric form, which totally abolished its enzymatic activities. Our study provides insights into the catalytic mechanism of HSL family esterase and facilitates the understanding for further industrial and biotechnological applications of esterases. PMID:27328716

  6. Structural insights of a hormone sensitive lipase homologue Est22

    Huang, Jing; Huo, Ying-Yi; Ji, Rui; Kuang, Siyun; Ji, Chaoneng; Xu, Xue-Wei; Li, Jixi

    2016-01-01

    Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols into fatty acids and glycerol, thus playing key roles in energy homeostasis. However, the application of HSL serving as a pharmaceutical target and an industrial biocatalyst is largely hampered due to the lack of high-resolution structural information. Here we report biochemical properties and crystal structures of a novel HSL homologue esterase Est22 from a deep-sea metagenomic library. Est22 prefers short acyl chain esters and has a very high activity with substrate p-nitrophenyl butyrate. The crystal structures of wild type and mutated Est22 with its product p-nitrophenol are solved with resolutions ranging from 1.4 Å to 2.43 Å. The Est22 exhibits a α/β-hydrolase fold consisting with a catalytic domain and a substrate-recognizing cap domain. Residues Ser188, Asp287, and His317 comprise the catalytic triad in the catalytic domain. The p-nitrophenol molecule occupies the substrate binding pocket and forms hydrogen bonds with adjacent residues Gly108, Gly109, and Gly189. Est22 exhibits a dimeric form in solution, whereas mutants D287A and H317A change to polymeric form, which totally abolished its enzymatic activities. Our study provides insights into the catalytic mechanism of HSL family esterase and facilitates the understanding for further industrial and biotechnological applications of esterases. PMID:27328716

  7. Homologue pairing, recombination and segregation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Zetka, M

    2009-01-01

    Meiosis in the free-living, hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is marked by the same highly conserved features observed in other sexually reproducing systems. Accurate chromosome segregation at the meiotic divisions depends on earlier landmark events of meiotic prophase, including the pairing of homologous chromosomes, synapsis between them, and the formation of crossovers. Dissection of these processes has revealed a unique simplification of meiotic mechanisms that impact the interpretation of meiotic chromosome behaviour in more complex systems. Chromosome sites required for chromosome pairing are consolidated to one end of each chromosome, the many sites of recombination initiation are resolved into a single crossover for each chromosome pair, and the diffuse (holocentric) kinetic activity that extends along the length of the mitotic chromosomes is reduced to a single end of each meiotic chromosome. Consequently, studies from the nematode have illuminated and challenged long-standing concepts of homologue pairing mechanisms, crossover interference, and kinetochore structure. Because chromosome pairing, synapsis, and recombination can proceed independently of one another, C. elegans has provided a simplified system for studying these processes and the mechanisms mediating their coordination during meiosis. This review covers the major features of C. elegans meiosis with emphasis on its contributions to understanding essential meiotic processes. PMID:18948706

  8. Characterization of a RAB5 homologue in Trypanosoma cruzi

    RAB proteins are small GTPases involved in exocytic and endocytic pathways of eukaryotic cells, controlling vesicle docking and fusion. RABs show a remarkable specificity in subcellular localization, so they can be used as molecular markers for studying protein trafficking in Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas' disease. RAB5 is a component of early endosomes. It has been identified in kinetoplastids such as Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania donovani. In this work, we describe the characterization of the complete coding sequence of a RAB5 gene homologue in T. cruzi (TcRAB5, GenBank Accession No. AY730667). It is present as a single copy gene, located at chromosomal bands XIII and XIV. TcRAB5 shares the highest degrees of similarity (71%) and identity (63%) with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense RAB5a and contains all five characteristic RAB motifs. TcRAB5 is transcribed as a single 1.5kb mRNA in epimastigotes. Its transcript was also detected in the other two forms of the parasite, metacyclic trypomastigotes and spheromastigotes. The recombinant TcRAB5 protein was able to bind and hydrolyze GTP. The identification of proteins involved in T. cruzi endo- and exocytic pathways may generate cellular compartment markers, an invaluable tool to better understand the vesicular transport in this parasite

  9. Novel motifs distinguish multiple homologues of Polycomb in vertebrates: expansion and diversification of the epigenetic toolkit

    Senthilkumar Ramamoorthy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycomb group (PcG proteins maintain expression pattern of genes set early during development. Although originally isolated as regulators of homeotic genes, PcG members play a key role in epigenetic mechanism that maintains the expression state of a large number of genes. Polycomb (PC is conserved during evolution and while invertebrates have one PC gene, vertebrates have five or more homologues. It remains unclear if different vertebrate PC homologues have distinct or overlapping functions. We have identified and compared the sequence of PC homologues in various organisms to analyze similarities and differences that shaped the evolutionary history of this key regulatory protein. Results All PC homologues have an N-terminal chromodomain and a C-terminal Polycomb Repressor box. We searched the protein and genome sequence database of various organisms for these signatures and identified ~100 PC homologues. Comparative analysis of these sequences led to the identification of a novel insect specific motif and several novel and signature motifs in the vertebrate homologue: two in CBX2 (Cx2.1 and Cx2.2, four in CBX4 (Cx4.1, Cx4.2, Cx4.3 and Cx4.4, three in CBX6 (Cx6.1, Cx6.2 and Cx6.3 and one in CBX8 (Cx8.1. Additionally, adjacent to the chromodomain, all the vertebrate homologues have a DNA binding motif - AT-Hook in case of CBX2, which was known earlier, and 'AT-Hook Like' motif, from this study, in other PC homologues. Conclusion Our analysis shows that PC is an ancient gene dating back to pre bilaterian origin that has not only been conserved but has also expanded during the evolution of complexity. Unique motifs acquired by each homologue have been maintained for more than 500 millions years indicating their functional relevance in boosting the epigenetic 'tool kit'. We report the presence of a DNA interaction motif adjacent to chromodomain in all vertebrate PC homologues and suggest a three-way 'PC-histoneH3-DNA' interaction

  10. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    Singh,S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 {angstrom} above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the

  11. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 (angstrom) above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational

  12. Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters.

    Singh, Satinder K; Yamashita, Atsuko; Gouaux, Eric

    2007-08-23

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 A above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational design of

  13. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  14. Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    MYERS, E. R.; Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1993-01-01

    Virulence, as determined in a mouse model, and the virulence factor activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and listeriolysin O were examined in a parental strain (10403S) and in a nonhemolytic mutant strain (DP-L224) of Listeria monocytogenes. The cells were propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. Strains 10403S and DP-L224 exhibited significant increases in catalase activity and listeriolysin O activity when grown in medium conta...

  15. Separation of bacteriochlorophyll homologues from green photosynthetic sulfur bacteria by reversed-phase HPLC.

    Borrego, C M; Garcia-Gil, L J

    1994-07-01

    A reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Cromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to accurately separate bacteriochlorophyllsc, d ande homologues in a reasonably short run time of 60 minutes. By using this method, two well-defined groups of bacteriochlorophyll homologue peaks can be discriminated. The first one consists of 4 peaks (min 24 to 30), which corresponds to the four main farnesyl homologues. The second peak subset is formed by a cluster of up to 10 minor peaks (min 33 to 40). These peaks can be related with series of several alcohol esters of the different chlorosome chlorophylls. The number of homologues was, however, quite variable depending on both, the bacteriochlorophyll and the bacterial species. The method hereby described, also provides a good separation of other photosynthetic pigments, either bacterial (Bacteriochlorophylla, chlorobactene, isorenieratene and okenone) or algal ones (Chlorophylla, Pheophytina and β-carotene). A preliminary screening of the homologue composition of several green photosynthetic bacterial species and isolates, has revealed different relative quantitative patterns. These differences seem to be related to physiological aspects rather than to taxonomic ones. The application of the method to the study of natural populations avoids the typical drawbacks on the pigment identification of overlapping eukaryotic and prokaryotic phototrophic microorganisms, giving further information about their physiological status. PMID:24310022

  16. Chloride channels in stroke

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  17. A Human PMS2 Homologue from Aquifex aeolicus Stimulates an ATP-dependent DNA Helicase

    Mauris, Jerome; Evans, Thomas C., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Mismatch repair in Escherichia coli involves a number of proteins including MutL and UvrD. Eukaryotes also possess MutL homologues; however, no UvrD helicase homologues have been identified. The hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus has a MutL protein (Aae MutL) that possesses a latent endonuclease activity similar to eukaryotic, but different from E. coli, MutL proteins. By sequence homology Aq793 is a member of the PcrA/UvrD/Rep helicase subfamily. We expressed Aae MutL and the putat...

  18. Identification and cloning of a sequence homologue of dopamine β-hydroxylase

    Chambers, Kaylene J.; Tonkin, Leath A.; Chang, Edwin; Shelton, Dawne N.; Linskens, Maarten H.; Funk, Walter D.

    1998-01-01

    We have identified and cloned a cDNA encoding a new member of the monooxygenase family of enzymes. This novel enzyme, which we call MOX (monooxygenase X; unknown substrate) is a clear sequence homologue of the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH). MOX maintains many of the structural features of DBH,

  19. Congenital sideroblastic anemia due to mutations in the mitochondrial HSP70 homologue HSPA9

    Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; Ciesielski, Szymon J; Schmidt, Paul J;

    2015-01-01

    The congenital sideroblastic anemias (CSAs) are relatively uncommon diseases, characterized by defects in mitochondrial heme synthesis, iron-sulfur cluster (Fe-S) biogenesis, or protein synthesis. Here we demonstrate that mutations in HSPA9, a mitochondrial HSP70 homologue located in the 5q...

  20. The archaeal TFIIE homologue facilitates transcription initiation by enhancing TATA-box recognition

    Bell, S.D.; Brinkman, A.B.; Oost, van der J.; Jackson, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Transcription from many archaeal promoters can be reconstituted in vitro using recombinant TATA-box binding protein (TBP) and transcription factor B (TFB)—homologues of eukaryal TBP and TFIIB—together with purified RNA polymerase (RNAP). However, all archaeal genomes sequenced to date reveal the pre

  1. Characterization of four RecQ homologues from rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare)

    The RecQ family of DNA helicases is conserved throughout the biological kingdoms. In this report, we have characterized four RecQ homologues clearly expressed in rice. OsRecQ1, OsRecQ886, and OsRecQsim expressions were strongly detected in meristematic tissues. Transcription of the OsRecQ homologues was differentially induced by several types of DNA-damaging agents. The expression of four OsRecQ homologues was induced by MMS and bleomycin. OsRecQ1 and OsRecQ886 were induced by H2O2, and MitomycinC strongly induced the expression of OsRecQ1. Transient expression of OsRecQ/GFP fusion proteins demonstrated that OsRecQ2 and OsRecQ886 are found in nuclei, whereas OsRecQ1 and OsRecQsim are found in plastids. Neither OsRecQ1 nor OsRecQsim are induced by light. These results indicate that four of the RecQ homologues have different and specific functions in DNA repair pathways, and that OsRecQ1 and OsRecQsim may not involve in plastid differentiation but different aspects of a plastid-specific DNA repair system

  2. A Hexose Transporter Homologue Controls Glucose Repression in the Methylotrophic Yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    Stasyk, Oleh V.; Stasyk, Olena G.; Komduur, Janet; Veenhuis, Marten; Cregg, James M.; Sibirny, Andrei A.

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome biogenesis and synthesis of peroxisomal enzymes in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha are under the strict control of glucose repression. We identified an H. polymorpha glucose catabolite repression gene (HpGCR1) that encodes a hexose transporter homologue. Deficiency in GCR1 l

  3. The Retention Behaviors of Benzene and Its Alkyl Homologues in Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography

    2000-01-01

    The retention behaviors of benzene and its alkyl homologues in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography were investigated in both anionic and cationic surfactant MEEKC systems. The effects of the composition of microemulsion on retention time and selectivity were studied. A good linear relationship was obtained between log k' and the carbon number of alkyl chain.

  4. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  5. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  6. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    Yuan, Q.; Shi, C; Schutter, G. de; Audenaert, K.; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  7. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  8. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P.A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  9. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  10. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. Immune response studies with Wuchereria bancrofti vespid allergen homologue (WbVAH) in human lymphatic filariasis

    Anand, Setty Balakrishnan; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam; Thangadurai, Mani; Prabhu, Prince R.; Kaliraj, Perumal; RAMASWAMY, KALYANASUNDARAM

    2007-01-01

    A homologue of Brugia malayi venom allergen (BmVAH) was cloned from the infective stages (L3) of Wuchereria bancrofti. Sequence analysis showed 90% sequence identity between WbVAH and BmVAH. Recombinant WbVAH was then expressed and purified. VAH from other nematode parasites is being evaluated as potential vaccine candidates. Because W. bancrofti infections are more prevalent than B. malayi, it will significantly benefit using W. bancrofti antigens for vaccine development. In this study, we h...

  12. The Drosophila ETV5 Homologue Ets96B: Molecular Link between Obesity and Bipolar Disorder

    Williams, Michael J.; Klockars, Anica; Eriksson, Anders; Voisin, Sarah; Dnyansagar, Rohit; Wiemerslage, Lyle; Kasagiannis, Anna; Akram, Mehwish; Kheder, Sania; Ambrosi, Valerie; Hallqvist, Emilie; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggest obesity and bipolar disorder (BD) share some physiological and behavioural similarities. For instance, obese individuals are more impulsive and have heightened reward responsiveness, phenotypes associated with BD, while bipolar patients become obese at a higher rate and earlier age than people without BD; however, the molecular mechanisms of such an association remain obscure. Here we demonstrate, using whole transcriptome analysis, that Drosophila Ets96B, homologue of...

  13. Differential Effects of Replacing Escherichia coli Ribosomal Protein L27 with Its Homologue from Aquifex aeolicus

    Maguire, Bruce A.; Manuilov, Anton V; Zimmermann, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    The rpmA gene, which encodes 50S ribosomal subunit protein L27, was cloned from the extreme thermophile Aquifex aeolicus, and the protein was overexpressed and purified. Comparison of the A. aeolicus protein with its homologue from Escherichia coli by circular dichroism analysis and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that it readily adopts some structure in solution that is very stable, whereas the E. coli protein is unstructured under the same conditions. A mutant of E. co...

  14. Peri-Pubertal Emergence of UNC-5 Homologue Expression by Dopamine Neurons in Rodents

    Colleen Manitt; Cassandre Labelle-Dumais; Conrad Eng; Alanna Grant; Andrea Mimee; Thomas Stroh; Cecilia Flores

    2010-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period in mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system development, particularly for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) projection which achieves maturity in early adulthood. The guidance cue netrin-1 organizes neuronal networks by attracting or repelling cellular processes through DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) and UNC-5 homologue (UNC5H) receptors, respectively. We have shown that variations in netrin-1 receptor levels lead to selective reorganization of mPFC DA circuit...

  15. Ionic Currents Mediated by a Prokaryotic Homologue of CLC Cl− Channels

    Accardi, Alessio; Kolmakova-Partensky, Ludmila; Williams, Carole; Miller, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    CLC-ec1 is an E. coli homologue of the CLC family of Cl− channels, which are widespread throughout eukaryotic organisms. The structure of this membrane protein is known, and its physiological role has been described, but our knowledge of its functional characteristics is severely limited by the absence of electrophysiological recordings. High-density reconstitution and incorporation of crystallization-quality CLC-ec1 in planar lipid bilayers failed to yield measurable CLC-ec1 currents due to ...

  16. Crystal structure of myotoxin-II: a myotoxic phospholipase A2 - homologue from Bothrops moojeni venom

    Full text. Phospho lipases A2 (PLA2; E C 3.1.1.4, phosphatides s n-2 acyl hydrolases) hydrolysis the s n-2 ester bond of phospholipids showing enhanced activity at lamellar or membrane surfaces. Intracellular PLA2 s are involved at phospholipid metabolism and signal transduction, whereas extracellular PLA2 s are found in mammalian pancreatic juices, the venoms of snakes, lizards and insects. Based on their high primary sequence similarity, extracellular PLA2 s are separated into Classes I, II and III. Class II PLA2 s are found in snake venoms of Crotalidae an Viperidae species, and include the sub-family of Lys PLA2 s homologue. he coordination of the Ca2+ ion in the PLA2 calcium-binding loop includes and aspartate at position 49. In the catalytically active PLA2 s, this calcium ion plays a critical role in the stabilization of the tetrahedral transition state intermediate in the catalytic mechanism. The conservative substitution Asp49-Lys results in a decreased calcium affinity with a concomitant loss of catalytic activity, and naturally occurring PLA2 s-homologues showing the same substitution are catalytically inactive. However, the Lys PLA2 s possess cytolytic and myotoxic activities and furthermore retain the ability to disrupt the integrity of both plasma membranes and model lipid layers by a ca2+-independent mechanism for which there is no evidence of lipid hydrolysis. Lys 49 PLA2 homologues have been isolated from several Bothrops spp. venoms including B. moojeni. Therefore, in order to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the myotoxic and Ca2+ independent membrane damaging activities we have determined the crystal structure of MjTX-II, a Lys 49 homologue from the venom of B. moojeni. The model presented has been determined at 2.0 A resolution and refined to a crystallographic residual of 19.7% (Rfree=28.1%). (author)

  17. Structure of the specificity domain of the Dorsal homologue Gambif1 bound to DNA

    P. Cramer; Varrot, A.; Barillas-Mury, C; Kafatos, F.; C. Müller

    1999-01-01

    Background: NF-κB/Rel transcription factors play important roles in immunity and development in mammals and insects. Their activity is regulated by their cellular localization, homo- and heterodimerization and association with other factors on their target gene promoters. Gambif1 fromAnopheles gambiae is a member of the Rel family and a close homologue of the morphogen Dorsal, which establishes dorsoventral polarity in theDrosophila embryo.Results: We present the crystal structure of the N-te...

  18. Characterization of Two H2AX Homologues in Arabidopsis thaliana and their Response to Ionizing Radiation

    Phosphorylation of histone variant H2AX at the site of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is one of the earliest responses detected in cells exposed to Ionizing Radiation (IR). Phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) is important for recruiting and retaining repair proteins at the site of DSBs and contributes to the maintenance of cell-cycle arrest until repair is completed. In this study, insertional mutants of two Arabidopsis thaliana H2AX homologues were identified and characterized to determine if both genes are functionally active and whether their roles are redundant or divergent. We report an approximate ten-fold reduction in γ-H2AX in our double mutant line and demonstrate that the homologues function redundantly in the formation of IR induced γ-H2AX foci. A tendency towards increased inhibition of root growth was observed in irradiated double mutant plants relative to both wild-type and single mutant lines. No evidence indicating a functional divergence between the two homologues was detected. (author)

  19. Osmotic stress-dependent serine phosphorylation of the histidine kinase homologue DokA

    Oehme Felix

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-component systems consisting of histidine kinases and their corresponding receivers are widespread in bacterial signal transduction. In the past few years, genes coding for homologues of two-component systems were also discovered in eukaryotic organisms. DokA, a homologue of bacterial histidine kinases, is an element of the osmoregulatory pathway in the amoeba Dictyostelium. The work described here addresses the question whether DokA is phosphorylated in vivo in response to osmotic stress. Results We have endogenously overexpressed individual domains of DokA to investigate post-translational modification of the protein in response to osmotic shock in vivo. Dictyostelium cells were labeled with [32P]-orthophosphate, exposed to osmotic stress and DokA fragments were subsequently isolated by immunoprecipitation. Thus, a stress-dependent phosphorylation could be demonstrated, with the site of phosphorylation being located in the kinase domain. We demonstrate biochemically that the phosphorylated amino acid is serine, and by mutational analysis that the phosphorylation reaction is not due to an autophosphorylation of DokA. Furthermore, mutation of the conserved histidine did not affect the osmostress-dependent phosphorylation reaction. Conclusions A stimulus-dependent serine phosphorylation of a eukaryotic histidine kinase homologue was demonstrated for the first time in vivo. That implies that DokA, although showing typical structural features of a bacterial two-component system, might be part of a eukaryotic signal transduction pathway that involves serine/threonine kinases.

  20. Sulforaphane homologues: Enantiodivergent synthesis of both enantiomers, activationof the Nrf2 transcription factor and selective cytotoxic activity

    Elhalem, Eleonora; Recio, Rocío; Werner, Sabine; Lieder, Franziska; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; López-Lázaro, Miguel; Fernández Fernández, Inmaculada; Khiar el Wahabi, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Reported is an enantiodivergent approach for the synthesis of both enantiomers of sulforaphane (SFN) homologues with different chain lengths between the sulfinyl sulfur and the isothiocyanate groups and different substituents on the sulfinyl sulfur. The homologues were designed in order to unravel the effect of all the diversity elements included in sulforaphane's structure. The key step of the approach is the diastereoselective synthesis of both sulfinate ester epimers at sulfur, using as si...

  1. Functional characterization of Aspergillus nidulans ypkA, a homologue of the mammalian kinase SGK.

    Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    The serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase (SGK) is an AGC kinase involved in signal cascades regulated by glucocorticoid hormones and serum in mammals. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ypk1 and ypk2 genes were identified as SGK homologues and Ypk1 was shown to regulate the balance of sphingolipids between the inner and outer plasma membrane. This investigation characterized the Aspergillus nidulans YPK1 homologue, YpkA, representing the first filamentous fungal YPK1 homologue. Two conditional mutant strains were constructed by replacing the endogenous ypk1 promoter with two different regulatable promoters, alcA (from the alcohol dehydrogenase gene) and niiA (from the nitrate reductase gene). Both constructs confirmed that ypkA was an essential gene in A. nidulans. Repression of ypkA caused decreased radial growth, a delay in conidial germination, deficient polar axis establishment, intense branching during late stages of growth, a lack of asexual spores, and a terminal phenotype. Membrane lipid polarization, endocytosis, eisosomes and vacuolar distribution were also affected by ypkA repression, suggesting that YpkA plays a role in hyphal morphogenesis via coordinating the delivery of cell membrane and wall constituents to the hyphal apex. The A. nidulans Pkh1 homologue pkhA was also shown to be an essential gene, and preliminary genetic analysis suggested that the ypkA gene is not directly downstream of pkhA or epistatic to pkhA, rather, ypkA and pkhA are genetically independent or in parallel. BarA is a homologue of the yeast Lag1 acyl-CoA-dependent ceramide synthase, which catalyzes the condensation of phytosphingosine with a fatty acyl-CoA to form phytoceramide. When barA was absent, ypkA repression was lethal to the cell. Therefore, there appears to be a genetic interaction between ypkA, barA, and the sphingolipid synthesis. Transcriptional profiling of ypkA overexpression and down-regulation revealed several putative YpkA targets associated with the

  2. Comparative Analysis of FLC Homologues in Brassicaceae Provides Insight into Their Role in the Evolution of Oilseed Rape

    Zou, Xiaoxiao; Suppanz, Ida; Raman, Harsh; Hou, Jinna; Wang, Jing; Long, Yan; Jung, Christian; Meng, Jinling

    2012-01-01

    We identified nine FLOWERING LOCUS C homologues (BnFLC) in Brassica napus and found that the coding sequences of all BnFLCs were relatively conserved but the intronic and promoter regions were more divergent. The BnFLC homologues were mapped to six of 19 chromosomes. All of the BnFLC homologues were located in the collinear region of FLC in the Arabidopsis genome except BnFLC.A3b and BnFLC.C3b, which were mapped to noncollinear regions of chromosome A3 and C3, respectively. Four of the homologues were associated significantly with quantitative trait loci for flowering time in two mapping populations. The BnFLC homologues showed distinct expression patterns in vegetative and reproductive organs, and at different developmental stages. BnFLC.A3b was differentially expressed between the winter-type and semi-winter-type cultivars. Microsynteny analysis indicated that BnFLC.A3b might have been translocated to the present segment in a cluster with other flowering-time regulators, such as a homologue of FRIGIDA in Arabidopsis. This cluster of flowering-time genes might have conferred a selective advantage to Brassica species in terms of increased adaptability to diverse environments during their evolution and domestication process. PMID:23029223

  3. Comparative analysis of FLC homologues in Brassicaceae provides insight into their role in the evolution of oilseed rape.

    Xiaoxiao Zou

    Full Text Available We identified nine FLOWERING LOCUS C homologues (BnFLC in Brassica napus and found that the coding sequences of all BnFLCs were relatively conserved but the intronic and promoter regions were more divergent. The BnFLC homologues were mapped to six of 19 chromosomes. All of the BnFLC homologues were located in the collinear region of FLC in the Arabidopsis genome except BnFLC.A3b and BnFLC.C3b, which were mapped to noncollinear regions of chromosome A3 and C3, respectively. Four of the homologues were associated significantly with quantitative trait loci for flowering time in two mapping populations. The BnFLC homologues showed distinct expression patterns in vegetative and reproductive organs, and at different developmental stages. BnFLC.A3b was differentially expressed between the winter-type and semi-winter-type cultivars. Microsynteny analysis indicated that BnFLC.A3b might have been translocated to the present segment in a cluster with other flowering-time regulators, such as a homologue of FRIGIDA in Arabidopsis. This cluster of flowering-time genes might have conferred a selective advantage to Brassica species in terms of increased adaptability to diverse environments during their evolution and domestication process.

  4. Neutron diffraction study of aluminum chloride imidazolium chloride molten salts

    Takahashi, S. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Saboungi, M.L.; Suzuya, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Koura, N. [Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1994-02-01

    The structure of molten mixtures of (AlCl{sub 3}){sub x}(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride){sub 1-x} was investigated by neutron diffraction techniques for x=0.46, 0.50, 0.60 and 0.67. Results derived from earlier ab initio molecular orbital (6-31G* basis set) computations for AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}}, and EMI{sup +} were used to calculate the diffraction patterns; the calculated contributions of each species are thus obtained and overall results are in good agreement with measurements.

  5. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of SixZry intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  6. Cooper hydrometallurgy and extraction from chloride media

    The development of copper hydrometallurgy is presented and various processes proposed for copper recovery from sulphide concentrates are discussed. Leaching, extraction and stripping are considered, including reagents and processes. The extraction of copper from chloride solutions is discussed. Various extractants are presented and their use for copper transfer from chloride solutions to the organic phase and back to chloride and to sulphate solutions is discussed. (author) 4 refs

  7. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C2HCl3 and CH2Cl2. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C2HCl3 was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C2HCl3 was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C2HCl3 and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl2 and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl2, CO and CO2 were formed. CH2Cl2 was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl2, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH3+ and CH4 were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH2Cl2. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  8. Method of processing chloride waste

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  9. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  10. A human PMS2 homologue from Aquifex aeolicus stimulates an ATP-dependent DNA helicase.

    Mauris, Jerome; Evans, Thomas C

    2010-04-01

    Mismatch repair in Escherichia coli involves a number of proteins including MutL and UvrD. Eukaryotes also possess MutL homologues; however, no UvrD helicase homologues have been identified. The hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus has a MutL protein (Aae MutL) that possesses a latent endonuclease activity similar to eukaryotic, but different from E. coli, MutL proteins. By sequence homology Aq793 is a member of the PcrA/UvrD/Rep helicase subfamily. We expressed Aae MutL and the putative A. aeolicus DNA helicase (Aq793) proteins in E. coli. Using synthetic oligonucleotide substrates, we observed that lower concentrations of Aq793 were required to unwind double-stranded DNA that had a 3'-poly(dT) overhang as compared with double-stranded DNA with a 5'-poly(dT) or lacking a poly(dT) tail. This unwinding activity was stimulated by adding Aae MutL with maximal stimulation observed at an approximately 1.5:1 (MutL:Aq793) stoichiometric ratio. The enhancement of Aq793 helicase activity did not require the Aae MutL protein to retain endonuclease activity. Furthermore, the C-terminal 123 amino acid residues of Aae MutL were sufficient to stimulate Aq793 helicase activity, albeit at a significantly reduced efficacy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time a human PMS2 homologue has been demonstrated to stimulate a PcrA/UvrD/Rep subfamily helicase, and this finding may further our understanding of the evolution of the mismatch repair pathway. PMID:20129926

  11. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition.

    Coumou, Jeroen; Wagemakers, Alex; Trentelman, Jos J; Nijhof, Ard M; Hovius, Joppe W

    2014-01-01

    Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccine formulations cause a reduction in the number of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks that successfully feed, i.e. lower engorgement weights and a decrease in the number of oviposited eggs. Furthermore, Bm86 vaccines reduce transmission of bovine Babesia spp. Previously two conserved Bm86 homologues in I. ricinus ticks, designated as Ir86-1 and Ir86-2, were described. Here we investigated the effect of a vaccine against recombinant Ir86-1, Ir86-2 or a combination of both on Ixodes ricinus feeding. Recombinant Ixodes ricinus Bm86 homologues were expressed in a Drosophila expression system and rabbits were immunized with rIr86-1, rIr86-2, a combination of both or ovalbumin as a control. Each animal was infested with 50 female adults and 50 male adults Ixodes ricinus and tick mortality, engorgement weights and egg mass were analyzed. Although serum IgG titers against rIr86 proteins were elicited, no effect was found on tick feeding between the rIr86 vaccinated animals and ovalbumin vaccinated animals. We conclude that vaccination against Bm86 homologues in Ixodes ricinus is not an effective approach to control Ixodes ricinus populations, despite the clear effects of Bm86 vaccination against Rhipicephalus microplus. PMID:25919587

  12. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition.

    Jeroen Coumou

    Full Text Available Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against tick antigens. Currently, there is only one anti-vector vaccine available against ticks, which is a veterinary vaccine based on the tick antigen Bm86 in the gut of Rhipicephalus microplus. Bm86 vaccine formulations cause a reduction in the number of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks that successfully feed, i.e. lower engorgement weights and a decrease in the number of oviposited eggs. Furthermore, Bm86 vaccines reduce transmission of bovine Babesia spp. Previously two conserved Bm86 homologues in I. ricinus ticks, designated as Ir86-1 and Ir86-2, were described. Here we investigated the effect of a vaccine against recombinant Ir86-1, Ir86-2 or a combination of both on Ixodes ricinus feeding. Recombinant Ixodes ricinus Bm86 homologues were expressed in a Drosophila expression system and rabbits were immunized with rIr86-1, rIr86-2, a combination of both or ovalbumin as a control. Each animal was infested with 50 female adults and 50 male adults Ixodes ricinus and tick mortality, engorgement weights and egg mass were analyzed. Although serum IgG titers against rIr86 proteins were elicited, no effect was found on tick feeding between the rIr86 vaccinated animals and ovalbumin vaccinated animals. We conclude that vaccination against Bm86 homologues in Ixodes ricinus is not an effective approach to control Ixodes ricinus populations, despite the clear effects of Bm86 vaccination against Rhipicephalus microplus.

  13. Self-assembly of diphenylalanine backbone homologues and their combination with functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Dinesh, Bhimareddy; Squillaci, Marco A.; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Samorì, Paolo; Bianco, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The integration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into organized nanostructures is of great interest for applications in materials science and biomedicine. In this work we studied the self-assembly of β and γ homologues of diphenylalanine peptides under different solvent and pH conditions. We aimed to investigate the role of peptide backbone in tuning the formation of different types of nanostructures alone or in combination with carbon nanotubes. In spite of having the same side chain, β and γ peptides formed distinctively different nanofibers, a clear indication of the role played by the backbone homologation on the self-assembly. The variation of the pH allowed to transform the nanofibers into spherical structures. Moreover, the co-assembly of β and γ peptides with carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with the same peptide generated unique dendritic assemblies. This comparative study on self-assembly using diphenylalanine backbone homologues and of the co-assembly with CNT covalent conjugates is the first example exploring the capacity of β and γ peptides to adopt precise nanostructures, particularly in combination with carbon nanotubes. The dendritic organization obtained by mixing carbon nanotubes and peptides might find interesting applications in tissue engineering and neuronal interfacing.The integration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into organized nanostructures is of great interest for applications in materials science and biomedicine. In this work we studied the self-assembly of β and γ homologues of diphenylalanine peptides under different solvent and pH conditions. We aimed to investigate the role of peptide backbone in tuning the formation of different types of nanostructures alone or in combination with carbon nanotubes. In spite of having the same side chain, β and γ peptides formed distinctively different nanofibers, a clear indication of the role played by the backbone homologation on the self-assembly. The variation of the pH allowed to

  14. Aquifex aeolicus PilT, Homologue of a Surface Motility Protein, Is a Thermostable Oligomeric NTPase

    Herdendorf, Timothy J.; McCaslin, Darrell R.; Forest, Katrina T.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial surface motility works by retraction of surface-attached type IV pili. This retraction requires the PilT protein, a member of a large family of putative NTPases from type II and IV secretion systems. In this study, the PilT homologue from the thermophilic eubacterium Aquifex aeolicus was cloned, overexpressed, and purified. A. aeolicus PilT was shown to be a thermostable ATPase with a specific activity of 15.7 nmol of ATP hydrolyzed/min/mg of protein. This activity was abolished whe...

  15. Plasmodium falciparum Histone Acetyltransferase, a Yeast GCN5 Homologue Involved in Chromatin Remodeling

    QiFan; LijiaAn; LiwangCui

    2005-01-01

    The yeast transcriptional coactivator GCN5 (yGCN5), a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), is part of large multimeric complexes that are required for chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. Like other eukaryotes, the malaria parasite DNA is organized into nucleosomes and the genome encodes components of chromatin-remodeling complexes. Here we show that GCN5 is conserved in Plasmodium species and that the most homologous regions are within the HAT domain and the bromodomain. The Plasmodiumfalclparum GCN5 homologue (PfGCN5) is spliced with three introns, encoding a protein of 1,464 residues. Mapping of the ends of the PfGCN5 transcript suggests that the mRNA is 5.2 to 5.4 kb, consistent with the result from Northern analysis. Using free core histones, we determined that recombinant PfGCN5 proteins have conserved HAT activity with a substrate preference for histone H3. Using substrate-specific antibodies, we determined that both Lys-8 and -14 of H3 were acetylated by the recombinant PfGCN5. In eukaryotes, GCN5 homologues interact with yeast ADA2 homologues and form large multiprotein HAT complexes. We have identified an ADA2 homologue in P. falciparum, PfADA2. Yeast two-hybrid and in vitro binding assays verified the interactions between PfGCN5 and PfADA2, suggesting that they may be associated with each other in vivo. The conserved function of the HAT domain in PfGCN5 was further illustrated with yeast complementation experiments, which showed that the PfGCN5 region corresponding to the full-length yGCN5 could partially complement the yGCN5 deletion mutation. Furthermore, a chimera comprising the PfGCN5 HAT domain fused to the remainder of yeast GCN5 (yGCN5) fully rescued the yGCN5 deletion mutant. These data demonstrate that PfGCN5 is an authentic GCN5 family member and may exist in chromatin-remodeling complexes to regulate gene expression in P. falciparum.

  16. A Zebrafish Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor Homologue Interacts with Coxsackie B Virus and Adenovirus

    Petrella, JenniElizabeth; Cohen, Christopher J.; Gaetz, Jedidiah; Bergelson, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a zebrafish homologue of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) protein was identified. Although the extracellular domain of zebrafish CAR (zCAR) is less than 50% identical to that of human CAR (hCAR), zCAR mediated infection of transfected cells by both adenovirus type 5 and coxsackievirus B3. CAR residues interacting deep within the coxsackievirus canyon are highly conserved in zCAR and hCAR, which is consistent with the idea that receptor contacts within the canyon...

  17. Isolation and Functional Analysis of ZmLTP3, a Homologue to Arabidopsis LTP3

    Guo-Hui Ma; Xiao-Hai Tian; Hua-Wen Zou; Zhi-Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are encoded by multigene families and play important roles in plant physiology. One full-length cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis LTP3 homologue was isolated from maize by RT-PCR and named as ZmLTP3. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the ZmLTP3 expression is induced by salicylic acid (SA), mannitol and salt. Furthermore, in different tissues the ZmLTP3 displayed different expression patterns, indicating that ZmLTP3 may play multiple roles in stress resistance. Ove...

  18. Evolutionary, Molecular and Genetic Analyses of Tic22 Homologues in Arabidopsis thaliana Chloroplasts

    Kasmati, Ali Reza; Töpel, Mats; Khan, Nadir Zaman; Patel, Ramesh; Ling, Qihua; Karim, Sazzad; Aronsson, Henrik; Jarvis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Tic22 protein was previously identified in pea as a putative component of the chloroplast protein import apparatus. It is a peripheral protein of the inner envelope membrane, residing in the intermembrane space. In Arabidopsis, there are two Tic22 homologues, termed atTic22-III and atTic22-IV, both of which are predicted to localize in chloroplasts. These two proteins defined clades that are conserved in all land plants, which appear to have evolved at a similar rates since their separati...

  19. The Rhesus Rhadinovirus CD200 Homologue Affects Immune Responses and Viral Loads during In Vivo Infection

    Estep, Ryan D.; Rawlings, Stephanie D.; Li, Helen; Manoharan, Minsha; Blaine, Elizabeth T.; O'Connor, Megan A.; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Axthelm, Michael K.; Wong, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    Rhesus macaque rhadinovirus (RRV) is a gammaherpesvirus of rhesus macaque (RM) monkeys that is closely related to human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and it is capable of inducing diseases in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected RM that are similar to those seen in humans coinfected with HIV and HHV-8. Both HHV-8 and RRV encode viral CD200 (vCD200) molecules that are homologues of cellular CD200, a membrane glycoprotein that regulates immune res...

  20. Rhesus Rhadinovirus R15 Encodes a Functional Homologue of Human CD200

    Langlais, Carly L.; Jones, John M.; Estep, Ryan D.; Wong, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    A viral CD200 homologue (vCD200) encoded by open reading frame R15 of rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV), a gammaherpesvirus closely related to human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is described here. RRV vCD200 shares 30% and 28% amino acid identity with human CD200 (huCD200) and HHV-8 vCD200, respectively. In vitro analysis indicated that an Fc fusion (vCD200-Fc) is expressed as a glycoprotein with a core molecular mass of 53 kDa. Utilizing monoclonal antibodies raised against vCD200-Fc, vCD200 expression wa...

  1. Molecular Cloning of a Novel Bovine Homologue of the Drosophila Tumor Suppressor Gene, Lats

    2002-01-01

    Pervious studies demonstrate that lats, also known as warts, is a tumor suppressor gene in Drosophila[1,2]. Mutations of lats lead to an increase in cell number and organ size in Drosophila, indicating lats may be involved in organ size control. Furthermore, the high conservation of sequence and tumor suppression function of lats between Drosophila and human suggests that it may be also involved in organ size control of higher animals[3]. So here we isolated the bovine homologue of Drosophila lats. Sequence analysis indicates the bovine LATS1 to be very similar to other lats proteins.

  2. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construc...

  3. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this st...

  4. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei;

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  5. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements are...

  6. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after a...

  7. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.)

  8. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics...

  9. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.;

    1999-01-01

    modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect...

  10. Expression of the six chromate ion transporter homologues of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400.

    Acosta-Navarrete, Yaned M; León-Márquez, Yhoana L; Salinas-Herrera, Karina; Jácome-Galarza, Irvin E; Meza-Carmen, Víctor; Ramírez-Díaz, Martha I; Cervantes, Carlos

    2014-02-01

    The chromate ion transporter (CHR) superfamily comprises transporters that confer chromate resistance by extruding toxic chromate ions from cytoplasm. Burkholderia xenovorans strain LB400 has been reported to encode six CHR homologues in its multireplicon genome. We found that strain LB400 displays chromate-inducible resistance to chromate. Susceptibility tests of Escherichia coli strains transformed with cloned B. xenovorans chr genes indicated that the six genes confer chromate resistance, although under different growth conditions, and suggested that expression of chr genes is regulated by sulfate. Expression of chr genes was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) from total RNA of B. xenovorans LB400 grown under different concentrations of sulfate and exposed or not to chromate. The chr homologues displayed distinct expression levels, but showed no significant differences in transcription under the various sulfate concentrations tested, indicating that sulfate does not regulate chr gene expression in B. xenovorans. The chrA2 gene, encoded in the megaplasmid, was the only chr gene whose expression was induced by chromate and it was shown to constitute the chromate-responsive chrBACF operon. These data suggest that this determinant is mainly responsible for the B. xenovorans LB400 chromate resistance phenotype. PMID:24257816

  11. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite growth by casein, a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue.

    Romero, Maria J R H; Nakashima, Syozi; Nikaido, Toru; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-08-01

    Salivary phosphoproteins are essential in tooth mineral regulation but are often overlooked in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein, as a salivary phosphoprotein homologue, on the deposition and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on tooth surfaces. Hydroxyapatite growth was quantified using seeded crystal systems. Artificial saliva (AS) containing HA powder and 0, 10, 20, 50, or 100 μg ml(-1) of casein, or 100 μg ml(-1) of dephosphorylated casein (Dcasein), was incubated for 0-8 h at 37°C, pH 7.2. Calcium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Surface precipitation of HA on bovine enamel and dentine blocks, incubated in similar conditions for 7 d, was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Casein adsorption was assessed using modified Lowry assays and zeta-potential measurements. The AAS results revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of calcium consumption. Hydroxyapatite precipitation occurred when no casein was present, whereas precipitation of HA was apparently completely inhibited in casein-containing groups. Adsorption data demonstrated increasingly negative zeta-potential with increased casein concentration and an affinity constant similar to proline-rich proteins with Langmuir modelling. Casein inhibited the deposition and growth of HA primarily through the binding of esterized phosphate to HA active sites, indicating its potential as a mineral-regulating salivary phosphoprotein homologue in vitro. PMID:26083784

  12. Expression analysis of five zebrafish RXFP3 homologues reveals evolutionary conservation of gene expression pattern.

    Donizetti, Aldo; Fiengo, Marcella; Iazzetti, Giovanni; del Gaudio, Rosanna; Di Giaimo, Rossella; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Aniello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Relaxin peptides exert different functions in reproduction and neuroendocrine processes via interaction with two evolutionarily unrelated groups of receptors: RXFP1 and RXFP2 on one hand, RXFP3 and RXFP4 on the other hand. Evolution of receptor genes after splitting of tetrapods and teleost lineage led to a different retention rate between mammals and fish, with the latter having more gene copies compared to the former. In order to improve our knowledge on the evolution of the relaxin ligands/receptors system and have insights on their function in early stages of life, in the present paper we analyzed the expression pattern of five zebrafish RXFP3 homologue genes during embryonic development. In our analysis, we show that only two of the five genes are expressed during embryogenesis and that their transcripts are present in all the developmental stages. Spatial localization analysis of these transcripts revealed that the gene expression is restricted in specific territories starting from early pharyngula stage. Both genes are expressed in the brain but in different cell clusters and in extra-neural territories, one gene in the interrenal gland and the other in the pancreas. These two genes share expression territories with the homologue mammalian counterpart, highlighting a general conservation of gene expression regulatory processes and their putative function during evolution that are established early in vertebrate embryogenesis. PMID:25384467

  13. The use of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) alkyl homologues in determining petroleum source identification and weathering

    Techniques utilizing double ratio plots of selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) alkyl homologues were used to identify and distinguish crude oils and refined petroleum products from each other and to distinguish petroleum sources in complex pollutant regimes. Petroleum samples were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into saturated and aromatic (PAH) hydrocarbon fractions. The saturated hydrocarbon fractions were then analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) to obtain a resolved/unresolved alkane fingerprint of each oil. The aromatic fractions of the oils were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for PAH and selected alkyl homologues. Comparisons of the saturated hydrocarbon fingerprints indicated that some oils were indistinguishable based on the alkane fingerprint alone. Another double ratio plot of the alkyl chrysenes and alkyl dibenzothiophenes was effective in establishing the weathering of oil in environmental samples which were processed using the same analytical techniques, since the dibenzothiophenes are degraded more rapidly than the chrysenes. The application of selected ratios in oil spill source identification in complex environmental samples from Suisin Bay California and Boston Harbor are discussed. The use of ratios to measure the extent of weathering in oil spill samples from Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska is examined

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF HUMAN MURR1, THE HOMOLOGUE OF MOUSE IMPRINTED Murr1 GENE

    Zhang Zhongming; Wang Youdong; Hitomi Yatsuki; Keiichiro Joh; Tsuyoshi Iwasaka; Tsunehiro Mukai

    2006-01-01

    Objective To identify the mRNA sequence, genetic construction, imprinting status, and expression profile of human MURR1 gene, the homologue of mouse imprinted Murr1 gene. Methods The MURR1 mRNA sequence was identified by colony hybridization screening of human cDNA library and the 5'-RACE analyses; Absence of U2AF1-RS1 gene within MURR1 was confirmed by Southern Blotting; Expression profile of MURR1 was examined by Northern Blotting; The imprinting status of MURR1 were revealed by SNP investigation and RT-PCR followed by sequencings and RFLP analyses. Results The full-length mRNA sequence of MURR1 spans 711 bp, transcribed from 3 exons, encodes predicted MURR1 protein of 190 amino acids. The gene was expressed in all the 12 kinds of human adult tissues and 6 kinds of fetal tissues. It showed biallelic expression in all 32 investigated samples including 6 kinds of human fetal tissues and 8 adult brains. Unlike mouse imprinted U2af1-rs1 gene existing in the intron of Murr1, the human U2AF1-RS1 gene was not located in the MURR1 locus. Conclusion Human MURR1 gene is not imprinted and the non-imprinting is possible due to the absence of human homologue of mouse U2af1-rs1 within MURR1 locus.

  15. Diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials

    1996-06-01

    In the present paper, an analysis of the diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete is presented. In concentrated electrolytic aqueous solutions such as seawater or that typically used in laboratory experiments, the effect of ionic interaction may significantly reduce the chemical potential and thus the driving force of the diffusing species. Because of different drift velocities of the cations and chloride ions in the solution, the lagging motion of the cations will also retard the drift velocity of the chlorides. In addition, both the electrical double layer forming on the solid surface and the chemical binding may significantly interfere with the transport of the chloride ions. As a result, the diffusion behavior of the chloride ions in concrete is a more complex and complicated transport process than what can be described by Fick`s law of diffusion.

  16. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  17. Heavy Atom Effect on the First Hyperpolarizabilities of Squaric Acid Homologues Studied by Ab Initio and DFT Methods

    FU Wei-Wei; ZHOU Li-Xin; WAN Hua-Ping

    2004-01-01

    We have calculated the first hyperpolarizabilities of four squaric acid homologue molecules: 3,4-dithiohydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione (OSSQ), 3,4-dithiohydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1, 2-dithione (SSSQ), 3,4-dithiohydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-diselenone (SeSSQ) and 3,4-dithiohydroxy- 3-cyclobutene-1,2-ditellurone (TeSSQ). The correlation effect was investigated at the second-order Mφller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation and density functional theory (DFT) levels. The frequency disper- sion and solvent effect were considered to compare the theoretical values with the experimental observations. Based on all of these studies, it is worthy to point out that the heavy atom effect dis- covered for furan homologues is an influence on the first hyperpolarizabilities of squaric acid homologues.

  18. Membrane chloride transport measured using a chloride-sensitive fluorescent probe

    Transport of chloride across cell membranes through exchange, cotransport, or conductive pathways is a subject of great biological importance. Current methods of measurement are restricted in their sensitivity, time resolution, and applicability. A new transport measurement technique has been developed on the basis of the fluorescence quenching by chloride of the dye 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium (SPQ). SPQ fluorescence quenching by chloride is rapid and sensitive, with a greater than 50% decrease in fluorescence at 10 mM chloride. SPQ fluorescence is not altered by other physiological anions or by pH and can be used to measure both neutral and conductive transport processes. The high water solubility and membrane permeability properties of SPQ make it ideal for use in both membrane vesicles and cells. Chloride transport determined with SPQ was validated by measurement of erythrocyte chloride/anion exchange and membrane vesicle chloride conductance using 35SO4 uptake

  19. The Taenia saginata homologue of the major surface antigen of Echinococcus spp. is immunogenic and 97% identical to its Taenia solium homologue.

    González, Luis Miguel; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Spickett, Andrea; Michael, Lynne M; Vatta, Adriano F; Gárate, Teresa; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E

    2007-11-01

    The TEG-Tsag gene of Taenia saginata is homologous to the genes expressing the two major surface antigens of Echinococcus spp. (EM10 and EG10). Surface antigens of parasites are logical candidates for vaccines, and in this paper we demonstrate that cattle vaccinated with the recombinant TEG-Tsag protein, either used singly or in conjunction with the recombinant HP6-Tsag protein, the major 18 kDa surface/secreted antigen of T. saginata oncospheres, produce excellent antibody responses to both these recombinant proteins. Thus TEG-Tsag may have utility as a vaccine and also as a diagnostic tool for bovine cysticercosis. In addition, as we now demonstrate a 97% homology between TEG-Tsag and its Taenia solium homologue, TEG-Tsol, this latter molecule may have similar potential in the control of human and porcine cysticercosis. The TEG molecule is characterized by an N-terminal FERM domain and a C-terminal ERM domain which are found in a number of cytoskeletal-associated proteins located at the interface between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton and in proteins that interact with lipid membranes. The FERM domain is also postulated to bind to adhesion proteins, in a PIP2-regulated fashion, providing a link between cytoskeletal signals and membrane dynamics. Thus TEG protein may play a role in tegument function and interaction with the host. PMID:17674048

  20. Interactions between the Yeast SM22 Homologue Scp1 and Actin Demonstrate the Importance of Actin Bundling in Endocytosis* S⃞

    Gheorghe, Dana M.; Aghamohammadzadeh, Soheil; Rooij, Iwona I. Smaczynska-de; Allwood, Ellen G.; Winder, Steve J.; Ayscough, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    The yeast SM22 homologue Scp1 has previously been shown to act as an actin-bundling protein in vitro. In cells, Scp1 localizes to the cortical actin patches that form as part of the invagination process during endocytosis, and its function overlaps with that of the well characterized yeast fimbrin homologue Sac6p. In this work we have used live cell imaging to demonstrate the importance of key residues in the Scp1 actin interface. We have defined two actin binding domains within Scp1 that all...

  1. A VpreB3 homologue from a marsupial, the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica

    Wang, Xinxin; Parra, Zuly E.; Miller, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    A VpreB surrogate light (SL) chain was identified for the first time in a marsupial, the opossum Monodelphis domestica. Comparing the opossum VpreB to homologues from eutherian (placental mammals) and avian species supported the marsupial gene being VpreB3. VpreB3 is a protein that is not known to traffic to the cell surface as part of the pre-B cell receptor. Rather, VpreB3 associates with nascent immunoglobulin (Ig) chains in the endoplasmic reticulum. Homologues of other known SL chains Vp...

  2. A Putative Homologue of CDC20/CDH1 in the Malaria Parasite Is Essential for Male Gamete Development

    Guttery, David S; Ferguson, David J. P.; Benoit Poulin; Zhengyao Xu; Ursula Straschil; Onny Klop; Lev Solyakov; Sandrini, Sara M.; Declan Brady; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Chris J. Janse; Holder, Anthony A.; Tobin, Andrew B.; Rita Tewari

    2012-01-01

    Cell-cycle progression is governed by a series of essential regulatory proteins. Two major regulators are cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20) and its homologue, CDC20 homologue 1 (CDH1), which activate the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in mitosis, and facilitate degradation of mitotic APC/C substrates. The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is a haploid organism which, during its life-cycle undergoes two stages of mitosis; one associated with asexual multiplication and the other ...

  3. A homologue of the breast cancer-associated gene BARD1 is involved in DNA repair in plants

    Reidt, Wim; Wurz, Rebecca; Wanieck, Kristina; Ha Chu, Hoang; Puchta, Holger

    2007-01-01

    hBRCA1 and hBARD1 are tumor suppressor proteins that are involved as heterodimer via ubiquitinylation in many cellular processes, such as DNA repair. Loss of BRCA1 or BARD1 results in early embryonic lethality and chromosomal instability. The Arabidopsis genome carries a BRCA1 homologue, and we were able to identify a BARD1 homologue. AtBRCA1 and the putative AtBARD1 protein are able to interact with each other as indicated by in vitro and in planta experiments. We have identified T-DNA inser...

  4. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  5. Shelf life of unrefrigerated succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Boehm, J J; Dutton, D M; Poust, R I

    1984-02-01

    The shelf life of succinylcholine chloride injection at several pH values when stored at room temperature was evaluated. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of succinylcholine chloride were stored at 25 and 40 degrees C. The reaction was studied at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 4.5. At two-week intervals, the solutions were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The initial amount of succinylcholine chloride in all samples was 100.1 +/- 2.37% of label claim. Hydrolysis of succinylcholine chloride in unbuffered solutions followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The pH range of maximum stability was found to be from 3.75 to 4.50. Succinylcholine chloride decomposed at a considerably higher rate at 40 degrees C. Allowing for the effects of pH adjustment during manufacture and degradation during shipping, losses of 7.0% and 9.0% potency can be expected after storage at 25 degrees C for four and six weeks, respectively. Succinylcholine Chloride Injection, USP, should be stored in the refrigerator; if unbuffered succinylcholine chloride injection complying with USP pH limits must be stored at room temperature, it should not be kept for longer than four weeks. PMID:6702837

  6. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  7. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-01

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH 4) 1- xCl x is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 °C for three days of NaBH 4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH 4, forming Na(BH 4) 0.9Cl 0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH 4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH 4) 0.43Cl 0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH 4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

  8. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  9. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Rene Kizek; Petr Babula; Jaromir Hubalek; Vojtech Adam; Libuse Trnkova

    2008-01-01

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the mo...

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a PacL homologue from Listeria monocytogenes

    A PacL homologue from L. monocytogenes has been purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. Ca2+-ATPases are members of a large family of membrane proteins that maintain the selective movement of cations across biological membranes. A putative Listeria monocytogenes Ca2+-ATPase (Lmo0818) was crystallized in an unknown functional state. The crystal belonged to space group P212121 and a complete data set was collected to 3.2 Å resolution. The molecular-replacement solution obtained revealed that Lmo0818 is likely to adopt an E2-like state mimicking the phosphorylated intermediate in the functional cycle of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and a stacked bilayer ‘type I’ packing in the crystal

  11. Divergent reactivity of homologue ortho-allenylbenzaldehydes controlled by the tether length: chromone versus chromene formation.

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Fernández, Israel; Martínez del Campo, Teresa; Naranjo, Teresa

    2015-01-19

    The divergent behavior of two homologue allenals, namely, 2-(buta-2,3-dienyloxy)- and 2-(propa-1,2-dienyloxy)benzaldehydes, as cyclization substrates is described. 2-(Buta-2,3-dienyloxy)benzaldehydes suffers a formal allenic carbocyclization reaction to afford chromenes, whereas 2-(propa-1,2-dienyloxy)benzaldehydes react to yield chromones. The formation of chromenes is strictly a formal hydroarylation process divided into two parts, namely, allenic Claisen-type rearrangement and oxycyclization. An unknown N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed allenic hydroacylation reaction must be invoked to account for the preparation of chromones. ortho-Allenylbenzaldehydes bearing either electron-donating substituents or electron-withdrawing substituents worked well to afford both the hydroarylation and hydroacylation products. This unexpected difference in reactivity can be rationalized by means of density functional theory calculations. PMID:25418081

  12. Isolation of a cotton NADP(H oxidase homologue induced by drought stress

    NEPOMUCENO ALEXANDRE LIMA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and isolate genes that are differentially expressed in four selected cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. genotypes contrasting according to their tolerance to water deficit. The genotypes studied were Siokra L-23, Stoneville 506, CS 50 and T-1521. Physiological, morphological and developmental changes that confer drought tolerance in plants must have a molecular genetic basis. To identify and isolate the genes, the mRNA Differential Display (DD technique was used. Messenger RNAs differentially expressed during water deficit were identified, isolated, cloned and sequenced. The cloned transcript A12B15-5, a NADP(H oxidase homologue, was up regulated only during the water deficit stress and only in Siokra L-23, a drought tolerant genotype. Ribonuclease protection assay confirmed that transcription.

  13. An oligochaete homologue of the Brachyury gene is expressed transiently in the third quartette of micromeres.

    Kitakoshi, Tomohito; Shimizu, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    We have isolated a Brachyury homologue (Ttu-Bra) from the oligochaete annelid Tubifex tubifex which displays a direct mode of development. Developmental RT-PCR analysis showed that Ttu-Bra transcripts are present in embryos at stages 9-11, 16 and 17, but undetectable at the remaining embryonic stages. Whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrated that Ttu-Bra is expressed transiently in the third quartette of micromeres, which are located at the prospective stomodaeum (at stages 9-11). The second burst of Ttu-Bra expression occurs at the posterior end of stage 16 embryo that undergoes body elongation. Ttu-Bra-expressing cells, which are organized in a circle at stage 16, become aggregated at the proctodaeum at stage 17. Consistent with the results of the RT-PCR analysis, there is no sign of Ttu-Bra-expressing cells in embryos that undergo gastrulation during stages 12-15. PMID:20603182

  14. Distinct binding and immunogenic properties of the gonococcal homologue of meningococcal factor h binding protein.

    Ilse Jongerius

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis. The bacterium recruits factor H (fH, a negative regulator of the complement system, to its surface via fH binding protein (fHbp, providing a mechanism to avoid complement-mediated killing. fHbp is an important antigen that elicits protective immunity against the meningococcus and has been divided into three different variant groups, V1, V2 and V3, or families A and B. However, immunisation with fHbp V1 does not result in cross-protection against V2 and V3 and vice versa. Furthermore, high affinity binding of fH could impair immune responses against fHbp. Here, we investigate a homologue of fHbp in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, designated as Gonococcal homologue of fHbp (Ghfp which we show is a promising vaccine candidate for N. meningitidis. We demonstrate that Gfhp is not expressed on the surface of the gonococcus and, despite its high level of identity with fHbp, does not bind fH. Substitution of only two amino acids in Ghfp is sufficient to confer fH binding, while the corresponding residues in V3 fHbp are essential for high affinity fH binding. Furthermore, immune responses against Ghfp recognise V1, V2 and V3 fHbps expressed by a range of clinical isolates, and have serum bactericidal activity against N. meningitidis expressing fHbps from all variant groups.

  15. Distinct binding and immunogenic properties of the gonococcal homologue of meningococcal factor h binding protein.

    Jongerius, Ilse; Lavender, Hayley; Tan, Lionel; Ruivo, Nicola; Exley, Rachel M; Caesar, Joseph J E; Lea, Susan M; Johnson, Steven; Tang, Christoph M

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis. The bacterium recruits factor H (fH), a negative regulator of the complement system, to its surface via fH binding protein (fHbp), providing a mechanism to avoid complement-mediated killing. fHbp is an important antigen that elicits protective immunity against the meningococcus and has been divided into three different variant groups, V1, V2 and V3, or families A and B. However, immunisation with fHbp V1 does not result in cross-protection against V2 and V3 and vice versa. Furthermore, high affinity binding of fH could impair immune responses against fHbp. Here, we investigate a homologue of fHbp in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, designated as Gonococcal homologue of fHbp (Ghfp) which we show is a promising vaccine candidate for N. meningitidis. We demonstrate that Gfhp is not expressed on the surface of the gonococcus and, despite its high level of identity with fHbp, does not bind fH. Substitution of only two amino acids in Ghfp is sufficient to confer fH binding, while the corresponding residues in V3 fHbp are essential for high affinity fH binding. Furthermore, immune responses against Ghfp recognise V1, V2 and V3 fHbps expressed by a range of clinical isolates, and have serum bactericidal activity against N. meningitidis expressing fHbps from all variant groups. PMID:23935503

  16. Conservation of Oxidative Protein Stabilization in an Insect Homologue of Parkinsonism-Associated Protein DJ-1

    Lin, Jiusheng; Prahlad, Janani; Wilson, Mark A. (UNL)

    2012-08-21

    DJ-1 is a conserved, disease-associated protein that protects against oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in multiple organisms. Human DJ-1 contains a functionally essential cysteine residue (Cys106) whose oxidation is important for regulating protein function by an unknown mechanism. This residue is well-conserved in other DJ-1 homologues, including two (DJ-1{alpha} and DJ-1{beta}) in Drosophila melanogaster. Because D. melanogaster is a powerful model system for studying DJ-1 function, we have determined the crystal structure and impact of cysteine oxidation on Drosophila DJ-1{beta}. The structure of D. melanogaster DJ-1{beta} is similar to that of human DJ-1, although two important residues in the human protein, Met26 and His126, are not conserved in DJ-1{beta}. His126 in human DJ-1 is substituted with a tyrosine in DJ-1{beta}, and this residue is not able to compose a putative catalytic dyad with Cys106 that was proposed to be important in the human protein. The reactive cysteine in DJ-1 is oxidized readily to the cysteine-sulfinic acid in both flies and humans, and this may regulate the cytoprotective function of the protein. We show that the oxidation of this conserved cysteine residue to its sulfinate form (Cys-SO{sub 2{sup -}}) results in considerable thermal stabilization of both Drosophila DJ-1{beta} and human DJ-1. Therefore, protein stabilization is one potential mechanism by which cysteine oxidation may regulate DJ-1 function in vivo. More generally, most close DJ-1 homologues are likely stabilized by cysteine-sulfinic acid formation but destabilized by further oxidation, suggesting that they are biphasically regulated by oxidative modification.

  17. Cloning and characterization of a wheat homologue of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease Ape1L.

    Botagoz Joldybayeva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP endonucleases are key DNA repair enzymes involved in the base excision repair (BER pathway. In BER, an AP endonuclease cleaves DNA at AP sites and 3'-blocking moieties generated by DNA glycosylases and/or oxidative damage. A Triticum aestivum cDNA encoding for a putative homologue of ExoIII family AP endonucleases which includes E. coli Xth, human APE1 and Arabidopsis thaliana AtApe1L has been isolated and its protein product purified and characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report that the putative wheat AP endonuclease, referred here as TaApe1L, contains AP endonuclease, 3'-repair phosphodiesterase, 3'-phosphatase and 3' → 5' exonuclease activities. Surprisingly, in contrast to bacterial and human AP endonucleases, addition of Mg(2+ and Ca(2+ (5-10 mM to the reaction mixture inhibited TaApe1L whereas the presence of Mn(2+, Co(2+ and Fe(2+ cations (0.1-1.0 mM strongly stimulated all its DNA repair activities. Optimization of the reaction conditions revealed that the wheat enzyme requires low divalent cation concentration (0.1 mM, mildly acidic pH (6-7, low ionic strength (20 mM KCl and has a temperature optimum at around 20 °C. The steady-state kinetic parameters of enzymatic reactions indicate that TaApe1L removes 3'-blocking sugar-phosphate and 3'-phosphate groups with good efficiency (kcat/KM = 630 and 485 μM(-1 · min(-1, respectively but possesses a very weak AP endonuclease activity as compared to the human homologue, APE1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data establish the DNA substrate specificity of the wheat AP endonuclease and suggest its possible role in the repair of DNA damage generated by endogenous and environmental factors.

  18. Molecular characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 homologue from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks.

    Liao, Min; Zhou, Jinlin; Hatta, Takeshi; Umemiya, Rika; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Xuan, Xuenan; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2007-05-15

    One sequence in the EST database of a midgut cDNA library prepared from semi-engorged female Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks has been found to be a homologue of the Bm86 gene of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. The full-length sequence containing a 1785 bp open reading fragment (ORF) was obtained and designated as the Hl86 gene. The predicted amino acid sequence of the Hl86 gene shows a 37% identity to the Bm86 gene. Hl86 is predicted to be a GPI-anchored membrane-bound glycoprotein with a 19-amino acid signal sequence and a 22-amino acid hydrophobic region adjacent to the carboxyl terminus. The most important feature that Hl86 has in common with Bm86 is the repeated pattern of 6 cysteine residues forming epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. RT-PCR analysis showed that Hl86 mRNA transcripts are expressed in all the life cycles of H. longicornis, and the expression was found in the midgut of the adult tick. The Hl86 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a gene10 fusion protein. Mouse anti-recombinant Hl86 serum recognized an 86 kDa protein band in the midgut lysate of semi-engorged ticks in Western blot analysis and showed a strong reaction on the luminal surface of midgut cells in an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Silencing of the Hl86 gene by RNAi led to a significant reduction in the engorged tick body weight. This is the first report of cloning and characterization of the Bm86 homologue in different genera and species of ixodid and argasid ticks since Bm86 was first reported in 1989. PMID:17363170

  19. [Homologues Levels and Distribution Pattern of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Typical Capacitor Contaminated Soil].

    Liu, Jie; Li, Xiao-dong; Zhao, Zhong-hua; Qi, Zhi-fu; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2015-09-01

    The homologues levels, distribution characteristics and TEQ of 209 PCBs in soil collected around 3 storage sites of PCB-containing wastes were investigated. The PCBs contents and environmental risk were evaluated to provide a scientific basis for site remediation of PCBs contaminated soil. Totally 12 soil samples were collected from 3 PCB-contaminated sites. The analysis results showed that the PCB-concentration in Soil A was 1 705. 0 µg.g-1 ± 424. 3 µg.g-1 (n =4), higher than Soil B (233. 0 µg.g-1 ± 80. 0, n = 4) and Soil C (225. 7 µg.g-1 ± 90. 2 µg.g-1, n = 4), indicating the soil was heavily polluted by PCBs. Trichlorobiphenyl and Tetrachlorobiphenyl dominated the homologues of PCBs. The mass fraction of chlorine in Soil A, Soil B and Soil C was 43. 7% 1. 0%, 45.5% ± 0. 5% and 44.9% ± 0.3%, respectively, which was similar as Aroclor1242 and l#PCB insulating oil. There was an obvious linear correlation between indicator PCBs and total PCBs (R2 = 0. 998), so indicator PCBs can be used to estimate the level of total PCBs. PCB77, PCB105, PCB118 were predominant in doxin-like PCBs, accounting for 89. 5% ± 4. 0% in total. The TEQ levels of the soil samples (in WHO-TEQ) were 3. 56-63. 55 ng.g-1, which demonstrated a high environmental risk in the area. PCB28/31, PCB33/20, PCB66/80, PCB70, PCB32 and PCB18 were the main PCBs isomers. Compared with other results, the local soil was heavily contaminated by PCBs and the surroundings were under a relatively high risk of environmental contamination. PMID:26717710

  20. 4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase, its homologue YwhB, and active vinylpyruvate hydratase : Synthesis and evaluation of 2-fluoro substrate analogues

    Johnson, William H; Wang, Susan C; Stanley, Thanuja M; Czerwinski, Robert M; Almrud, Jeffrey J; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Murzin, Alexey G; Whitman, Christian P

    2004-01-01

    A series of 2-fluoro-4-alkene and 2-fluoro-4-alkyne substrate analogues were synthesized and examined as potential inhibitors of three enzymes: 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) and vinylpyruvate hydratase (VPH) from the catechol meta-fission pathway and a closely related 4-OT homologue found in B

  1. Slug, mammalian homologue gene of Drosophila escargot, promotes neuronal-differentiation through suppression of HEB/daughterless.

    Yang, Dong-Jin; Chung, Ji-Yun; Lee, Su-Jin; Park, So-Young; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Ha, Nam-Chul; Yoo, Mi-Ae; Park, Bum-Joon

    2010-07-15

    At the neuron developmental stage, neuron-precursor cells can be differentiated into neuron or glia cells. However, precise molecular mechanism to determine the cell fate has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we reveal that Drosophila esgarcot and its mammalian homologue genes, Snail and Slug, play a key role in neuronal differentiation. In Drosophila model system, overexpression of Esg, like as Wingless, suppresses the bristle formation. In contrast, elimination of Esg though RNAi promotes double bristle phenotype. We can also observe the similar phenotype in Snail-overexpression system. In mammalian system, overexpression of Slug or Snail can induce neuronal differentiation. Esg and its mammalian homologue gene Slug directly interact with Daughtherless and its mammalian homologue HEB and eliminate them through siah-1 mediated protein degradation. Thus, overexpression of siah-1 can promote neuron cell differentiation, whereas si-siah-1 blocks the Slug-induced HEB suppression. In fact, Drosophila SINA, Siah-1 homologue, has been also known to be involved in bristle formation and Neuronal differentiation. In addition, it has been revealed that CK1 is involved in Esg or Snail stability and Neuronal differentiation. However, Snail is regulated only by CK1 but not by Siah. Considering the fact that Slug mutations have been found in human genetic disease, waardenberg syndrome, major symptoms of which is loss of hearing neuron and odd eye, our result implies that slug/Snail system is required for proper neuronal differentiation, like as Esg in Drosophila. PMID:20647756

  2. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  3. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies to the apical chloride channel in Necturus gallbladder inhibit the chloride conductance.

    Finn, A L; Tsai, L M; Falk, R J

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised by injecting Necturus gallbladder cells into mice were tested for their ability to inhibit the apical chloride conductance induced by elevation of cellular cAMP. Five of these monoclonal antibodies bound to the apical cells, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and inhibited the chloride conductance; one antibody that bound only to subepithelial smooth muscle, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, showed no inhibition of chloride transport. The...

  5. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; A. S. Kayaalp

    2009-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many...

  6. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  7. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  8. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    2006-01-01

    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  9. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride complex may be safely used as release agents in the...

  10. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  11. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  12. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  13. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  14. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    The Detox trademark process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200 degrees C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl3liquid + H2O → FeOClsolid + 2 HClgas During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOClsolid + H2O → Fe2O3solid + 2 HClgas. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way

  15. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  16. Synthesis and cyclic voltammetric studies of Bis[5-(4-Alkoxy phenyl)Azo)-N-(nPentyl, nDodecyl)-Salicyl a di minato] Copper (II) complex homologues

    5-((4-alkoxy phenyl)azo) salicylaldehyde, 5-((4-alkoxy phenyl)azo)-N-(npentyl, ndodecyl)-salicylideneamino and bis[5-((4-alkoxy phenyl)azo)-N-(npentyl, ndodecyl)-salicylaldiminato] copper (II) [alkoxy=On CnH2n+1; n=3-7] homologues were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, mass and IR spectra. All complex homologues are thermally stable. Cyclic voltammetric studies indicated that all copper complex homologues have a quasi-reversible redox wave and peak current ratio (ipa/ipc) decreasing with increase of alkyl chain length

  17. Combining sulfate electrowinning with chloride leaching

    Fletcher, A. W.; Sudderth, R. B.; Olafson, S. M.

    1991-08-01

    Although the chloride leaching of copper sulfide concentrates has proved highly efficient, electrowinning from chloride solutions presents many difficulties, notably in cell design and the handling of the powder product. Sulfate electrowinning,on the other hand, continues to improve and has played a significant part in the widespread adoption of the solvent extraction-electrowinning process for copper recovery from low-grade ores. It has been found that the two steps can be combined by introducing a novel solvent extraction process after chloride leaching. This article presents the results of laboratory tests to prove the feasibility of this approach and discusses how it can be integrated into a commercially viable flow sheet.

  18. Characterization and expression analysis of an allograft inflammatory factor-1 homologue in yellow grouper (Epinephelus awoara)

    WANG Li; SHI Dawei; WU Xinzhong

    2008-01-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a cytoplasmic calcium-binding protein involved in iullammatory response-related dis-eases in mammals.Previously an identified AIF-1 gene was simply reported in yellow grouper.The characterization of AIF-1 gene and its expression at the gene and protein level are further described.Yellow grouper AIF-1 is composed of 147 amino acids,and 64% ~ 84% identical to other homologues.Basal level AIF-I mRNA expression was noted in spleen,anterior kid-ney and kidney,using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).After stimulation of LPS,the AIF-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in tissues examined:spleen,anterior kidney,kidney,heart and liver,but not in muscle.The re-combinant AIF-1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli,and then purified for the development of antiserum.Western blotting analysis revealed a band with a molecular mass of about 17 ku.

  19. The oil palm SHELL gene controls oil yield and encodes a homologue of SEEDSTICK.

    Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Rosli, Rozana; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; Budiman, Muhammad A; Hogan, Michael; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Ordway, Jared M; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Martienssen, Robert A

    2013-08-15

    A key event in the domestication and breeding of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis was loss of the thick coconut-like shell surrounding the kernel. Modern E. guineensis has three fruit forms, dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), a hybrid between dura and pisifera. The pisifera palm is usually female-sterile. The tenera palm yields far more oil than dura, and is the basis for commercial palm oil production in all of southeast Asia. Here we describe the mapping and identification of the SHELL gene responsible for the different fruit forms. Using homozygosity mapping by sequencing, we found two independent mutations in the DNA-binding domain of a homologue of the MADS-box gene SEEDSTICK (STK, also known as AGAMOUS-LIKE 11), which controls ovule identity and seed development in Arabidopsis. The SHELL gene is responsible for the tenera phenotype in both cultivated and wild palms from sub-Saharan Africa, and our findings provide a genetic explanation for the single gene hybrid vigour (or heterosis) attributed to SHELL, via heterodimerization. This gene mutation explains the single most important economic trait in oil palm, and has implications for the competing interests of global edible oil production, biofuels and rainforest conservation. PMID:23883930

  20. Periodontal status of teeth restored with crowns and its contralateral homologue, Valdivia- Chile.

    Israel Antonio Juárez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim: To determine periodontal status of fixes single prostheses (FSP made during the year 2013 in Austral University of Chile, and its contralateral homologue (CH.Methods: All patients with FSP made during 2013, that met the selection criteria and agreed to participate were evaluated. During the year 2014 was measured: probing depth, attachment level; bleeding on probing and dental plaque index for each FSP and CH; and consigned biological width invasion. Were measured one FSP and one CH per patient, and 6 sites for each tooth.Results: Seventy-four patients were evaluated. The majority were women (73%, and 63.5% were posterior teeth. The majority had history of previous periodontal disease (85, 1%, of which 58.7% were Periodontitis. Six of the patients with a history of Gingivitis progressed to periodontitis (23.07%; while 100% of patients with no history of periodontal disease maintained their condition. Only 4 of the FSP evaluated had Biological Invasion width. Discussion: Similar results were found for FSP teeth and CH were found about probing depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing. However, was observed a difference in relation to dental plaque index, which was positive in 58.1% CH and 29.7% of teeth with FSP. Under the conditions of this study, it is concluded that the periodontal status of teeth with FSP does not differ from the CH.

  1. Extending from PARs in Caenorhabditis elegans to homologues in Haemonchus contortus and other parasitic nematodes.

    Nikolaou, S; Gasser, R B

    2007-04-01

    Signal transduction molecules play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes, such as morphogenesis, organogenesis and cell differentiation in all organisms. They are organized into 'pathways' that represent a coordinated network of cell-surface receptors and intracellular molecules, being involved in sensing environmental stimuli and transducing signals to regulate or modulate cellular processes, such as gene expression and cytoskeletal dynamics. A particularly important group of molecules implicated in the regulation of the cytoskeleton for the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity is the PAR proteins (derived from partition defective in asymmetric cell division). The present article reviews salient aspects of PAR proteins involved in the early embryonic development and morphogenesis of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and some other organisms, with an emphasis on the molecule PAR-1. Recent advances in the knowledge and understanding of PAR-1 homologues from the economically important parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, of small ruminants is summarized and discussed in the context of exploring avenues for future research in this area for parasitic nematodes. PMID:17107637

  2. Developmental expression pattern of D-ets4, the Drosophila homologue of human Pdef.

    Hsouna, Anita; Watson, Dennis K; Hsu, Tien

    2004-12-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the first cells specified in many organisms. In Drosophila, as in mammals, PGCs are formed at the posterior end outside of the embryonic proper. They are brought into the gut during gastrulation and then actively migrate through the gut epithelium into the mesoderm. They attach to the future gonadal mesoderm and coalesce, forming the gonads. Control of this migratory process is not yet completely understood. D-ets4 and its mammalian homologue Pdef are members of the evolutionarily conserved Ets family of transcription factors. Pdef has been shown to down-regulate the invasive and migratory potential of breast tumors. Our results show that the Drosophila D-ets4 protein is specifically expressed in PGCs before the onset of migration and is lost in the migratory and post-migratory PGCs. We also show that D-ets4 is not involved in other migratory events such as border cell migration during oogenesis. It is, however, expressed strongly in the pre-stage 10 oocyte nuclei and modestly in larval tissues such as imaginal discs and salivary glands, but not in the brain. PMID:15567727

  3. Proton Affinity of Isomeric Dipeptides Containing Lysine and Non-Proteinogenic Lysine Homologues.

    Batoon, Patrick; Ren, Jianhua

    2016-08-18

    Conformational effects on the proton affinity of oligopeptides have been studied using six alanine (A)-based acetylated dipeptides containing a basic probe that is placed closest to either the C- or the N-terminus. The basic probe includes Lysine (Lys) and two nonproteinogenic Lys-homologues, ornithine (Orn) and 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (Dap). The proton affinities of the peptides have been determined using the extended Cooks kinetic method in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Computational studies have been carried out to search for the lowest energy conformers and to calculate theoretical proton affinities as well as various molecular properties using the density functional theory. The dipeptides containing a C-terminal probe, ALys, AOrn, and ADap, were determined to have a higher proton affinity by 1-4 kcal/mol than the corresponding dipeptides containing an N-terminal probe, LysA, OrnA, and DapA. For either the C-probe peptides or the N-probe peptides, the proton affinity reduces systematically as the side-chain of the probe residue is shortened. The difference in the proton affinities between isomeric peptides is largely associated with the variation of the conformations. The peptides with higher values of the proton affinity adopt a relatively compact conformation such that the protonated peptides can be stabilized through more efficient internal solvation. PMID:27459294

  4. The ontogeny of nanos homologue expression in the oligochaete annelid Tubifex tubifex.

    Mohri, Ki-Ichi; Nakamoto, Ayaki; Shimizu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized the expression of a nanos homologue (designated Ttu-nos) from the oligochaete annelid Tubifex tubifex. Ttu-nos mRNA is distributed broadly throughout the early cleavage stages. Ttu-nos is expressed in most if not all of the early blastomeres, in which Ttu-nos RNA associates with pole plasms. Ttu-nos transcripts are concentrated to 2d and 4d cells. Shortly after 2d(111) (derived from 2d cell) divides into a bilateral pair of NOPQ proteloblasts, Ttu-nos RNA vanishes from the embryo, which is soon followed by the resumption of Ttu-nos expression in nascent primary blast cells produced by teloblasts. The resumption of Ttu-nos expression occurs only in a subset of teloblast lineages (viz., M, N and Q). After Ttu-nos expression is retained in the germ band for a while, it disappears in anterior-to-posterior progression. At the end of embryogenesis, there is no trace of Ttu-nos expression. Thereafter, growing juveniles do not show any sign of Ttu-nos expression, either. The first sign of Ttu-nos expression is detected in oocytes in the ovary of young adults (ca 40 days after hatching), and its expression continues in growing oocytes that undergo yolk deposition and maturation in the ovisac. PMID:26577746

  5. Isolation and Functional Analysis of ZmLTP3, a Homologue to Arabidopsis LTP3

    Guo-Hui Ma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are encoded by multigene families and play important roles in plant physiology. One full-length cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis LTP3 homologue was isolated from maize by RT-PCR and named as ZmLTP3. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the ZmLTP3 expression is induced by salicylic acid (SA, mannitol and salt. Furthermore, in different tissues the ZmLTP3 displayed different expression patterns, indicating that ZmLTP3 may play multiple roles in stress resistance. Over-expression of ZmLTP3 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in the increased salt tolerance. Under salt stress condition, compared to wild-type (WT plants, transgenic Arabidopsis grew better, had higher seedling fresh (FW, dry weight (DW, seed yields, proline content and lower MDA content and relative electric conductivity level. Our results suggest that maize ZmLTP3 might encode a member of LTPs family and play roles in salt resistance.

  6. Isolation and Functional Analysis of ZmLTP3, a Homologue to Arabidopsis LTP3.

    Zou, Hua-Wen; Tian, Xiao-Hai; Ma, Guo-Hui; Li, Zhi-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are encoded by multigene families and play important roles in plant physiology. One full-length cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis LTP3 homologue was isolated from maize by RT-PCR and named as ZmLTP3. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the ZmLTP3 expression is induced by salicylic acid (SA), mannitol and salt. Furthermore, in different tissues the ZmLTP3 displayed different expression patterns, indicating that ZmLTP3 may play multiple roles in stress resistance. Over-expression of ZmLTP3 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in the increased salt tolerance. Under salt stress condition, compared to wild-type (WT) plants, transgenic Arabidopsis grew better, had higher seedling fresh (FW), dry weight (DW), seed yields, proline content and lower MDA content and relative electric conductivity level. Our results suggest that maize ZmLTP3 might encode a member of LTPs family and play roles in salt resistance. PMID:23455470

  7. A novel lipocalin homologue from the venom gland of Deinagkistrodon acutus similar to mammalian lipocalins

    CB Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipocalins are involved in a variety of functions including retinol transport, cryptic coloration, olfaction, pheromone transport, prostaglandin synthesis, regulation of the immune response and cell homeostatic mediation. A full-length cDNA clone (named d-lipo, isolated from the venom gland cDNA library of Deinagkistrodon acutus, contained an insert of 664 bp including an open reading frame that encodes a lipocalin homologue of 177 amino acids. Comparison of d-lipo and other related proteins revealed an overall amino acid identity of less than 21.5%. Primary structures of d-lipo carried three structurally conserved regions (SCR showing homologies to those of lipocalins. The first conserved Cys residue - the essential amino acid residue for the catalytic activity and unique to lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS in the lipocalin protein family - was identified in d-lipo at amino acid position 58. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that d-lipo was in-between the large L-PGDS cluster and the small von Ebner's-gland proteins (VEGP cluster. Moreover, d-lipo gene presented a high-level expression in the venom gland and a low-level expression in the brain and its expression was significantly increased under pathological conditions, suggesting a possible relationship between d-lipo mRNA expression and the venom gland inflammatory disease. This is also the first report of a lipocalin homologous gene identified in the venom gland of a snake.

  8. A Potato cDNA Encoding a Homologue of Mammalian Multidrug Resistant P-Glycoprotein

    Wang, W.; Takezawa, D.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1996-01-01

    A homologue of the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene was obtained while screening a potato stolon tip cDNA expression library with S-15-labeled calmodulin. The mammalian MDR gene codes for a membrane-bound P-glycoprotein (170-180 kDa) which imparts multidrug resistance to cancerous cells. The potato cDNA (PMDR1) codes for a polypeptide of 1313 amino acid residues (ca. 144 kDa) and its structural features are very similar to the MDR P-glycoprotein. The N-terminal half of the PMDR1-encoded protein shares striking homology with its C-terminal half, and each half contains a conserved ATP-binding site and six putative transmembrane domains. Southern blot analysis indicated that potato has one or two MDR-like genes. PMDR1 mRNA is constitutively expressed in all organs studied with higher expression in the stem and stolon tip. The PMDR1 expression was highest during tuber initiation and decreased during tuber development.

  9. The mouse homologue of the polycystic kidney disease gene (Pkd1) is a single-copy gene

    Olsson, P.G.; Loehning, C.; Frischauf, A.M. [Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    The mouse homologue of the polycystic kidney disease 1 gene (PKD1) was mapped to chromosome 17 using somatic cell hybrid, BXD recombinant inbred strains, and FISH. The gene is located within a previously defined conserved synteny group that includes the mouse homologue of tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) and is linked to the {alpha} globin pseudogene Hba-ps4. Although the human genome contains multiple copies of genes related to PKD1, there is no evidence for more than one copy in the mouse genome. Like their human counterparts, the mouse Tsc2 and Pkd1 genes are arranged in a tail-to-tail orientation with a distance of only 63 bp between the polyadenylation signals of the two genes. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Deletion of the Fission Yeast Homologue of Human Insulinase Reveals a TORC1-Dependent Pathway Mediating Resistance to Proteotoxic Stress

    Beuzelin, Clémentine; Evnouchidou, Irini; Rigolet, Pascal; Cauvet-Burgevin, Anne; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Dardalhon, Delphine; Culina, Slobodan; Gdoura, Abdelaziz; van Endert, Peter; Francesconi, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Insulin Degrading Enzyme (IDE) is a protease conserved through evolution with a role in diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. The reason underlying its ubiquitous expression including cells lacking identified IDE substrates remains unknown. Here we show that the fission yeast IDE homologue (Iph1) modulates cellular sensitivity to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in a manner dependent on TORC1 (Target of Rapamycin Complex 1). Reduced sensitivity to tunicamycin was associated with a smaller number...

  11. CRN-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans FEN-1 homologue, cooperates with CPS-6/EndoG to promote apoptotic DNA degradation

    Parrish, Jay Z.; Yang, Chonglin; Shen, Binghui; Xue, Ding

    2003-01-01

    Oligonucleosomal fragmentation of chromosomes in dying cells is a hallmark of apoptosis. Little is known about how it is executed or what cellular components are involved. We show that crn-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of human flap endonuclease-1 (FEN-1) that is normally involved in DNA replication and repair, is also important for apoptosis. Reduction of crn-1 activity by RNA interference resulted in cell death phenotypes similar to those displayed by a mutant lacking the mitochondr...

  12. The Plasmodium falciparum Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) Is Incorporated More Efficiently into B Cells than Its Human Homologue

    Calderón-Pérez, Berenice; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Lira-Carmona, Rosalía; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Ortega-López, Jaime; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum secretes a homologue of the translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) into serum of infected individuals, although its role in pathogenesis or virulence is unknown. To determine the effect of P. falciparum TCTP on B cells as compared to human TCTP, fluorescently labeled proteins were incubated on primary cultures of mouse splenic B cells and analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Our results indicate that both recombinant proteins are incorporated into...

  13. Two related trypanosomatid eIF4G homologues have functional differences compatible with distinct roles during translation initiation.

    Moura, Danielle M N; Reis, Christian R S; Xavier, Camila C; da Costa Lima, Tamara D; Lima, Rodrigo P; Carrington, Mark; de Melo Neto, Osvaldo P

    2015-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, eIF4A, eIF4E and eIF4G homologues interact to enable mRNA recruitment to the ribosome. eIF4G acts as a scaffold for these interactions and also interacts with other proteins of the translational machinery. Trypanosomatid protozoa have multiple homologues of eIF4E and eIF4G and the precise function of each remains unclear. Here, 2 previously described eIF4G homologues, EIF4G3 and EIF4G4, were further investigated. In vitro, both homologues bound EIF4AI, but with different interaction properties. Binding to distinct eIF4Es was also confirmed; EIF4G3 bound EIF4E4 while EIF4G4 bound EIF4E3, both these interactions required similar binding motifs. EIF4G3, but not EIF4G4, interacted with PABP1, a poly-A binding protein homolog. Work in vivo with Trypanosoma brucei showed that both EIF4G3 and EIF4G4 are cytoplasmic and essential for viability. Depletion of EIF4G3 caused a rapid reduction in total translation while EIF4G4 depletion led to changes in morphology but no substantial inhibition of translation. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to disrupt interactions of the eIF4Gs with either eIF4E or eIF4A, causing different levels of growth inhibition. Overall the results show that only EIF4G3, with its cap binding partner EIF4E4, plays a major role in translational initiation. PMID:25826663

  14. A new MOF-5 homologue for selective separation of methane from C2 hydrocarbons at room temperature

    Yabing He

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new MOF-5 homologue compound UTSA-10 has been obtained under solvothermal conditions from a mixture of Zn(NO32⋅6H2O and commercially available linker, 2-methylfumaric acid, in N,N-dimethylformamide. The moderate surface area and suitable pore sizes enable the activated UTSA-10a to separate methane from C2 hydrocarbons at room temperature.

  15. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  16. Hydrogenation of Tasmanian alginite in the presence of tin (II) chloride and zinc chloride

    Russell, N.J.

    1981-10-01

    A Mersey River (Tasmanian) algnite concentrate was heated (3 Cmin$SUP$-$SUP$1 to temperatures of 200-480 C in a small capacity, high-pressure, single-cell differential thermal analysis, batch autoclave under nitrogen or hydrogen (initial pressure 9.8 MPa) with or without 10 wt% zinc chloride or tin (II) chloride. An organic solvent (vehicle) was not used in these experiments. Although there is an almost complete conversion of alginite to gaseous and liquid products between 425 and 450 C, the compositions of the autoclave gas samples, the yields and compositions of the hexane-soluble material derived from the autoclave products, and the optical properties of the hexane-soluble residues, reflect the experimental conditions, in particular the influence of the metal chlorides. Principal phases of hydrogen uptake by alginite occur at different temperatures in a hydrogen atmosphere depending on the presence and nature of the metal chloride. The autoclave gas compositions reveal a clear distinction between the uncatalysed and catalysed experiments. The hydrocarbon gas ratios permit a distinction to be made between catalytic (carbonium ion mechanism) reactions and thermal (free radical mechanism) reactions; at higher temperatures the latter are dominant, even in the catalysed experiments. The metal chlorides lower the organic sulphur and nitrogen contents of the hexane-soluble material; zinc chloride being more effective than tin (II) chloride. Incident light fluorescence microscopy suggests that zinc chloride and tin (II) chloride give rise to different hydrogenation reactions between 300 and 425 C. Incident light fluorescence microscopy is a most useful method of studying the petrography of alignite in the hexane-insoluble residues. (28 refs.)

  17. Species-specific flight styles of flies are reflected in the response dynamics of a homologue motion sensitive neuron

    Bart eGeurten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoverflies and blowflies have distinctly different flight styles. Yet, both species have been shown to structure their flight behaviour in a way that facilitates extraction of 3D information from the image flow on the retina (optic flow. Neuronal candidates to analyse the optic flow are the tangential cells in the third optical ganglion – the lobula complex. These neurons are directionally selective and integrate the optic flow over large parts of the visual field. Homologue tangential cells in hoverflies and blowflies have a similar morphology. Because blowflies and hoverflies have similar neuronal layout but distinctly different flight behaviours, they are an ideal substrate to pinpoint potential neuronal adaptations to the different flight styles.In this article we describe the relationship between locomotion behaviour and motion vision on three different levels:1.We compare the different flight styles based on the categorisation of flight behaviour into prototypical movements.2.We measure the species specific dynamics of the optic flow under naturalistic flight conditions. We found the translational optic flow of both species to be very different.3.We describe possible adaptations of a homologue motion sensitive neuron. We stimulate this cell in blowflies (Calliphora and hoverflies (Eristalis with naturalistic optic flow generated by both species during free flight. The characterized hoverfly tangential cell responds faster to transient changes in the optic flow than its blowfly homologue. It is discussed whether and how the different dynamical response properties aid optic flow analysis.

  18. Ectopic expression of a Catalpa bungei (Bignoniaceae) PISTILLATA homologue rescues the petal and stamen identities in Arabidopsis pi-1 mutant.

    Jing, Danlong; Xia, Yan; Chen, Faju; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junhui

    2015-02-01

    PISTILLATA (PI) plays crucial roles in Arabidopsis flower development by specifying petal and stamen identities. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development of woody angiosperm in Catalpa, we isolated and identified a PI homologue, referred to as CabuPI (C. bungei PISTILLATA), from two genetically cognate C. bungei (Bignoniaceae) bearing single and double flowers. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the gene is closest related to the eudicot PI homologues. Moreover, a highly conserved PI-motif is found in the C-terminal regions of CabuPI. Semi-quantitative and quantitative real time PCR analyses showed that the expression of CabuPI was restricted to petals and stamens. However, CabuPI expression in the petals and stamens persisted throughout all floral development stages, but the expression levels were different. In 35S::CabuPI transgenic homozygous pi-1 mutant Arabidopsis, the second and the third whorl floral organs produced normal petals and a different number of stamens, respectively. Furthermore, ectopic expression of the CabuPI in transgenic wild-type or heterozygote pi-1 mutant Arabidopsis caused the first whorl sepal partially converted into a petal-like structure. These results clearly reveal the functional conservation of PI homologues between C. bungei and Arabidopsis. PMID:25575990

  19. Effect of mobile phase on resolution of the isomers and homologues of tocopherols on a triacontyl stationary phase.

    Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh; Kundu, Aditi; Pathak, Niti

    2013-11-01

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) separation of isomers and homologues of similar polarity is challenging. Tocopherol isomers and homologues are one such example. α, β, γ, and δ-tocopherols have been successfully separated by RPLC on triacontyl (C30) stationary phase. System suitability was tested by using four mobile phases, and observed chromatographic separations of β and γ-tocopherols were compared. Comparison indicated that methanol-tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME) 95:5 (v/v) at a flow rate of 0.75 mL min(-1) was the best mobile phase. Detection systems were also evaluated on the basis of limit of quantification; it was concluded that fluorescence detection was best. The method was validated by analysis of two homologues and two isomers of tocopherol in sesame, maize, and soybean samples. MS coupled with an ESI interface in negative-ion mode [M - H](-) was used for identification of individual components. It was concluded that addition of TBME to methanol was required to enhance the separation of β and γ-tocopherols, although methanol alone provided similar results. The applicability of the method to cereal, pulse, and oilseed samples was confirmed. The reproducibility of the procedure was good, with relative standard deviations in the range 1.7-3.9%. Recovery of tocopherols added to sesame samples ranged from 91 to 99%. PMID:24077829

  20. Crystal structure of pira toxin-I: a calcium-independent, myotoxic phospholipase A2 - homologue from Bothrops pirajai venom

    Full text. Phospho lipases A2 (PLA2) are small enzymes that specifically hydrolysed the sn-2 ester bond of phospholipids, preferentially in lamellar or micellar aggregates at membrane surfaces. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have been extensively studied. Toxic proteins from venoms from Bothrops species include catalytically active PLA2s and calcium independent PLA2Lys 49 homologues. The substitution of Asp49 by Lys greatly diminishes the ability of these PLA2 to bind calcium, an ion that plays a critical role in the stabilization of the tetrahedral transition state intermediate in the catalytic mechanism. The Lys 49 PLA2 homologues and therefore catalytically inactive yet maintain cytolytic and myotoxic activities and furthermore retain the ability to disrupt the integrity of both plasma membranes and model lipid bilayers by a poorly understood Ca 2+ independente mechanism. Lys49 PLA2 homologues demonstrate a specific toxic activity against skeletal muscle, affecting only muscle fibers and leaving other tissue structure such as connective tissue, nerves and vessels essentially unharmed. In order to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the myotoxic and Ca 2+ -independent membrane damaging activities, we have determined the crystal structure of Pr TX-I, a Lys49 variant from the venom of B. pirajai. The model presented has been determined at 2.8 angstrom resolution and refined to a crystallographic residual of 19.7% (Rfree=29.7%). (author)

  1. Correlation between local structural dynamics of proteins inferred from NMR ensembles and evolutionary dynamics of homologues of known structure.

    Mahajan, Swapnil; de Brevern, Alexandre G; Offmann, Bernard; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Conformational changes in proteins are extremely important for their biochemical functions. Correlation between inherent conformational variations in a protein and conformational differences in its homologues of known structure is still unclear. In this study, we have used a structural alphabet called Protein Blocks (PBs). PBs are used to perform abstraction of protein 3-D structures into a 1-D strings of 16 alphabets (a-p) based on dihedral angles of overlapping pentapeptides. We have analyzed the variations in local conformations in terms of PBs represented in the ensembles of 801 protein structures determined using NMR spectroscopy. In the analysis of concatenated data over all the residues in all the NMR ensembles, we observe that the overall nature of inherent local structural variations in NMR ensembles is similar to the nature of local structural differences in homologous proteins with a high correlation coefficient of .94. High correlation at the alignment positions corresponding to helical and β-sheet regions is only expected. However, the correlation coefficient by considering only the loop regions is also quite high (.91). Surprisingly, segregated position-wise analysis shows that this high correlation does not hold true to loop regions at the structurally equivalent positions in NMR ensembles and their homologues of known structure. This suggests that the general nature of local structural changes is unique; however most of the local structural variations in loop regions of NMR ensembles do not correlate to their local structural differences at structurally equivalent positions in homologues. PMID:23730714

  2. Structural characterization and expression analysis of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) in disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Premachandra, H K A; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-15

    Repertoires of proteins and small peptides play numerous physiological roles as hormones, antimicrobial peptides, and cellular signaling factors. The beta-thymosins are a group of small acidic peptides involved in processes such as actin sequestration, neuronal development, wound healing, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Recent characterization of the beta thymosins as immunological regulators in invertebrates led to our identification and characterization of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) from Haliotis discus discus. The cDNA possessed an ORF of 132 bp encoding a protein of 44 amino acids with a molecular mass of 4977 Da. The amino acid sequence shows high identity with another molluskan beta-thymosin and has a characteristic actin binding motif (LKKTET) and glutamyl donors. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship with molluskan homologues, as well as its distinct identity and common ancestral origin. Genomic analysis revealed a 3 exon-2 intron structure similar to the other homologues. In silico promoter analysis also revealed significant transcription factor binding sites, providing evidence for the expression of this gene under different cellular conditions, including stress or pathogenic attack. Tissue distribution profiling revealed a ubiquitous presence in all the examined tissues, but with the highest expression in mantle and hemocyte. Immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C and Vibrio parahemolyticus induced beta-thymosin expression in gill and hemocytes, affirming an immune-related role in invertebrates. PMID:23680646

  3. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  4. Functional mammalian homologues of the Drosophila PEV-modifier Su(var)3-9 encode centromere-associated proteins which complex with the heterochromatin component M31.

    Aagaard, L.; Laible, G.; Selenko, P.; M. Schmid; Dorn, R.; Schotta, G; Kuhfittig, S; Wolf, A.; Lebersorger, A; Singh, P B; Reuter, G; Jenuwein, T.

    1999-01-01

    The chromo and SET domains are conserved sequence motifs present in chromosomal proteins that function in epigenetic control of gene expression, presumably by modulating higher order chromatin. Based on sequence information from the SET domain, we have isolated human (SUV39H1) and mouse (Suv39h1) homologues of the dominant Drosophila modifier of position-effect-variegation (PEV) Su(var)3-9. Mammalian homologues contain, in addition to the SET domain, the characteristic chromo domain, a combin...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    2010-04-01

    ..., and crystallized. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  6. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  7. Polyvinyl chloride filled with bismuth oxychloride powder

    Polášková, M.; Sedláček, T.; Kharlamov, Alexander; Pivokonský, Radek; Saha, P.

    Larnaca : Polymer Processing Society, 2009, s. 242. [Polymer Processing Society Europe/Africa Regional Meeting. Larnaca (GR), 18.10.2009-21.10.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : olyvinyl chloride * bismuth oxychloride * radiopaque agents Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  8. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effec...

  9. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K

    1999-01-01

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  10. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C10H21NH3Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer

  11. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg...

  12. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on...

  13. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    2010-04-20

    ... established a schedule for the conduct of this review (74 FR 62587, November 30, 2010). Subsequently, counsel... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  14. Chloride concentration affects soil microbial community

    Gryndler, Milan; Rohlenová, Jana; Kopecký, Jan; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2008), s. 1401-1408. ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : soil chloride * terminal restriction fragments * soil microorganisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  15. Determination of chloride in uranium solutions

    Danse, A.; Stoch, H.; Steele, T.W.

    1967-05-15

    Thiocyanate is first removed by precipitation with a small excess of a copper solution, and the cations are removed by passing the filtrate through a cation-exchange resin. The chloride is determined in the eluate by a potentiometric titration in which silver nitrate solution is used.

  16. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel

    Braakman, L.J.; Kleizen, B.; Jonge, H.R. de

    2000-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Wh

  17. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096. ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  18. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  19. Association of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Reticulocyte Binding Protein Homologue 5 with protection from clinical malaria

    Chris Y. H. Chiu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that antibodies against merozoite proteins involved in P. falciparum invasion into the red blood cell (RBC play an important role in clinical immunity to malaria. The protein family of parasite antigens known as P. falciparum Reticulocyte Binding Protein Homologue (PfRh is required for RBC invasion. PfRh5 is the only member within the PfRh family that cannot be genetically deleted, suggesting it plays an essential role in parasite survival. This antigen forms a complex with the cysteine-rich P. falciparum Rh5 interacting protein (PfRipr, on the merozoite surface during RBC invasion. The PfRh5 ectodomain sequence and a C-terminal fragment of PfRipr were cloned and expressed in E. coli and baculovirus-infected cells respectively. Immunization of rabbits with these recombinant proteins induced antibodies able to inhibit growth of various P. falciparum strains. Antibody responses to these proteins were investigated in a treatment-re-infection study conducted in an endemic area of Papua New Guinea (PNG to determine their contribution to naturally acquired immunity. Antibody titres to PfRh5 but not PfRipr showed strong association with protection against P. falciparum clinical episodes. When associations with time to first infection were analysed, high antibody levels against PfRh5 were also found to be associated with protection from high-density infections but not from re-infection. Together these results indicate that PfRh5 is an important target of protective immunity and constitutes a promising vaccine candidate.

  20. Development and mapping of SSR markers linked to resistance-gene homologue clusters in common bean

    Luz; Nayibe; Garzon; Matthew; Wohlgemuth; Blair

    2014-01-01

    Common bean is an important but often a disease-susceptible legume crop of temperate,subtropical and tropical regions worldwide. The crop is affected by bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. The strategy of resistance-gene homologue(RGH) cloning has proven to be an efficient tool for identifying markers and R(resistance) genes associated with resistances to diseases. Microsatellite or SSR markers can be identified by physical association with RGH clones on large-insert DNA clones such as bacterial artificial chromosomes(BACs). Our objectives in this work were to identify RGH-SSR in a BAC library from the Andean genotype G19833 and to test and map any polymorphic markers to identify associations with known positions of disease resistance genes. We developed a set of specific probes designed for clades of common bean RGH genes and then identified positive BAC clones and developed microsatellites from BACs having SSR loci in their end sequences. A total of 629 new RGH-SSRs were identified and named BMr(bean microsatellite RGH-associated markers). A subset of these markers was screened for detecting polymorphism in the genetic mapping population DOR364 × G19833. A genetic map was constructed with a total of 264 markers,among which were 80 RGH loci anchored to single-copy RFLP and SSR markers. Clusters of RGH-SSRs were observed on most of the linkage groups of common bean and in positions associated with R-genes and QTL. The use of these new markers to select for disease resistance is discussed.

  1. The pseudokinase tribbles homologue-3 plays a crucial role in cannabinoid anticancer action.

    Salazar, María; Lorente, Mar; García-Taboada, Elena; Hernández-Tiedra, Sonia; Davila, David; Francis, Sheila E; Guzmán, Manuel; Kiss-Toth, Endre; Velasco, Guillermo

    2013-10-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of marijuana, and other cannabinoids inhibit tumor growth in animal models of cancer. This effect relies, at least in part, on the up-regulation of several endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins including the pseudokinase tribbles homologue-3 (TRIB3), which leads in turn to the inhibition of the AKT/mTORC1 axis and the subsequent stimulation of autophagy-mediated apoptosis in tumor cells. Here, we took advantage of the use of cells derived from Trib3-deficient mice to investigate the precise mechanisms by which TRIB3 regulates the anti-cancer action of THC. Our data show that RasV(12)/E1A-transformed embryonic fibroblasts derived from Trib3-deficient mice are resistant to THC-induced cell death. We also show that genetic inactivation of this protein abolishes the ability of THC to inhibit the phosphorylation of AKT and several of its downstream targets, including those involved in the regulation of the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) axis. Our data support the idea that THC-induced TRIB3 up-regulation inhibits AKT phosphorylation by regulating the accessibility of AKT to its upstream activatory kinase (the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2; mTORC2). Finally, we found that tumors generated by inoculation of Trib3-deficient cells in nude mice are resistant to THC anticancer action. Altogether, the observations presented here strongly support that TRIB3 plays a crucial role on THC anti-neoplastic activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipid Metabolism in Cancer. PMID:23567453

  2. Characterization of two 20kDa-cement protein (cp20k homologues in Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    Li-Sheng He

    Full Text Available The barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite, is a common marine fouling organism. Understanding the mechanism of barnacle adhesion will be helpful in resolving the fouling problem. Barnacle cement is thought to play a key role in barnacle attachment. Although several adult barnacle cement proteins have been identified in Megabalanus rosa, little is known about their function in barnacle settlement. In this study, two homologous 20k-cement proteins (cp20k in Amphibalanus amphitrite, named Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2, were characterized. The two homologues share primary sequence structure with proteins from other species including Megabalanus rosa and Fistulobalanus albicostatus. The conserved structure included repeated Cys domains and abundant charged amino acids, such as histidine. In this study we demonstrated that Bamcp20k-1 localized at the α secretory cells in the cyprid cement gland, while Bamcp20k-2 localized to the β secretory cells. The differential localizations suggest differential regulation for secretion from the secretory cells. Both Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 from cyprids dissolved in PBS. However, adult Bamcp20k-2, which was dominant in the basal shell of adult barnacles, was largely insoluble in PBS. Solubility increased in the presence of the reducing reagent Dithiothreitol (DTT, suggesting that the formation of disulfide bonds plays a role in Bamcp20k-2 function. In comparison, Bamcp20k-1, which was enriched in soft tissue, could not be easily detected in the shell and base by Western blot and easily dissolved in PBS. These differential solubilities and localizations indicate that Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 have distinct functions in barnacle cementing.

  3. Regulation of Metalloprotease Gene Expression in Vibrio vulnificus by a Vibrio harveyi LuxR Homologue

    Shao, Chung-Ping; Hor, Lien-I

    2001-01-01

    Expression of the Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease gene, vvp, was turned up rapidly when bacterial growth reached the late log phase. A similar pattern of expression has been found in the metalloprotease gene of Vibrio cholerae, and this has been shown to be regulated by a Vibrio harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional activator. To find out whether a LuxR homologue exists in V. vulnificus, a gene library of this organism was screened by colony hybridization using a probe derived from a sequence that is conserved in various luxR-like genes of vibrios. A gene containing a 618-bp open reading frame was identified and found to be identical to the smcR gene of V. vulnificus reported previously. An isogenic SmcR-deficient (RD) mutant was further constructed by an in vivo allelic exchange technique. This mutant exhibited an extremely low level of vvp transcription compared with that of the parent strain. On the other hand, the cytolysin gene, vvhA, was expressed at a higher level in the RD mutant than in the parent strain during the log phase of growth. These data suggested that SmcR might not only be a positive regulator of the protease gene but might also be involved in negative regulation of the cytolysin gene. Virulence of the RD mutant in either normal or iron-overloaded mice challenged by intraperitoneal injection was comparable to that of the parent strain, indicating that SmcR is not required for V. vulnificus virulence in mice. PMID:11157950

  4. Neurophysiological Evidence That Musical Training Influences the Recruitment of Right Hemispheric Homologues for Speech Perception

    McNeelGordonJantzen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Musicians have a more accurate temporal and tonal representation of auditory stimuli than their non-musician counterparts (Kraus & Chandrasekaran, 2010; Parbery-Clark, Skoe, & Kraus, 2009; Zendel & Alain, 2008; Musacchia, Sams, Skoe, & Kraus, 2007. Musicians who are adept at the production and perception of music are also more sensitive to key acoustic features of speech such as voice onset timing and pitch. Together, these data suggest that musical training may enhance the processing of acoustic information for speech sounds. In the current study, we sought to provide neural evidence that musicians process speech and music in a similar way. We hypothesized that for musicians, right hemisphere areas traditionally associated with music are also engaged for the processing of speech sounds. In contrast we predicted that in non-musicians processing of speech sounds would be localized to traditional left hemisphere language areas. Speech stimuli differing in voice onset time was presented using a dichotic listening paradigm. Subjects either indicated aural location for a specified speech sound or identified a specific speech sound from a directed aural location. Musical training effects and organization of acoustic features were reflected by activity in source generators of the P50. This included greater activation of right middle temporal gyrus (MTG and superior temporal gyrus (STG in musicians. The findings demonstrate recruitment of right hemisphere in musicians for discriminating speech sounds and a putative broadening of their language network. Musicians appear to have an increased sensitivity to acoustic features and enhanced selective attention to temporal features of speech that is facilitated by musical training and supported, in part, by right hemisphere homologues of established speech processing regions of the brain.

  5. Characterization of Two 20kDa-Cement Protein (cp20k) Homologues in Amphibalanus amphitrite

    He, Li-Sheng

    2013-05-22

    The barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite, is a common marine fouling organism. Understanding the mechanism of barnacle adhesion will be helpful in resolving the fouling problem. Barnacle cement is thought to play a key role in barnacle attachment. Although several adult barnacle cement proteins have been identified in Megabalanus rosa, little is known about their function in barnacle settlement. In this study, two homologous 20k-cement proteins (cp20k) in Amphibalanus amphitrite, named Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2, were characterized. The two homologues share primary sequence structure with proteins from other species including Megabalanus rosa and Fistulobalanus albicostatus. The conserved structure included repeated Cys domains and abundant charged amino acids, such as histidine. In this study we demonstrated that Bamcp20k-1 localized at the α secretory cells in the cyprid cement gland, while Bamcp20k-2 localized to the β secretory cells. The differential localizations suggest differential regulation for secretion from the secretory cells. Both Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 from cyprids dissolved in PBS. However, adult Bamcp20k-2, which was dominant in the basal shell of adult barnacles, was largely insoluble in PBS. Solubility increased in the presence of the reducing reagent Dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that the formation of disulfide bonds plays a role in Bamcp20k-2 function. In comparison, Bamcp20k-1, which was enriched in soft tissue, could not be easily detected in the shell and base by Western blot and easily dissolved in PBS. These differential solubilities and localizations indicate that Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 have distinct functions in barnacle cementing. © 2013 He et al.

  6. Immune response studies with Wuchereria bancrofti vespid allergen homologue (WbVAH) in human lymphatic filariasis.

    Anand, Setty Balakrishnan; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam; Thangadurai, Mani; Prabhu, Prince R; Kaliraj, Perumal; Ramaswamy, Kalyanasundaram

    2007-09-01

    A homologue of Brugia malayi venom allergen (BmVAH) was cloned from the infective stages (L3) of Wuchereria bancrofti. Sequence analysis showed 90% sequence identity between WbVAH and BmVAH. Recombinant WbVAH was then expressed and purified. VAH from other nematode parasites is being evaluated as potential vaccine candidates. Because W. bancrofti infections are more prevalent than B. malayi, it will significantly benefit using W. bancrofti antigens for vaccine development. In this study, we have evaluated the human immune responses to rWbVAH in putatively immune individuals who live in the endemic regions (endemic normal, EN) to determine the vaccine potential of WbVAH. These responses were then compared to those in infected individuals (microfilaraemic, MF and chronic pathology, CP). Results show that EN subjects carry WbVAH-specific IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 circulating antibodies. It is interesting to note that CP patients also carried antibodies against WbVAH that was mainly of the IgG3 isotype. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from EN individuals responded strongly to rWbVAH by proliferating and secreting IFN-gamma. PBMC from MF patients also proliferated in response to rWbVAH but secreted mainly IL-10. Thus, there was a clear dichotomy in the cytokine production by infected patients vs individuals who are putatively immune (EN). Although vaccine potential of WbVAH has not been established yet, our findings suggest that WbVAH mediated immune responses in EN individuals is primarily Th1-biased. Further vaccination studies are underway in animal models to determine the role of WbVAH in protective immunity against W. bancrofti and B. malayi infections. PMID:17558521

  7. Functional implication of archaeal homologues of human RNase P protein pair Pop5 and Rpp30.

    Hamasaki, Masato; Hazeyama, Kohsuke; Iwasaki, Fumihiko; Ueda, Toshifumi; Nakashima, Takashi; Kakuta, Yoshimitsu; Kimura, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    PhoPop5 and PhoRpp30 in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii, homologues of human ribonuclease P (RNase P) proteins hPop5 and Rpp30, respectively, fold into a heterotetramer [PhoRpp30-(PhoPop5)2-PhoRpp30], which plays a crucial role in the activation of RNase P RNA (PhopRNA). Here, we examined the functional implication of PhoPop5 and PhoRpp30 in the tetramer. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed that the tetramer strongly interacts with an oligonucleotide including the nucleotide sequence of a stem-loop SL3 in PhopRNA. In contrast, PhoPop5 had markedly reduced affinity to SL3, whereas PhoRpp30 had little affinity to SL3. SPR studies of PhoPop5 mutants further revealed that the C-terminal helix (α4) in PhoPop5 functions as a molecular recognition element for SL3. Moreover, gel filtration indicated that PhoRpp30 exists as a monomer, whereas PhoPop5 is an oligomer in solution, suggesting that PhoRpp30 assists PhoPop5 in attaining a functionally active conformation by shielding hydrophobic surfaces of PhoPop5. These results, together with available data, allow us to generate a structural and mechanistic model for the PhopRNA activation by PhoPop5 and PhoRpp30, in which the two C-terminal helices (α4) of PhoPop5 in the tetramer whose formation is assisted by PhoRpp30 act as binding elements and bridge SL3 and SL16 in PhopRNA. PMID:26152732

  8. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  9. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl3 in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl3 is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system

  10. Kinetics of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization with Mixture of Initiators

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic models for the rate constants of vinyl chloride polymerization in the presence of initiator mixtures were proposed. They may be used to design the initiator recipes for the vinyl chloride polymerization with uniform rate at different temperatures at which various grades of poly(vinyl chloride) will be prepared.

  11. Revised Model of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete Bridge by Considering Complex Action of Load and Chloride Binding Capacity

    Xiang, Yiqiang; Guo, DongMei

    2014-01-01

    Coastal concrete bridges will suffer from deterioration of RC structural performance and resistance attenuation because of the chloride penetration and other environment factors. This article discusses current different chloride diffusion models and puts forward the revised model of chloride diffusion in concrete bridge by considering the complex action of load influence and chloride-binding capacity. Comparison of numerical predicted values and relative experimental tests show the presented ...

  12. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  13. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE COPOLYMERS

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1996-01-01

    The permeability coefficients of a series of copolymers of vinylidene chloride (VDC)with methyl acrylate (MA), butyl acrylate (BA) or vinyl chloride (VC) (as comonomer)to oxygen and carbon dioxide have been measured at 1.0 MPa and 30℃, while those to water vapor have been measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the copolymers are semicrystalline. VDC/MA copolymers have lower melting temperature compared with VDC/BA copolymers, while that melting temperature of VDC/VC copolymer is higher than that of VDC/acrylate copolymers with the same VDC content. The barrier property of the copolymers is predominantly controlled by crystallite, free volume fraction, and cohesive energy. The permeability coefficients of VDC/MA copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were successfully correlated with the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  14. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... mixtures are tested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures. Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP water absorption in fresh concrete and without extra water, the internal curing water held by SAP may...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient; the...

  15. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  16. Influence of chloride admixtures on cement matrix durability

    The influence of various inorganic salts, as chloride admixtures to Portland cement, on the mechanical properties and the durability of the matrix has been studied. The salts used in this study are chromium, nickel and cadmium chlorides. Improved compressive strength values are obtained which have been correlated to the stable metal hydroxide formation in high pH environment. Under static water conditions at 500C, hydrolyzed chloride ions exhibit adverse effects on the matrix durability through rapid release of calcium as calcium chloride in the initial period of leaching. On the contrary, enhanced matrix durability is obtained on long term leaching in the case of cement containing chromium chloride

  17. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete mixtures aretested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures.Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP wa...

  18. Gasometric titration for dimethylaluminum chloride analysis.

    Wang, Lin; Maligres, Peter; Eckenroad, Kyle; Simmons, Bryon

    2016-06-01

    A gasometric titration method was developed to quantitate active alkylaluminum content in dimethylaluminum chloride solution to perform the stoichiometry calculation for the reaction charge. The procedure was reproducible with good precision, and the results showed good correlation with ICP-MS method. The gasometric titration is a simple, inexpensive alternative to analysis via ICP-MS which provides more selective analysis of methylaluminum species without the need for inertion. PMID:27017569

  19. A Duplex Stainless Steel for Chloride Environments

    Sridhar, N.; Kolts, J.; Flasche, L. H.

    1985-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of microstructural changes on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue resistance of a duplex stainless steel to chloride environments. The microstructural changes can be precipitation of phases such as sigma and carbides, or changes in the distribution of austenite and ferrite. The former can be important in hot forming operations while the latter is important in welding. The methods of minimizing these deleterious effects can sometimes be different from those used for austenitic stainless steel.

  20. Electrodeposition of Zinc from Chloride Solution

    NAIK, Yanjerappa Arthoba; VENKATESHA, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2002-01-01

    The electroplating of zinc is carried out in the presence of 3,4,5-Trimethoxy benzaldehyde from a chloride bath. The bath constituents are optimized through Hull cell experiments. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature, and current density are also optimized. The current efficiency and throwing power are measured at different current densities. Polarization study is carried out under galvanostatic conditions. Corrosion resistance test indicated good protection of steel by the ...

  1. Acylation of Toluene with Isobutyryl Chloride

    Čejka, Jiří; Klisáková, Jana; Žilková, Naděžda; Červený, L.

    Cape Town, 2004 - ( Steen van, E.), s. 2717-2723 ISBN 0-958-46636-X. [International Zeolite Conference /14./. Cape Town (ZA), 25.04.2004-30.04.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : acylation of toluene * isobutyryl chloride * zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Manganese laser using manganese chloride as lasant

    Chen, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A manganese vapor laser utilizing manganese chloride as a lasant has been observed and investigated. Lasing is attained by means of two consecutive electrical discharges. The maximum laser output is obtained at a vapor pressure of about 3 torr, a temperature of 680 C, and a time delay between electrical discharges of 150 microsec. The maximum energy density is 1.3 microjoule per cu cm.

  3. (tert-Butyl(2-hydroxyethylammonium chloride

    Cintya Valerio-Cárdenas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title molecular salt, C6H16NO+·Cl−, the N—C—C—O torsion angle is 176.5 (2°. In the crystal, the cations and chloride ions are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a two-dimensional network parallel to (100.

  4. Electrochemical behaviours of scandium in chloride melts

    Electrochemical behaviour of scandium(3) ions in an eutectic melt of NaCl-KCl-CsCl at 810-850 K is studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The process of cathodic reduction of scandium complex ions in chloride melts is found to proceed according to the scheme: Sc(3) → Sc(0) and to be controlled by the rate of ScCl63- complex dissociation

  5. Validating tyrosinase homologue melA as a photoacoustic reporter gene for imaging Escherichia coli

    Paproski, Robert J.; Li, Yan; Barber, Quinn; Lewis, John D.; Campbell, Robert E.; Zemp, Roger

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pathogenic processes for infectious bacteria, appropriate research tools are required for replicating and characterizing infections. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging have primarily been used to image infections in animal models, but optical scattering in tissue significantly limits imaging depth and resolution. Photoacoustic imaging, which has improved depth-to-resolution ratio compared to conventional optical imaging, could be useful for visualizing melA-expressing bacteria since melA is a bacterial tyrosinase homologue which produces melanin. Escherichia coli-expressing melA was visibly dark in liquid culture. When melA-expressing bacteria in tubes were imaged with a VisualSonics Vevo LAZR system, the signal-to-noise ratio of a 9× dilution sample was 55, suggesting that ˜20 bacteria cells could be detected with our system. Multispectral (680, 700, 750, 800, 850, and 900 nm) analysis of the photoacoustic signal allowed unmixing of melA-expressing bacteria from blood. To compare photoacoustic reporter gene melA (using Vevo system) with luminescent and fluorescent reporter gene Nano-lantern (using Bruker Xtreme In-Vivo system), tubes of bacteria expressing melA or Nano-lantern were submerged 10 mm in 1% Intralipid, spaced between <1 and 20 mm apart from each other, and imaged with the appropriate imaging modality. Photoacoustic imaging could resolve the two tubes of melA-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were less than 1 mm from each other, while bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging could not resolve the two tubes of Nano-lantern-expressing bacteria even when the tubes were spaced 10 mm from each other. After injecting 100-μL of melA-expressing bacteria in the back flank of a chicken embryo, photoacoustic imaging allowed visualization of melA-expressing bacteria up to 10-mm deep into the embryo. Photoacoustic signal from melA could also be separated from deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin signal observed within the embryo and

  6. Structure, Mechanism, and Substrate Profile for Sco3058: The Closest Bacterial Homologue to Human Renal Dipeptidase

    Cummings, J.; Nguyen, T; Fedorov, A; Kolb, P; Xu, C; Fedorov, E; Shoichet, B; Barondeau, D; Almo, S; Raushel, F

    2010-01-01

    Human renal dipeptidase, an enzyme associated with glutathione metabolism and the hydrolysis of {beta}-lactams, is similar in sequence to a cluster of 400 microbial proteins currently annotated as nonspecific dipeptidases within the amidohydrolase superfamily. The closest homologue to the human renal dipeptidase from a fully sequenced microbe is Sco3058 from Streptomyces coelicolor. Dipeptide substrates of Sco3058 were identified by screening a comprehensive series of L-Xaa-L-Xaa, L-Xaa-D-Xaa, and D-Xaa-L-Xaa dipeptide libraries. The substrate specificity profile shows that Sco3058 hydrolyzes a broad range of dipeptides with a marked preference for an l-amino acid at the N-terminus and a d-amino acid at the C-terminus. The best substrate identified was L-Arg-D-Asp (k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 7.6 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). The three-dimensional structure of Sco3058 was determined in the absence and presence of the inhibitors citrate and a phosphinate mimic of L-Ala-D-Asp. The enzyme folds as a ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8} barrel, and two zinc ions are bound in the active site. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to probe the importance of specific residues that have direct interactions with the substrate analogues in the active site (Asp-22, His-150, Arg-223, and Asp-320). The solvent viscosity and kinetic effects of D{sub 2}O indicate that substrate binding is relatively sticky and that proton transfers do not occurr during the rate-limiting step. A bell-shaped pH-rate profile for k{sub cat} and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} indicated that one group needs to be deprotonated and a second group must be protonated for optimal turnover. Computational docking of high-energy intermediate forms of L/D-Ala-L/D-Ala to the three-dimensional structure of Sco3058 identified the structural determinants for the stereochemical preferences for substrate binding and turnover.

  7. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.

    Reiniger, I W; Ribeiro da Silva, C; Felzenszwalb, I; de Mattos, J C; de Oliveira, J F; da Silva Dantas, F J; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-12-15

    Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS. PMID:10624900

  8. Chloride Channel Myotonia: Study of Five Cases

    M Ghofrani

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride channel Myotonia is a form of channelopathy, and Myotonia is its manifestation. Myotonia may be defined as delayed relaxation of skeletal muscle after its contraction. Decreased chloride conductance across the transverse tubular system, renders the muscle membrane hyper-excitable and leads to repetitive firing, creating Myotonia. Myotonia congenital is another name for chloride channel Myotonia. Myotonia congenital appears in autosomal dominant type called Thomson disease, autosomal recessive type called Becker disease, and a type with sporadic occurrence. Symptoms appear in the first or second decade of life. Repeated muscle contraction, the so called warm up, result in resolution of the Myotonia stiffness. Muscle stiffness and hypertrophy is another finding at physical examination. In this study we report on 5 patients, which had clinical and electrical signs of Myotonia. Muscle hypertrophy and warm up phenomena were present in all cases. CPK measurement of all cases were normal. 2 patients underwent muscle biopsy that showed only atrophy and increased central nuclei. In three cases autosomal recessive inheritance (Becker, in one case autosomal dominant inheritance (Thomsen and in one case sporadic occurrence was suggested. With respect to successful results of carbamazepine therapy in 4 patients, and being excellent in one of them, we suggest carbamazepine for the first choice of Myotonia treatment.

  9. An autopsy case of zinc chloride poisoning.

    Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Watanabe, Seiya; Ebina, Masatomo; Mizu, Daisuke; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Asano, Migiwa; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Ingestion of large amounts of zinc chloride causes corrosive gastroenteritis with vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals experience shock after ingesting large amounts of zinc chloride, resulting in fatality. Here, we present the results of an administrative autopsy performed on a 70-year-old man who ingested zinc chloride solution and died. After drinking the solution, he developed vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and called for an ambulance. Except for tachycardia, his vital signs were stable at presentation. However, he developed hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis and died. The patient's blood zinc concentration on arrival was high at 3030μg/dL. Liver cirrhosis with cloudy yellow ascites was observed, however, there were no clear findings of gastrointestinal perforation. The gastric mucosa was gray-brown, with sclerosis present in all gastric wall layers. Zinc staining was strongly positive in all layers. There was almost no postmortem degeneration of the gastric mucosal epithelium, and hypercontracture of the smooth muscle layer was observed. Measurement of the zinc concentration in the organs revealed the highest concentration in the gastric mucosa, followed by the pancreas and spleen. Clinically, corrosive gastroenteritis was the cause of death. However, although autopsy revealed solidification in the esophagus and gastric mucosa, there were no findings in the small or large intestine. Therefore, metabolic acidosis resulting from organ damage was the direct cause of death. PMID:27497327

  10. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl2–N2 mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated

  11. Microwave spectrum and structure of nitrosyl chloride

    The microwave spectra of 15N isotopic species of nitrosyl chloride, 15NO35Cl and 15NO37Cl, have been assigned between 8 and 26 GHz, and the following rotational constants have been obtained: A = 81600 MHz, B = 5693.80 MHz, and C = 5322.44 MHz for 15NO35Cl, A = 81520 MHz, B = 5556.07 MHz, and C = 5201.56 MHz for 15NO37Cl. The microwave spectra of the normal species of nitrosyl chloride as well as the 37Cl species and the 18O species have already been measured by Millen et al. (1961). An analysis of both the rotational constants obtained in this study and the constants by Millen et al. has given the following bond lengths and angle as the complete r sub(s) structural parameters of nitrosyl chloride. r(N-O) = 1.143 +- 0.006 A, r(N-Cl) = 1.973 +- 0.003 A, and 0 +- 0.50. The nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in the N-Cl bond axis system of 15NO35Cl are X sub(zz) = -57.8 MHz and eta = -0.311. (author)

  12. Solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam

    The solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments up to 20 MPa and 475 C. These experiments were carried out using a dynamic method where deionized steam was passed through a packed bed of salt crystals in a 500 mL Hastelloy autoclave. The residence time of the steam in the salt bed was sufficient to saturate the steam with the salt. The steam samples were cooled and analyzed by ion chromatography. Correlations based on temperature and density were selected to describe the solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam. The density dependence is much stronger than the temperature dependence. By using these correlations, it is possible to estimate the solubility of salt in steam at lower densities than those used in the experiments. Enthalpy-entropy diagrams are given that show the steam expansion line in turbines, including curves for constant concentration of sodium chloride solubility in steam. These can be used to analyze where in the steam cycle this salt may deposit. (orig.)

  13. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  14. Elucidating the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fatty acid degradation pathway: identification of additional fatty acyl-CoA synthetase homologues.

    Jan Zarzycki-Siek

    Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA degradation pathway of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, was recently shown to be involved in nutrient acquisition during BALB/c mouse lung infection model. The source of FA in the lung is believed to be phosphatidylcholine, the major component of lung surfactant. Previous research indicated that P. aeruginosa has more than two fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes (fadD; PA3299 and PA3300, which are responsible for activation of FAs using ATP and coenzyme A. Through a bioinformatics approach, 11 candidate genes were identified by their homology to the Escherichia coli FadD in the present study. Four new homologues of fadD (PA1617, PA2893, PA3860, and PA3924 were functionally confirmed by their ability to complement the E. coli fadD mutant on FA-containing media. Growth phenotypes of 17 combinatorial fadD mutants on different FAs, as sole carbon sources, indicated that the four new fadD homologues are involved in FA degradation, bringing the total number of P. aeruginosa fadD genes to six. Of the four new homologues, fadD4 (PA1617 contributed the most to the degradation of different chain length FAs. Growth patterns of various fadD mutants on plant-based perfumery substances, citronellic and geranic acids, as sole carbon and energy sources indicated that fadD4 is also involved in the degradation of these plant-derived compounds. A decrease in fitness of the sextuple fadD mutant, relative to the ΔfadD1D2 mutant, was only observed during BALB/c mouse lung infection at 24 h.

  15. Elucidating the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fatty acid degradation pathway: identification of additional fatty acyl-CoA synthetase homologues.

    Zarzycki-Siek, Jan; Norris, Michael H; Kang, Yun; Sun, Zhenxin; Bluhm, Andrew P; McMillan, Ian A; Hoang, Tung T

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) degradation pathway of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, was recently shown to be involved in nutrient acquisition during BALB/c mouse lung infection model. The source of FA in the lung is believed to be phosphatidylcholine, the major component of lung surfactant. Previous research indicated that P. aeruginosa has more than two fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes (fadD; PA3299 and PA3300), which are responsible for activation of FAs using ATP and coenzyme A. Through a bioinformatics approach, 11 candidate genes were identified by their homology to the Escherichia coli FadD in the present study. Four new homologues of fadD (PA1617, PA2893, PA3860, and PA3924) were functionally confirmed by their ability to complement the E. coli fadD mutant on FA-containing media. Growth phenotypes of 17 combinatorial fadD mutants on different FAs, as sole carbon sources, indicated that the four new fadD homologues are involved in FA degradation, bringing the total number of P. aeruginosa fadD genes to six. Of the four new homologues, fadD4 (PA1617) contributed the most to the degradation of different chain length FAs. Growth patterns of various fadD mutants on plant-based perfumery substances, citronellic and geranic acids, as sole carbon and energy sources indicated that fadD4 is also involved in the degradation of these plant-derived compounds. A decrease in fitness of the sextuple fadD mutant, relative to the ΔfadD1D2 mutant, was only observed during BALB/c mouse lung infection at 24 h. PMID:23737986

  16. The Accelerated Test of Chloride Permeability of Concrete

    TAN Ke-feng; ODD E Gjφrv

    2003-01-01

    The availability of accelerated chloride permeability test and the effect of w/c ratio, incorporation of silica fume, maximum aggregate size and aggregate type on the chloride permeability were studied. The mathematic analysis certifies that there is a linear relationship between accelerated test and natural diffusion. Test results show that the chloride permeability of concrete increases as w/c ratio increases whilst a limited amount of replacement of cement with silica fume, the chloride permeability decreases dramatically. The maximum aggregate size in the range of 8 to 25 mm seems also affect chloride permeability but with a much less significant level. The chloride permeability of silica fume lightweight aggregate concrete is very low, especially the concrete made with dry lightweight concrete. The chloride permeability can be evaluated by this accelerated test method.

  17. Local entropy difference upon a substrate binding of a psychrophilic α-amylase and a mesophilic homologue

    Kosugi, Takahiro; Hayashi, Shigehiko

    2011-01-01

    Psychrophilic α-amylase from the antarctic bacterium pseudoalteromonashaloplanktis (AHA) and its mesophilic homologue, porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) are theoretically investigated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We carried out 240-ns MD simulations for four systems, AHA and PPA with/without the bound substrate, and examined protein conformational entropy changes upon the substrate binding. We developed an analysis that decomposes the entropy changes into contributions of individual amino acids, and successfully identified protein regions responsible for the entropy changes. The results provide a molecular insight into the structural flexibilities of those enzymes related to the temperature dependences of the enzymatic activity.

  18. The Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase Homologues NOX1 and NOX2/gp91phox Mediate Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice

    Paik, Yong-Han; Iwaisako, Keiko; Seki, Ekihiro; Inokuchi, Sayaka; Schnabl, Bernd; Österreicher, Christoph H.; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Brenner, David A

    2011-01-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a multicomponent enzyme that mediates electron transfer from NADPH to molecular oxygen, which leads to the production of superoxide. NOX2/gp91phox is a catalytic subunit of NOX expressed in phagocytic cells. Several homologues of NOX2, including NOX1, have been identified in non-phagocytic cells. We investigated the contributory role of NOX1 and NOX2 in hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis was induced in wild-type (WT) mice, NOX1-knockout (NOX1KO) mice, and NOX2-knockout ...

  19. An Arabidopsis ctpA homologue is involved in the repair of photosystem Ⅱ under high light

    YIN ShuMing; SUN XuWu; ZHANG LiXin

    2008-01-01

    A T-DNA insertion mutant AtctpA 1 was identified to study the physiological roles of a carboxyl-terminal processing protease (CtpA) homologue in Arabidopsis. Under normal growth conditions, disruption of AtctpA1 did not result in any apparent alterations in growth rate and thylakoid membrane protein components. However the mutant plants exhibited increased sensitivity to high irradiance. Degradation of PSII reaction center protein D1 was accelerated in the mutant during photoinhibition. These results demostrated that AtctpA1 was required for efficient repair of PSII in Arabidopsis under high irradiance.

  20. Inhibition of Type 1 Cytokine–mediated Inflammation by a Soluble CD30 Homologue Encoded by Ectromelia (Mousepox) Virus

    Saraiva, Margarida; Smith, Philip; Fallon, Padraic G.; Alcami, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    CD30 is up-regulated in several human diseases and viral infections but its role in immune regulation is poorly understood. Here, we report the expression of a functional soluble CD30 homologue, viral CD30 (vCD30), encoded by ectromelia (mousepox) virus, a poxvirus that causes a severe disease related to human smallpox. We show that vCD30 is a 12-kD secreted protein that not only binds CD30L with high affinity and prevents its interaction with CD30, but it also induces reverse signaling in ce...

  1. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series of...... systems could be explained as secondary effects due to a primary interaction with the sodium transport mechanisms. A correlation was found between the clamping current recorded during hyperpolarization and the efflux of chloride under short circuit conditions with chloride Ringer's on both sides. On the...

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of SGR6054, a Streptomyces homologue of the mycobacterial integration host factor mIHF

    A Streptomyces homologue of the mycobacterial integration host factor mIHF was heterologously produced, purified and crystallized in the presence of a 16-mer duplex DNA by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.22 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2. The mycobacterial integration host factor (mIHF) is a small nonspecific DNA-binding protein that is essential for the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis. mIHF homologues are widely distributed among Actinobacteria, and a Streptomyces homologue of mIHF is involved in control of sporulation and antibiotic production in S. coelicolor A3(2). Despite their important biological functions, a structure of mIHF or its homologues has not been elucidated to date. Here, the S. griseus mIHF homologue (SGR6054) was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and crystallized in the presence of a 16-mer duplex DNA by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The plate-shaped crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.53, b = 69.35, c = 77.71 Å, β = 96.63°, and diffracted X-rays to 2.22 Å resolution

  3. Characterization of a novel EF-hand homologue, CnidEF, in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima.

    Hauck, Laura L; Phillips, Wendy S; Weis, Virginia M

    2007-04-01

    The superfamily of EF-hand proteins is comprised of a large and diverse group of proteins that contain one or more characteristic EF-hand calcium-binding domains. This study describes and characterizes a novel EF-hand cDNA, CnidEF, from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa). CnidEF was found to contain two EF-hand motifs near the C-terminus of the deduced amino acid sequence and two regions near the N-terminus that could represent degenerate EF-hand motifs. CnidEF homologues were also identified from two other sea anemone species. A combination of bioinformatic and molecular phylogenetic analyses was used to compare CnidEF to EF-hand proteins in other organisms. The closest homologues identified from these analyses were a luciferin binding protein (LBP) involved in the bioluminescence of the anthozoan Renilla reniformis, and a sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SARC) involved in fluorescence of the annelid worm Nereis diversicolor. Predicted structure and folding analysis revealed a close association with bioluminescent aequorin (AEQ) proteins from the hydrozoan cnidarian Aequorea aequorea. Neighbor-joining analyses grouped CnidEF within the SARC lineage along with AEQ and other cnidarian bioluminescent proteins rather than in the lineage containing calmodulin (CAM) and troponin-C (TNC). PMID:17280859

  4. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis by vinyl chloride.

    Dogliotti, Eugenia

    2006-01-01

    In 1974 vinyl chloride (VC), a gas used in the plastics industry, was shown to be a human carcinogen, inducing a very rare type of tumor, angiosarcoma of the liver. The same type of tumor was induced in rodents exposed to VC thus providing an excellent model for mechanistic studies. Here, we review the numerous studies on the mechanism of action of VC with particular emphasis on the DNA products induced by this strong alkylating agent. In particular, the genotoxicity, repair mechanisms, in vivo formation and tumor mutation spectra by etheno-adducts will be analysed and possible approaches for future research suggested. PMID:17033136

  6. Solidification of supercooled molten zinc chloride

    Rodová, Miroslava; Cihlář, Antonín; Nitsch, Karel

    Bratislava: x, 2005 - (Koman, M.; Mikloš, D.), s. 5-9 ISBN 80-89088-42-2. [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education - DMS -RE 2005 /15./. Kežmarské Žĺaby (SK), 05.09.2005-09.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : molten zinc chloride * thermal analysis * crystallization * glass formation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  7. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... results show that K+-induced contraction of smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole is highly sensitive to chloride, whereas neurotransmitter release and ensuing contraction is not dependent on chloride. Thus, there are different activation pathways for depolarizing vasoconstrictors and for the......-Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...

  8. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes;

    2005-01-01

    increasing focus on the need for modeling the ingress of chloride into cracked concrete. Present models quantify chloride ingress in static cracks only, although several structural applications display dynamic loading conditions in an environment containing chlorides, e.g. marine structures and car parks....... Preliminary investigations have been undertaken to quantify the effect of dynamic load application on the chloride ingress into concrete cracks. Specimens were designed allowing ingress of a chloride solution into a single crack of a saturated unreinforced mortar beam. One set of specimens was subjected to a...... load frequency of ten applications per minute and a second set to one application per hour simulating static cracks, however limiting the ingress hampering effects of autogenous healing and a possible dense precipitation on the crack faces. The averaged chloride exposure interval of the crack faces was...

  9. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    Evans, K J; Day, S D; Ilevbare, G O; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-05-13

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl{sub 2} at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy.

  10. Mono- to tri-chlorinated dibenzodioxin (CDD) and dibenzofuran (CDF) congeners/homologues as indicators of CDD and CDF emissions from municipal waste and waste/coal combustion

    Gullett, Brian K. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Div., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wikstroem, Evalena [Umeaa Univ., Inst. of Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Total homologue concentrations and select congener concentrations from amongst the mono- to tri-chlorinated dibenzodioxins (CDDs) and dibenzofurans (CDFs) are used to model both Total (mono- to octa-) CDD + CDF emissions and the toxicity equivalent (TEQ) of the 2, 3, 7, 8-chlorine-substituted emissions. Analysis of emission data from two facilities indicates that use of total homologue concentrations shows limited, facility-specific correlations with Total CDDs/CDFs and TEQ. Concentrations of select mono-to tri-CDD/CDF congeners show promising correlation with CDD/CDF TEQ across facilities, suggesting that these compounds can act as TEQ indicators. (Author)

  11. Interactions between chloride ingress and carbonation in cementitious materials

    SAILLIO, Mickael; BARBERON, Fabien; BAROGHEL BOUNY, Véronique; GEGOUT, Philippe; PLATRET, Gérard; D'ESPINOSE DE LA CAILLERIE, JB

    2011-01-01

    Carbonation and chloride attacks are the major causes of reinforced concrete (RC) structure deterioration by initiation of steel rebar corrosion. These attacks are usually studied separately in the literature. Chloride-induced corrosion takes place mainly in marine environment or in the case of contact with deicing salts, while carbonation is systematically present in all RC structures at a variable degree. Since carbonation leads to significant microstructure changes, the effect of chloride ...

  12. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    Jun Liu; Kaifeng Tang; Dong Pan; Zongru Lei; Weilun Wang; Feng Xing

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions...

  13. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  14. Cobalt electrodeposition using urea and choline chloride

    The electrochemical behavior of Co(II) in urea-choline chloride-CoCl2 melt was investigated by cyclic voltammetry at 373 K. The results show that the reaction of Co(II) to Co is irreversible and it proceeds via a one-step two electrons transfer process. The diffusion coefficient of Co(II) was estimated to be 1.7 × 10−6 cm2 s−1 at 373 K. Electrodeposition of cobalt was studied at different cathodic potentials (-0.80 to -0.95 V) and at different temperatures (353 to 383 K) in eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea (1:2 molar ratio). The deposits were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM images show that uniform, dense, and compact deposits were obtained at -0.80 V within a temperature range of 353 K to 373 K. EDS and XRD analysis confirm that high-purity metallic Co deposits were obtained

  15. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  16. Radiolytic preparation of anhydrous tin (2) chloride

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Anhydrous tin (2) chloride (SnCl2) is prepared by radiolysis with high energy electrons of a tin (4) chloride (SnCl4) solution in heptane. The SnCl4 is reduced to insoluble SNCl2. The energy yield, G(SnCl2), molecules of SnCl2, produced per 100 eV, increases with SnCl4 concentration from 1.6 at 0.15 M SnCl4 to 3.1 at 3.0 M SnCl4. Other parameters such as temperature total dose and beam current have little influence on G(SnCl2). The method may be used to prepare other metal halides if the higher valence, more covalent metal halide is soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons and the lower more ionic metal halide is insoluble. The reaction mechanism is discussed; the radiolysis of both heptane and SnCl4 is involved. At high SnCl4 concentration G(SnCl2) appears to be limited by the yield of SnC13 radicals.

  17. Synthesis and structure characterization of diethyldiallylammonium chloride

    刘立华; 龚竹青; 郑雅杰

    2003-01-01

    The unsaturated quaternary ammonium salt diethyldiallylammonium chloride(DEDAAC) was synthesized in a two-step synthetic method. The influences of the adding method of raw materials and temperature on the yields of diethylallylamine (DEAA), and drying and temperature on the synthesis of DEDAAC were investigated. The content of in-process product DEAA was determined by non-aqueous titration. The structure of product DEDAAC was identified with IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The results show that adding allyl chloride and sodium hydroxide alternately can increase the yield of DEAA and decrease by-products. In further synthesizing of DEDAAC from DEAA, the step of drying DEAA is very necessary. When DEAA is dried by solid sodium hydroxide, good columnar crystals with a high purity(mp 199.5-201.0 ℃) are obtained; when DEAA is undried or the content of water in DEAA is above 20%, only platelets with bad quality are obtained even without crystals. The suitable synthesis conditions for DEAA and DEDAAC are 35 ℃, 6 h and 40 ℃, 36 h, respectively, and their yields are 69.7% and 67.3%, respectively.

  18. Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system

    Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

    1983-05-01

    A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

  19. The electrodeposition of lead from chloride electrolytes

    Wright, A.

    1986-11-28

    At low current densities, lead was deposited onto a lead substrate as a fine powder that did not adhere well to the substrate. At higher current densities dendritic growth occurred. Lead does not adhere to a graphite substrate and, since copper and titanium substrates require higher cell voltages than lead substrates, these three substrates were rejected. The temperature of the electrolyte must be maintained above 69/sup 0/C to avoid the precipitation of lead chloride in the cell. Optimum current efficiencies at the anode and cathode were obtained at 80/sup 0/C, and no improvement in the morphology of the deposit was observed at higher temperatures. A combination of Quebracho extract and cuprous ions achieved the greatest improvement in the morphology of the deposit, while maintaining high current efficiencies at the anode and cathode. However, when the deposition time was increased, dendritic growth was much in evidence. A compact, adherent deposit of lead could not be obtained from chloride electrolytes. 22 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution is...... used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  1. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  2. Estimation of trace chloride in nuclear grade sodium

    The author represents a method to determinate trace levels of chloride in sodium coolant in a fast neutron reactor. Vacuum distillation is used for separating chloride from sodium matrix. After separation, matrix interference from sodium salts is eliminated and a large sample amount can be taken for analysing chloride. In contrast with other similar mercuric thiocyanate colorimetric method in China, this method minimizes a glaring blank of colorimetric solution and determining influence of temperature. Therefore, it increases the precision in analysing chloride. The results of the research demonstrate that when a level of chloride in sodium is less than 1 μg/g, the precision is 37% (n = 10). The recoveries of chloride in high pure sodium demonstrate that when 15-30 μg/g of chloride is added in sodium, the recovery is 97.8%-98.6% and when 4μg/g of chloride is added, then the average recovery is 99.2%. And the relative standard deviation is 16.2% (n =7). It is demonstrated that a monitoring requirement of chloride can be satisfied with this method in coolant of sodium in a fast neutron reactor

  3. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. PMID:27105154

  4. Effect of application of ammonium chloride and calcium chloride on alfalfa cation-anion content and yield.

    Goff, J P; Brummer, E C; Henning, S J; Doorenbos, R K; Horst, R L

    2007-11-01

    A major factor predisposing the cow to periparturient hypocalcemia, or milk fever, is being fed a prepartum ration with a high dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). The DCAD can be favorably altered to prevent milk fever by decreasing K and Na or increasing Cl and S in forages for cows in late gestation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that application of Cl to alfalfa could increase Cl in forage, thereby lowering DCAD. We conducted a field experiment at 2 Iowa locations in which established plots of alfalfa were treated in April 2001 with 0, 56, 112, or 168 kg of Cl/ha using ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, or a mix of the 2 sources with equal amounts of chloride coming from each source. Plots were harvested 4 times in 2001 and once in 2002 and plant tissue analyzed for mineral composition. Applying chloride from either source once in the spring resulted in increased plant chloride content over all 4 cuttings for that year. Averaged across both locations, chloride levels were elevated from 0.52% in control plots to 0.77, 0.87, and 0.89% Cl in plots treated with 56, 112, and 168 kg of Cl/ha, respectively. Chloride application had no effect on plant potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus. These results suggest chloride application can elevate chloride content and lower DCAD values of alfalfa, and also maintain crop yield. PMID:17954756

  5. THE COMPATIBILITY OF BLENDS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) OR CHLORINATED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)

    WANG Qingguo; CHENG Rongshi

    1988-01-01

    IR spectral shifts of carbonyl vibrational absorption for ethyl acetate, which acts analogically as the structural unit of poly(methyl methacrylate), in cyclohexane, chloroform, chlorinated paraffins, poly(vinyl chloride) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) were measured. The results suggest that there are specific interactions between the carbonyl groups and the chlorinated hydrocarbons which could be responsible for the apparent compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Additionally, the effects of the preparation mode of blend films on phase separation and observed compatibility are discussed.

  6. A homologue of the rabbit kappa-chain allotype b9 ON IgG from a cottontail rabbit.

    Tosi, S L; Mage, R G; Tosi, R M

    1976-08-01

    Eight out of 12 anti-b9 antisera tested strongly bound 125IgG of only one of four individual cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). In addition to this apparent polymorphism of a b9 homologue in cottontail rabbits, a polymorphism defined by some anti-b5 antisera was found. Three of 15 anti-b5 antisera reacted with IgG from only two of the four cottontail rabbits. Reactions with anti-b4 and anti-b6 were similar to those with hare IgG. Most anti-b4 and anti-b6 antisera bound the IgG from each animal. The cottontails we tested also resembled the hare with respect to their weak reactivity with some anti-a2 antisera (Vh allotype) and strong reactivity with anti-15 (an allotype localized in the Fc portion of rabbit gamma-chains). PMID:820806

  7. Plasmodium falciparum Bloom homologue, a nucleocytoplasmic protein, translocates in 3' to 5' direction and is essential for parasite growth.

    Rahman, Farhana; Tarique, Mohammed; Tuteja, Renu

    2016-05-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium, particularly Plasmodium falciparum, is the most serious and widespread parasitic disease of humans. RecQ helicase family members are essential in homologous recombination-based error-free DNA repair processes in all domains of life. RecQ helicases present in each organism differ and several homologues have been identified in various multicellular organisms. These proteins are involved in various pathways of DNA metabolism by providing duplex unwinding function. Five members of RecQ family are present in Homo sapiens but P. falciparum contains only two members of this family. Here we report the detailed biochemical and functional characterization of the Bloom (Blm) homologue (PfBlm) from P. falciparum 3D7 strain. Purified PfBlm exhibits ATPase and 3' to 5' direction specific DNA helicase activity. The calculated average reaction rate of ATPase was ~13 pmol of ATP hydrolyzed/min/pmol of enzyme. The immunofluorescence assay results show that PfBlm is expressed in all the stages of intraerythrocytic development of the P. falciparum 3D7 strain. In some stages of development in addition to nucleus PfBlm also localizes in the cytoplasm. The gene disruption studies of PfBlm by dsRNA showed that it is required for the ex-vivo intraerythrocytic development of the parasite P. falciparum 3D7 strain. The dsRNA mediated inhibition of parasite growth suggests that a variety of pathways are affected resulting in curtailing of the parasite growth. This study will be helpful in unravelling the basic mechanism of DNA transaction in the malaria parasite and additionally it may provide leads to understand the parasite specific characteristics of this protein. PMID:26917473

  8. Altered expression of CG5961, a putative Drosophila melanogaster homologue of FBXO9, provides a new model of Parkinson disease.

    Merzetti, E M; Staveley, B E

    2016-01-01

    F-box proteins act as the protein recognition component of the Skp-Cul-F-box class of ubiquitin ligases. Two members of a gene sub-family encoding these proteins, FBXO7 and FBXO32, have been implicated in the onset and progression of degenerative disease. FBXO7 is responsible for rare genetic forms of Parkinson disease, while FBXO32 has been implicated in muscle wasting. The third gene in this family, FBXO9, is related to growth signaling, but the role of this gene in degenerative disease pathways has not been thoroughly investigated. Characterizing the putative Drosophila melanogaster homologue of this gene, CG5961, enables modeling and analysis of the consequence of targeted alteration of gene function and the effects on the overall health of the organism. Comparison of the protein domains of Homo sapiens FBXO9 and the putative D. melanogaster homologue CG5961 revealed a high degree of conservation between the protein domains. Directed expression of CG5961 (via CG5961(EP)) and inhibition of CG5961 (through a stable RNAi transgene) in the developing D. melanogaster eye caused abnormalities in adult structures (ommatidia and inter-ommatidial bristles). Directed expression of either CG5961 or CG5961-RNAi in the dopaminergic neurons led to a reduced lifespan compared to that in lacZ controls. We showed that protein structures of CG5961 and FBXO9 are highly similar and studied the effects of altered expression of CG5961 in neuron-rich tissues. Our results suggest that CG5961 activity is necessary for the proper formation of neuronal tissue and that targeted alteration of gene expression in dopaminergic neurons leads to a reduced lifespan. PMID:27173356

  9. The Ca2+ channel TRPML3 specifically interacts with the mammalian ATG8 homologue GATE16 to regulate autophagy

    Highlights: •Split-ubiquitin MY2H screen identified GATE16 as an interacting protein of TRPML3. •TRPML3 specifically binds to a mammalian ATG8 homologue GATE16, not to LC3B. •The interaction of TRPML3 with GATE16 facilitates autophagosome formation. •GATE16 is expressed in both autophagosome and extra-autophagosomal compartments. -- Abstract: TRPML3 is a Ca2+ permeable cation channel expressed in multiple intracellular compartments. Although TRPML3 is implicated in autophagy, how TRPML3 can regulate autophagy is not understood. To search interacting proteins with TRPML3 in autophagy, we performed split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid (MY2H) screening with TRPML3-loop as a bait and identified GATE16, a mammalian ATG8 homologue. GST pull-down assay revealed that TRPML3 and TRPML3-loop specifically bind to GATE16, not to LC3B. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments showed that TRPML3 and TRPML3-loop pull down only the lipidated form of GATE16, indicating that the interaction occurs exclusively at the organellar membrane. The interaction of TRPML3 with GATE16 and GATE16-positive vesicle formation were increased in starvation induced autophagy, suggesting that the interaction facilitates the function of GATE16 in autophagosome formation. However, GATE16 was not required for TRPML3 trafficking to autophagosomes. Experiments using dominant-negative (DN) TRPML3(D458K) showed that GATE16 is localized not only in autophagosomes but also in extra-autophagosomal compartments, by contrast with LC3B. Since GATE16 acts at a later stage of the autophagosome biogenesis, our results suggest that TRPML3 plays a role in autophagosome maturation through the interaction with GATE16, by providing Ca2+ in the fusion process

  10. Homologue of Protein Kinase Mζ Maintains Context Aversive Memory and Underlying Long-Term Facilitation in Terrestrial Snail Helix.

    Pavel M. Balaban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that a variety of long-term memories in different regions of the brain and in different species are quickly erased by local inhibition of PKMζ. Using antibodies to mammalian PKMζ, we describe in the present study the localization of immunoreactive molecules in the nervous system of the terrestrial snail Helix lucorum. Presence of a homologue of PKMζ was confirmed with transcriptomics. We have demonstrated in behavioral experiments that contextual fear memory disappeared under a blockade of PKMζ with a selective peptide blocker of PKMζ (ZIP, but not with scrambled ZIP. If ZIP was combined with a reminder (20 min in noxious context, no impairment of the long-term contextual memory was observed. In electrophysiological experiments we investigated whether PKMζ takes part in the maintenance of long-term facilitation (LTF in the neural circuit mediating tentacle withdrawal. LTF of excitatory synaptic inputs to premotor interneurons was induced by high-frequency nerve stimulation combined with serotonin bath applications and lasted at least four hours. We found that bath application of 2x10-6 M ZIP at the 90th min after the tetanization reduced the EPSP amplitude to the non-tetanized EPSP values. Applications of the scrambled ZIP peptide at a similar time and concentration didn't affect the EPSP amplitudes. In order to test whether effects of ZIP are specific to the synapses, we performed experiments with LTF of somatic membrane responses to local glutamate applications. It was shown earlier that serotonin application in such an artificial synapse condition elicits LTF of responses to glutamate. It was found that ZIP had no effect on LTF in these conditions, which may be explained by the very low concentration of PKMζ molecules in somata of these identified neurons, as evidenced by immunochemistry. Obtained results suggest that the Helix homologue of PKMζ might be involved in post-induction maintenance of long-term changes in