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Sample records for 1-3 galactosa antigal

  1. Characteristics of α-Gal epitope, anti-Gal antibody, α1,3 galactosyltransferase and its clinical exploitation (Review)

    HUAI, GUOLI; Qi, Ping; Yang, Hongji; Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The α-Gal epitope (Galα1,3Galα1,4GlcNAc-R) is ubiquitously presented in non-primate mammals, marsupials and New World Monkeys, but it is absent in humans, apes and Old World monkeys. However, the anti-Gal antibody (~1% of immunoglobulins) is naturally generated in human, and is found as the immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM and IgA isotypes. Owing to the specific binding of the anti-Gal antibody with the α-Gal epitope, humans have a distinct anti-α-gal reactivity, which is responsible for hyperacut...

  2. Characteristics of α-Gal epitope, anti-Gal antibody, α1,3 galactosyltransferase and its clinical exploitation (Review)

    HUAI, GUOLI; QI, PING; YANG, HONGJI; WANG, YI

    2016-01-01

    The α-Gal epitope (Galα1,3Galα1,4GlcNAc-R) is ubiquitously presented in non-primate mammals, marsupials and New World Monkeys, but it is absent in humans, apes and Old World monkeys. However, the anti-Gal antibody (~1% of immunoglobulins) is naturally generated in human, and is found as the immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM and IgA isotypes. Owing to the specific binding of the anti-Gal antibody with the α-Gal epitope, humans have a distinct anti-α-gal reactivity, which is responsible for hyperacute rejection of organs transplanted from α-gal donors. In addition, the α1,3 galactosyltransferases (α1,3GT) can catalyze the synthesis of the α-Gal epitope. Therefore, the α1,3GT gene, which encodes the α1,3GT, is developed profoundly. The distributions of the α-Gal epitope and anti-Gal antibody, and the activation of α1,3GT, reveal that the enzyme of α1,3GT in ancestral primates is ineffective. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the human α1,3-GT pseudogene to the corresponding different species sequence, and according to the evolutionary tree of different species, the results of evolutionary inactivation of the α1,3GT gene in ancestral primates attribute to the mutations under a stronger selective pressure. However, on the basis of the structure, the mechanism and the specificity of the α-Gal epitope and anti-Gal antibody, they can be applied to clinical exploitation. Knocking out the α1,3GT gene will eliminate the xenoantigen, Gal(α1,3)Gal, so that the transplantation of α1,3GT gene knockout pig organ into human becomes a potential clinically acceptable treatment for solving the problem of organ shortage. By contrast, the α-Gal epitope expressed through the application of chemical, biochemical and genetic engineering can be exploited for the clinical use. Targeting anti-Gal-mediated autologous tumor vaccines, which express α-Gal epitope to antigen-presenting cells, would increase their immunogenicity and elicit an immune response, which will be

  3. Characteristics of α-Gal epitope, anti-Gal antibody, α1,3 galactosyltransferase and its clinical exploitation (Review).

    Huai, Guoli; Qi, Ping; Yang, Hongji; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The α-Gal epitope (Galα1,3Galα1,4GlcNAc‑R) is ubiquitously presented in non-primate mammals, marsupials and New World Monkeys, but it is absent in humans, apes and Old World monkeys. However, the anti-Gal antibody (~1% of immunoglobulins) is naturally generated in human, and is found as the immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM and IgA isotypes. Owing to the specific binding of the anti‑Gal antibody with the α‑Gal epitope, humans have a distinct anti‑α‑gal reactivity, which is responsible for hyperacute rejection of organs transplanted from α‑gal donors. In addition, the α1,3 galactosyltransferases (α1,3GT) can catalyze the synthesis of the α‑Gal epitope. Therefore, the α1,3GT gene, which encodes the α1,3GT, is developed profoundly. The distributions of the α‑Gal epitope and anti‑Gal antibody, and the activation of α1,3GT, reveal that the enzyme of α1,3GT in ancestral primates is ineffective. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the human α1,3‑GT pseudogene to the corresponding different species sequence, and according to the evolutionary tree of different species, the results of evolutionary inactivation of the α1,3GT gene in ancestral primates attribute to the mutations under a stronger selective pressure. However, on the basis of the structure, the mechanism and the specificity of the α‑Gal epitope and anti‑Gal antibody, they can be applied to clinical exploitation. Knocking out the α1,3GT gene will eliminate the xenoantigen, Gal(α1,3)Gal, so that the transplantation of α1,3GT gene knockout pig organ into human becomes a potential clinically acceptable treatment for solving the problem of organ shortage. By contrast, the α‑Gal epitope expressed through the application of chemical, biochemical and genetic engineering can be exploited for the clinical use. Targeting anti‑Gal‑mediated autologous tumor vaccines, which express α‑Gal epitope to antigen‑presenting cells, would increase their immunogenicity and elicit

  4. Anti-Gal binds to pili of Neisseria meningitidis: the immunoglobulin A isotype blocks complement-mediated killing.

    Hamadeh, R M; Estabrook, M M; Zhou, P; Jarvis, G A; Griffiss, J M

    1995-12-01

    alpha 1,3-Galactosyl antibodies (anti-Gal) are ubiquitous natural human serum and secretory polyclonal antibodies that bind to terminal galactose-alpha 1,3-galactose (alpha-galactosyl) residues. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Gal can block alternative complement pathway-mediated lysis of representative gram-negative enteric bacteria that bind it to lipopolysaccharide alpha-galactosyl structures, thereby promoting survival of such bacteria in the nonimmune host. We wanted to know whether anti-Gal also could bind to the lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of Neisseria meningitidis. To our surprise, we found that serum and secretory anti-Gal bound to pili but not to LOS of certain strains. This suggested the presence of an immunogenic pilus carbohydrate epitope. Mild periodate oxidation of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated outer membrane preparations from strains that bound anti-Gal followed by labeling of the neoaldehyde groups resulted in the labeling of bands that corresponded to pilin and LOS, confirming that pilin contains carbohydrate structures. A Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin that also binds terminal alpha 1,3-galactosyl residues also bound to pilin. Serum IgG, IgA, and IgM anti-Gal as well as colostral secretory IgA anti-Gal bound to pilin, as judged by immunoblotting, and to the pili of intact piliated organisms, as judged by immunoelectron microscopy. Total serum anti-Gal (IgG, IgA, and IgM) and purified serum IgA1 anti-Gal, but not its purified IgG isotype, blocked complement-mediated lysis of a piliated meningococcal strain that bound anti-Gal to its pili. Colostral anti-Gal secretory IgA blocked killing of the same strain. Thus, anti-Gal IgA may promote disease when it binds to the pili of N. meningitidis strains. PMID:7591153

  5. Las traducciones en la antigüedad

    Fernández Marcos, Natalio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Western cultural heritage has been transmitted through translation. The author analyses the translation phenomenon in Antiquity, emphasizing the significance of the first translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek in Ptolemaic Alexandria. This translation is the major literary corpus translated into Greek in Antiquity and, probably, the most important as well, due to the impact it had on the West once Christianity adopted the Greek version as the official Bible. He also describes the context in which the translation was carried out, the different models utilized for the Pentateuch, its reception and influence on other translations. Finally, he points out other processes of cultural transmission through translation in late Antiquity.

    Gran parte del legado cultural de Occidente se nos ha transmitido en traducciones. El autor analiza el fenómeno de la traducción en la Antigüedad, deteniéndose en la primera traducción de la Biblia hebrea al griego en la Alejandría ptolemaica. Esta traducción es el mayor corpus de litert ratura traducido al griego en la Antigüedad y, tal vez, el más importante por el impacto que tuvo en Occidente al ser adoptada la Biblia griega como Biblia oficial del cristianismo. Describe tambt bién el contexto en el que se llevó a cabo la traducción, los modelos utilizados en el Pentateuco, la recepción y los efectos de la misma en otras traducciones. Señala por fin otros procesos de trasvase cultural mediante la traducción en la Antigüedad tardía.

  6. Comparisons of three anti-G suit configurations during long duration, low onset, +Gz

    Stegmann, B. J.; Krutz, R. W.; Burton, R. R.; Sawin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    Little physiologic data exist on the effects of long duration, low onset, hypergravity (+G). Space shuttle crewmembers are subjected to low +G forces (less than +3G) for upwards of 30 minutes during reentry. A similar reentry profile is predicted for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). The physiologic effects of this acceleration stress are compounded by the loss of body water experienced during microgravity. Currently, a standard 5 bladder anti-G suit is being used during shuttle reentry. There have been complaints of discomfort using this suit, mainly due to the abdominal bladder. This study compared the effectiveness of three anti-G suit configurations in volume depleted subjects during a simulated space shuttle reentry profile. Methods: Seven male subjects were given intravenous Lasix in a dose from 20-40 mg to induce a total body weight loss of 3 plus or minus 1.5 percent. Approximately six hours after the injection, the subjects donned one of three anti-G suits - a standard 5 bladder anti-G suit, an extended coverage anti-G suit (the advanced technology anti-G suit or ATAGS), or an extended coverage anti-G suit without an abdominal bladder (the reentry anti-G suit or REAGS). All subjects were exposed to a simulated space shuttle reentry profile. Non-invasive eye-level blood pressure (ELBP) was monitored throughout the +G exposure. When systolic ELBP dropped below 70 mmHg, the anti-G suit was inflated in 0.5 psig increments to the pressure required to maintain 70 mmHg ELBP. Each subject rode with all three suits. Comparisons were made between the final pressure required in each suit to maintain ELBP and subjective reports of comfort. Results: The mean final suit pressure required to maintain ELBP was 1.1 psi, in both the ATAGS and REAGS versus 1.8 psi in the standard suit. In addition, the subjects rated the REAGS suit highest on the comfort scale, citing the absence of the abdominal bladder as the main reason. Conclusions: Overall, the REAGS suit was the

  7. Anti-G antibody in alloimmunized pregnant women: Report of two cases.

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Kaul, Anita; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Agrawal, Soma; Singh, Chanchal; Karna, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Anti-G has been reported as a possible cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), either independently or in association with anti-D, anti-C or both. The antibody mimics the pattern of anti-C and anti-D reactivity in the identification panel and is often present along with either or both of these antibodies. The differentiation of anti-D, -C and-G in routine pretransfusion workup is particularly essential in antenatal cases. We report two antenatal cases where anti-G was identified on advanced immunohematological workup, in addition to other alloantibodies. PMID:26420948

  8. Anti-G antibody in alloimmunized pregnant women: Report of two cases

    Raj Nath Makroo; Anita Kaul; Aakanksha Bhatia; Soma Agrawal; Chanchal Singh; Prashant Karna

    2015-01-01

    Anti-G has been reported as a possible cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), either independently or in association with anti-D, anti-C or both. The antibody mimics the pattern of anti-C and anti-D reactivity in the identification panel and is often present along with either or both of these antibodies. The differentiation of anti-D, -C and-G in routine pretransfusion workup is particularly essential in antenatal cases. We report two antenatal cases where anti-G was iden...

  9. Anti-G antibody in alloimmunized pregnant women: Report of two cases

    Raj Nath Makroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-G has been reported as a possible cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN, either independently or in association with anti-D, anti-C or both. The antibody mimics the pattern of anti-C and anti-D reactivity in the identification panel and is often present along with either or both of these antibodies. The differentiation of anti-D, -C and-G in routine pretransfusion workup is particularly essential in antenatal cases. We report two antenatal cases where anti-G was identified on advanced immunohematological workup, in addition to other alloantibodies.

  10. Gestión online tienda de antigüedades Cambalache

    Cuesta Novo, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    El proyecto ha consistido en el desarrollo de una aplicación online y para la gestión de una tienda de antigüedades. Se podrá crear y mantener actualizado el catálogo de productos, las compras a proveedores y las ventas realizadas.

  11. Rotavirus en animales asintomáticos: Detección y clasificación antigénica Rotavirus in asymptomatic animals: Detection and antigenic classification

    G Polanco

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El rotavirus (RV del grupo A, se asocia con gastroenteritis en mamíferos y aves, las cepas que más frecuentemente se han identificado en animales enfermos pertenecen a los serotipos G1- 3. El conocimiento de la epidemiología del RV entre los animales asintomáticos es muy limitado. El objetivo fue determinar la frecuencia y clasificación antigénica de los RV aislados de animales asintomáticos que viven en el interior y exterior de las viviendas. Por lo que se estudiaron 500 viviendas, en las cuales se colectaron 3773 muestras de materia fecal de diferentes especies de animales. Se analizaron utilizando el método de ELISA específico para RV del grupo A. La clasificación antigénica de los RV se realizó con monoclonales de subgrupo y serotipos G y P. En 20 viviendas (4% se encontró algún animal infectado con RV. Se detectaron 8 diferentes combinaciones antigénicas serotipo-subgrupo. En cuanto al subgrupo el 75% fueron SG no I/no II. Se detectaron los cuatro serotipos G más comunes G1-4, predominado el G3 en el 50% de las muestras. La presencia de cepas de RV con características antigénicas frecuentemente reportadas en humanos, sugieren que los animales domésticos asintomáticos, podrían actuar como reservorios de la infección por RV, manteniendo la circulación de este virus entre los brotes anuales en nuestro medio.Rotavirus (RV group A is associated with gastroenteritis in mammals and birds. The most frequently identified strains in sick animals belong to the serotypes G1-G3. Knowledge of the epidemiology of RV among asymptomatic animals is very limited. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and antigenic classification of RV strains isolated from asymptomatic animals that live both inside and outside homes. Five hundred houses were studied, of which 3773 faecal samples from different species of animals were collected. They were analyzed using the ELISA method specific for RV group A. Antigenic

  12. Balanzas y romanas de bronce en los mercadillos de antigüedades de Sevilla

    Fernández Gómez, Fernando

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available We present here several examples of Roman balances and steel-yards, some of them found in the antiquities market of Sevilla, and others conserved in its Archaeological Museum. Their structure and the variations of their scales are analized. The study is completed with a selection of weights from the same source.

    Se presentan diversos ejemplares de balanzas y romanas de bronce, localizados unos en los mercados de antigüedades de Sevilla y conservados otros en su Museo Arqueológico, analizándose su estructura y las variaciones que presentan sus barras graduadas. Se completa el estudio con una selección de pesas y contrapesos de la misma procedencia.

  13. Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa de Fabricio: Relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: antigenic interrelationships between

    J Noda; J ULLOA; C L Perera; G Jara; Cuello, S.; E. Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    La Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa (EIB) sigue afectando la industria avícola por la aparición de variantes patogénicas y antigénicas del virus, originadas en la permanente evolución del virus producto de la presión inmunológica por el uso intensivo de vacunas. La caracterización antigénica de los virus de campo resulta esencial para la aplicación de vacunas más adecuadas en el control de la enfermedad. En este trabajo se determinaron las relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chileno...

  14. Antigüedades mexicanas: memoria e intertextualidad en la poesía de José Emilio Pacheco

    Valeria Añón

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the various forms in which José Emilio Pacheco s collection of poems Antigüedades mexicanas interrogates the past and proposes the construction of a memory based on different moments of the history of Mexico which are approached from an ironic critical perspective. Such Mexican antiques are also ways of rewriting the American archive, a gesture that founds the relationship with the poetic word. Thus, they build a poetics which interweaves time, memory and literature as a...

  15. "Venationes" y juegos de toros en la Antigüedad

    J. M. BLÁZQUEZ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los juegos romanos en los anfiteatros en los que participaban toros han sido la causa según varios autores antiguos y modernos de las actuales corridas de toros españolas. Así piensan Mariana, Huizinga, Lafaye entre otros varios. En su reciente estudio sobre los "ritos y juegos del toro" A. Alvarez de Miranda echa de menos en los diferentes intentos de conocer el origen de las corridas españolas, la presencia del Arqueólogo y del Historiador de la Historia Antigua; la lectura de las páginas de este apasionante libro nos ha sugerido recoger algunos de los documentos más significativos, ordenados por temas, de escenas de uenatio y de juego de la Antigüedad, en las que participan toros; algunas creemos se encuentran inéditas, con el fin de que las personas que se plantean el origen de las corridas españolas conozcan perfectamente este tipo de juegos. Por otra parte, falta un estudio monográfico de este género. El documento más importante que da una idea exacta del contenido y carácter de una uenatio en los anfiteatros romanos, en la que intervienen toros, es el mosaico del Bajo Imperio, hoy conservado en la Galería Borghese, que decoraba el peristilo excavado en Tenuta di Torre Nuova en el año 1834, formaba parte de un conjunto de cinco piezas, en dos de las cuales el tema de la composición eran los combates de gladiadores, en las tres restantes una uenationes en el anfiteatro.

  16. La compleja conceptualización del paganismo en la Antigüedad Tardía

    Díaz Duckwen, María Luján

    2015-01-01

    El espacio historiográfico Antigüedad Tardía ha permitido desde hace unas décadas adentrarnos en una serie de problemáticas complejas relacionadas con el cristianismo, el paganismo y sus enlazamientos. Asimismo, los temas de la historia social del lenguaje han cobrado conciencia del poder del lenguaje y su relación con otras formas del poder. Nuestro trabajo intenta delinear algunos aspectos relevantes que surgen de la lectura de fuentes africanas e hispanas acerca de la religión pagana. La o...

  17. Depuración de aguas residuales mediante humedales artificiales en Antigüedad de Cerrato

    Conde Cid, Diego

    2014-01-01

    En el presente documento se detalla el dimensionado de una estación depuradora de aguas residuales, mediante un tratamiento blando, para el municipio de Antigüedad de Cerrato, en la provincia de Palencia, con el objetivo de conseguir un vertido de agua a cauce acorde a las exigencias legislativas actuales. La línea de tratamiento consistirá en tres fases diferenciadas, las cuales serán: un pretratamiento, basado en un desbaste y un desarenado, un tratamiento primario, llevado a cabo median...

  18. Algunos Aspectos del Trasquileo en la Antigüedad: A Propósito de unas Tijeras del Castro de Montesclaros

    Carmen ALFARO GINER

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se estudian unas tijeras halladas recientemente en Vilano (La Coruña, y ello sirve de motivo para analizar las técnicas de esquileo usadas en la antigüedad. Estas tijeras se componen de dos hojas que se articulan por medio de un pivote, y se encuentran en buen estado de conservación. Con el hallazgo de estas tijeras de 27 cms. de longitud se incrementa el reducido número de piezas similares descubiertas en otros lugares del ámbito mediterráneo. De entre ellas, estas que aquí tratamos son las más largas de las encontradas hasta ahora en España, según la propia experiencia del autor. Debido a las proporciones de las tijeras en cuestión, se las puede considerar tijeras de esquileo. Sería arriesgado dar una cronología precisa, pero parece prudente atribuirles una fecha que no sería anterior al siglo II de nuestra era.ABSTRACT: In this article, we have tried to study a recently found pair of iron shears in one piece in relationship with the shearing techniques known in ancient times. They are made of two blades hinged with a simple spring (Figs. 1-3, and are fairly well preserved. These 27 cm. long shears are to be added to the quite small number found so far in the Mediterranean area. There are very few of this size and to our knowledge these are the largest in Spain. It is due to their size that we have identified them as sheep-shears instead of as a normal pair of scissors. Since they were not found in a regular excavation they are very difficult to date, although some pottery shreds found together with these shears cannot be dated before the second century A. D.

  19. Subclonación de los principales epítopes antigénicos de la proteína recombinante P27 de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Juan Mcewen

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidiodomicosis (PCM es una micosis sistémica frecuente en Latino América, su diagnóstico se realiza mediante la visualización microscópica del hongo, su aislamiento en cultivos y pruebas serológicas que detectan la presencia de anticuerpos, utilizando extractos crudos del hongo (1. La P27 es una de las principales proteínas antigénicas del P. Brasiliensis; por lo tanto,
    la subclonación del gen en fragmentos permitiría determinar cuáles son los epítopes más antigénicos, que podrían ser usados en una prueba diagnóstica específica y sensible.

  20. La distinta naturaleza del día y la noche en la antigüedad, y sus divisiones en horas

    Daniel Gil Martínez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo intento explicar las diferencias religiosas entre el día y la noche, ya que los hombres de la Antigüedad nunca comprendieron que ambas conformaran una unidad. Estudio, por tanto, las características que tuvieron el día y la noche, en especial las de esta última, en algunas de las culturas más representativas de la Antigüedad –sumeria, babilónica, egipcia, hebrea, griega, romana y celta–. Así, podemos observar que básicamente todas ellas consideran el día como un momento de vida, mientras que la noche, a menudo, es entendida como muerte y maldad. Con todo ello, podemos comprender por qué el día no fue dividido en veinticuatro horas, sino en doce diurnas y doce nocturnas.

  1. Biossensor para deteção do antigénio específico da próstata

    Oliveira, Nélia Maria Pinto de

    2011-01-01

    O antigénio específico da próstata (PSA) é um valioso biomarcador tumoral sendo útil no rastreio, diagnóstico, estadiamento e monitorização do carcinoma da próstata. Para a determinação deste antigénio, os biossensores surgem como uma técnica muito atrativa devido à sua simplicidade, portabilidade, rápida e sensível análise em tempo real quando comparados com as técnicas convencionais dos equipamentos automatizados. Neste estudo, foi desenvolvido um imunossensor eletroquímico para a deteção d...

  2. Variabilidad y antigüedad de linajes holándricos en poblaciones jujeñas

    Martínez Marignac, Verónica Lucrecia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de sistemas polimórficos del cromosoma Y ha permitido asignar el origen geográfico de ciertas mutaciones de punto tal como la sustitución T en el locus DYS199, que sólo se ha encontrado en poblaciones americanas y esquimales. Estos sistemas polimórficos son suficientemente variables para identificar linajes relacionados por ancestros comunes recientes. Se estudiaron 49 varones de cuatro localidades de Jujuy: Humahuaca (18, Susques (19, Rinconada (6 y Cochinoca (6. Se analizó el locus DYS199, y en los individuos DYS199T se caracterizaron siete microsatélites. Los linajes DYS199T estuvieron representados en el 64.3%, 66.7%, 66.7% y 94.7% de los individuos de Humahuaca, Rinconada, Cochinoca y Susques respectivamente. De los 36 linajes DYS199T analizados se distinguieron 29 haplotipos diferentes y se observó gran representación de linajes caracterizados por el alelo 14 del locus DYS393. La frecuencia de estos linajes se mostró significativamente diferente entre las muestras de Jujuy y las muestras de referencia (c 2 5GL=56,05; p<0,001. La metodología aplicada ha mostrado su utilidad en: a el análisis de la microdiferenciación regional a partir de la identificación de un grupo de linajes que parecen provenir de un ancestro común y que están prácticamente ausentes en otras poblaciones aborígenes y b la determinación de una antigüedad de 19518 años (8437-50301 para los linajes portadores del alelo 14 en el locus DYS 393.

  3. Modelización de la antigüedad de las citas en la literatura científica con datos censurados a la derecha

    Basulto Santos, Jesús

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore the application of Weibull model in age distribution of citations in scientific articles references, when this age is censored at the right side. The Weibull model has been applied to twelve journals in the field of applied economy, where the basic source of information comes from ISI. The censored age is due to the fact that the citations of 10 or more years appear accumulated in the ISI database. After the model has been fitted, we have built a two-dimensional analysis combining the impact factor, that picks up the short term citations, with the percentile 90, that measures the durability or validity period of the scientific articles.

    Exploramos la aplicación del modelo Weibull a la antigüedad de las citas en los artículos científicos, cuando dicha antigüedad está censurada a la derecha. Se ha aplicado el modelo Weibull a doce revistas del ámbito de economía aplicada, usando la información proveniente del ISI. La censura es debida a que las citas de 10 o más años de antigüedad aparecen agregadas en la base de datos del ISI. Una vez ajustado el modelo, hemos realizado un análisis bidimensional combinando el factor de impacto, que recoge las citas a corto plazo, con el percentil 90, que mide la durabilidad o periodo de vigencia de los artículos científicos.

  4. En busca del hombre antediluviano: los inicios del debate sobre la antigüedad del hombre y la existencia de restos fósiles humanos

    Pelayo López, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Hasta la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, no se alcanzó un amplio consenso en la comunidad científica en torno la gran antigüedad del hombre sobre la Tierra y en relación con la evidencia de los hallazgos pertenecientes a restos fósiles humanos. Sin embargo, los antecedentes a estas cuestiones pueden remontarse a los comienzos del siglo XVIII. Fue durante las primeras décadas de esta centuria cuando se planteó que las piedras denominadas ceraunias eran instrumentos líticos tallados por el hombre....

  5. El tratado de Domingo de Andrade Excelencias, antigüedad y nobleza de la arquitectura (1695 y la tratadística de su tiempo

    Fernández Gasalla, Leopoldo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Domingo de Andrade, chief architect of Santiago de Compostela’s Cathedral between 1677 and 1710, was de foremost artistical personality of his generation in Galicia. He also became a new kind of artist, capable of combining the practise of his art in the most brilliant way with the elaboration of theoretical approaches to it. This paper analyzes the origin of his treatise “Excelencias, Antigüedad y Nobleza de la Arquitectura” conceptual structure, as well as its relations with the previous and contemporary apologetical literature.El arquitecto Domingo de Andrade, maestro de obras de la catedral de Santiago, además de actuar como principal figura de su generación en Galicia, encarnó un nuevo tipo de artista capaz conjugar la práctica más brillante de su disciplina con la elaboración de planteamientos teóricos. Esa nueva dimensión abría las puertas del mundo de las Artes Liberales, para él y sus colegas más distinguidos. El presente artículo analiza el origen de la estructura conceptual del tratado Excelencias, Antigüedad y Nobleza de la Arquitectura, así como sus vínculos con la literatura apologética precedente y contemporánea.

  6. Protection Effects of a New Combined Anti-G Measure%新型综合抗荷措施的防护效果研究

    金朝; 李立华; 徐艳; 耿喜臣; 张立藩; 张立辉; 李宝辉; 李茜; 王红; 颜桂定; 李毅峰

    2006-01-01

    目的 研究以新型囊式抗荷系统、无胸部代偿的抗荷加压呼吸及PHP动作组成的新型综合抗荷措施防护效果;探讨采用该措施进行防护时伴有的疲劳、疼痛等问题. 方法 6名被试者在载人离心机上进行了5组+Gz暴露试验,分别为:1)基础+Gz耐力试验 (relaxed tolerance):测定被试者不使用抗荷装备,不做抗荷动作时的+Gz耐力.2)FLH-x联合救生服配KT-x抗荷调压器试验(FLH-x+KT-x):测定被试者穿FLH-x联合救生服配KT-x抗荷调压器时的+Gz耐力.3)FLH-x+KT-x+PBG试验(PBG):测定被试者穿FLH-x联合救生服配KT-x抗荷调压器,戴TK-x保护头盔、YM-x加压供氧面罩配YTQ-x氧气调节器进行抗荷加压呼吸时的+Gz耐力.4)6.5 G持续45 s试验(6.5 G 45 s):被试者使用与第3组试验相同的抗荷装备,进行+6.5 Gz持续45 s的暴露.5)9.0 G持续15 s试验(9.0 G 15 s):被试者使用与第3组试验相同的抗荷装备,做PHP动作,进行+9.0 Gz持续15 s的暴露.在每次试验结束后用主观量表记录被试者疲劳及疼痛的程度.结果 试验中没有发生G-LOC (G-induced lose of consciousness).FLH-x联合救生服配KT-x抗荷调压器的抗荷效果为2.5 G;PBG的抗荷效果为1.67 G;被试者均完成了6.5 G持续45 s及9.0 G持续15 s试验.试验中被试者的颈、腰、臂及手部在+Gz暴露时均出现过疼痛.结论 新型综合抗荷措施可以满足现代高性能战斗机的高G防护需要;该措施还应在高G导致的疼痛及颈部损伤的防护方面加以改进.%Objective To observe the protection effects of a new combined anti-G measure, which is composed of new bladder anti-G system, unassisted positive pressure breathing for G (PBG) and PHP maneuver. The problem of fatigue and pain when using this measure is also discussed. Method Each of the six fully qualified centrifuge subjects experienced 5 groups of centrifuge runs:1) relaxed +Gz tolerance without anti-G equipments and PHP maneuver;2) +Gz tolerance

  7. Francisco Luis Laporta y su visión de la agricultura durante la Antigüedad en España: "Historia de la agricultura española" (1798)

    Hidalgo Escribano, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo realizamos un recorrido por la trayectoria de Francisco Luis Laporta y analizamos la visión que tenía de la agricultura durante la Antigüedad en España a través de su libro "Historia de la agricultura española" (1798).

  8. Uma Odisséia pelos documentos: leituras do livro “Antigüidade Clássica: a história e a cultura a partir dos documentos”/An Odyssey by the documents: readings of the book Antigüidade Clássica: a história e a cultura a partir dos documentos

    Renilson Rosa Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende realizar uma reflexão sobre o livro Antigüidade Clássica: A histó-ria e a cultura a partir dos documentos, de Pedro Paulo Abreu Funari, professor de História Antiga e Arqueologia Histórica (Universidade Estadual de Campinas a luz de suas proposições metodológicas e temáticas para o ensino de História Antiga nas universidades e escolas de edu-cação básica no Brasil. This article intends to realize an analyze about Antigüidade Clássica: A história e a cultura a partir dos documentos, published by Pedro Paulo Abreu Funari, professor of Antique History and Historical Archaeology (Campinas State University, giving special attention to his meth-odological and theoretical proposals for the studying and teaching of Antique History in Brazil-ian universities and secondary schools.

  9. Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa de Fabricio: Relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: antigenic interrelationships between

    J Noda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa (EIB sigue afectando la industria avícola por la aparición de variantes patogénicas y antigénicas del virus, originadas en la permanente evolución del virus producto de la presión inmunológica por el uso intensivo de vacunas. La caracterización antigénica de los virus de campo resulta esencial para la aplicación de vacunas más adecuadas en el control de la enfermedad. En este trabajo se determinaron las relaciones antigénicas de aislados cubanos y chilenos, obtenidos de poblaciones de pollos vacunados con el virus de la EIB. Los aislados virales se adaptaron a cultivos celulares y se obtuvieron antisueros monoespecíficos de cada uno de ellos y de una cepa de referencia. Las relaciones se establecieron por virusneu-tralización cruzada utilizando nueve aislados cubanos (BD, BL, 35/95, 29/96, 118/96, BF2, BF8, BF9 y 70/98, tres chilenos (G1, G2 y G4 y una cepa de referencia del serotipo 1 (Lukert. Los aislados cubanos y chilenos se adaptaron eficientemente a cultivos de fibroblastos de embrión de pollo (con excepción de BF3 y G3. Además, los aislados cubanos se adaptaron a células VERO, presentando mayores títulos infectivos en fibroblastos de embrión de pollo que en esta línea celular. Los resultados de la seroneutralización cruzada mostraron entre los aislados cubanos una relación mayor a un 80% y entre éstos y la cepa de referencia mayor de un 70%, de igual modo con los aislados chilenos G1 y G4 (mayor de 77%. El aislado G2 presentó diferencias antigénicas consideradas menores con los aislados cubanos BL, 35/95 y 29/96 (­ 69%. Ninguno de los aislados mostró relaciones antigénicas inferiores al 30% con la cepa de referencia del serotipo 1, por lo tanto no corresponden a cepas variantesInfectious Bursal Disease (IBD is still affecting the poultry industry through the appearance of pathogenic and antigenic variations of the virus. This is due to its permanent evolution as a

  10. 1,3,5-trinitroso- and 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine-2H6

    Perdeuteration of 1,3,5-trinitrosohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine was brought about by treatment with potassium alkoxide in CH3O2H(99.5%). The important high energy compound, 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), was obtained in its perdeuterated modification (>99% 2H) by oxidation of the perdeuterated trinitrosamine with a mixture of nitric acid (100%) and hydrogen peroxide (30%). (author)

  11. 5 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.3 Section 1.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.3 Definitions. As used in the rules in this subchapter: (a) Competitive service shall have the...

  12. 50 CFR 1.3 - Service.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service. 1.3 Section 1.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.3 Service. Service means the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior....

  13. El gobierno del caballo montado en la antigüedad clásica con especial referencia al caso de Iberia. Bocados, espuelas y la cuestión de la silla de montar, estribos y herraduras

    Quesada Sanz, Fernando

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the different elements of the horse’s tack in Antiquity: bits, spurs, saddle, stirrups and the problem of horseshoes, with special reference to the case of Iberia.

    Se analizan los elementos de control del caballo montado en la Antigüedad: bocados, espuelas, silla y estribos, y se hace referencia al problema de las herraduras, todo ello con especial referencia al caso de la antigua Iberia.

  14. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    McCormick, N G; Cornell, J H; Kaplan, A M

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a p...

  15. La tensión entre estática y dinámica desde la Antigüedad hasta el Renacimiento

    Daniel Silvio Vaccaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Que la estática es un capítulo más de la física es aceptado con total naturalidad desde que Newton estableció las bases de la mecánica clásica. Pero estas dos disciplinas, estática y dinámica, tienen historias diferentes, con encuentros y desencuentros, desde la Antigüedad hasta el Renacimiento. En este artículo, se describe parte de este proceso en relación a algunos aspectos de la mecánica, en particular de la estática. Cómo esta disciplina quedó establecida, ya en la Antigüedad, en forma rigurosa y matemática, mientras que la dinámica se enfrentó con dificultades conceptuales y empíricas que comenzaron a esclarecerse recién en el Renacimiento. Las leyes de la estática fueron establecidas inicialmente por Arquímedes utilizando un sistema axiomático riguroso. En el presente artículo, se muestra cómo la tradición arquimediana resurgió con gran impulso durante el renacimiento mientras existía la tradición rival de aquellos que estaban dispuestos a sacrificar hasta cierto punto el rigor matemático, recurriendo a principios dinámicos de fundamentación dudosa pero de eficacia heurística. Galileo fue un exponente claro de la nueva cultura renacentista y no renunció a conectar las tradiciones estática y dinámica, pero a la vez consideraba posible fundamentar rigurosa y geométricamente el estudio del movimiento, y fue quien logró resolver la crisis entre estática y dinámica, conduciendo la matemática renacentista a una realización exitosa y contribuyendo al nacimiento de una nueva física.Since Newton established the bases of classical mechanics, it has been readily accepted that statics is a chapter of physics. However, from Antiquity to the Renaissance the two disciplines, statics and dynamics, had different histories that only sometimes interacted with one another. In this article, part of this process is described whereby statics was established during Antiquity in rigorous and mathematical form, whereas

  16. HANSF 1.3.2 User's Manual

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. This manual reflects the HANSF version 1.3.2, a revised version of 1.3.1. HANSF 1.3.2 was written to correct minor errors and to allow modeling of condensate flow on the MCO inner surface. HANSF 1.3.2 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under Lahey TI or digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments

  17. HANSF 1.3 user's manual

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. It may be used for all phases of spent fuel disposition including cold vacuum drying, transportation, and storage. This manual reflects HANSF version 1.3, a revised version of version 1.2a. HANSF 1.3 was written to add new models for axial nodalization, add new features for ease of usage, and correct errors. HANSF 1.3 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under a DOS-type operating system. HANSF 1.3 is known to compile under Lahey TI and Digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments

  18. Synthesis of Some New Derivatives of 1,3-Dichloro-1,1,3,3-tetraphenyldisilazane

    2001-01-01

    The reactive properties of 1,3-dichloro-1,1,3,3-tetraphenyldisilazane (DCTPS) with water, methanol, phenylamine and lithium salt of hexamethylcyclotrisilazane (D3NLi) were investigated, and four new derivatives were obtained.

  19. On D=2 (1/3,1/3) supersymmetric theories 2

    Denoting by D=2 (1/3,1/3) superalgebra; the off critical symmetry of the Φ5/7,5/7 perturbation of the C=6/7 conformal theory, we build a new superspace solution of the (1/3,1/3)- subalgebra generated by spin ±1/3 charge operators extending the usual (1/2,1/2) supersymmetry generated by spin ±1/2 charges. This solution is based on the use of two Grassmann variables instead of one parafermionic variable θ±1/3 satisfying the cubic nilpotency condition (θ±1/3)3=0. Known results on the C=6/7 tricritical Potts model are recovered as special features. A relation with N=2 Landau-Ginzburg models is also discussed. (author). 17 refs, 1 tab

  20. Bis(1,3-dithiole) Compounds

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Engler, E. M.; Green, D. C.; Patel, V. V.

    1977-01-01

    There is described the preparation of bis-1,3-dithiole compounds (I) which are key synthetic precursors for the preparation of new polymeric metal bis(dithiolene) (i.e., II) and tetrathiafulvalene compounds (i.e., III): (Image Omitted)...

  1. 17 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    2010-04-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1.3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... terms have the same meaning and refer to a customer trading in any commodity named in the definition of..., That an account owned by any shareholder or member of a cooperative association of producers,...

  2. Molecular characterization of the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) operon of Clostridium butyricum

    Raynaud, Céline; Sarçabal, Patricia; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle; Croux, Christian; Soucaille, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    The genes encoding the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) operon of Clostridium butyricum VPI1718 were characterized from a molecular and a biochemical point of view. This operon is composed of three genes, dhaB1, dhaB2, and dhaT. When grown in a vitamin B12-free mineral medium with glycerol as carbon source, Escherichia coli expressing dhaB1, dhaB2, and dhaT produces 1,3-PD and high glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-PD dehydrogenase activities. dhaB1 and dhaB2 encode, respectively, a new type of glycerol d...

  3. 2-Nitro-1,3-dinitrooxypropane

    Damon A. Parrish

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C3H5N3O8, was synthesized by reacting 2-nitropropane-1,3-diol with acetyl nitrate. The molecule is bisected by a crystallograpic mirror plane. In the crystal, the molecules pack in a ribbon-like fashion along the c axis, with the central nitro groups pointing in the same direction. C—H...O contacts apparently provide some additional packing stabilization.

  4. Industrial emissions of 1,3-butadiene.

    Mullins, J A

    1990-01-01

    Sources of industrial emissions of 1,3-butadiene are discussed both by process (production, consumers) and type (equipment leaks, point sources). Quantification of the emissions are presented, as reported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1986. The reported emissions attributed to equipment leaks (also known as fugitive emissions) range from about 50 to 95% of the total, depending on the specific production process used. The methods by which these emissions were estimated are dis...

  5. 1-3 piezocomposite SmartPanels

    Fiore, Daniel; Gentilman, Richard L.; Pham-Nguyen, Hong; Serwatka, William J.; McGuire, Patrick T.; Near, Craig D.; Bowen, Leslie J.

    1997-05-01

    Piezocomposite SmartPanelsTM, consisting of 1-3 actuators and pressure sensors and net-shape-molded PZT accelerometers in a large area low profile panel, have been fabricated at Materials Systems Inc. and evaluated at the Naval Research Laboratory. Single layer and two-layer 100 X 100 mm SmartPanels have been tested for sensor sensitivities, actuator authority, surface displacement uniformity, and sensor-actuator coupling. Multilayer GRP circuits boards are used both as stiff faceplates and to provide electrical connections and ground planes. The SmartPanel technology has recently been scaled up to 250 X 250 mm devices. SmartPanels draw upon PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic injection molding technology, which is used to produce cost-effective and robust 1-3 piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composite materials. The 1-3 materials are used extensively for SonoPanelTM transducers in a number of sensor and actuator applications. SonoPanels have been qualified for US Navy applications, based on successful completion of pressure and shock tests, and are currently being scaled up from 250 X 250 mm to 750 X 750 mm panels. Several applications for SmartPanels and SonoPanels are described, including conformable transducers, multielement arrays, pressure sensors, and velocity sensors.

  6. (2-Methoxy-1,3-phenylenediboronic acid

    Janusz Serwatowski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure of the title compound, 2-CH3O—C6H3-1,3-[B(OH2]2 or C7H10B2O5, features two intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds of different strengths. One of the boronic acid groups is almost coplanar with the aromatic ring, whereas the second is significantly twisted. Molecules are linked by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating infinite chains cross-linked to form a two-dimensional sheet structure aligned parallel to the (01overline{1} plane.

  7. Molecular characterization of the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) operon of Clostridium butyricum

    Raynaud, Céline; Sarçabal, Patricia; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle; Croux, Christian; Soucaille, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    The genes encoding the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) operon of Clostridium butyricum VPI1718 were characterized from a molecular and a biochemical point of view. This operon is composed of three genes, dhaB1, dhaB2, and dhaT. When grown in a vitamin B12-free mineral medium with glycerol as carbon source, Escherichia coli expressing dhaB1, dhaB2, and dhaT produces 1,3-PD and high glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-PD dehydrogenase activities. dhaB1 and dhaB2 encode, respectively, a new type of glycerol dehydratase and its activator protein. The deduced proteins DhaB1 and DhaB2, with calculated molecular masses of 88,074 and 34,149 Da, respectively, showed no homology with the known glycerol dehydratases that are all B12 dependent but significant similarity with the pyruvate formate lyases and pyruvate formate lyases activating enzymes and their homologues. The 1,158-bp dhaT gene codes for a 1,3-PD dehydrogenase with a calculated molecular mass of 41,558 Da, revealing a high level of identity with other DhaT proteins from natural 1,3-PD producers. The expression of the 1,3-PD operon in C. butyricum is regulated at the transcriptional level, and this regulation seems to involve a two-component signal transduction system DhaAS/DhaA, which may have a similar function to DhaR, a transcriptional regulator found in other natural 1,3-PD producers. The discovery of a glycerol dehydratase, coenzyme B12 independent, should significantly influence the development of an economical vitamin B12-free biological process for the production of 1,3-PD from renewable resources. PMID:12704244

  8. Afinidades antigênicas de amostras de campo do vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas com a amostra Massachusetts M41 Antigenic affinities of infectious bronchitis virus field isolates to Massachusetts M41 strain

    M.B. Souza

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as afinidades antigênicas entre 14 amostras de vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (VBIG isoladas de casos clínicos ocorridos entre 1972 e 1989 no Estado de Minas Gerais, sua reatividade frente a dois anticorpos monoclonais (AcMs específicos contra a glicoproteína S1 do sorotipo Massachusetts de VBIG foi examinada em ELISA. As 14 amostras de campo estudadas foram agrupadas, de acordo com o relacionamento antigênico aos AcMs, em relacionadas (três amostras e não relacionadas (onze amostras à amostra M41 do sorotipo Massachusetts. As amostras de campo não reconhecidas, considerando a alta especificidade dos AcMs à amostra M41, compõem uma diversidade que pode variar de integrantes do sorotipo Massachusetts de origem vacinal a sorotipos heterólogos. Amostras com afinidade antigênica à M41 (208-1972, PM1-1987 e PM2-1987 foram detectadas, o que configura a preservação da amostra no campo, apesar da alta variabilidade da glicoproteína S1, já que foram isoladas de surtos de doença natural nas regiões de avicultura de Minas Gerais. A detecção de antígenos de alta variabilidade que caracterizam a amostra M41, apesar das pressões da imunidade dos plantéis e da mutabilidade, pode indicar que os antígenos de alta afinidade aos receptores celulares (best fit que atingiram alto estágio evolutivo podem estar sendo preservados.Aiming to the evaluation of antigenic relationships among isolates of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV through their reactivity against Massachusetts M41 S1 glycopolypeptide specific monoclonal antibodies (Mab an ELISA was developed. Fourteen IBV isolates obtained from field cases of disease, reported from 1972 to 1989 in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The IBV isolates could be grouped into related or not to M41, based on the reactivity to M41 S1 specific Mabs. The unrecognized field isolates conform a diversity of representatives, which may range from Massachusetts

  9. The reactions of the hydroxymethyl radical with 1,3-dimethyluracil and 1,3-dimethylthymine

    Hydroxymethyl radicals .(period on line)CH2OH, generated by the radiolysis of methanol (0.5 mol dm-3) in N2O-saturated aqueous solutions, were reacted with 1,3-dimethyluracil or 1,3-dimethylthymine (10-3 mol dm-3). The products were identified and their G values determined. It has been concluded that in 1,3-dimethyluracil .(period on line)CH2OH attack occurs only at C(6) while in 1,3-dimethylthymine there is partitioning between addition (two-thirds) and H-abstraction from the C(5)-methyl group (one-third). A rate constant for CH2OH addition to 1,3-dimethyluracil of about 104 dm3 mol-1 s-1 is estimated. Complexities that may arise in the radiolysis of pyrimidines such as 1,3-dimethylthymine, apparently as a consequence of the formation of 5-alkylidenepyrimidines, are discussed. A value of 0.15 has been estimated for the disproportionation/combination ratio for the hydroxymethyl radical self-termination reaction. (author)

  10. 1-3-7 minute intravenous urography

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Yoon, Sei Chul; Lee, Myung Hee [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Intravenous urography (IVU) as it is used widely today was probably started in early 1950's after the introduction of triiodobenzoic acid compounds as contrast media. This long cherished traditional method consists of taking radiograms at 5, 15 and 25 minutes after the injection of contrast medium. There are a few modifications of this standard urographic examination such as five minute IVU (Woodruff, 1959), minute-sequence pyelogram (Maxwell et al., 1964), drip infusion pyelography (Schencker, 1964) and nephrotomography (Evans et al., 1955). The present study has been undertaken to test if the conventional standard IVU can be more rapidly performed without losing essential informational contents of urograms. In this new clinical trial, urograms were taken at the end of 1, 3 and 7 minutes instead of 5, 15 and 25 minutes after the intravenous injection of contrast medium. We injected 40 ml of meglumine diatrizoate solution within 30 seconds using an 18G iv needle. (The amount of injected contrast medium has been reduced recently to ordinary single dose of 20 ml for subjects weighing less than 8 kg). Upon viewing the 7 minute film in front of an automatic processor, the examination was terminated after obtaining an upright view unless any further radiogram was indicated. As shown in Tables and Figures, our new 1-3-7 minute method has been proven to provide us with as much essential and useful information as conventional 5-15-25 minute urography. Thus, we were able to finish one examination within 10 minutes without losing any necessary diagnostic information. In some of patients with obstructive uropathy such as stone the examination was extended as long as it was desired. Side reactions were occasional nausea, flushing and rare mild vomiting which never prevented the examination.

  11. La antigüedad como modelo: tradición clásica en Generaciones y semblanzas del humanista Fernán Pérez de Guzmán

    Caballero López, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    La historiografía grecolatina había hecho de la biografía un género cuya materia, la vida y los hechos de un personaje ejemplar, se presentaba inseparable de la forma y las prescripciones de la retórica. En los siglos del Renacimiento, avalada por el prestigio de la antigüedad clásica y de su tradición, la biografía experimenta un gran impulso por su doble carácter moralizante y propagandístico en un contexto histórico en el que aristócratas y monarcas luchan con las armas y con las letras po...

  12. Perfil protéico e reconhecimento antigênico de extratos de larvas infectantes (L3) de Wuchereria bancrofti Proteic profile and antigenic recognition of extracts from Wuchereria bancrofti L3 infective larvae

    Janaina Miranda; Amélia Maciel; Renata Maria Costa Souza; André Freire Furtado; Elizabeth Malagueno

    2005-01-01

    A caracterização protéica dos extratos de larvas infectantes (L3) de Wuchereria bancrofti foi realizada por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida, em presença de dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE) e o reconhecimento antigênico das proteínas por Western-blot. O maior número de bandas protéicas reconhecidas foi evidenciado nos extratos AgSE (105, 100, 76, 55, 49, 39 e 32 kDa) e AgS (100, 76, 55, e 49 kDa) na presença de soros de indivíduos endêmicos normais. As bandas de 49 e 55 kDa foram reco...

  13. Avaliação de antígenos do Trypanosoma Cruzi para a reação de hem aglutinação indireta: I. diferentes extratos antigênicos

    Ricardo Wagner de Almeida Vítor; Egler Chiari

    1987-01-01

    Alguns procedimentos descritos na literatura (ultrasom, água destilada, NaOH, TRITON x 100 e congelamento-descongelamenao) foram avaliados determinando o melhor extrato antigênico para a reação de hemaglutinação indireta (RHI) no diagnóstico sorológico da doença de Chagas. Para isso, foram ensaiados 30 soros de indivíduos chagásicos e 30 soros de indivíduos não chagásicos. A reação de imuno-fluorescência indireta foi considerada como reação de referência no cálculo dos indices de co-positivid...

  14. Hysteretic behavior of proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3.

    Marcelo Y Icimoto

    Full Text Available The proprotein convertases (PCs are calcium-dependent proteases responsible for processing precursor proteins into their active forms in eukariotes. The PC1/3 is a pivotal enzyme of this family that participates in the proteolytic maturation of prohormones and neuropeptides inside the regulated secretory pathway. In this paper we demonstrate that mouse proprotein convertase 1/3 (mPC1/3 has a lag phase of activation by substrates that can be interpreted as a hysteretic behavior of the enzyme for their hydrolysis. This is an unprecedented observation in peptidases, but is frequent in regulatory enzymes with physiological relevance. The lag phase of mPC1/3 is dependent on substrate, calcium concentration and pH. This hysteretic behavior may have implications in the physiological processes in which PC1/3 participates and could be considered an additional control step in the peptide hormone maturation processes as for instance in the transformation of proinsulin to insulin.

  15. Recent development of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as cathode material of lithium ion battery.

    Zhu, Ji-Ping; Xu, Quan-Bao; Yang, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Jun-Jie; Yang, Guang

    2011-12-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, owing to its excellent electrochemical properties, has been used as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, especially for hybrid electric vehicles. It has many merits such as high capacity, long cycle life, low cost and little harm to environment. Therefore, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 has become a great concern by scholars on energy and material fields. However, the electronic conductivity and the charge-discharge capacity at high current should be enhanced before any materials modifications. Here, this paper summarizes the main synthetic technologies of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 in recent years, including synthesis methods, doping, surface coating modification, and the future development trends discussed. PMID:22408910

  16. Synthesis of New 2-(1,3-Dithianylphenols and Hexakis-[p-(1,3-dithian-2-ylphenoxy]cyclotriphosphazene

    Prónayová Nadezda

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available 2-Chloro-1,3-dithiane was obtained by the chlorination of 1,3-dithiane with N-chlorosuccinimide. Reactions of 2-chloro-1,3-dithiane with various substituted phenols lead to 2-(1,3-dithianylphenols (3. Hexakis-[p-(1,3-dithian-2-ylphenoxy]cyclotriphosphazene (6 was obtained by reaction with hexachlorotriazacyclotriphosphazene (5.

  17. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine translocation in poplar trees

    Thompson, P.L. [Seattle Univ., WA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Ramer, L.A.; Schnoor, J.L. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1999-02-01

    This article evaluates the translocation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) grown in hydroponic solutions. Mass balances with [U-{sup 14}C]RDX were used to assess RDX translocation. Up to 60% of the RDX uptaken by the tree accumulated in leaf tissues. Analysis of plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with radiochemical detection indicated that RDX was not significantly transformed during exposure periods of up to 7 d. The bioaccumulation of RDX may be an important concern for phytoremediation efforts.

  18. High Voltage and High Capacity Characteristics of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode for Lithium Battery Applications

    P.Periasamy, N.Kalaiselvi, H.S.-Kim

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of synthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode via., soft chemistry based Gelatin Assisted Combustion [GAC] approach has been examined through the present study. GAC method with a calcination temperature as high as 750°C for a period of 24h. was found to be essential to prepare LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powders with good hexagonal ordering and better cycling performance. The intensity ratio of (003 and (104 bragg peaks is greater than unity, which is an indication for the absence of cation mixing. The observed CV peaks confirm the presence of Ni, Co and Mn ions in their +3 oxidation state. A maximum discharge capacity of ~180mAh/g has been exhibited by the synthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode, when charged up to 4.6V. Hence, it is demonstrated that the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode synthesized through the present study could be exploited both as a high voltage and high capacity cathode material for use in rechargeable lithium battery applications.

  19. trans-Bis(1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionato(methanoloxidovanadium(IV methanol disolvate

    Carla Pretorius

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [V(C15H11O22O(CH3OH]·2CH3OH, the VIV atom is coordinated by two 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionate ligands and an oxide ligand in an axial position. The sixth position is occupied by the O atom of a methanol group bonded trans to the oxide atom. The octahedral geometry is significantly distorted, with the VIV atom lying 0.330 (3 Å above the equatorial plane formed by the O atoms of the two β-diketonate ligands. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the coordinating methanol group in the complex and the two methanol solvent molecules lead to the formation of polymeric chains along the c-axis direction. Weak C—H...O contacts are also observed.

  20. Crystal structure of 2-(1,3-dioxoindan-2-ylisoquinoline-1,3,4-trione

    Raza Murad Ghalib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione derivative, C18H9NO5, the five-membered ring of the indane fragment adopts an envelope conformation with the nitrogen-substituted C atom being the flap. The planes of the indane benzene ring and the isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione ring make a dihedral angle of 82.06 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are linked into chains extending along the bc plane via C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions, enclosing R22(8 and R22(10 loops. The chains are further connected by π–π stacking interations, with centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.9050 (7 Å, forming layers parallel to the b axis.

  1. Thermochemistry of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine and 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The enthalpy of formation of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate was determined by combustion calorimetry. • The cohesive energy of liquid 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate was evaluated. • The crystal structure of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. • ΔfHmo (l/g) of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (tmg) were obtained by solution and Calvet calorimetry. • ΔfHmo (g) calculated by the W1-F12 procedure was in excellent agreement with the corresponding experimental value. - Abstract: Considerable efforts have recently been made to investigate how the structure of protic ionic liquids determines some of their most important properties for technological applications (e.g. low vapour pressure, conductivity). In contrast, the assessment of cohesive energies (which are also linked to those properties) based on thermodynamic results is still practically unexplored. This problem is addressed here for 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate, [Htmg][NO3], through a combination of experimental and computational chemistry results at the reference temperature of 298.15 K. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, ΔfHmo([Htmg][NO3],cr)=-(311.8±2.3)kJ·mol-1, and fusion, ΔfusHmo([Htmg][NO3])=16.2±3.8kJ·mol-1, of solid 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium nitrate (form I polymorph) were obtained by combustion and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. From these results ΔfHmo([Htmg][NO3],l)=-(295.6±4.4)kJ·mol-1 could be derived. Also determined were the standard molar enthalpies of formation, ΔfHmo(tmg, l)=7.7±2.8kJ·mol-1, and vaporisation, ΔvapHmo(tmg,l)=50.0±1.2kJ·mol-1, of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine, by reaction solution and Calvet-drop microcalorimetry, respectively, leading to ΔfHmo(tmg,g)=57.7±3.0kJ·mol-1. This result is in excellent agreement with ΔfHmo(tmg,g)=58.4±4.0kJ·mol-1, obtained from the ab initio calculation of the standard molar

  2. Synthesis of 14C-labeled hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    14C-labeled hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (2, RDX) was prepared by nitrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-tripropionyl-1,3,5-triazine (1) for bioenvironmental studies. 1 was synthesized from paraformaldehyde and propionitrile by a modified method reported earlier. (Author)

  3. Preparation of layered oxide Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 via the sol-gel process

    ZHANG Wen; LIU Hanxing; HU Chen; ZHU Xianjun; LI Yanxi

    2008-01-01

    To obtain homogenous layered oxide Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material,the sol-gel process using citric acid as a chelating agent was applied.The material Li(Co1/3,Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2 was synthesized at different calcination temperatures.XRD experiment indicated that the hyered Li(Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3)O2material could he synthesized at a lower temperature of 800℃,and the oxidation state of Co,Ni,and Mn in the cathode confirmed by XPS were +3,+2,and +4,respectively.SEM observations showed that the synthesized material could form homogenous particle morphology with the particle size of about 200nm In spite of different calcination temperatures,the charge-discharge curves of all the samples for the initial cycle were similar,and the cathode synthesized at 900℃ showed a small irreversible capacity loss of 11.24% and a high discharge capacity of 212.2 mAh.g-1 in the voltage range of 2.9-4.6 V.

  4. Perfil genotípico e antigênico de amostras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul (2000-2010

    Eloisa Bianchi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolados do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV apresentam grande diversidade genética e antigênica, o que pode dificultar o diagnóstico e a formulação de vacinas. O presente trabalho apresenta um perfil genotípico e antigênico de 20 amostras do BVDV isoladas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul entre 2000 e 2010. As amostras foram oriundas de uma variedade de condições clínicas, que incluíam doença respiratória ou gastroentérica aguda ou crônica, lesões cutâneas, abortos, animais com crescimento retardado, além de animais persistentemente infectados (PI. A maioria das amostras (19 ou 95% pertence ao biótipo não-citopático (NCP; enquanto um isolado apresentou uma mistura de vírus NCP e citopático (CP. O sequenciamento e análise filogenética de uma região de 270 nucleotídeos da região 5' não-traduzida do genoma viral permitiu identificar 9 isolados de BVDV-2 (45% e 8 isolados de BVDV-2 (40%. Três amostras não agruparam filogeneticamente com nenhum dos genótipos, sendo classificados como pestivírus atípicos. Não foi possível associar os genótipos ou subgenótipos com as condições clínicas e, tanto os BVDV-1 quanto os BVDV-2 estavam envolvidos em diferentes síndromes clínico-patológicas. Análise de reatividade com um painel de 19 anticorpos monoclonais (AcMs revelou uma variabilidade marcante na glicoproteína principal do envelope (E2 entre vírus do mesmo genótipo, e sobretudo, entre vírus de genótipos diferentes. Testes de neutralização viral (SN com anti-soro de cepas de referência de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2 frente às amostras isoladas revelaram níveis variáveis de reatividade cruzada entre vírus do mesmo genótipo, e reatividade muito baixa ou ausente entre vírus de genótipos diferentes. Esses resultados indicam uma frequência semelhante de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2 na população estudada, confirmam a marcante variabilidade antigênica e reforçam a necessidade de se incluir vírus dos dois genótipos nas

  5. Synthesis and characterization of layered Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathode materials by spray-drying method

    LIU Zhi-min; HU Guo-rong; PENG Zhong-dong; DENG Xin-rong; LIU Ye-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Spherical Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 was prepared via the homogenous precursors produced by solution spray-drying method. The precursors were sintered at different temperatures between 600 and 1 000 ℃ for 10 h. The impacts of different sintering temperatures on the structure and electrochemical performances of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 were compared by means of X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and charge/discharge test as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. The experimental results show that the spherical morphology of the spray-dried powers maintains during the subsequent heat treatment and the specific capacity increases with rising sintering temperature. When the sintering temperature rises up to 900 ℃, Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 attains a reversible capacity of 153 mA·h/g between 3.00 and 4.35 V at 0.2C rate with excellent cyclability.

  6. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  7. Oxidation reactions of 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dione

    Medha Rele; B S Patro; S Adhikari; G P Kalena; S Chattopadhyay; T Mukherjee

    2002-12-01

    The free radical scavenging properties and possible antioxidant activity of 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dione (1) are reported. Pulse radiolysis technique was employed to study the one-electron oxidation of 1 with various radicals viz. CCl3O$_{2}^{\\bullet}$, N$_{3}^{\\bullet}$ and ${}^{\\bullet}$OH in homogeneous aqueous solution. All these radicals reacted with 1 under ambient conditions at almost diffusion controlled rates producing transient species with an absorption maximum around 420 nm that decayed at first order rates. The transient absorption peak was shifted in the case of CCl3OO$^{\\bullet}$ radical reaction with 1 due to change in the polarity of the medium. Formation of a stable product with a broad absorption band starting from 400 nm and cut off at 230 nm was observed in the oxidation of 1 with ${}^{\\bullet}$OH and ${}^{\\bullet}$N3 radicals. In a biological system also, 1 showed significant inhibitory activity against Fe2+-mediated lipid peroxidation. Based on these observations, a suitable mechanism for the oxidation of 1 has been proposed.

  8. Seward, Alaska 1/3 arc-second DEM

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Seward Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  9. Guam 1/3 arc-second DEM

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Guam Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  10. Newport, Oregon 1/3 arc-second DEM

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Newport, Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  11. Southwestern Washington 1/3 arc-second DEM

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  12. Seaside, Oregon 1/3 arc-second DEM

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Seaside Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  13. San Diego, California 1/3 arc-second DEM

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second San Diego, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid...

  14. 10 CFR 1.3 - Sources of additional information.

    2010-01-01

    .../cfr/. Final opinions made in the adjudication of cases are published in “Nuclear Regulatory Commission... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sources of additional information. 1.3 Section 1.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction § 1.3...

  15. Production of α1,3-Galactosyltransferase–Deficient Pigs

    Phelps, Carol J.; Koike, Chihiro; Vaught, Todd D.; Boone, Jeremy; Wells, Kevin D.; Chen, Shu-Hung; Ball, Suyapa; Specht, Susan M.; Polejaeva, Irina A.; Monahan, Jeff A.; Jobst, Pete M.; Sharma, Sugandha B.; Lamborn, Ashley E.; Garst, Amy S.; Moore, Marilyn; Demetris, Anthony J.; Rudert, William A.; Bottino, Rita; Bertera, Suzanne; Trucco, Massimo; Starzl, Thomas E.; Dai, Yifan; Ayares, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme α1,3-galactosyltransferase (α1,3GT or GCTA1) synthesizes α1,3-galactose (α1,3Gal) epitopes (Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc-R), which are the major xenoantigens causing hyperacute rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Complete removal of α1,3Gal from pig organs is the critical step toward the success of xenotransplantation. We reported earlier the targeted disruption of one allele of the α1,3GT gene in cloned pigs. A selection procedure based on a bacterial toxin was used to select for cells in which the second allele of the gene was knocked out. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that knockout of the second allele of the α1,3GT gene was caused by a T-to-G single point mutation at the second base of exon 9, which resulted in inactivation of the α1,3GT protein. Four healthy α1,3GT double-knockout female piglets were produced by three consecutive rounds of cloning. The piglets carrying a point mutation in the α1,3GT gene hold significant value, as they would allow production of α1,3Gal-deficient pigs free of antibiotic-resistance genes and thus have the potential to make a safer product for human use. PMID:12493821

  16. Hydrogenolysis of 2-tosyloxy-1,3-propanediol into 1,3-propanediol over Raney Ni catalyst

    Zhi, Zheng; Jianli, Wang; Zhen, Lu; Min, Luo; Miao, Zhang; Lixin, Xu; Jianbing [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Biofuel, The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry-Synthesis Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)

    2013-03-15

    2-Tosyloxy-1,3-propanediol (TPD), a potential precursor for 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production, is produced by the tosylation of glycerol with the help of protecting group techniques. In this work, the hydrogenolysis of TPD into 1,3-PD over Raney Ni catalyst is discussed at different reaction parameters to optimize the reaction conditions for selective formation of 1,3-PD. The mechanisms of the hydrogenolysis of TPD and the side reactions were also confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique (author)

  17. Hydrogenolysis of 2-tosyloxy-1,3-propanediol into 1,3-propanediol over Raney Ni catalyst

    2-Tosyloxy-1,3-propanediol (TPD), a potential precursor for 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production, is produced by the tosylation of glycerol with the help of protecting group techniques. In this work, the hydrogenolysis of TPD into 1,3-PD over Raney Ni catalyst is discussed at different reaction parameters to optimize the reaction conditions for selective formation of 1,3-PD. The mechanisms of the hydrogenolysis of TPD and the side reactions were also confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique (author)

  18. Capacity improvement by deficit of transition metals in inverse spinel LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3VO4 cathodes

    Kitajou, Ayuko; Yoshida, Jun; Nakanishi, Shinji; Matsuda, Yasuaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Okajima, Toshihiro; Okada, Shigeto

    2016-01-01

    Although inverse spinel materials have attracted attention because of their unusually high voltage characteristics, their rechargeable capacities are generally less than 50 mAh g-1, as a result of the coexistence of Li and transition metal ions at 16d octahedral sites. This work attempted to improve cathode functioning by optimizing the quantities of Li and transition metal ions residing at the 16d sites of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3VO4. The rechargeable capacity of the LiNi0.28Co0.28Mn0.26V0.80O4 synthesized in the present study was found to be above 120 mAh g-1, representing the largest capacity reported to date for an inverse spinel material. The results of in-situ XANES analysis demonstrated that the charge-discharge reactions of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3VO4 corresponds to the Mn2+/Mn4+ and Co2+/Co3+ redox couples, mainly.

  19. Processing of water-based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 pastes for manufacturing lithium ion battery cathodes

    Fatih A Çetinel; Werner Bauer

    2014-12-01

    In order to meet the demand for more ecological and economic fabrication of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, water is considered as an alternative solvent for electrode paste preparation. In this study, we report on the feasibility of water-based processing of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2-based pastes for manufacturing cathode electrodes. The influence of the total solid content, the amount of conductive agent and binder materials on paste rheology and the final electrode properties was investigated. Suitable paste formulations which enable favourable paste flow behaviour, appropriate electrode properties and good electrochemical performance have been found. Results show that a substitution of the conventional organic solvent-based manufacturing route for LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes by water-based processing exhibits a promising way to realise Li-ion batteries with comparable electrochemical behaviour, while avoiding toxic processing aids and reducing overall manufacturing costs.

  20. Cell immobilization for microbial production of 1,3-propanediol.

    Gungormusler-Yilmaz, Mine; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-06-01

    Cell and enzyme immobilization are often used for industrial production of high-value products. In recent years, immobilization techniques have been applied to the production of value-added chemicals such as 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO). Biotechnological fermentation is an attractive alternative to current 1,3-PDO production methods, which are primarily thermochemical processes, as it generates high volumetric yields of 1,3-PDO, is a much less energy intensive process, and generates lower amounts of environmental organic pollutants. Although several approaches including: batch, fed-batch, continuous-feed and two-step continuous-feed were tested in suspended systems, it has been well demonstrated that cell immobilization techniques can significantly enhance 1,3-PDO production and allow robust continuous production in smaller bioreactors. This review covers various immobilization methods and their application for 1,3-PDO production. PMID:25600463

  1. Cyperus Tubers Protect Meloidogyne incognita from 1,3-Dichloropropene

    S.H. Thomas; J. Schroeder; Murray, L W

    2004-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita-infected and noninfected tubers of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) were treated with 56 L/ha 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in microplots and subsequently examined for tuber and nematode viability in the greenhouse using a chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) bioassay system. The study was conducted three times. Nutsedge tuber viability and M. incognita harbored in both yellow and purple nutsedge tubers were unaffected by 1,3-D treatmen...

  2. Anti-GaL IgG antibodies in sera of newborn humans and baboons and its significance in pig xenotransplantation.

    Minanov, O P; Itescu, S; Neethling, F A; Morgenthau, A S; Kwiatkowski, P; Cooper, D K; Michler, R E

    1997-01-27

    We have previously demonstrated that hyperacute rejection does not occur in a pig-to-newborn baboon heart transplant model, presumably because of low levels of cytotoxic antipig antibodies present in the serum of newborn baboons. Cytotoxic antipig antibodies are primarily directed to alpha-1,3-galactosyl (alpha Gal) residues on endothelial cell surface structures Twenty-one full-term humans and 5 full-term baboons were tested for complement mediated lysis (CML) of pig kidney (PK-15) cells and anti-alpha Gal activity with an ELISA using BSA-conjugated alpha Gal residues as target. To evaluate the significance of the anti-alpha Gal titers in vivo 5 newborn baboons underwent heterotopic pig cardiac xenotransplantation. Six of 21 human samples and 1 of 5 baboon samples demonstrated significant cytotoxicity to PK-15 cells. Twelve of 21 newborn humans had anti-alpha Gal IgG antibodies at titers of 1:80 or greater. None of the samples had anti-alpha Gal IgM. In newborn baboons, 1 of 5 sera had anti-alpha Gal IgG antibodies at titers greater than 1:80 and none of these samples had anti-alpha Gal IgM. Xenografts survived for an average of 3.6 days, even in the baboon with high anti-alpha Gal IgG titers. Analysis of the explanted grafts showed minimal evidence of complement-mediated hyperacute rejection (HAR), but prominent mononuclear cell infiltrates. In serum tested posttransplant there was an induced anti-alpha Gal response with cytotoxicity against PK-15 cells. These results show that anti-alpha Gal IgM is absent in newborn human and baboon sera, allowing pig grafts to avoid HAR. However, the presence of anti-alpha Gal IgG may be associated with mononuclear cell infiltration of the xenograft and its subsequent rejection. PMID:9020315

  3. 微波热解法制备的炭涂层对LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2性能的影响%Influence of carbon coating prepared by microwave pyrolysis on properties of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2

    韩亚梅; 张正富; 张利波; 彭金辉; 傅梦笔; C.SRINIVASAKANNAN; 杜江

    2013-01-01

    A novel synthesis method of carbon-coated LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode material for lithium-ion battery was reported. The carbon coating was produced from a precursor, glucose, by microwave-pyrolysis method. The prepared powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and charge/discharge tests. XRD results indicate that the carbon coating does not change the phase structure of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 material. SEM results show that the surface of spherical carbon-coated material becomes rough. Electrochemical performance results show that the carbon coating can improve the cycling performance of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2. The specific discharge capacity retention of the carbon-coated LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 reached 85.0%−96.0%at the 50th cycle at 0.2C rate, and the specific discharge capacity retention is improved at a high rate.%报道了炭包覆锂离子电池正极材料 LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2的新工艺。炭涂层由前驱体葡萄糖通过微波热解而形成。采用X射线粉末衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜、X射线荧光测试和恒流充放电测试来表征所制备的材料。XRD结果表明,炭包覆没有改变LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2材料的相结构。SEM结果表明,炭包覆的LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2颗粒表面变得粗糙。充放电测试结果显示,炭包覆的 LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2的循环性能与未包覆的相比得到提高。炭包覆的LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2在0.2C倍率下循环50次的容量保持率由84.8%提升到95.5%,且高倍率下材料的容量保持率得到提高。

  4. Reaktionen von Silylenen undDisilenen mit einigen 1,3-Dienen und 1,3-Diinen

    Kirmaier, Lars Ludwig

    1998-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befaßt sich mit Reaktionen von Di-tert-butyldisilen und Di-tert- butylsilylen, die durch Photolyse von Hexa-tert- butylcyclotrisilan (1) gebildet werden, mit einigen 1,3-Dienen und 1,3-Diinen. Mit den 1,3-Dienen 2,5-Dimethyltellurophen und N- Methylpyrrol wurden das 1,3-Ditelluradisiletan-Derivat (2) und das 1-Aza-2,5-disilacyclohexa-3,5-dien Ringsystem (3) als Endprodukte gewonnen. Cophotolyse von (1) mit Hexa-2,4-diin liefert die bicyclischen V...

  5. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... consideration to the need for, and the advantages of, a regional distribution in the siting of...

  6. Lithium Diffusion and Magnetism in Battery Cathode Material LixNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2

    We have studied low-temperature magnetic properties as well as high-temperature lithium ion diffusion in the battery cathode materials LixNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 by the use of muon spin rotation/relaxation. Our data reveal that the samples enter into a 2D spin-glass state below TSG ≈ 12 K. We further show that lithium diffusion channels become active for T ≥ Tdiff ∼ 125 K where the Li-ion hopping-rate [v(T)] starts to increase exponentially. Further, v(T) is found to fit very well to an Arrhenius type equation and the activation energy for the diffusion process is extracted as Ea ≈ 100 meV

  7. A Modified Multiphysics model for Lithium-Ion batteries with a LixNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 electrode

    Lithium-Ion Batteries lack performance and are costly for applications such as electric vehicles and electric energy storage systems. Multiphysics based battery models are one of the engineering tools to enhance their performance. In this regard, simulations have not only to provide qualitative but also quantitative valuable information. Our work focuses on the characterization and modelling of LixNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 based cells which has not been fully addressed yet. First, we present a modified multiphysics model compared to the conventional porous electrode theory for simulating these type of cells. The correspondence with experimental results is satisfactory but the model fails to accurately predict the voltage drop at high current rates

  8. Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazine, 1,3,6-Thiadiazepane and Quinoxaline Derivatives from Symmetrical Dithiobiureas and Thioureidoethylthiourea Derivatives

    A. Abou-Zied

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of N,N`-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides 8a-c and substituted thioureidoethylthioureas 9a-c with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil, 10a and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, 10b to form N,N`-disubstituted [1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines 11a-c, 6,7-dichloro-3-substituted amino-1H-benzo[1,3,4]- thiadiazine-5,8-diones 12a-c, 2,3,7,8-tetrahalothianthrene-1,4,6,9-tetraones 13a,b, 5,6,8- trihalo-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-quinoxaline-1-carbothioic acid substituted amides 14a-c, 15a-c and 7-substituted imino-[1,3,6]thiadiazepane-3-thiones 16a-c are reported. Rationales for the observed conversions are presented.

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  11. Thermochemistry of 1,3-diethylbarbituric and 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acids: Experimental and computational study

    Highlights: • Enthalpies of formation in condensed phase have been obtained. • Enthalpy of vaporization of 1,3-diethylbarbituric acid has been determined. • Enthalpy of sublimation of 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid has been determined. • Gas-phase enthalpies of formation have been obtained. • Gas-phase enthalpies of formation have been calculated at G3 and G4 levels. - Abstract: This paper reports an experimental and computational thermochemical study on two barbituric acid derivatives, viz. 1,3-diethylbarbituric acid and 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid. Values of standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gas phase at T = 298.15 K have been derived from experiment. Energies of combustion were measured by the static bomb combustion calorimetry in the case of 1,3-diethylbarbituric acid, and the rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry in the case of 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid. From the combustion energies, standard molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state at T = 298.15 K were calculated. The enthalpy of vaporization of 1,3-diethylbarbituric acid and enthalpy of sublimation of 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid were determined using the transpiration method. Combining calorimetric and transpiration results, values of −(611.9 ± 2.0) kJ · mol−1 and −(343.8 ± 2.2) kJ · mol−1 for the gas-phase enthalpies of formation at T = 298.15 K of 1,3-diethylbarbituric and 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acids, respectively, were derived. Theoretical calculations at the G3 and G4 levels were performed, and a study of the molecular structure of the compounds has been carried out. Calculated enthalpies of formation were in very good agreement with the experimental values

  12. Waste form characteristics report, revision 1.3

    Leider, H.R.; Stout, R.B.

    1998-07-01

    This Waste Form Characteristics Report (WFCR) update, Version 1.3, incorporates substantial additions and changes to following 10 sections of the WFCR: 2.1.3.1 Cladding Degradation; 2.1.3.2 UO2 Oxidation in Fuel; 2.1.3.5 Dissolution Release from UO{sub 2}; 2.2.1.5 Fracture /Fragmentation Studies of Glass; 2.2.2.2 Dissolution Radionuclide Release from Glass; 2.2.2.3 Soluble-Precipitated/Colloidal Species from Glass; 3.2.2 Spent-Fuel Oxidation Models; 3.4.2 Spent-Fuel Dissolution Models; 3.5.1 Glass Dissolution Experimental Parameters; and 3.5.2 Glass Dissolution Models.

  13. Eesti Post investeerib Kasahstani 1,3 miljonit / Hindrek Riikoja

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Post investeerib tütarettevõtte Eesti Elektronpost vahendusel Kasahstani postiturule 1,3 miljonit krooni, et pakkuda koostöös sealse riikliku postifirmaga digitaalselt saadetud andmete printimise ning adressaatidele saatmise kompleksteenust

  14. HANSF 1.3 user's manual

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-05-21

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. It may be used for all phases of spent fuel disposition including cold vacuum drying, transportation, and storage. This manual reflects HANSF version 1.3, a revised version of version 1.2a. HANSF 1.3 was written to add new models for axial nodalization, add new features for ease of usage, and correct errors. HANSF 1.3 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under a DOS-type operating system. HANSF 1.3 is known to compile under Lahey TI and Digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments.

  15. Calix[4]arenes in the 1,3-alternate conformation

    Dordea, Crenguta

    2006-01-01

    Calix[4]arenes fixed in the 1,3-alternate conformation offer an interesting platform for the attachment of further functionalities which has been less frequently used than the cone conformer. Several synthetic strategies were developed to attach four amino functions to the narrow rim, to the wide rim and to both rims of the calix[4]arene fixed in the 1,3-alternate conformation. Using different precursor groups (nitrile/phthalimide or nitro/phthalimide) which can be independently converted int...

  16. Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazine, 1,3,6-Thiadiazepane and Quinoxaline Derivatives from Symmetrical Dithiobiureas and Thioureidoethylthiourea Derivatives

    Abou-Zied, A.; K. El-Shaieb; A. Mourad; Hassan, A

    2005-01-01

    Reactions of N,N`-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides 8a-c and substituted thioureidoethylthioureas 9a-c with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil, 10a) and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, 10b) to form N,N`-disubstituted [1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines 11a-c, 6,7-dichloro-3-substituted amino-1H-benzo[1,3,4]- thiadiazine-5,8-diones 12a-c, 2,3,7,8-tetrahalothianthrene-1,4,6,9-tetraones 13a,b, 5,6,8- trihalo-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-quinoxaline-1-carbothioic acid substit...

  17. Microbially Mediated Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5- Triazine by Extracellular Electron Shuttling Compounds

    Kwon, Man Jae; Finneran, Kevin T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential for humic substances to stimulate the reduction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was investigated. This study describes a novel approach for the remediation of RDX-contaminated environments using microbially mediated electron shuttling. Incubations without cells demonstrated that reduced AQDS transfers electrons directly to RDX, which was reduced without significant accumulation of the nitroso intermediates. Three times as much reduced AQDS (molar basis) was need...

  18. ETUDE THEORIQUE DES REACTIONS DE CYCLOADDITON DIPOLAIRES-1,3

    KAZI-TANI-nee-BENCHOUK, Wafaa

    2011-01-01

    Le travail présenté dans cette thèse a pour objectif l’étude théorique des réactions de cycloaddition dipolaires-1,3 suivantes : i) Cycloaddition dipolaire-1,3 du diazométhane avec l’acrylate de méthyle afin de comprendre le mécanisme et la régiosélectivité. ii) Cycloaddition dipolaire-1,3 du C-(méthoxycarbonyl)-N-méthyle avec l’acrylate de méthyle et l’acétate de vinyle afin de mettre en évidence l’effet de substituants, présents dans le dipolorophile, sur la régiosélectivité....

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE : A REVIEW

    Bachwani Mukesh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole is a highly privileged structure the derivatives of which exhibit a wide range of biological activities including antibacterial, antitubercular, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer and ulcerogenic activities. Resistance to number of antimicrobial agents among a variety of clinically significant species of bacteria is becoming increasingly important global problem. The search for new antimicrobial agents will consequently always remain as an important and challenging task for medicinal chemists. This Review has basic information about 1,3,4-oxadiazole and its antimicrobial activity work for further development in this field.

  20. Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes.

    Deng, Kai; Huai, Qi-Yong; Shen, Zhi-Lun; Li, Hui-Jing; Liu, Chen; Wu, Yan-Chao

    2015-03-20

    Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes is described. The reaction is proposed to involve an aldol-type self-condensation of dypnones, followed by an intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloaddition and a retro-[2 + 2] cycloaddition. The reaction goes smoothly under obviously milder conditions in comparison to the cyclotrimerization of acetophenones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes (10 mol % of TsOH, 80 °C versus 130-148 °C). This unexpected rearrangement would provide new possible considerations in dypnone-involved organic synthesis. PMID:25740008

  1. Canonically Relativistic Quantum Mechanics Representations of the Unitary Semidirect Heisenberg Group, U(1,3) *s H(1,3)

    Low, S G

    1997-01-01

    Born proposed a unification of special relativity and quantum mechanics that placed position, time, energy and momentum on equal footing through a reciprocity principle and extended the usual position-time and energy-momentum line elements to this space by combining them through a new fundamental constant. Requiring also invariance of the symplectic metric yields U(1,3) as the invariance group, the inhomogeneous counterpart of which is the canonically relativistic group CR(1,3) = U(1,3) *s H(1,3) where H(1,3) is the Heisenberg Group in 4 dimensions and "*s" is the semidirect product. This is the counterpart in this theory of the Poincare group and reduces in the appropriate limit to the expected special relativity and classical Hamiltonian mechanics transformation equations. This group has the Poincare group as a subgroup and is intrinsically quantum with the Position, Time, Energy and Momentum operators satisfying the Heisenberg algebra. The representations of the algebra are studied and Casimir invariants a...

  2. Synthesis of LiNi1/3CO1/3Al1/3O2 cathode material by eutectic molten salt LiOH-LiNO3%LiOH-LiNO3低共熔混合锂盐体系合成LiNi1/3CO1/3Al1/3O2

    常照荣; 郁旭; 汤宏伟; 王超楠; 魏文强

    2011-01-01

    利用低共熔组成的0.38LiOH " H20-0.62LiN03混合锂盐体系与共沉淀合成的前躯体Ni1/3Co1/3Al1/3 (OH)2简单混合,经三阶段温度烧结制备出锂离子电池正极材料LiNi1/3 CO1/3 A11/3 O2,该法工艺简单,成本低,无需研磨即可以使物料在低共熔点温度上达到均匀混合的目的.经X粉末射线衍射(XRD)分析表明,合成的LiNili 1/3 CO1/3 Al1/3 O2具有典型的a-NaFeO2六方层状结构,其特征衍射峰I(003) /I(104)的峰强比值高达1.73.电性能测试表明,在5 5 0C,电压范围为2.8-4.3V,充放电倍率为0.2C的条件下,首次充放电比容量为156.4mAh/g,30次循环后容量保持率为94.1%,l和2C倍率放电容童仍可达到143.2和127.9mAh/g,其电性能均优于常温下的性能.%A lithium-ion battery cathode material, LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Al1/3 O2, with excellent electrochemical properties was prepared via three-phase temperature sintering,using eutectic lithium salts (0.38LiOH · H2O-0. 62LiNO3)mixed with the precursor Ni1/3Co1/3 Al1/3 (OH)2. This method was possessed of simple process and low cost, moreover,materials could mixed uniformly at the eutectic melting point without any grinding. The well-layered αNaFeO2 structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ratio of characteristic diffraction peak I(003)/I(104) was high to 1.73. The charge-discharge test indicated synthesized powder showed an initial charge-discharge capacity of 156.4mAh/g at a specific current of 0.2C at 55℃ in the rang 2.8-4.3V up to 30 cycles with no noticeable capacity-fading (94.1% of the first discharge capacity) ,and the reversible capacity of 143. 2 and 127.9mAh/g at a specific current of 1C and 2C charge-discharge rate.

  3. Treatment of hydrolysates of the high explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine using biological denitrification

    Zoh, K.D.; Stenstrom, M.K. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Daniels, J.I.; Knezovich, J.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis byproducts of the high explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), consisting of acetate, formate, formaldehyde, and nitrite, were treated in a denitrifying (anoxic) packed-bed upflow reactor. Additional nitrite or nitrate was added to match the carbon oxidation requirement. In a 2-year study, more than 90% removal of the organic compounds and nitrite were observed in a reactor with a 3-hour retention time. Removal was quantified by measuring actual compound concentrations and total organic carbon. The stoichiometry of the experimental results closely matched the predicted stoichiometry. Formaldehyde and acetate were preferentially removed over formate. The system removed N (nitrite):C (acetate):C (formaldehyde):C (formate) in a relative ratio of 1:0.07:0.36:0.50, respectively. The volumetric removal rate was as high as 170 mg/L of nitrite-nitrogen per day with existing carbon sources. The observed cell yield (mass basis) of nitrite reduction with acetate/formate was 0.21 mg cells/mg total organic carbon or 0.16 mg cells/mg chemical oxygen demand at 20 C. This culture was also capable of biodegrading RDX and HMX when using nitrate as an electron acceptor.

  4. 2-(2-Nitrophenyl-1,3-dioxan-5-ol

    Jin Chen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H11NO5, the six-membered 1,3-dioxane ring displays a chair conformation, with the hydroxy and 2-nitrophenyl groups in equatorial positions, which minimizes steric hindrance. In the crystal, molecules are linked into chains along the b axis by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  5. 2,2-Dimethyl-5-triphenylmethyl-1,3-dioxane

    Xing-Ming Liu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C25H26O2, crystallizes with two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. The differences between the two molecules are marginal. The three benzene rings of each molecule are in a propeller orientation and the 1,3-dioxane ring adopts a chair conformation.

  6. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF POLY-1,3,5-TRIAZINES

    WANG Yulan; LU Fengcai

    1984-01-01

    Two new polytriazines: poly[2-methyl-4, 6-(4,' 4"-diphenylene)-1, 3, 5-triazine] (Ⅰ) and poly[2-phenyl-4, 6-(4', 4"-diphenylene)-1, 3, 5-triazine] (Ⅱ) were synthesized from the solution condensation of biphenyl-4, 4'-diamidine dihydrochloride with acetic anhydride and biphenyl-4, 4'-diamidine with benzaldehyde respectively. These two polymers were characterized by TGA, DTA, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. They exhibited good thermal oxidative stability as shown by the fact that the powders of these polymers suffered 5.4 %, 2.4 % weight loss after isothermal aging in air at 300℃ for 200 hours. The decomposition temperature of (Ⅱ) was 583℃ in air and 590℃ in N2. These linear poly-1, 3, 5-triazines were soluble in concentrated sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid and trifluoroacetic acid whereas the crosslinked poly-1, 3, 5-triazines reported in the literature were insoluble and infusible.It is interesting that these polymers can form complexes with metal halides as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The polymer metal complex (Ⅲ). PdCl2 possesses catalytic activity for hydrogenation.

  7. 1,3-Butadiene: Biomarkers and application to risk assessment

    Swenberg, J. A.; Bordeerat, N. K.; Boysen, G.; Carro, S.; Georgieva, N. I.; Troutman, J. M.; Upton, P. B.; Albertini, R. J.; Vacek, P. M.; Walker, V. E.; Šrám, Radim; Goggin, M.; Tretyakova, N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 192, 1-2 (2011), s. 150-154. ISSN 0009-2797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : risk assessment * 1,3-butadiene * occupational exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.865, year: 2011

  8. Irony and Aequabilitas : Horace, Satires 1.3

    Jerome Kemp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Satire 1.3 Horace upholds ‘Stoic’ aequabilitas, ironically aligning it with Epicurean moderation to attack Stoic inflexibility. His connection between friendship and justice shows an awareness of this link in Hellenistic thought. His ironic use of philosophical material serves a serious, anti-Stoic purpose (pace some recent scholarship.

  9. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    Mun, S.Y.; Lee, H.

    1999-12-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  10. Crystal structure of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid-4-pyridone (1/3).

    Staun, Selena L; Oliver, Allen G

    2015-11-01

    Slow co-crystallization of a solution of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid with a large excess of 4-hy-droxy-pyridine produces an inter-penetrating, three-dimensional, hydrogen-bonded framework consisting of three 4-pyridone and one benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecules, C9H6O6·3C5H5NO. This structure represents an ortho-rhom-bic polymorph of the previously reported C-centered, monoclinic structure [Campos-Gaxiola et al. (2014 ▸). Acta Cryst. E70, o453-o454]. PMID:26594492

  11. Improved cycling and high rate performance of core-shell LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/carbon nanocomposites for lithium-ion batteries: Effect of the carbon source

    Highlights: • We report a fast microwave heating way to prepare LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/C. • The effects of different carbon sources were discussed in detail. • LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/BP2000 shows a discharge capacity of 160 mA h g−1 at 0.1 C. • LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/BP2000 elucidates excellent cyclic stability. • LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/BP2000 exhibits attractive rate capability. - Abstract: Core-shell type olivine solid solutions, LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/C, are synthesized via a very simple and rapid microwave heating route with different carbon sources. The obatined LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/C materials are characterized thoroughly by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy instrument. The particle sizes and distribution of the carbon layer of BP2000 carbon black coated LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4 (LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/BP) are more uniform than that obtained from acetylene black (LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/AB) and Super P (LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/SP). Moreover, the LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/BP nanocomposite shows superior electrochemical properties such as high discharge capacity of 160 mA h g−1 at 0.1 C, excellent cyclic stability (143 mA h g−1 at 0.1 C after 30 cycles) and rate capability (76 mAh g−1 at 20 C), which are better than other two samples. Cyclic voltammetric and electrical tests disclose that the Li-ion diffusion, the reversibility of lithium extraction/insertion and electrical conductivity are significantly improved in LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/BP composite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy illustrates that LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4/BP composite electrode possesses low contact and charge-transfer impedances, which can lead to rapid electron transport during the electrochemical lithium insertion/extraction reaction. It is believed that olivine solid solution LiFe1/3Mn1/3Co1/3PO4 decorated with carbon from appropriate carbon source is a promising cathode for

  12. Biodegradation of the nitramine explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in cold marine sediment under anaerobic and oligotrophic conditions

    Zhao, J-S.; Greer, C. W.; Hawari, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Biotechnology Research Institute, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Thiboutot, S.; Ampleman, G. [Department of National Defence, Defence Research Establishment, Valcartier, PQ (Canada)

    2004-02-01

    In-situ degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was evaluated using a mixture of these two powerful and highly energetic chemicals that are widely used in the production of explosives and nuclear warheads. Leaching from unexploded ordnance (UXO) and various other military activities are considered serious sources of sediment contamination in seas and waterways. The objectives of this study was to evaluate the biodegradation of RDX and HMX in marine sediment from a damping site located 50 miles from Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia, where warships have unloaded live ordnance during wartime. The sediment was collected in an aluminium container by a Remotely Operated Vehicle. The RDX concentration in the aqueous phase was reduced by half in four days, while reduction of HMX concentration by half required 50 days. The removal rate of RDX was not affected by the addition of carbon sources such as glucose, acetate, or citrate, but these additives improved the removal of HMX. Mineralization of RDX and HMX was optimal in the presence of glucose. Some unidentified psychrotrophic anaerobic isolates from the marine sediment appeared capable of degrading RDX and HMX at 10 degrees C under conditions similar to those used to degrade RDX and HMX in the sediment. The distribution of products suggests that the sediment microorganisms degrade RDX and HMX by way of an initial reduction to the corresponding mononitroso derivative, followed by denitration and ring cleavage. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. On the (1 + 3) threading of an almost FLRW universe

    Bejancu, Aurel; Farran, Hani Reda

    2016-03-01

    Based on the Riemannian spatial connection and the kinematic quantities, we develop a new approach on the (1 + 3) threading of an almost FLRW universe, with respect to a non-normalized vector field. By this method, we obtain simple expressions for geometric objects and equations involved in the theory of cosmological perturbations. We state three forms of Raychaudhuri equation, which lead us to more accurate intervals for the conformal time with respect to the existence of caustics in the congruence of geodesics.

  14. 2-Nitro-1,3-dinitro­oxypropane

    Parrish, Damon A.; David E. Chavez; Breiner, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C3H5N3O8, was synthesized by reacting 2-nitropropane-1,3-diol with acetyl nitrate. The molecule is bisected by a crystallograpic mirror plane. In the crystal, the molecules pack in a ribbon-like fashion along the c axis, with the central nitro groups pointing in the same direction. C—H...O contacts apparently provide some additional packing stabilization.

  15. Tricyclic flavonoids with 1,3-dithiolium substructure.

    Bahrin, Lucian G; Jones, Peter G; Hopf, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of new 3-dithiocarbamic flavonoids has been accomplished by the reaction of the corresponding 2-hydroxyaryl dithiocarbamates with aminals. These flavonoids were obtained as a mixture of diastereoisomers, the anti isomer being the major one. The heterocyclization of these compounds provided novel tricyclic flavonoids bearing a 1,3-dithiolium-2-yl ring fused at the 3,4-carbon positions of the benzopyran moiety. PMID:23209535

  16. Tricyclic flavonoids with 1,3-dithiolium substructure

    Lucian G. Bahrin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of new 3-dithiocarbamic flavonoids has been accomplished by the reaction of the corresponding 2-hydroxyaryl dithiocarbamates with aminals. These flavonoids were obtained as a mixture of diastereoisomers, the anti isomer being the major one. The heterocyclization of these compounds provided novel tricyclic flavonoids bearing a 1,3-dithiolium-2-yl ring fused at the 3,4-carbon positions of the benzopyran moiety.

  17. Tricyclic flavonoids with 1,3-dithiolium substructure

    Bahrin, Lucian G.; Jones, Peter G.; Henning Hopf

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of new 3-dithiocarbamic flavonoids has been accomplished by the reaction of the corresponding 2-hydroxyaryl dithiocarbamates with aminals. These flavonoids were obtained as a mixture of diastereoisomers, the anti isomer being the major one. The heterocyclization of these compounds provided novel tricyclic flavonoids bearing a 1,3-dithiolium-2-yl ring fused at the 3,4-carbon positions of the benzopyran moiety.

  18. Effect of Fluorination of 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole

    Nielsen, Christian B.; White, Andrew J P; McCulloch, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The 4,7-dithieno-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DTBT) moiety and its fluorinated counterpart are important π-conjugated building blocks in the field of organic electronics. Here we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation into fundamental properties relating to these two molecular entities and discuss the potential impact on extended π-conjugated materials and their electronic properties. While the fluorinated derivative, in the solid state, packs with a cofacial overlap smaller...

  19. FEL-Oscillator Simulations with Genesis 1.3

    Karssenberg, J.G.; Slot, van der, S.C.; Verschuur, J.W.J.; Volokhine, I.V.; Boller, K. -J.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the propagation of the light outside the undulator. We present a paraxial Optical Propagation Code (OPC) based on the Spectral Method and Fresnel Diffraction Integral, which in combination with Genesis 1.3 can be used to perform either steady-state or time-dependent FEL oscillator simulations. A flexible scripting interface is used both to describe the optical resona...

  20. 2-Phenylimidazolium hemi(benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate monohydrate

    Wen-Yu Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C9H9N2+·0.5C8H4O4−·H2O, contains one 2-phenylimidazolium cation, half a benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate anion and one water molecule. In the crystal, components are connected by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions into a three-dimensional network.

  1. GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized by citric acid assisted high-energy ball milling

    Weidong Zheng; Miao Shui; Jie Shu; Shan Gao; Dan Xu; Liangliang Chen; Lin Feng; Yuanlong Ren

    2013-06-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was synthesized by a citric acid assisted solid-state method. The structure and electrochemical properties of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 materials were investigated. XRD analysis indicated the as-synthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was with the layered -NaFeO2 structure. The discharge capacity was about 154 m.Ahg-1 at 0.1 °C rate in the range of 2.0–4.5 V. The kinetics of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 materials was investigated by the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) method. The lithium ion diffusion coefficient of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was determined in the range of 10-8−10-9 cm2.s-1 as a function of voltage of 3.7−4.5 V.

  2. Lateral transfer of genes for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) degradation.

    Andeer, Peter F; Stahl, David A; Bruce, Neil C; Strand, Stuart E

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that degradation of the military explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by species of Rhodococcus, Gordonia, and Williamsia is mediated by a novel cytochrome P450 with a fused flavodoxin reductase domain (XplA) in conjunction with a flavodoxin reductase (XplB). Pulse field gel analysis was used to localize xplA to extrachromosomal elements in a Rhodococcus sp. and distantly related Microbacterium sp. strain MA1. Comparison of Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y and Microbacterium plasmid sequences in the vicinity of xplB and xplA showed near identity (6,710 of 6,721 bp). Sequencing of the associated 52.2-kb region of the Microbacterium plasmid pMA1 revealed flanking insertion sequence elements and additional genes implicated in RDX uptake and degradation. PMID:19270122

  3. The unified equation by the Proportion 19 (-1:3

    Vinoo Cameron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As mankind is created in the image of a creator, the mathematical continuum is understandably connected, not by “Strings”, but by rational coordinates of mathematics. That is what this manuscript is all about; the rationalization of the natural expanse of mathematics and the stark reality of -1. The section on the mathematical PI (π clearly proves the -1 constriction of 4-1. Definition of the Unified Theorem: “The ascension and expansion of all space (and mass is curved, spiral and warped because of the -1 zero inverse primordial constriction of all space by -1. 4-(1 =+3. Bounded space is inverse at -1, a non-collapsible curve. The value of -1 is -1 for numbers and 0.5/60(1/120 for non-linear space. The minus 1 is manifested at proportion 19 as a composite of the of the values 9 and 10, both by numbers and prime angle (1:3. The proof of -1 is and has always been in the mathematical Pi (π, corrected trigonometry, and the spiral curved ascension of Prime numbers.” This proof is clearly stated under the section for the “mathematical Pi (π where the author has clearly proven -1 by theorem.” This manuscript has been preceded by several manuscripts on Prime numbers, -1 and Prime number 19 that show the unified mathematics as a consequence of a -1 Vedic zero, and the overall -1 ( 4-3 . As the treatise on the Unified Theorem, this is all written by simple theorem .This manuscript completely disregards current mathematical theory with regard to non- linear mathematics as irrelevant to mathematics. The clear assertion is that the -1 Vedic zeros is the correct zero, but that the current null zero is in error. The inverse curved value off-set of -1 is the value that precedes the +1 value, and it is clearly stated by this author that mathematically a curve cannot ever be collapsed to null. There is no logical compromise in this regard. Essentially and mathematically the author validates the primordial -1, and the absolute primordial value of

  4. Efficient plasma-enhanced method for layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes with sulfur atom-scale modification for superior-performance Li-ion batteries

    Jiang, Qianqian; Chen, Ning; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Shuangyin; Zhang, Han

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys-chemical characterizations indicate that oxygen atoms in the initial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 have been partially replaced by S atoms. It should be pointed out that the atom-scale modification does not significantly alter the intrinsic structure of the cathode. Compared to the pristine material, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx shows a superior performance with a higher capacity (200.4 mA h g-1) and a significantly improved cycling stability (maintaining 94.46% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles). Moreover, it has an excellent rate performance especially at elevated performance, which is probably due to the faster Li+ transportation after S doping into the layered structure. All the results show that the atom-scale modification with sulfur atoms on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, which significantly improved the electrochemical performance, offers a novel anionic doping strategy to realize the atom-scale modification of electrode materials to improve their electrochemical performance.In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys

  5. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.3)

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.3 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement

  6. (E-1-[(1,3-Dioxan-4-ylmethyl]-2-(nitromethylideneimidazolidine

    Zhongzhen Tian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C9H15N3O4, the 1,3-dioxane ring displays a chair conformation and the five-membered ring is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.054 Å. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond to one of the nitro-group O atoms generates an S(6 ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(6 chains propagating in [010] and a C—H...O link also occurs.

  7. 2-(2-Naphthyl-1,3-dioxane

    Damien Thevenet

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H14O2, crystallizes in the chiral monoclinic space group P21. This acetal is composed of a planar naphthalene ring with a 1,3-dioxane ring substituent, which has a chair conformation. In the crystal structure, symmetry-related molecules are connected via a weak C—H...O interaction to form a helical chain propagating in [010]. While there are no π–π stacking interactions present, there are weak C—H...π interactions involving the naphthalene aromatic rings, which link the helical chains to form a two-dimensional network in the (011 plane.

  8. Transition Metal Catalyzed Polymerization of 1,3,5-Trioxane

    Henes, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We highlighted that transition metal complexes can serve as mediators for the cationic ROP of 1,3,5-trioxane. As examples cyclopentadienyl molybdenum complexes of different Lewis acidity were employed tolerating considerable more water than classical Lewis acid catalysts like BF3 · OEt2 or tBuClO4. They are less active than iridium or palladium catalysts, but [CpMo(CO)3OTf] (2a) was an excellent example to carry out time-dependent 1H NMR spectroscopic studies to follow the course of the polym...

  9. 1,3-Bis(1-adamantylimidazolium tetrachloridoferrate(III

    Monisola I. Ikhile

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, (C23H33N2[FeCl4], consists of 1,3-bis(1-adamantylimidazolium (BAIM cations and tetrahedral tetrachloridoferrate(III (TCF anions. The BAIM cation possesses m symmetry, with the central imidazole ring and four C atoms of each terminal adamantyl group located on a mirror plane. The Fe and two Cl atoms of the TCF anion are also located on the mirror plane. The cyclohexane rings of the adamantyl groups adopt normal chair conformations.

  10. SYNTHESIS OF NEW 1, 3, 7, 8-TETRASUBSTITUTED XANTHENES ANALOGUE

    Loay K.Abdulrahman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline, a methyl xanthenes compound, is known as an efficient bronchodilator drug, having also anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In order to improve its pharmacological profile and to reduce also the serious side effects that appear at high concentrations, new 1, 3, 7, 8-tetrasubstituted theophylline derivatives have been synthesized. The new compounds are obtained in two steps by the reaction of 8-substituted theophyllines with epoxy propyl acetaminophen. The chemical structure of the synthesized compounds has been elucidated by their 1H-NMR spectra. The potential bronchodilator effects of the synthesized compounds have been also established.

  11. Lateral resonances in initial stressed 1-3 piezocomposites

    ZHANG Hong-yan; SHEN Ya-peng; YIN Guan-sheng

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the lateral resonances in 1-3 piezocomposites with poling initial stress is conducted using the Bloch wave theory. Based on the linear piezoelectricity theory, theoretical formulations that include initial stress for the propagation of acoustic plane waves are made. Numerical calculations are performed to study the effects of the initial stress on the lateral mode frequencies and the stop band. It is found that lateral mode frequencies increase with the piezoelectricity of the piezocomposites,but decrease with the poling initial stress. The influence of the initial shear stress on the lateral mode frequencies is minimal, and can thus be neglected.

  12. Physical and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes coated by Sb2O3 using a sol–gel process

    Sb2O3-coated LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials have been prepared using a sol–gel process. The surface-coated cathode materials have been physically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM). The electrochemical characteristics have been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), galvanostatic cycler, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Moreover, the Sb2O3 coating does not affect the crystal structure of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 but instead form a thin compact layer on the surface. The 1wt% of Sb2O3-coated LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode coated shows stable cyclability with capacity retention of 98% after the 30 cycles, which is higher than the bare and 2 wt% Sb2O3-coated cathodes and the EIS and CV tests illustrate the suppressed charge transfer resistance and good reversibility for the optimized coating concentration on the cathode. - Highlights: • We successfully prepared Sb2O3-coated LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes by a sol–gel process. • Sb2O3 has been used as an additive to give a protection layer from HF attack. • Electrochemical performance of 1 wt% Sb2O3-coated LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was superior. • 1 wt% Sb2O3-coated LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes reveal good cyclability at high rates

  13. Efficient plasma-enhanced method for layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes with sulfur atom-scale modification for superior-performance Li-ion batteries.

    Jiang, Qianqian; Chen, Ning; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Shuangyin; Zhang, Han

    2016-06-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys-chemical characterizations indicate that oxygen atoms in the initial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 have been partially replaced by S atoms. It should be pointed out that the atom-scale modification does not significantly alter the intrinsic structure of the cathode. Compared to the pristine material, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx shows a superior performance with a higher capacity (200.4 mA h g(-1)) and a significantly improved cycling stability (maintaining 94.46% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles). Moreover, it has an excellent rate performance especially at elevated performance, which is probably due to the faster Li(+) transportation after S doping into the layered structure. All the results show that the atom-scale modification with sulfur atoms on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, which significantly improved the electrochemical performance, offers a novel anionic doping strategy to realize the atom-scale modification of electrode materials to improve their electrochemical performance. PMID:27189799

  14. Electrochemical properties of Li[Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Al{sub 1/3-x}Co{sub x}]O{sub 2} as a cathode material for lithium ion battery

    Ren Haibo; Li Xiang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Urban Construction, Pingdingshan, 467036 (China); Peng Zhenghe, E-mail: Zhhpeng@126.com [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 (China)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: > This paper mainly studies cathode materials containing aluminum for lithium-ion batteries. > Li[Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Al{sub 1/3-x}Co{sub x}]O{sub 2} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1/3) cathode materials with layered structure can be synthesized by a solvent evaporation method. > The samples with higher Co content hold better layered structure and electrochemical performance. > The introduction of Co improve the high-temperature cycling property of Li[Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Al{sub 1/3-x}Co{sub x}]O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Layered Li[Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Al{sub 1/3-x}Co{sub x}]O{sub 2} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1/3) cathode materials are synthesized by a solvent evaporation method. Although XRD shows that Li[Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Al{sub 1/3}]O{sub 2} has no obvious impurity phase, it has poor electrochemical properties. To improve its capability, part of Al in Li[Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Al{sub 1/3}]O{sub 2} compound is replaced by Co in this study. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and charge-discharge test. The results indicate that the introduction of Co has a large influence on the morphology, structure and electrochemical performances of the samples, which become more excellent with an increase of Co content in compounds. Meanwhile, the high-temperature behavior of the samples is also investigated.

  15. Bis[2-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-ylethyl] phthalate

    Kai Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C28H20N2O8, was synthesized by the reaction of isobenzofuran-1,3-dione and 2-aminoethanol in a one-pot reaction. The benzene and five-membered rings are slightly twisted to each other, making dihedral angles of 2.77 (9 and 1.77 (10°. The rings of the phthalimide groups make dihedral angle of 57.64 (7 and 83.46 (7° with the central benzene ring. Weak C—H...O, C—H...π and π–π [centroid–centroid distance = 3.446 (1 and 3.599 (1 Å] interactions reinforce the cohesion of the crystal.

  16. Molecular dynamics characterization of void defects in crystalline (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane).

    Boyd, Sylke; Murray, Jane S; Politzer, Peter

    2009-11-28

    In the context of a continuing investigation of factors that affect the sensitivities of energetic materials to detonation initiation, we have carried out a molecular dynamics characterization of void defects in crystalline (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclo-hexane). An empirical force field that is capable of handling flexible molecules in a pliable crystal was used. Voids ranging in size from 2 to 30 adjacent vacated sites were created in model lattices of 216 or 512 molecules. Energetic and geometric ground state properties were determined. The void formation energy per molecule removed was found to decrease from 50 kcal/mol for a single vacancy to about 23+/-2 kcal/mol for voids larger than one unit cell (8 molecules). Analysis of the local binding energies in the vicinity of a void reveals not only the expected decrease for molecules directly on the void surface but also a wide spread of values in the first 5-10 A away from the surface; this includes some molecules with local binding energies significantly higher than in the defect-free lattice. Molecular conformational changes and reorientations begin to be found in the vicinities of voids larger than one unit cell. Thermal behavior investigated includes void and molecular diffusion coefficients and fluctuations in void size. PMID:19947705

  17. Dissociative Electron Attachment to the Nitroamine HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine)

    Postler, J; Matias, C; Mauracher, A; da Silva, F Ferreira; Scheier, P; Limão-Vieira, P; Denifl, S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, dissociative electron attachment (DEA) measurements with gas phase HMX, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, $C_4H_8N_8O_8$, have been performed by means of a crossed electron-molecular beam experiment. The most intense signals are observed at 46 and 176u and assigned to $NO_{2}^{-}$ and $C_3H_6N_5O_{4}^{-}$, respectively. Anion efficiency curves for 15 negatively charged fragments have been measured in the electron energy region from about 0-20 eV with an energy resolution of ~0.7 eV. Product anions are observed mainly in the low energy region, near 0 eV, arising from surprisingly complex reactions associated with multiple bond cleavages and structural and electronic rearrangement. The remarkable instability of HMX towards electron attachment with virtually zero kinetic energy reflects the highly explosive nature of this compound. Substantially different intensity ratios of resonances for common fragment anions allow distinguishing the nitroamines HMX and royal demolition e...

  18. 1,3,6,8-Tetraethynylpyrene and 1,3,6,8-tetrakis (trimethylsilylethynyl) pyrene: Photophysical properties in homogeneous media

    The photophysical properties of two new tetra substituted derivatives of pyrene: 1,3,6,8-tetraethynylpyrene (TEP) and 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(trimethylsilylethynyl)pyrene (TEP-TMS) have been studied. Studies were done with respect to mirror image symmetry in the absorption and emission spectra and permissive or forbidden nature of S0-S1 transition, solvent sensitivity of the first and third vibronic bands and fluorescence anisotropy. Both the derivatives exhibited a strongly allowed S0-S1 transition, high fluorescence quantum yield, shorter fluorescence lifetime compared to pyrene and invariance of the vibronic band intensity ratio to solvent polarity. The behavior of the two pyrene derivatives validates the hypothesis 'solvent polarity mediates vibronic coupling and therefore the emission band intensities, for forbidden S0-S1 transitions'. The trimethylsilyl derivative (TEP-TMS) was characterized by a strong fluorescence in solid state. The tetraethynyl derivative (TEP) showed high fluorescence anisotropy comparable to the well-known anisotropy probe DPH in glycerol at 0 deg. C. The fluorescence intensities of TEP and TEP-TMS did not show any significant change in the temperature ranger 0-40 deg. C for a low viscous solvent like ethanol and in the range 0-60 deg. C in glycerol. Unlike pyrene, no excimer emission was observed even up to 10-3 M for TEP and TEP-TMS

  19. How to extract the $P_{33}(1232)$ resonance contributions from the amplitudes $M_{1+}^{3/2}, E_{1+}^{3/2},S_{1+}^{3/2}$ of pion electroproduction on nucleons

    Aznauryan, I G

    1998-01-01

    Within the dispersion relation approach, solutions of integral equations for the multipoles M_{1+}^{3/2},E_{1+}^{3/2},S_{1+}^{3/2} are found at 0 P_{33}(1232) transition are extracted from experiment at Q^2=0. They are in good agreement with quark model predictions.

  20. Studies on bioactive bis-1,3,5-triazinyl dithiocarbamates

    V. H. SHAH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The compounds bis(4,6-dichloro/bis[(p-methoxyphenylamino]-1,3,5--triazin-2-yl1,2-hydrazine-1,2-dicarbodithioate/1,4-phenylenebis(carbamodithio­ate/(1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diylbis(carbamodithioate/(sulphonyldi-4,1-phenylene-bis(carbamodithioate/1,2-ethanediylbis(carbamothioate 4a–j were synthe­sized by two different methods. In the first method (A for the preparation of 4a–e, 2,4,6-tri­chloro-1,3,5-triazine 1 was condensed with diammonium 1,2-hy­drazine-1,2-di­carbo­dithioate/1,4-phenylenebis(carbamodithioate/(1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’diyl­bis(carba­mo­di­thioate/(sulphonyl-di-4,1-phenylene-bis(carbamodithioate/1,2-etha­nediylbis(car­bamodithioate 3a–e to afford 4a–e which undergo reaction with p-me­thoxyaniline to afford 4f–j. In the second method (B of preparation, 1 was condensed with p-me­thoxyaniline to yield 2 followed by the action of 3a–e to yield 4a–j. The structure of the newly synthesized compounds 4a–j was esta­blished on the basis of elemental analyses, as well as IR and 1H-NMR spec­tro­scopy. The antimicrobial activities of compounds 4a–j were determined by the cup‑plate method against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and fungi. All the synthesized compounds showed significant antimicrobial activity.

  1. Partial chemical characterization of antigenic preparations of chromoblastomycosis agents Caracterização química parcial de preparações antigênicas de agentes da cromoblastomicose

    Tania Fraga BARROS

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic preparations (saline, methylic, metabolic and exoantigens of four agents of chromoblastomycosis, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Phialophora verrucosa, Cladophialophora (Cladosporium carrionii and Rhinocladiella aquaspersa were obtained. Partial chemical characterization of these antigenic preparations was obtained by determination of the levels of total lipids, protein, and carbohydrates, and identification of the main sterols and carbohydrates. Methylic antigens presented the highest lipid contents, whereas metabolic antigens showed the highest carbohydrate content. Total lipid, protein, and carbohydrate levels were in the range of 2.33 to 2.00mg/ml, 0.04 to 0.02 mg/ml and 0.10 to 0.02 mg/ml, respectively, in the methylic antigens and in the range of 0.53 to 0.18mg/ml, 0.44 to 0.26mg/ml, and 1.82 to 1.02 mg/ml, respectively, in saline antigens. Total lipid, protein, and carbohydrate contents were in the range of 0.55 to 0.20mg/ml, 0.69 to 0.57mg/ml and 10.73 to 5.93mg/ml, respectively, in the metabolic antigens, and in the range of 0.55 to 0.15mg/ml, 0.62 to 0.20mg/ml and 3.55 to 0.42mg/ml, respectively, in the exoantigens. Phospholipids were not detected in the preparations. Saline and metabolic antigens and exoantigens presented hexose and the methylic antigen revealed additional pentose units in their composition. The UV light absorption spectra of the sterols revealed squalene and an ergosterol fraction in the antigens. The characterization of these antigenic preparations may be useful for serological evaluation of patients of chromoblastomycosis.Preparações antigênicas (antígenos salinos, metílicos, metabólicos e exoantígenos de quatro agentes da cromoblastomicose, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Phialophora verrucosa, Cladophialophora (Cladosporium carrionii e Rhinocladiella aquaspersa foram obtidos e foi determinada a caracterização química parcial dos mesmos. Os antígenos metílicos apresentaram os maiores teores de lípides enquanto os

  2. Análise antigênica e molecular de amostras citopáticas do vírus da diarréia viral bovina Antigenic and molecular analysis of cytopathic isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Fernando Luiz Tobias

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sete amostras citopáticas do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV isoladas de casos clínicos e do sangue de bezerros de rebanhos com problemas reprodutivos foram analisadas. Todas as amostras caracterizadas possuíam uma mistura de vírus citopáticos (cp e não-citopáticos (ncp, que foram clonados biologicamente, originando populações puras de vírus de cada biotipo. Os clones cp e ncp obtidos foram caracterizados antigenicamente com um painel de anticorpos monoclonais (MAbs e quanto à expressão da proteína não-estrutural NS3. A análise de reconhecimento pelos MAbs revelou dois padrões de reatividade: 1. Em cinco casos, os vírus cp e ncp de uma mesma amostra mostraram-se antigenicamente muito semelhantes entre si, indicando tratar-se de verdadeiros "pares" de vírus, nos quais o vírus cp origina-se do ncp através de mutações ou recombinações; 2. Duas amostras, no entanto, continham vírus cp e ncp com diferenças antigênicas consideráveis entre si. A análise de polipeptídeos não-estruturais das amostras ncp através de Western immunoblot revelou uma única banda de reatividade, de massa aproximada de 125kDa, correspondente à proteína nãoestrutural NS23. As amostras cp expressaram, além da NS23, um polipeptídeo de massa aproximada de 80kDa, correspondente à NS3. Duas amostras cp apresentaram diferenças na migração da NS23. Uma amostra apresentou a NS23 com massa menor do que 125kDa, enquanto outra amostra apresentou duas bandas de reatividade, com massas menor e maior que a NS23 dos demais vírus, respectivamente. Esses resultados confirmam achados anteriores de que amostras de campo citopáticas do BVDV geralmente possuem vírus dos dois biotipos e que o fenótipo citopático está associado à expressão da proteína NS3. O isolamento de amostras citopáticas do sangue de animais clinicamente normais e de um feto, no entanto, demonstra que a ocorrência de vírus cp não se restringe à casos da Doença das

  3. Evaluation of the FRAPTRAN -1.3 Computer Code

    Manngaard, Tero [Quantum Technologies AB, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The FRAPTRAN-1.3 computer code has been evaluated regarding its applicability, modelling capability, user friendliness, source code structure and supporting experimental database. The code is intended for thermo-mechanical analyses of light water reactor nuclear fuel rods under reactor power and coolant transients, such as overpower transients, reactivity initiated accidents (RIA), boiling-water reactor power oscillations without scram, and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Its experimental database covers boiling- and pressurized water reactor fuel rods with UO{sub 2} fuel up to rod burnups around 64 MWd/kgU. In FRAPTRAN-1.3, the fundamental equations for heat transfer and structural analysis are solved in one-dimensional (in the radial direction) and transient (time-dependent) form, and interaction between axial segments of the rod is confined to calculations of coolant axial flow, rod internal gas pressure and optionally axial flow of fission gases. The clad-to-coolant heat transfer conditions can either be specified as pre-calculated data or can be determined by a coolant channel model in the code. The code provides different clad rupture models depending on cladding temperature and amount of cladding plastic hoop strain. For LOCA analysis, a model calculating local clad shape (ballooning) and associated local stresses is available to predict clad burst. A strain based failure model is present for cladding rupture driven by pellet-cladding mechanical interaction. Two models exist for computation of high-temperature clad oxidation under LOCA (i) the Baker-Just model for licensing calculations and (ii) the Cathcart-Pawel model for best-estimate calculations. The code appears to be fairly easy to use, however, the applicability of the current version as a self-standing analysis tool for LOCA and RIA analyses depends highly on the numerical robustness of the coolant channel model for generation of clad-to-coolant heat transfer boundary conditions. The main

  4. LINAG phase I. A technical report, Version: 1.3

    . General remarks; II.2. Production of accelerated ISOL - RIBs from fission and comparison with photoinduced fission; III. High intensity multi-charge ion sources for LINAG I; III.1. Constraints; III.2. Multi-charged ion sources; IV. The linear accelerator; IV.1. General layout of the linear accelerator; IV.2. Source and low energy beam transport line; IV.3. The RFQ injector; IV.4. The superconducting linear accelerator; IV.5. Layout of the driver; IV.6. Review of the driver cost evaluation; V. The target and ion source; V.1. The production and fission fragments; V.1.1. The rotating target/converter; V.1.2. The target and ion source production system; V.1.3. Production rates; V.2. Radioprotection and target handling; VI. Security and radioprotection; VI.1.1. Ion source; VI.1.2.The RFQ; VI.1.3. The liner accelerator; VI.2.1. Ion source; VI.2.2. RFQ; VI.2.3. LINAC; VI.2.4. The high energy beam transport line; VI.2.5. Beam accidents; VI.2.6. Shielding for the target/ion - source; VI.2.7. The authorization procedures; VII. Siting, post-acceleration and coupling to experimental areas; VII.1. Post acceleration option; VII.1.1. Post acceleration in using the CIME cyclotron; VII.1.2. Re-injection of the CIME beams into CSS2; VII.1.3. Post acceleration with C0 + CSS1 + CSS2; VIII. Possible links between LINAG and EURISOL; VIII.1. Background to EURISOL; VIII.2. Synergies; IX. Summary of costs and general schedule; X. Conclusion

  5. Evaluation of the FRAPTRAN -1.3 Computer Code

    The FRAPTRAN-1.3 computer code has been evaluated regarding its applicability, modelling capability, user friendliness, source code structure and supporting experimental database. The code is intended for thermo-mechanical analyses of light water reactor nuclear fuel rods under reactor power and coolant transients, such as overpower transients, reactivity initiated accidents (RIA), boiling-water reactor power oscillations without scram, and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Its experimental database covers boiling- and pressurized water reactor fuel rods with UO2 fuel up to rod burnups around 64 MWd/kgU. In FRAPTRAN-1.3, the fundamental equations for heat transfer and structural analysis are solved in one-dimensional (in the radial direction) and transient (time-dependent) form, and interaction between axial segments of the rod is confined to calculations of coolant axial flow, rod internal gas pressure and optionally axial flow of fission gases. The clad-to-coolant heat transfer conditions can either be specified as pre-calculated data or can be determined by a coolant channel model in the code. The code provides different clad rupture models depending on cladding temperature and amount of cladding plastic hoop strain. For LOCA analysis, a model calculating local clad shape (ballooning) and associated local stresses is available to predict clad burst. A strain based failure model is present for cladding rupture driven by pellet-cladding mechanical interaction. Two models exist for computation of high-temperature clad oxidation under LOCA (i) the Baker-Just model for licensing calculations and (ii) the Cathcart-Pawel model for best-estimate calculations. The code appears to be fairly easy to use, however, the applicability of the current version as a self-standing analysis tool for LOCA and RIA analyses depends highly on the numerical robustness of the coolant channel model for generation of clad-to-coolant heat transfer boundary conditions. The main documentation

  6. A 1.3 cm Line Survey toward Orion KL

    Gong, Y; Thorwirth, S; Spezzano, S; Menten, K M; Walmsley, C M; Wyrowski, F; Mao, R Q; Klein, B

    2015-01-01

    Orion KL has served as a benchmark for spectral line searches throughout the (sub)millimeter regime. The main goal is to systematically study spectral characteristics of Orion KL in the 1.3 cm band. We carried out a spectral line survey (17.9 GHz to 26.2 GHz) with the Effelsberg-100 m telescope towards Orion KL. We find 261 spectral lines, yielding an average line density of about 32 spectral features per GHz above 3$\\sigma$. The identified lines include 164 radio recombination lines (RRLs) and 97 molecular lines. A total of 23 molecular transitions from species known to exist in Orion KL are detected for the first time in the interstellar medium. Non-metastable 15NH3 transitions are detected in Orion KL for the first time. Based on the velocity information of detected lines and the ALMA images, the spatial origins of molecular emission are constrained and discussed. A narrow feature is found in SO2 ($8_{1,7}-7_{2,6}$), possibly suggesting the presence of a maser line. Column densities and fractional abundanc...

  7. Centrifugal barrel polishing of 1.3 GHz Nb cavities

    Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are the key components of particle accelerators such as the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL, under construction) and the planned future International Linear Collider (ILC). Steady progress in surface treatment techniques of SRF cavities in both the achievable quality factor Q and the accelerating electric field Eacc makes new accelerators and ambitious projects feasible. One of the alternative surface preparation techniques which is actually being explored is centrifugal barrel polishing (CBP) pioneered at KEK in Japan in mid-nineties by T. Hiuchi et al. CBP is a mechanical polishing of cavities and results in around 10 x smaller surface roughness and mirror-like surface as compared to chemistry alone. Q and Eacc are expected to be at least as high as for chemically treated cavities. CBP eliminates the bulk chemistry and has the potential to completely replace the chemistry. The University of Hamburg is installing a CBP machine to study it as a cavity preparation and repair technique for 9-cell 1.3 GHz SRF cavities at the Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY). The setup and first commissioning tests will be presented and discussed.

  8. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with /sup 113m/In or /sup 99m/Tc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with /sup 113m/In and of chicken liver labeled with /sup 99m/Tc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres. One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as /sup 99m/Tc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food

  9. Diversidade antigênica entre amostras de Arcobacter spp isoladas de suínos no Rio Grande do Sul e presença de anticorpos aglutinantes em amostras de soro de porcas com problemas reprodutivos Antigenic diversity among strains of Arcobacter spp isolated from pigs in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and presence of agglutinin titers in serum samples of sows with reproductive problems

    Sérgio José de Oliveira; David Emilio Santos Neves de Barcellos; Sandra Maria Borowski

    1999-01-01

    O teste de aglutinação microscópica, usando a técnica descrita para o diagnóstico de leptospirose, foi utilizado para verificar a antigenicidade de 47 amostras de Arcobacter cryaerophilus e duas amostras de Arcobacter butzleri isoladas de suínos no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em frente a soros hiperimunes produzidos em coelhos a partir de amostras padrões das bactérias. Verificou-se grande heterogeneidade antigênica e apenas quatro amostras provocaram títulos acima de 1.600 com os anti-soros p...

  10. Effect of Nb doping on electrochemical properties of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} at high cutoff voltage for lithium-ion battery

    Wu, Jiefan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Liu, Hongguang, E-mail: hongguangliu_01@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); CNOOC Tianjin Chemical Research & Design Institute, Tianjin 300131 (China); Ye, Xuehai; Xia, Jiping; Lu, Yang; Lin, Chaowang; Yu, Xiaowei [CNOOC Tianjin Chemical Research & Design Institute, Tianjin 300131 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Nb substituted LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 2} (x = 0–0.03) was prepared by sol–gel method. • 2% Nb-substituted sample showed better cycle performance at high cutoff voltage. • Ex situ analysis was used to show the structure changes of Nb-doped samples. - Abstract: Nb doped cathode materials with the formula LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 2} (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) have been prepared successfully by sol–gel method. The effect of Nb substitution on the crystal structure and electrochemical properties of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} were studied systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and various electrochemical measurements. The results showed Nb substitution played an important role in the good cycling performance of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}. Charge/discharge tests revealed that LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3–0.02}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 2} showed a capacity retention of 94.1% at 1 C after 50 cycles in a high cutoff voltage range (3.0–4.6 V), while discharge capacity of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} remains only 89.4% of that at 1 C. Ex-situ XRD analysis and EIS analysis indicated that the improved electrochemical properties of Nb-doped sample result from the more stable structure and lower resistance during the electrochemical cycling.

  11. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene neurotoxicity - Passage effect in immortalized astrocytes.

    Maurer, Laura L; Latham, Jackelyn D; Landis, Rory W; Song, Dong Hoon; Epstein, Tamir; Philbert, Martin A

    2016-03-01

    Age-related disturbances in astrocytic mitochondrial function are linked to loss of neuroprotection and decrements in neurological function. The immortalized rat neocortical astrocyte-derived cell line, DI-TNC1, provides a convenient model for the examination of cellular aging processes that are difficult to study in primary cell isolates from aged brain. Successive passages in culture may serve as a surrogate of aging in which time-dependent adaptation to culture conditions may result in altered responses to xenobiotic challenge. To investigate the hypothesis that astrocytic mitochondrial homeostatic function is decreased with time in culture, low passage DI-TNC1 astrocytes (LP; #2-8) and high passage DI-TNC1 astrocytes (HP; #17-28) were exposed to the mitochondrial neurotoxicant 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB). Cells were exposed in either monoculture or in co-culture with primary cortical neurons. Astrocyte mitochondrial membrane potential, morphology, ATP production and proliferation were monitored in monoculture, and the ability of DI-TNC1 cells to buffer K(+)-induced neuronal depolarization was examined in co-cultures. In HP DI-TNC1 cells, DNB exposure decreased proliferation, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and significantly decreased mitochondrial form factor. Low passage DI-TNC1 cells effectively attenuated K(+)-induced neuronal depolarization in the presence of DNB whereas HP counterparts were unable to buffer K(+) in DNB challenge. Following DNB challenge, LP DI-TNC1 cells exhibited greater viability in co-culture than HP. The data provide compelling evidence that there is an abrupt phenotypic change in DI-TNC1 cells between passage #9-16 that significantly diminishes the ability of DI-TNC1 cells to compensate for neurotoxic challenge and provide neuroprotective spatial buffering. Whether or not these functional changes have an in vivo analog in aging brain remains to be determined. PMID:26769196

  12. Characterization of Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) with Municipal Anaerobic Sludge†

    Hawari, Jalal; Halasz, Annamaria; Sheremata, Tamara; Beaudet, Sylvie; Groom, Carl; Paquet, Louise; Rhofir, Chakib; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in liquid cultures with municipal anaerobic sludge showed that at least two degradation routes were involved in the disappearance of the cyclic nitramine. In one route, RDX was reduced to give the familiar nitroso derivatives hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX). In the second route, two novel metabolites, methylenedinitramine [(O2NNH)2CH2] and bis(hydro...

  13. 奥运营销:"1+3"赞助铁律%Olympic Marketing: "1+3" Sponsored Rule

    黄琍

    2008-01-01

    @@ 用1元钱赞助,要用3元钱做推广,这一直是奥运赞助这个豪门盛宴的预算定律.但摆在家门口的北京奥运会,打动了很多中国企业,他们的规模不大只有几十亿元人民币甚至更小规模,奥运赞助的预算规律有可能成为他们不能承受之重.这类企业在市场推广上善于寻找四两拨千斤的机会,习惯于成本意识,市场人员甚至企业操盘者都在意地细数在央视广告中的曝光次数.而且信奉"好钢用在刀刃上"的市场推广原则,他们的实践能否打破"1+3"的奥运赞助铁律?

  14. Microemulsion preparation and electrochemical characteristics of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} powders

    Lu, Chung-Hsin; Lin, Yu-Kai [Electronic and Electro-optical Ceramics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China)

    2009-04-01

    Layer-structured LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} was successfully synthesized via a reverse microemulsion (R{mu}E) route. Well-crystallized nanosized (around 45 nm) powders were obtained with calcination at 800 C. The Rietveld refinement data revealed low degree of cationic displacement in the obtained powders. Within the voltage range of 2.5-4.5 V, the microemulsion-derived LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} delivered 187.2 and 195.5 mAh g{sup -1} at room temperature and 55 C, respectively. The prepared powders were found to exhibit low irreversible capacity and good capacity retention. Microemulsion-derived LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} demonstrated better rate capability than the solid-state derived samples, owing to the reduced particle size and increased surface area. Once the upper cut-off voltage reached 4.6 V, the capacity faded more rapidly than in other operation potential ranges. In this study, the microemulsion process effectively improved the electrochemical characteristics of LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}. This soft chemical route possesses a great potential for synthesizing other types of cathode materials with multiple cations. (author)

  15. 3, 3‧-sulfonyldipropionitrile: A novel electrolyte additive that can augment the high-voltage performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/graphite batteries

    Zheng, Xiangzhen; Huang, Tao; Pan, Ying; Wang, Wenguo; Fang, Guihuang; Ding, Kaining; Wu, Maoxiang

    2016-07-01

    Our study shows that 3, 3‧-sulfonyldipropionitrile (SDPN), as an electrolyte additive, can dramatically enhance the performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/graphite lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) at high voltages (3.0-4.6 V vs. Li/Li+). After adding 0.2 wt% SDPN to the electrolytes; i.-e., 1.0 M LiPF6-EC/DMC/EMC, the capacity for the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/graphite cell to retain power was significantly increased from 59.5% to 77.3% after only 100 cycles, which shows the promising application of SDPN at higher voltages. Density functional theory calculation results indicate that SDPN had reduced oxidative constancy compared to ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC). The effects of SDPN on cell performance are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The testing results indicate that the improvement in cycling activity could be ascribed to the thinner cathode electrolyte interface film originated from SDPN on the LIB using LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, which reduced the interfacial resistance at a high voltage, but also protected the decomposition of electrolytes and suppressed transition metal dissolution.

  16. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of CaF2-coated for long-cycling Li[Mn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3]O2 cathode materials

    Li[Mn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3]O2 cathode material for lithium ion batteries was coated by CaF2 via wet coating strategy. The CaF2-coated Li[Mn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3]O2 were analyzed by X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) to confirm the structure and morphology of cathode material. Cyclic voltammetry and cycling charge–discharge measurements were carried out to study the electrochemical performance of bare and coated samples, as well as the optimal coating dosage. Comparison tests have found that the capacity retention is 67.9% for bare sample and 93.5% for 1.0 wt.% CaF2-coated sample. In summary, the CaF2 coating strategy benefits the cycling performance of Li[Mn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3]O2 cathode material, and the optimal dosage of coating agent is 1.0 wt.%.

  17. Quantitation of DNA Adducts Induced by 1,3-Butadiene

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W.; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 106 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 μM DEB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 106 nucleotides, respectively. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  18. Magnetic resonance studies of irradiated 1,3-dimethylxanthine

    ESR and ENDOR techniques were used to study the x-ray induced damage in single crystals of the organic molecule theophylline (1,3 dimethylxanthine). A K-band spectrometer operating at 25GHz was used for ESR and ENDOR measurements. X-irradiation was carried out at 25K, 80K, and at room temperature, and spectra were observed as the temperature was varied. The low temperature experiments were achieved by using a closed cycle helium refrigeration system. A detailed analysis was made of the spectra, and four different radicals (R1, R2, R3, and R4) were identified after irradiation. Radical R1 was identified as a hydrogen atom radical, stable from 20 to 6OK; radical R2 was identified as an anion radical stable from 20 to 8OK; radical R3 was formed by hydrogen abstraction from the methyl group at C(10); and radical R4 was found to be a hydrogen-adduct species. Radical R3 was characterized by the following parameters: (1) Methylene hydrogen hyperfine tensor values of 28.8, 17.8, 13.2 G, and 27.7, 18.9, 8.8 G; (2) g-tensor values of 2.0012, 2.0019, and 2.0036; (3) Isotropic methyl group coupling of 4 G; (4) A spin density of 0.68 on C(10). Radical R4 was characterized by (1) an isotropic methelene hydrogen coupling of 37.1 G; (2) a maximum nitrogen coupling at N(9) of 21 G; (3) hydrogen coupling tensor values, due to protonation at N(g), of 12.0, 8.5, and 3.0 G; (4) rotating methyl group tensor values, at N(l), of 2.38, 2.71, and 5.19 MHz; (5) g-tensor values of 2.0012, 2.0033, and 2.0049; (6) spin density of 0.38 on N(9). A kinetics study indicated that radical R3 converts to radical R4 at about 160 K

  19. Magnetic resonance studies of irradiated 1,3-dimethylxanthine

    Majid, E.

    1989-01-01

    ESR and ENDOR techniques were used to study the x-ray induced damage in single crystals of the organic molecule theophylline (1,3 dimethylxanthine). A K-band spectrometer operating at 25GHz was used for ESR and ENDOR measurements. X-irradiation was carried out at 25K, 80K, and at room temperature, and spectra were observed as the temperature was varied. The low temperature experiments were achieved by using a closed cycle helium refrigeration system. A detailed analysis was made of the spectra, and four different radicals (R1, R2, R3, and R4) were identified after irradiation. Radical R1 was identified as a hydrogen atom radical, stable from 20 to 6OK; radical R2 was identified as an anion radical stable from 20 to 8OK; radical R3 was formed by hydrogen abstraction from the methyl group at C(10); and radical R4 was found to be a hydrogen-adduct species. Radical R3 was characterized by the following parameters: (1) Methylene hydrogen hyperfine tensor values of 28.8, 17.8, 13.2 G, and 27.7, 18.9, 8.8 G; (2) g-tensor values of 2.0012, 2.0019, and 2.0036; (3) Isotropic methyl group coupling of 4 G; (4) A spin density of 0.68 on C(10). Radical R4 was characterized by (1) an isotropic methelene hydrogen coupling of 37.1 G; (2) a maximum nitrogen coupling at N(9) of 21 G; (3) hydrogen coupling tensor values, due to protonation at N(g), of 12.0, 8.5, and 3.0 G; (4) rotating methyl group tensor values, at N(l), of 2.38, 2.71, and 5.19 MHz; (5) g-tensor values of 2.0012, 2.0033, and 2.0049; (6) spin density of 0.38 on N(9). A kinetics study indicated that radical R3 converts to radical R4 at about 160 K.

  20. Caracterização antigênica e molecular de oito amostras do vírus da doença de Aujeszky isoladas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul em 2003 Antigenic and molecular characterization of eight samples of Aujeszky's disease virus isolated in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003

    Alessandra D'Ávila da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Aujeszky ou pseudoraiva (DA, causada pelo vírus da pseudoraiva (PRV é a maior preocupação na produção de suínos. No estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, a DA foi somente detectada em 1954, em bovino. Em 2003, ocorreram dois surtos de encefalite em granjas na região norte do estado, fronteira com o estado de Santa Catarina. O vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA foi isolado a partir de animais coletados em oito granjas distintas da região e submetido a análises antigênicas e moleculares. As amostras de VDA isoladas foram comparadas com as amostras padrão NIA-3 e NP. A caracterização antigênica dos mesmos foi realizada com testes de imunoperoxidase frente a um painel de anticorpos mono-clonais (Mabs preparado contra epitopos de glicoproteinas virais (gB, gC, gD e gE. A caracterização genômica foi realizada através da análise restrição enzimática (REA sobre o genoma total das amostras, com a enzima de restrição (REA Bam HI. O perfil antigênico das oito amostras isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul, bem como os apresentados pelas amostras padrão NIA-3 e NP, foram similares. A REA revelou que todos as oito amostras do Rio Grande do Sul apresentaram um arranjo genômico do tipo II, genótipo frequentemente encontrado em surtos prévios de DA em outros estados do Brasil. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que as oito amostras isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul são similares.Pseudorabies or Aujeszky's disease (AD, caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV is a major concern in swine production. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, AD was only detected in 1954, in cattle. In 2003 two outbreaks of encephalitis occurred on the northern region of the state, close to the border with the state of Santa Catarina. Pseudorabies virus (PRV was isolated from distinct farms within the region and subjected to antigenic and genomic analyses. These isolates were compared with prototype strains NIA-3 and NP. Antigenic characterization with a

  1. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries

    Zhang, Xihua [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Yongbing, E-mail: ybxie@ipe.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); Cao, Hongbin, E-mail: hbcao@ipe.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); Nawaz, Faheem [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yi [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A simple process to recycle cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries. • Complete separation of the cathode material from the aluminum foil is achieved. • The recovered aluminum foil is highly pure. • LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} is directly resynthesized from the separated cathode material. - Abstract: To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15 vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g{sup −1}, reacting at 40 °C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} are 201 mAh g{sup −1} and 155.4 mAh g{sup −1} (2.8–4.5 V, 0.1 C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g{sup −1} even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%.

  2. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries

    Highlights: • A simple process to recycle cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries. • Complete separation of the cathode material from the aluminum foil is achieved. • The recovered aluminum foil is highly pure. • LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is directly resynthesized from the separated cathode material. - Abstract: To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15 vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g−1, reacting at 40 °C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are 201 mAh g−1 and 155.4 mAh g−1 (2.8–4.5 V, 0.1 C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g−1 even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%

  3. Imunodiagnóstico da leptospirose humana através do teste ELISA-IgM, empregando-se diferentes preparações antigênicas a partir de sorotipos prevalentes de Leptospira interrogans Immunodiagnostic of human leptospirosis by ELISA-IgM, employing: different antigenic preparations as from prevalent serovars of Leptospira interrogans

    Marcos Vinicius da Silva

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo comparativo de diferentes sorotipos de Leptospira interrogans utilizados na preparação de antígenos empregados no teste ELISA, para a detecção de anticorpos da classe IgM, em amostras de soro na fase precoce e tardia da leptospirose humana. Foram utilizados dez sorotipos, escolhidos entre os que apresentaram maior reatividade na soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM, na cidade de São Paulo. Os cinco sorotipos que apresentaram melhores resultados individualmente no teste ELISA-IgM (canicola, hebdomadis, icterohaemorrhagiae, cynopteri e brasiliensis, foram também estudados em mistura antigênica. Os antígenos não tratados apresentaram maior reatividade do que os antígenos tratados com Triton X - 100 (4% à temperatura de 50ºC, durante 4 horas. O teste ELISA-IgM empregando os sorotipos não tratados, isoladamente, e em mistura antigênica, mostrou-se altamente sensível, podendo ser empregado como teste de triagem para o diagnóstico precoce da leptospirose humana. Outra aplicação do teste é permitir a detecção do início de situações epidêmicas ou de surtos, possibilitando acionar medidas de vigilância epidemiológica.A comparative study among different serovars of Leptospira interrogans was performed in order to prepare antigens to detect IgM antibodies by ELISA in early and late phase of human leptospirosis. Ten serovars were chosen among the most prevalent detected by microscopic seroagglutination (SAM in São Paulo city. Using ELISA-IgM five of them showed better results (canicola, hebdomadis, icterohaemorrhagiae, cynopteri and brasiliensis. These ones were also studied in a pool. The non-treated antigens showed higher reactivity than the Triton X-100 (4%/50ºC/4h. ELISA-IgM using individually or pool of non treated antigens proved to be reliable with high sensitivity and should be used for an earlier diagnosis of leptospirosis, as a trial test. Faster diagnostic elucidation can be useful to detect

  4. 40 CFR 721.7280 - 1,3-Propanediamine, N,N′-1,2-ethanediylbis-, polymer with 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine...

    2010-07-01

    ...-ethanediylbis-, polymer with 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine, reaction products with N-butyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl...-, polymer with 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine, reaction products with N-butyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4... identified as 1,3-propanediamine, N,N′-1,2-ethanediylbis-, polymer with...

  5. Genotoxicity of 1,3-butadiene and its epoxy intermediates.

    Walker, Vernon E; Walker, Dale M; Meng, Quanxin; McDonald, Jacob D; Scott, Bobby R; Seilkop, Steven K; Claffey, David J; Upton, Patricia B; Powley, Mark W; Swenberg, James A; Henderson, Rogene F

    2009-08-01

    Current risk assessments of 1,3-butadiene (BD*) are complicated by limited evidence of its carcinogenicity in humans. Hence, there is a critical need to identify early events and factors that account for the heightened sensitivity of mice to BD-induced carcinogenesis and to deter-mine which animal model, mouse or rat, is the more useful surrogate of potency for predicting health effects in BD-exposed humans. HEI sponsored an earlier investigation of mutagenic responses in mice and rats exposed to BD, or to the racemic mixture of 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (BDO) or of 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (BDO2; Walker and Meng 2000). In that study, our research team demonstrated (1) that the frequency of mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) gene of splenic T cells from BD-exposed mice and rats could be correlated with the species-related differences in cancer susceptibility; (2) that mutagenic-potency and mutagenic-specificity data from mice and rats exposed to BD or its individual epoxy intermediates could provide useful information about the BD metabolites responsible for mutations in each species; and (3) that our novel approach to measuring the mutagenic potency of a given chemical exposure as the change in Hprt mutant frequencies (Mfs) over time was valuable for estimating species-specific differences in mutagenic responses to BD exposure and for predicting the effect of BD metabolites in each species. To gain additional mode-of-action information that can be used to inform studies of human responses to BD exposure, experiments in the current investigation tested a new set of five hypotheses about species-specific patterns in the mutagenic effects in rodents of exposure to BD and BD metabolites: 1. Repeated BD exposures at low levels that approach the occupational exposure limit for BD workers (set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration) are mutagenic in female mice. 2. The differences in mutagenic responses of the Hprt gene to BD

  6. Biodegradation of the Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine Ring Cleavage Product 4-Nitro-2,4-Diazabutanal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Spanggord, Ronald J.; Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-01-01

    Initial denitration of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 produces CO2 and the dead-end product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), OHCNHCH2NHNO2, in high yield. Here we describe experiments to determine the biodegradability of NDAB in liquid culture and soils containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium. A soil sample taken from an ammunition plant contained RDX (342 μmol kg−1), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; 3,057 μmol kg−1), MNX (hex...

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2−xClx as Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries at 55°C

    Hai-Lang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of materials based on the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xClx system were prepared by a sol-gel method, and their phase formation processes, crystal structures, and electrochemical performances were studied by thermogravimetric analyses (TG/DTG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, charge-discharge tests, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The XRD patterns indicate that the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xClx powders with better crystalline structure could be obtained at calcining temperature 850°C for 20 h under air atmosphere and show that the chlorine addition may induce the change of lattice parameters. The charge-discharge tests show that both the specific capacities and capacity retentions of Cl-doped materials increase compared to the undoped material, especially for the capacity retention at the high-voltage region. At 55°C, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-0.10Cl0.10 cathode material shows the highest initial discharge capacity of 180.1 mAh·g−1 and the best capacity retention with the value of 91.9% after 100 cycles in the region of 2.0–4.4 V at 0.1 C, while the initial discharge capacity is 208.2 mAh·g−1 when the charge cutoff voltage is up to 4.6 V.

  8. Growth mechanisms for spherical mixed hydroxide agglomerates prepared by co-precipitation method: A case of Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3(OH)2

    Highlights: • Anisotropic growth of Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3(OH)2 along the [0 0 1] direction was revealed. • DFT calculation results show crystal surface energies of (0 0 1) plane is highest. • A new model was proposed to explain the formation of spherical agglomerates. - Abstract: Spherical Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3(OH)2 agglomerates were synthesized by the co-precipitation method in the presence of ammonia. The results show that the growth mechanism of spherical agglomerates follows three-stages, i.e. nucleation and anisotropic growth of single crystals; agglomeration of polycrystalline crystallites agglomerated by single crystal grains as primary particles to form embryonic agglomerates; formation, growth and consolidation of spherical agglomerates or particles by agglomeration of embryonic agglomerates, continued growth of individual crystals in the agglomerates and further attachment of primary particles. The first two stages are very fast while the last stage takes almost the entire process to complete. The main reason for the anisotropic growth of Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3(OH)2 crystal is that crystal surface energy of E(001), E(100), E(101) and E(102) is different with E(001) being the highest. The morphology of the final spherical agglomerates is explained by partial re-crystallization of contacting primary particles. The growth process of spherical agglomerates was examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and calculation of crystal surface energy using density function theory

  9. Improvement of electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 by coating with V2O5 layer

    Liu, Xizheng; He, Ping; Li, Huiqiao; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2012-01-01

    The capacity fading and lower rate of layered cathode materials prohibited widely applications in lithium ion batteries. In this paper, V2O5 was coated on the surface of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 to enhance its electrochemical performance at a voltage range of 2.8–4.5 V. The prepared materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The capacity retention at the 100th cycle have been increased from 62% to o...

  10. Poly(,'-dibromo--ethyl-benzene-1,3-disulphonamide) and ,,','-tetrabromobenzene-1,3-disulphonamide as novel catalysts for synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives

    Ramin Ghorbani-Vaghei; Somaye Hajinazari

    2013-03-01

    Poly(,'-dibromo--ethyl-benzene-1,3-disulphonamide) [PBBS] and ,,','-tetrabromobenzene-1,3-disulphonamide [TBBDA] were used as efficient catalysts for the synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives in excellent yields from 1,2-diamines and 1,2-dicarbonyls under aqueous and solvent-free conditions.

  11. 1-(Triethoxysilylbuta-1,3-dienes—New Building Blocks for Stereoselective Synthesis of Unsymmetrical (E,E-1,4-Disubstituted 1,3-dienes

    Justyna Szudkowska-Frątczak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A convenient methodology for the highly stereoselective synthesis of unsymmetrical (1E,3E-1,4-disubstituted 1,3-dienes based on palladium-catalyzed Hiyama cross-coupling reaction of 1-(triethoxysilyl-substituted buta-1,3-dienes with aryl iodides is reported.

  12. 1,3,5-Triethylbenzene Transformation Reactions Compared to Its Transalkylation Reaction with Ethylbenzene

    Akhtar, M. Naseem

    2009-08-20

    The transalkylation of 1,3,5-triethylbenzene (1,3,5-TEB) with ethylbenzene (EB) has been studied over USYtype catalysts using a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The reaction mixture EB and 1,3,5-TEB was used at a molar ratio of 1:1, which is equivalent to 40:60 wt % of EB/1,3,5-TEB, respectively. The reaction temperature was varied from 350 to 500 °C with a time on stream ranging from 3-15 s. The effect of reaction conditions on 1,3,5-TEB conversion, DEB selectivity, and isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is reported. The transalkylation of 1,3,5-TEB with EB has been compared to the transformation reaction of pure 1,3,5-TEB and EB. The experimental results have revealed that reactivity of 1,3,5-TEB and selectivity of DEB is increased during the transalkylation reaction (EB + 1,3,5-TEB) as compared to the transformation reaction of pure EB or 1,3,5-TEB. The 1,3,5-TEB undergoes isomerization and a cracking reaction to produce DEB and EB but does not undergo any appreciable disproportionation reaction. The isomerization of 1,3,5-TEB is more active at low temperatures, while cracking is more active at high temperatures. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics of poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene)-alumina for mesocarbon microbeads versus LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 Li-ion polymer cells

    Manikandan, P.; Kousalya, S.; Periasamy, P.

    2013-10-01

    Membranes based on the composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) system have been prepared through the solution casting method using poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP)), nano-sized alumina ceramics (Al2O3) and 1 M LiCF3SO3 salt dissolved in the mixture of (1:1) ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate (EC+DMC) solvents. Physicochemical characteristics viz., structural, electrochemical properties of these membranes have been analyzed. The optimum composition of 10 wt% Al2O3 with (P(VdF-HFP)) and 1 M LiCF3SO3 in EC+DMC showed a higher ionic conductivity of 7.1047×10-3 S cm-1, electrochemical stability of 4.9 V (CGPE-10, 30 °C) which can be attributed to honey-comb structure. This Li/CGPE-10/LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cell delivered significant enhancement in charge-discharge studies viz., 186 mA h g-1 (1st) and good capacity retention ˜90% (50th) in the voltage range 2.5-4.6 V at 0.1 C rate. Also, corresponding Li-ion polymer cell (MCMB/CGPE-10/LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2) yielded proportionate 2.38 mA h and the capacity retention ˜95% at the 50th cycle.

  14. Structure and Electrochemistry of LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Ti, Al, Fe) Positive Electrode Materials

    Wilcox, James; Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca

    2009-01-14

    A series of materials based on the LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M = Ti,Al,Fe) system has been synthesized and examined structurally and electrochemically. It is found that the changes in electrochemical performance depend highly on the nature of the substituting atom and its effect on the crystal structure. Substitution with small amounts of Ti4+ (y = 1/12) leads to the formation of a high-capacity and high-rate positive electrode material. Iron substituted materials suffer from an increased antisite defect concentration and exhibit lower capacities and poor rate capabilities. Single-phase materials are found for LiNi1/3Co1/3-yAlyMn1/3O2 when y<_ 1/4 and all exhibit decreased capacities when cycled to 4.3 V. However, an increase in rate performance and cycle stability upon aluminum substitution is correlated with an improved lamellar structure.

  15. High-performance hierarchical LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 microspheres synthesized via a facile template-sacrificial route

    Highlights: • Microsphere hierarchical LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 was fabricated. • A facile in situ route with MnO2 as the sacrificial template was developed. • Conventional co-precipitate synthesis method was compared. • The hierarchical microsphere sample exhibits superior electrochemical performance. -- Abstract: LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 microspheres have been successfully synthesized via a facile in situ route with MnO2 as the sacrificial template. The as-obtained sample shows a unique nano/micro-hierarchical structure. As a cathode material for lithium-ion battery, the sample exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with higher capacity, superior cycling stability and rate capability as compared with that prepared by conventional co-precipitate reaction method. The discharge specific capacities for the first cycle are 196, 187, 182 and 176 mA h g−1 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 C, respectively. The superior performance can be ascribed to the unique microstructure with numerous nanosized primary particles that can provide rapid pathway for Li+ and e− diffusion, and facilitate the penetration of the electrolyte

  16. Preparation of Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 powders for cathode material in secondary battery by solid-state method

    PARK Sook Hee; KANG Chan Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    Employing Li2CO3, NiO, Co3O4, and MnCO3 powders as starting materials, Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 was synthesized by solid-state reaction method.Various grinding aids were applied during milling in order to optimize the synthesis process.After successive heat treatments at 650 and 950 ℃, the prepared powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy.The powders prepared by adding salt (NaCl) as grinding aid exhibit a clear R3m layer structure.The powders by other grinding aids like heptane show some impurity peaks in the XRD pattern.The former powders show a uniform particle size distribution of less than 1 μm average size while the latter shows a wide distribution ranging from 1 to 10 μm.Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysiss show that the ratio of Ni, Co, and Mn content in the powder is approximately 1/3, 1/3, and 1/3, respecively.The EDX data indicate no incorporation of sodium or chlorine into the powders.Charge-discharge tests gave an initial discharge capacity of 160 mAh·g-1 for the powders with NaCl addition while 70 mAh·g-1 for the powders with heptane.

  17. The synthesis and properties of cyclic derivatives of glycerin. 1,3-dioxolan

    For the receiving of biologically active compounds, reagents for the organic synthesis and other, the important sense have the cyclic ethers, received on the glycerin base. Them belong the derivatives of 1,3-dioxolan and 1,3-dioxan

  18. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-3 - Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation.

    2010-10-01

    ...: Laboratory management and operation. 970.1504-1-3 Section 970.1504-1-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Negotiation 970.1504-1-3 Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation. (a) For the management... principles (i.e., commercial using 48 CFR 31.2, nonprofit using OMB Circular A-122, or...

  19. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments. 1.3 Section 1.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway...

  20. Darstellung und Reaktionen von Tricarbonyl-(trimethylsiloxy-1,3-cyclohexadien)-Eisen-Komplexen

    Effenberger, Franz; Keil, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Tricarbonyl (trimethylsiloxy-1,3-cyclohexadien) iron complexes react with triphenylmethyl tetrafluoroborate by elimination of both, hydride and the trimethylsilyl group. The tricarbonyl(1,3cyclohexadienyl)iron salt, resulting from hydrolysis, reacts with nucleophiles to afford 5-substituted tricarbonyl(2-hydroxy-1,3-cyclohexadien)-iron complexes.

  1. Electrochemical properties of nano-sized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powders in the range from 56 to 101 nm prepared by flame spray pyrolysis

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powders are prepared by flame spray pyrolysis. A lithium excess of 15% of the stoichiometric amount in the spray solution produced powder with good electrochemical properties for use as a cathode. The mean particle sizes of the powders post-treated at 700 and 800 °C are 56 and 101 nm, respectively. The powder prepared with 15% excess lithium results in the highest initial discharge capacity of 174 mAh g−1. Highlights: ► Nano-sized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powders are prepared directly by flame spray pyrolysis. ► The mean particle sizes of the powders post-treated at 700 and 800 °C are 56 and 101 nm, respectively. ► The powder prepared with 15% excess lithium results in the highest initial discharge capacity of 174 mAh g−1. - Abstract: Nano-sized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powders in the range from 56 to 101 nm with hexagonal α-NaFeO2 structures are prepared directly by flame spray pyrolysis. Post-treatment of the powders at 700 °C increases their crystallinity and mean particle sizes. The intensity ratios of the powders’ (0 0 3) and (1 0 4) peaks in the XRD patterns prepared from spray solutions with lithium excesses of 10, 15 and 20% of the stoichiometric amount are 0.83, 1.25 and 1.25, respectively. The powder prepared with 15% excess lithium results in the highest initial discharge capacity of 174 mAh g−1 when post-treated at 700 °C. The discharge capacity of the powder post-treated at 800 °C decreases from 168 to 120 mAh g−1 after 30 cycles.

  2. Daño a los hepatocitos por lectina inhibible por D-Galactosa/N-Acetil D-Galactosamina de Entamoeba Histolytica

    Judith Pacheco Yépez; Adrián Rondán Zárate; Mineko Shibayama; Víctor Tsutsumi; Rafael Campos Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    La lectina de Entamoeba Histolytica se ha involucrado de manera importante en la patogenia de la amibiasis y se cree que participa en la adherencia de los trofozoítos a las células blanco. Además, se describe que la lectina puede dañar directamente a las células blanco. Por otro lado, el papel de los anticuerpos en la inmunidad protectora es controversial. En el presente estudio nosotros analizamos si la lectina se une a la superficie de los hepatocitos y los daña directamente;...

  3. α-1,3-Glucanase: present situation and prospect of research.

    Suyotha, Wasana; Yano, Shigekazu; Wakayama, Mamoru

    2016-02-01

    α-1,3-Glucanases hydrolyze α-1,3-glucan which is an insoluble linear α-1,3-linked homopolymer of glucose and these enzymes are classified into two families of glycoside hydrolases on the basis of amino acid sequence similarity; type-71 α-1,3-glucanases found in fungi and type-87 enzymes in bacteria. α-1,3-Glucan (also called 'mutan') is a major component of dental plaque formed by oral Streptococci and has important physiological roles in various fungal species, including as a component of cell walls, an endogenous carbon source for sexual development, and a virulent factor. Considering these backgrounds, α-1,3-glucanases have been investigated from the perspectives of applications to dental care and development of cell-wall lytic enzymes. Compared with information regarding other glycoside hydrolases such as amylases, cellulases, chitinases, and β-glucanases, there is limited biochemical and structural information available regarding α-1,3-glucanase. Further research on α-1,3-glucanases on enzyme application to dental care and biological control of pathogenic fungi is expected. In this mini-review, we briefly describe how α-1,3-glucanases are categorized and characterized and present our study findings regarding α-1,3-glucanase from Bacillus circulans KA-304. Furthermore, we briefly discuss potential future applications of α-1,3-glucanases. PMID:26748807

  4. Vibrational properties, phonon spectrum and related thermal parameters of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: a theoretical study.

    Qian, Wen; Zhang, Weibin; Zong, Hehou; Gao, Guofang; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum, phonon dispersion curve, and phonon density of states (DOS) of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (β-HMX) crystal were obtained by molecular simulation and calculations. As results, it was found that the peaks at low frequency (0-2.5 THz) are comparable with the experimental Terahertz absorption and the molecular vibrational modes are in agreement with previous reports. Thermodynamic properties including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity as functions of temperature were obtained based on the calculated phonon spectrum. The heat capacity at normal temperature was calculated using linear fitting method, with a result consistent with experiments. Graphical Abstract Phonon spectrum and heat capacity of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine from DFT calculation. PMID:26669878

  5. EFFECTS OF SOME PHENYLETHYNYLSILICON COMPOUNDS ON HEAT-CURABLE SILICONE RUBBER Ⅲ 1,1,3,3-TETRAMETHYL- 1,3-DIPHENYLETHYNYL-DISILOXANE

    FENG Shengyu; YU Shuqi; LI Shijun; ZHANG Shengyou; CHEN Jianhua; DU Zuodong

    1995-01-01

    We have shown that some phenylethynylsilicon compounds are good cure crosslinkers of heat-curable silicone rubber(HCSR). In this paper the effects of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl1,3-diphenylethynyldisiloxane (TMDPDS) as a crosslinker on HCSR were studied. The vulcanizates with fine mechanical properties could be obtained with suitable amounts of TMDPDS. Sol fractions, and crosslinking density of vulcanizates and vulcanization retardation effect of TMDPDS on hydrosilation curing silicone rubber were also discussed.

  6. A Convenient Method for the Synthesis of 1,3,2-Oxazaphospholidin-[3,2-a]-8-oxo-10-thio(or seleno)-[1,3,2]-benzodiazaphosphorines

    2000-01-01

    A Convenient method for the synthesis of fused phosphorusheterocycle 1,3,2-oxazaphosphorin-[3,2-a]-8-oxo-10-thio(or seleno)-[1,3,2]-benzodiazaphosphorines was carried out in one pot by the reaction of Tris(diethylamino)phosphine with multifunctional compounds 2-(N-(βor γ-hydroxyl) alkylene) amino-benzamides 1.When PCL3 was used, only chlorinated product was obtained.

  7. 1H,1H,5H-Perfluoropentyl-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethylether as a co-solvent for high voltage LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/graphite cells

    Wang, Chengyun; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Zhao, Minkai; Xiao, Xin; Yu, Le; Nan, Junmin

    2016-03-01

    1H,1H,5H-Perfluoropentyl-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethylether (F-EAE) mixed with ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), and lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is evaluated as a co-solvent high-potential electrolyte of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/graphite batteries. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) indicate that the EC/DEC-based electrolyte with F-EAE possesses a high oxidation potential (>5.2 V vs. Li/Li+) and excellent film-forming characteristics. With 40 wt% F-EAE in the electrolyte, the capacity retention of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/graphite pouch cells that are cycled between 3.0 and 4.5 V is significantly improved from 28.8% to 86.8% after 100 cycles. In addition, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of three-electrode pouch cells, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used to characterize the effects of F-EAE on the enhanced capacity retention. It is demonstrated that F-EAE facilitates the formation of a stable surface electrolyte interface (SEI) layer with low impedance on the anode and effectively suppresses an increase in the charge-transfer resistance on the cathode. These results suggest that F-EAE can serve as an alternative electrolyte solvent for 4.5 V high voltage rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine and Its Mononitroso Derivative Hexahydro-1-Nitroso-3,5-Dinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain SCZ-1 Isolated from an Anaerobic Sludge

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Halasz, Annamaria; Paquet, Louise; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    In previous work, we found that an anaerobic sludge efficiently degraded hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but the role of isolates in the degradation process was unknown. Recently, we isolated a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae strain SCZ-1, using MIDI and the 16S rRNA method from this sludge and employed it to degrade RDX. Strain SCZ-1 degraded RDX to formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (CH3OH) (12% of total C), carbon dioxide (CO2) (72% of total...

  9. Kv1.3 potassium channel mediates macrophage migration in atherosclerosis by regulating ERK activity.

    Kan, Xiao-Hong; Gao, Hai-Qing; Ma, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Lin; Ling, Ming-Ying; Wang, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Ion channels expressed in macrophages have been tightly related to atherosclerosis by coupling cellular function. How the voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) affect macrophage migration remain unknown. The aim of our study is to investigate whether Kv1.3-ERK signaling pathway plays an important role in the process. We explored the expression of Kv1.3 in coronary atherosclerotic heart disease and found Kv1.3 channel was increased in acute coronary syndrome patients. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with Kv1.3 small interfering RNA, suppressed cell migration. The expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 also decreased after knockdown of Kv1.3. On the other hand, overexpression of Kv1.3 channel promoted cell migration and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. U-0126, the mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, could reverse macrophage migration induced by Kv1.3 channel overexpression. Downregulation of Kv1.3 channel by siRNA could not further inhibit cell migration when cells were treated with U-0126. It means that ERK is downstream signal of Kv1.3 channel. We concluded that Kv1.3 may stimulate macrophage migration through the activation of ERK. PMID:26748289

  10. Antigenic and genetic characterization of the first rabies virus isolated from the bat Eumops perotis in Brazil Caracterização antigênica e genética do primeiro isolado de vírus da raiva em morcego Eumops perotis no Brasil

    Juliana Galera Castilho

    2008-04-01

    realizado em cultura de células N2A e em camundongos adultos. A amostra foi submetida à tipificação antigênica, utilizando um painel de oito anticorpos monoclonais (CDC/Atlanta/USA. A seqüência de DNA do gene da nucleoproteína, localizada entre os nucleotídeos 102 a 1385, foi alinhada com seqüências homólogas presentes no GenBank, usando o método CLUSTAL/W e o alinhamento foi utilizado para a construção da árvore filogenética de distância "neighbor-joining" com o modelo K-2-P. O SNC testado foi negativo por IFD, e somente um camundongo morreu após inoculação com a suspensão do SNC do morcego. A tipificação antigênica apresentou resultado não-compatível com os padrões definidos pelo painel. A análise filogenética mostrou que o vírus isolado segregou no mesmo grupo relacionado com outros vírus isolados de morcegos insetívoros, gênero Nyctinomops ssp. (98,8% de identidade de nucleotídeos entre elas.

  11. Adenovirus-mediated expression of pig α(1, 3) galactosyltransferase reconstructs Gal α(1, 3) Gal epitope on the surface of human tumor cells

    2001-01-01

    Gal α(1,3)Gal(gal epitope)is a carbohydrate epitope and synthesized in large amount by α(1,3)galactosyltransferase [α(1,3)GT] enzyme on the cells of lower mammalian animals such as pigs and mice.Human has no gal epitope due to the inactivation of α(1,3)GT gene but produces a large amount of antibodies(anti-Gal)which recognize Gal α(1,3)Gal structures specifically.In this study,a replicationdeficient recombinant adenoviral vector Ad5sGT containing pig α(1,3)GT cDNA was constructed and characterized.Adenoviral vector-mediated transfer of pig α(1,3)GT gene into human tumor cells such as malignant melanoma A375,stomach cancer SGC-7901,and lung cancer SPC-A-1 was reported for the first time.Results showed that Gal epitope did not increase the sensitivity of human tumor cells to human complement-mediated lysis,although human complement activation and the binding of human IgG and IgM natural antibodies to human tumor cells were enhanced significantly after Ad5sGT transduction.Appearance of gal epitope on the human tumor cells changed the expression of cell surface carbohydrates reacting with Ulex europaeus I(UEA I)lectins,Vicia villosa agglutinin(VVA),Arachis hypogaea agglutinin(PNA),and Glycine max agglutinin(SBA)to different degrees.In addition,no effect of gal epitope on the growth in vitro of human tumor cells was observed in MTT assay.

  12. A Multi-Component Additive to Improve the Thermal Stability of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-Based Lithium Ion Batteries

    Qingsong Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the safety of lithium ion batteries, a multi-component (MC additive (consisting of vinylene carbonate (VC, 1,3-propylene sulfite (PS and dimethylacetamide (DMAC is used in the baseline electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC + diethyl carbonate (DEC. The electrolyte with the MC additive is named safety electrolyte. The thermal stabilities of fully charged Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM mixed with the baseline electrolyte and safety electrolyte, respectively, are investigated using a C80 micro-calorimeter. The electrochemical performances of the NCM/baseline electrolyte/Li and NCM/safety electrolyte/Li half cells are evaluated using galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and alternating current (AC impedance. The experimental results demonstrate that the fully charged NCM-safety electrolyte system releases less heat and reduces the main sharp exothermic peak value to a great extent, with a reduction of 40.6%. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of NCM/safety electrolyte/Li half cells are not worse, and are almost as good as that of the NCM/baseline electrolyte/Li half cells.

  13. Preparation of thick-film LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 electrodes by aerosol deposition and its application to all-solid-state batteries

    Iwasaki, Shinya; Hamanaka, Tadashi; Yamakawa, Tomohiro; West, William C.; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Motoyama, Munekazu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2014-12-01

    We prepared thick and dense-crystalline LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) composite films at room temperature that can work well as cathodes in all-solid-state battery cells. The thick films were fabricated by aerosol deposition using NMC powder (D50 = 10.61 μm) as a source material. Commercially-obtained NMC powder did not form films at all on silicon wafer substrates, and cracking of the substrates was observed. However, a few tens of nanometer coating with amorphous niobium oxide resulted in the deposition of 7 μm-thick crystalline dense composite films. The films were successfully fabricated also on Li+-conductive glass-ceramic sheets with 150 μm in thickness, and all-solid-state batteries were fabricated. The solid-state battery provided a cathode-basis discharge capacity of 152 mAh g-1 (3.0-4.2 V, 0.025 C, 333 K) and repeated charge-discharge cycles for 20 cycles.

  14. As palavras e as idéias: o poder na Antigüidade - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i2.152 Words and concepts: power in the Ancient World - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i2.152

    Renata Venturini

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo buscou compreender as relações de poder em Roma, dando ênfase ao entendimento do patronato. No estudo da Antigüidade Romana as palavras e as idéias são instrumentos e máscaras. Amicitia, fides são termos latinos que oferecem um exemplo singular do vocabulário e das relações políticas. Certamente, há numerosas investigações especializadas, mas há relativamente poucas pesquisas sobre o papel social e político dos termos latinos. As palavras e as idéias nas Cartas de “Caio Plínio Cecílio Segundo”, conhecido como Plínio, o Jovem, iluminam o estudo das instituições políticas no Império Romano.This article has a purpose to understand the relationships of power in Rome, giving emphasis to the understanding of the patronage. In the study the roman antiquity the words are instruments and masks. Amicitia, fides are latin terms that offers an peculiar example of the vocabulary and political relationship. Indeed, there are numerous specialized investigations , but there is relatively little research on the social and political role of the latins terms. The words and ideas in the Letters of “Caio Plínio Cecílio Segundo”, known as Pliny, the Young, illuminate the study of the political institutions in the roman empire.

  15. Análisis de técnicas de recuperación antigénica para la detección inmunohistoquímica del virus de la diarrea viral bovina Analysis of antigen retrieval techniques for the immunohistochemical detection of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus

    M.R. Marini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluaron diferentes métodos de recuperación antigénica para permitir la inmunodetección del virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina (vDVB en materiales fijados con formol. Se analizó el efecto de la aplicación de digestión proteolítica (ficina, tripsina, pepsina, proteinasa K y su combinación con tratamiento en un horno microondas empleando diferentes concentraciones y tiempos de incubación para el anticuerpo primario. El tratamiento más efectivo fue el realizado con proteinasa K, utilizando diluciones de 1:30 para los anticuerpos primarios, con incubación durante toda la noche a temperatura ambiente. Concluimos que la fijación formólica afecta la antigenicidad del vDVB pero estos efectos pueden ser revertidos por digestión proteolítica específica permitiendo la utilización de la inmunohistoquímica como técnica de rutina para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad.In the present work different methods of antigen retrieval were evaluated to allow the immunodetection of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus (BVDv in materials fixed with formol. The effect of the application of proteolytic digestion was analyzed (ficin, trypsin, pepsin, proteinase K and its combination with treatment in a microwave oven using different concentrations and times of incubation for the primary antibody. The most effective treatment was the one carried out with proteinase K, using 1:30 dilution for the primary antibodies, with overnight incubation at room temperature. We conclude that the formol fixation affects the antigenicity of the BVDv but these effects can be reverted by specific proteolytic digestion allowing the use of the immunohistochemical routine technique for the diagnosis of the disease.

  16. Canonically relativistic quantum mechanics: Representations of the unitary semidirect Heisenberg group, U(1,3)circle-times sH(1,3)

    Born proposed a unification of special relativity and quantum mechanics that placed position, time, energy and momentum on equal footing through a reciprocity principle and extended the usual position-time and energy-momentum line elements to this space by combining them through a new fundamental constant. Requiring also invariance of the symplectic metric yields U(1,3) as the invariance group, the inhomogeneous counterpart of which is the canonically relativistic group CR(1,3)=U(1,3)circle-times sH(1,3), where H(1,3) is the Heisenberg group in four dimensions. This is the counterpart in this theory of the Poincare group and reduces in the appropriate limits to the expected special relativity and classical Hamiltonian mechanics transformation equations. This group has the Poincare group as a subgroup and is intrinsically quantum with the position, time, energy, and momentum operators satisfying the Heisenberg algebra. The representations of the algebra are studied and Casimir invariants are computed. Like the Poincare group, it has a Little Group for a massive rest frame and a null frame. The former is U(3) which clearly contains SU(3) and the latter is Os(2) which contains SU(2)circle-times U(1). copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Synthesis, photophysical property study of novel fluorescent 4-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)-2-phenylnaphtho[1,2-][1,3]oxazole derivatives and their antimicrobial activity

    Kiran R Phatangare; Bhushan N Borse; Vikas S Padalkar; Vikas S Patil; Vinod D Gupta; Prashant G Umape; N Sekar

    2013-01-01

    A series of 4-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)-2-phenylnaphtho[1,2-][1,3]oxazole derivatives have been synthesized from intermediate 1-amino-3-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)naphthalen-2-ol. This intermediate was obtained by coupling 3-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)naphthalen-2-ol with 4-sulphobenzenediazonium chloride followed by reduction with sodium dithionate in water at pH 8-9. 3-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)naphthalen-2-ol was synthesized from 3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid and 2-amino phenol in the presence of PCl3 in chlorobenzene at 130-135°C. All these compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, mass spectral and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds are fluorescent which absorbs in the range of 296 to 332 nm while emits in the ranges of 368 to 404 nm with excellent quantum yield. All compounds were evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger strains by using serial dilution method.

  18. Effect of two major N-nitroso hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on earthworm reproductive success

    Soil and topical tests were employed to investigate the effect of two N-nitroso metabolites of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) on earthworm reproduction. The lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for cocoon production and hatching was 50 mg/kg for both hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) in soil. MNX and TNX also significantly affected cocoon hatching in soil (p 20 values for MNX were 8.7 and 8.8 mg/kg for cocoon and juvenile production, respectively, compared to 9.2 and 9.1 mg/kg for TNX, respectively. The EC20 values for the total number of cocoon hatchlings were 3.1 and 4.7 mg/kg for MNX and TNX, respectively, in soil and 4.5 and 3.1 mg/L in the topical test. Both MNX and TNX inhibited cocoon production and hatching, suggesting that they may have a negative affect on soil ecosystems at contaminated sites. - RDX metabolites affect earthworm cocoon production and hatching

  19. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC2, EC5, and EC95 were 47, 128, and 247 μg/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 μg/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 μg/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 μg/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching

  20. Effect of cassava pulp supplement on 1,3-propanediol production by Clostridium butyricum.

    Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2016-07-20

    To improve its 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production, Clostridium butyricum was cultivated on glycerol medium supplemented with cassava pulp (CP). At small concentrations, the CP improved the 1,3-PD productivity of C. butyricum from (0.25±0.01)g/L/h (glycerol alone) to (0.43±0.02)g/L/h (glycerol+2g/L CP) after 24h fermentation. PMID:27184427

  1. Proteomic Identification of Carbonylated Proteins in 1,3-Dinitrobenzene Neurotoxicity

    Steiner, Stephen R.; Philbert, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated that 1,3-dinitrobenzene-induced (1,3-DNB) oxidative stress led to the oxidative carbonlyation of specific protein targets in DI TNC1 cells. 1,3-DNB-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as indicated by loss of tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) fluorescence, was initially observed at 5 h and coincided with peak reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. ROS production was inhibited in cells pre-treated with the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor, ...

  2. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene–Induced Metabolic Impairment through Selective Inactivation of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex

    James A. Miller; Runkle, Stephanie A.; Tjalkens, Ronald B.; Philbert, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to the chemical intermediate, 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB), produces neuropathology in the central nervous system of rodents analogous to that observed in various conditions of acute energy deprivation including thiamine deficiency and Leigh's necrotizing encephalopathy. Increased production of reactive intermediates in addition to induction of oxidative stress has been implicated in the neurotoxic mechanism of 1,3-DNB, but a clear metabolic target has not been determined. ...

  3. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some New 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives

    Mohamed R. Abdel Aziz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available New series of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles have been prepared via reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazolenaminones 1 with N-phenyl 2-oxopropanehydrazonoyl chloride (2 in dioxane in the presence of triethylamine. Also, some new heterocycles incorporating 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring were obtained by reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazolenaminones 1 with nitrogen-nucleophiles like hydrazine hydrate, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and 2-aminobenzimidazole. The structure of the new products was established based on elemental and spectral analysis. The relation between the structure of the products and their activity towards some microorganisms was studied and promising results were obtained.

  4. Effects of beta-1,3-glucan from Septoria tritici on structural defence responses in wheat

    Shetty, N.P.; Jensen, J.D.; Knudsen, A.;

    2009-01-01

    -1,3-glucanase and chitinase transcripts followed by a subsequent reduction in level. Resistance was also associated with high activity of beta-1,3-glucanase, especially in the apoplastic fluid, in accordance with the biotrophic/endophytic lifestyle of the pathogen in the apoplastic spaces, thus...... of callose. Collectively, these data indicate that resistance is dependent on a fast, initial recognition of the pathogen, probably due to beta-1,3-glucan in the fungal cell walls, and this results in the accumulation of beta-1,3-glucanase and structural defence responses, which may directly inhibit...... the pathogen and protect the host against fungal enzymes and toxins....

  5. 1,3-Dipolare Cycloaddition von N2O an hochreaktive Mehrfachbindungen

    Plefka, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird über 1,3-dipolare Cycloadditionen mit Lachgas (N2O) unter milden Reaktionstemperaturen (≈ RT) berichtet. N2O ist ein sehr unreaktives 1,3-dipolares Reagenz. Bisher in der Literatur durchgeführte 1,3-dipolare Cycloadditionen mit N2O benötigten immer sehr drastische und gefährliche Reaktionsbedingungen (bis zu 300°C und 500 atm.). Dabei entstanden nach einer (postulierten) einleitenden 1,3-dipolaren Cycloaddition von N2O an Olefine oder Alkine immer nur sticks...

  6. Preparation Methods of the Important Intermediate of 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoropropane——1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexachloropropane%1,1,1,3,3,3-六氟丙烷的重要中间体——1,1,1,3,3,3-六氯丙烷的调聚制备方法

    金文斌; 刘毓林

    2011-01-01

    The batch telomerization preparation methods and continuous telomerization preparation methods of the important intermediate of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane—1,1,1,3,3,3-hexachloropropane(HCC-230) is reviewed.The advantages and disadvantages are recommended.%主要阐述了1,1,1,3,3,3-六氟丙烷的重要中间体1,1,1,3,3,3-六氯丙烷的间歇调聚和连续调聚制备方法,并比较了两者的优缺点。

  7. Development of a new bioprocess for production of 1,3-propanediol I.: Modeling of glycerol bioconversion to 1,3-propanediol with Klebsiella pneumoniae enzymes.

    Németh, Aron; Sevella, Béla

    2008-01-01

    Glycerol is a renewable resource for it is formed as a byproduct during biodiesel production. Because of its large volume production, it seems to be a good idea to develop a technology that converts this waste into products of high value, for example, to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD). We suggested an enzymatic bioconversion in a membrane reactor in which the NAD coenzyme can be regenerated, and three key enzymes are retained by a 10-kDa ultrafilter membrane. Unfortunately, some byproducts also formed during successful glycerol to 1,3-PD bioconversion runs, as we used crude enzyme solution of Klebsiella pneumoniae. To study the possibilities to avoid this byproduct formation, we built a mathematical description of this system. The model was also used for simulation bioconversions of high glycerol concentration with and without elimination of byproduct formation and of continuous operation. PMID:18415986

  8. Underlying mechanisms of the synergistic role of Li2MnO3 and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 in high-Mn, Li-rich oxides.

    Lim, Jin-Myoung; Kim, Duho; Park, Min-Sik; Cho, Maenghyo; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2016-04-28

    For large-scale energy storage applications requiring high energy density, the development of Li-rich oxides with enhanced cyclic stabilities during high-voltage operations and large specific capacities is required. In this regard, high-Mn, Li-rich oxides (HMLOs; xLi2MnO3 (1 - x)LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 at x > 0.5) warrant an in-depth study because of their good cyclic performance at high operating voltages and potentially large specific capacities. Here, to understand the synergistic effects and enhanced cyclic stability of HMLOs, mechanically blended HMLO (m-HMLO) and chemically bonded HMLO (c-HMLO) were prepared and investigated. c-HMLO exhibits relatively high reaction voltages, large specific capacities, and enhanced cyclic stabilities (∼99%) at a high operating voltage (∼4.8 V vs. Li/Li(+)) compared with m-HMLO. First-principles calculations with electronic structure analysis were performed using an atomic model developed by Rietveld refinement using as-synthesised c-HMLO. The redox mechanisms of Ni, Co, and Mn ions were determined via the partial density of states of the ground states predicted using the cluster expansion method, which elucidates that LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 stabilises the transition metal (TM) layer of Li2MnO3 and separates Li delithiation potentials in Li2MnO3 in the HMLO. Kinetic analyses including electronic structures revealed that the interlayer migration of TMs from the TM layer to the Li layer depends on the crystal field stabilisation. Thus, TMs with reduced character in the tetrahedral sites than the octahedral sites owing to the effects of crystal field stabilisation, such as Ni ions, in HMLOs would face a higher interlayer migration barrier, impeding phase transformation into spinel phases. Furthermore, Cu ions could constitute a doping source for HMLOs to improve the material's cyclic stability through this mechanism. These characteristics may be widely applied to explain experimental phenomena and improve the properties of cathode

  9. Mineralization of the Cyclic Nitramine Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Gordonia and Williamsia spp.

    Thompson, Karen T.; Crocker, Fiona H.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a cyclic nitroamine explosive that is a major component in many military high-explosive formulations. In this study, two aerobic bacteria that are capable of using RDX as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen to support their growth were isolated from surface soil. These bacterial strains were identified by their fatty acid profiles and 16S ribosomal gene sequences as Williamsia sp. KTR4 and Gordonia sp. KTR9. The physiology of each strain was...

  10. Determination of Key Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine with Rhodococcus sp. Strain DN22†

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Fiurasek, Petr; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 can convert hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to nitrite, but information on degradation products or the fate of carbon is not known. The present study describes aerobic biodegradation of RDX (175 μM) when used as an N source for strain DN22. RDX was converted to nitrite (NO2−) (30%), nitrous oxide (N2O) (3.2%), ammonia (10%), and formaldehyde (HCHO) (27%), which later converted to carbon dioxide. In experiments with ring-labeled [15N]-RDX, gas chromato...

  11. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of the hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine degradation gene cluster from Rhodococcus rhodochrous

    Seth-Smith, H M B; Rosser, S.J.; Basran, A; Travis, E R; Dabbs, E R; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    2002-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a high explosive which presents an environmental hazard as a major land and groundwater contaminant. Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain 11Y was isolated from explosive contaminated land and is capable of degrading RDX when provided as the sole source of nitrogen for growth. Products of RDX degradation in resting-cell incubations were analyzed and found to include nitrite, formaldehyde, and formate. No ammonium was excreted into the medium, and no d...

  12. Synthesis of 2-(1-Benzofuran-2-yl)-4-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl/ 1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl) Quinolines as Blue Green Fluorescent Probes

    Bodke, Yadav D.; Sheelavanth Shankerrao; Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2013-01-01

    A series of novel 2-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)-4-(1,3 benzoxazol-2-yl/1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl) quinoline derivatives 4(a–d) were synthesized in one step by the reaction of 2-(1-benzofuran-2-yl) quinoline-4-carboxylic acids 3(a-b) with o-aminophenol and o-amino thiophenol, respectively, using polyphosphoric acid (PPA) as a cyclizing agent. The fluorescent properties of newly synthesized compounds were investigated in three different organic solvents like chloroform (CHCl3), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and d...

  13. 1,3,4-Thiadiazoles of pharmacological interest: Recent trends in their synthesis via tandem 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition: Review

    Ahmad S. Shawali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article presents a survey of the utility of a new synthetic strategy for 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives based on reactions of nitrilimines with various functionalized sulfur dipolarophiles which proceed via tandem in situ 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and β-elimination of simple molecule from the initially formed cycloadduct. The biological activities of some of the compounds prepared by such a strategy are pointed out. Only the literature reports within the period from 2000 to mid 2012 are covered.

  14. Novel Reaction of N,N'-Bisarylmethanediamines with Formaldehyde. Synthesis of Some New 1,3,5-Triaryl-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazines

    Abolfazl Olyaei; Farshid Salimi; Mehdi Ghandi

    2006-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed cyclocondensation of N,N'-bisaryl (aryl = 2-pyrimidinyl, 2- pyrazinyl and 4-nitrophenyl) methanediamines 5a-c with aqueous formaldehyde in refluxing acetonitrile leads to the formation of the corresponding 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexa- hydrotriazines 6a-c. The stoichiometric reactions of 2-aminopyrimidine and 2-amino- pyrazine with aqueous formaldehyde in acetonitrile under reflux conditions also afforded 6a and 6b, respectively. Treatment of 2-aminopyrimidine with aqueous form...

  15. Isolation of extracellular 28- and 42-kilodalton beta-1,3-glucanases and comparison of three beta-1,3-glucanases produced by Bacillus circulans IAM1165.

    Aono, R; Hammura, M; Yamamoto, M.; Asano, T.

    1995-01-01

    Bacillus circulans IAM1165 produces three major extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases (molecular masses, 28, 42, and 91 kDa) during the stationary phase of growth. The 28- and 42-kDa enzymes were purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant in this study. The properties of these two enzymes were examined, together with those of the 91-kDa enzyme previously isolated. The enzymatic properties of the 28- and 42-kDa beta-1,3-glucanases closely resemble each other. The enzymes belong to a cate...

  16. [Progress in down-stream processing of biologically produced 1,3-propanediol].

    Wu, Ruchun; Xu, Yunzhen; Liu, Dehua

    2011-03-01

    1,3-propanediol is an important raw material in chemical industry. Microbial conversion of glycerol or glucose into 1,3-propanediol has been given much attention due to its renewable resource, mild reaction conditions, and other advantages. It is a challenge to efficiently separate 1,3-propanediol from a mixture of multiple components, such as 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, water, residual glycerol, ethanol, macromolecules and salts, for the reason that 1,3-propanediol, glycerol and 2,3-butanediol are all very hydrophilic and have intense polarity. The conventional evaporation and distillation techniques used in the purification of 1,3-propanediol suffer from the problem of high energy consumption and low recovery. It makes the recovery of 1,3-propanediol from a fermentation broth become a bottleneck in industrial production. The down-stream processing of biologically produced 1,3-propanediol mainly includes the removal of protein, salts, water and other impurities. This paper analyze the research progress of these separation technologies and point out the developing direction worth further investigation. PMID:21650033

  17. A novel four-component reaction involving ring-opening/recyclization of 1,3-thiazolidinedione

    2010-01-01

    The multicomponent reactions of 1,3-thiazolidinedione, malononitrile, aromatic aldehydes and α-phenylethylamine or β-phenylethylamine in acetonitrile at room temperature produce dihydrothiophene ureidoformamide derivatives in moderate yields through a domino ring-opening/recyclization reaction of 1,3-thiazolidinedione. On treatment with DDQ, dihydrothiophenes are dehydrogenated to convert efficiently to thiophenes in the mild condition.

  18. 5-(4-Fluorobenzylidene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione

    Wu-Lan Zeng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H11FO4, was prepared by the reaction of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione and 4-fluorobenzaldehyde in ethanol. The 1,3-dioxane ring adopts an envelope conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  19. Synthesis and thermolysis of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex

    Present article is devoted to synthesis and thermolysis of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex. The synthesis method of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex is elaborated. The kinetics of its thermolysis process is studied. The thermodynamic functions of thermolysis process are evaluated.

  20. Mitigating 1,3-dichloropropene, chloropicrin, and methyl iodide emissions from fumigated soil with reactive film

    Implicated as a stratospheric ozone-depleting compound, methyl bromide (MeBr) is being phased out despite being considered to be the most effective soil fumigant. Its alternatives, i.e., 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D, which includes cis- and trans- isomers), chloropicrin (CP) and methyl iodide (MeI), h...

  1. Nitro derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine: synthesis and properties

    The published data on nitro derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine, belonging to the class of high-energy substances, have been systematised for the first time. The properties of C-nitrotriazines, nitraminotriazines and nitroalkyltriazines are considered. The data on the synthesis of previously unknown trisubstituted 1,3,5-triazines containing various functional groups including trinitromethyl groups are generalised.

  2. 12 CFR 1.3 - Limitations on dealing in, underwriting, and purchase and sale of securities.

    2010-01-01

    ... based on estimates of obligor's performance. (1) Notwithstanding §§ 1.2(d) and (e), a national bank may... purchase and sale of securities. 1.3 Section 1.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT... sale of securities. (a) Type I securities. A national bank may deal in, underwrite, purchase, and...

  3. Effects of Surface Seals on Pest Control Efficacy with 1,3-Dichloropropene/Chloropicrin

    Soil fumigation has been used for many years for control of soil-borne pests including parasitic nematodes, disease pathogens, and weeds in high value cropping systems. The phase-out of methyl bromide has resulted in increasing use of alternative fumigants such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and ch...

  4. 78 FR 35143 - 1,3-Propanediol; Exemptions From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    2013-06-12

    ... toxicity of 1,3-propanediol in rodents, expressed as an LD 50 ranges from 10,500 to 15,789 milligram... In the Federal Register of January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3377) (FRL-9375- 4), EPA issued a document... toxicity database. The acute inhalation toxicity of 1,3-propanediol in rats produced a LC 50 was > 5.0...

  5. A novel approach to improve the electrochemical performances of layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode by YPO4 surface coating

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (LNCMO) is surface coated with different contents of YPO4 (0.5 wt.%, 1 wt.% and 3 wt.%) through simple chemical deposition method. The pristine and YPO4-coated LNCMO are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It is found that the YPO4 surface coating layers do not change the bulk structure of LNCMO. The investigation in their cycling performances demonstrates that 1 wt.% YPO4-coated LNCMO exhibits the best cycling stability, with capacity retention ratio of 88.6% after 50 cycles, much better than that of the pristine material (only 80.1%). Furthermore, the 1 wt.% YPO4 surface modification improves the rate performance and thermal stability of layered LNCMO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements of pristine and 1 wt.% YPO4-coated LNCMO are also measured and compared. It has been proved that the coated YPO4 inhibits the growth of solid electrolyte interfacial (SEI) film in repeated cycling, which partly explains the improved capacity retention in electrochemical tests

  6. Thermal runaway potential of LiCoO2 and Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 batteries determined with adiabatic calorimetry methodology

    Highlights: ► Thermal analysis is employed to classify hazardous rating for Li-ion cell cathodes. ► The thermal hazards of the LiCoO2 cathode at elevated temperatures is significant. ► VSP2 is an alternative measurement of a battery thermal stability evaluation. ► Calorimetry method provide the safety design considerations of Li-ion batteries. -- Abstract: Thermal runaway hazards related to adiabatic runaway reactions in various 18650 Li-ion batteries were studied in an adiabatic calorimeter with vent sizing package 2 (VSP2). We selected two cathode types, LiCoO2 and Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2, and tested Li-ion batteries to determine the thermal runaway features. The charged 18650 Li-ion batteries were tested to evaluate the thermal hazard characteristics, such as the initial exothermic temperature (T0), self-heating rate (dT/dt), pressure rise rate (dP/dt), pressure–temperature profiles, maximum temperature (Tmax) and pressure (Pmax), which are measured by VSP2 with a customized stainless steel test can. The thermal reaction behaviors of the Li-ion battery packs were shown to be an important safety concern for energy storage systems for power supply applications. The thermal abuse trials of the adiabatic calorimetry methodology used to classify the self-reactive ratings of the various cathodes for Li-ion batteries provided the safety design considerations.

  7. Countering the Segregation of Transition-Metal Ions in LiMn1/3 Co1/3 Ni1/3 O2 Cathode for Ultralong Life and High-Energy Li-Ion Batteries.

    Luo, Dong; Fang, Shaohua; Tamiya, Yu; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    High-voltage layered lithium transition-metal oxides are very promising cathodes for high-energy Li-ion batteries. However, these materials often suffer from a fast degradation of cycling stability due to structural evolutions. It seriously impedes the large-scale application of layered lithium transition-metal oxides. In this work, an ultralong life LiMn1/3 Co1/3 Ni1/3 O2 microspherical cathode is prepared by constructing an Mn-rich surface. Its capacity retention ratio at 700 mA g(-1) is as large as 92.9% after 600 cycles. The energy dispersive X-ray maps of electrodes after numerous cycles demonstrate that the ultralong life of the as-prepared cathode is attributed to the mitigation of TM-ions segregation. Additionally, it is discovered that layered lithium transition-metal oxide cathodes with an Mn-rich surface can mitigate the segregation of TM ions and the corrosion of active materials. This study provides a new strategy to counter the segregation of TM ions in layered lithium transition-metal oxides and will help to the design and development of high-energy cathodes with ultralong life. PMID:27389965

  8. The synthesis of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 using eutectic mixed lithium salt LiNO3-LiOH

    A lithium-ion battery cathode material, Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2, with excellent electrochemical properties was prepared via two-step isothermal sintering, using eutectic lithium salts (0.38LiOH.H2O-0.62LiNO3) mixed with Co, Ni, or Mn hydroxides. Based on analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric (TG-DSC) analyzer, and Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR), this synthetic process consists of procedures including lithium salt melting, permeation, reaction, crystalline transformation, and crystallization. Due to the lower melting point of the eutectic molten salts compared with that of the single lithium salt, a relatively mild synthetic condition (low temperature) is needed, and the product can be highly crystallized with low cation mixing, which facilitates maintenance of the precursor morphology. The electrochemical properties of the product were investigated by constant current discharge-charge and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that the initial discharge capacity is 160 mhA g-1, with excellent cycling stability even after 50 cycles. We conclude that this novel eutectic molten salt method is a promising and practical approach for synthesizing cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Synthesis of an Antitumoral Diarylheptanoid Containing 1,3-Diol Functionality%Synthesis of an Antitumoral Diarylheptanoid Containing 1,3-Diol Functionality

    张少敏; 伍贻康

    2011-01-01

    A bioactive derivative of a natural diarylheptanoid containing a 1,3-anti diol motif was synthesized with the oxygen-carrying stereogenic centers taken from an enantiopure epoxy chiral building block derived from inexpensive and readily available D-glucolactone.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some 4-(6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylamino-1,3-thiazole-2-amines and their Schiff bases

    Nikhil D. Amnerkar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of obtaining newer biologically active compounds, a series of 4-(6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylamino-1,3-thiazole-2-amines (9–12 and 4-(6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylamino-2-(4-substitutedphenyl-methylideneamino-1,3-thiazole (13–28 were synthesized. The structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral (FTIR, 1H NMR and EI-MS data and elemental (C, H, N analysis. Furthermore, compounds (9–12 and (13–28 were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activities. Almost all of these compounds showed moderate to excellent antimicrobial activity against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, pathogenic fungal strains (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and good anthelmintic activity against earthworm species (Pontoscotex corethruses. Among the compounds tested, compounds 23 and 24 showed maximum activity against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, respectively. Compound 22 exhibited good antifungal activity while compound 26 displayed maximum anthelmintic activity comparable to the standard drugs.

  11. On the cubic Diophantine equation x3 + 1 =3py2%关于三次Diophantine方程x3+1=3py2

    吴华明

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究丢番图方程x3+1=3py2的正整数解问题.方法 运用Pell方程的基本性质.结果 设p是适合p≡-1 (mod 6)的奇素数,如果p=3k2-2或者3p =k2 +2,其中κ是正整数,则方程x3+1=3py2无正整数解.结论 部分解决了该方程的可解性问题.即对某些P,该方程无正整数解.%Aim To study the positive integer solution of the Diophantine equation x3 + 1 = 3py2. Methods By using the basic properties of Pell equations. Results Let p be an odd prime with p = 1 (mod 6). Forp =3k2 -2 or 3p = k2 + 2, where k is a positive integer, the equation x3 + 1 = 3py2 has no positive integer solution. Conclusion It is proved that the Diophantine equation has not integer solution for some special integers p.

  12. Isospin and Z$^{1/3}$ Dependence of the Nuclear Charge Radii

    Zhang, S Q; Zhou, S G; Zeng, J Y

    2002-01-01

    Based on the systematic investigation of the data available for $A \\geq 40$, a $Z^{1/3}$ dependence for the nuclear charge radii is shown to be superior to the generally accepted $A^{1/3}$ law. A delicate scattering of data around $R_c/Z^{1/3}$ is infered as owing to the isospin effect and a linear dependence of $R_c/Z^{1/3}$ on $N/Z$ (or $(N-Z)/2$) is found. This inference is well supported by the microscopic Relativistic Continuum Hartree-Bogoliubov (RCHB) calculation conducted for the proton magic Ca, Ni, Zr, Sn and Pb isotopes including the exotic nuclei close to the neutron drip line. With the linear isospin dependence provided by the data and RCHB theory, a new isospin dependent $Z^{1/3}$ formula for the nuclear charge radii is proposed.

  13. [Synthesis of acyclic 1,3-polyols and its application to structural study of natural products].

    Mori, Y

    1993-06-01

    A 1,3-polyhydroxylated chain is often found on the backbone of biologically important natural products. The acyclic nature and the regular array of many hydroxyl groups are main obstacles to structural and synthetic studies, and many efforts have been made to this end. We have developed a new general synthetic method of 1,3-polyols based on the coupling of a chiral dithiane, a four-carbon unit, and an epoxide, followed by 1,3-diastereoselective reduction. We applied the method to the synthesis of polymethoxy-1-alkenes isolated from blue-green algae to establish their absolute stereochemistry. Moreover, a general procedure for assigning the absolute stereochemistry of acyclic 1,3-polyols by the difference circular dichroism (CD) method have been established. Combination of the method and a reiterative degradation enables one to determine the absolute configuration of 1,3-polyols, even if the relative stereochemistry is unknown. PMID:8355146

  14. DFT Study of Hydrogen-Bonded 1,3,5-Triazine-Water Complexes

    LI,Quan; HU,Jing-Dan; ZHAO,Ke-Qing

    2007-01-01

    The 1,3,5-triazine-water hydrogen bonding interactions have been investigated using the density functional theory B3LYP method and 6-31 + + G** basis, obtaining one, two and seven energy minima of the ground states for the 1,3,5-triazine-water, 1,3,5-triazine-(water)2 and 1,3,5-triazine-(water)3 complexes respectively. The fully optimized geometries and binding energies were reported for the various stationary points. The global minima of 1,3,5-triazine-(water)2 and 1,3,5-triazine-(water)3 complexes have a hydrogen bond N…H-O and a chain of water molecules, terminated by a hydrogen bond O…H-C. The binding energies are 13.38, 39.52 and 67.79 kJ/mol for the most stable 1,3,5-triazine-water, 1,3,5-triazine-(water)2 and 1,3,5-triazine-(water)3 complexes respectively, after the basis set superposition error and zero point energy corrections. The H-O symmetric stretching modes of water in the complexes are red-shifted relative to those of the monomer water. In addition, the NBO analysis indicates that inter-molecule charge transfer is 0.02145 e, 0.02501 e and 0.02777 e for the most stable 1∶1, 1∶2 and 1∶3 complexes between 1,3,5-triazine and water, respectively.

  15. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene under high NOx conditions

    D. R. Cocker III

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from atmospheric oxidation of isoprene has been the subject of multiple studies in recent years; however, reactions of other conjugated dienes emitted from anthropogenic sources remain poorly understood. SOA formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, isoprene-1-13C, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene is investigated for high NOx conditions. The SOA yield measured in the 1,3-butadiene/NOx/H2O2 irradiation system (0.089–0.178 was close to or slightly higher than that measured with isoprene under similar NOx conditions (0.077–0.103, suggesting that the photooxidation of 1,3-butadiene is a possible source of SOA in urban air. In contrast, a very small amount of SOA particles was produced in experiments with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene. Off-line liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis revealed oligoesters as the major SOA products observed from all dienes investigated. The oligoesters originate from the unsaturated aldehyde gas-phase diene reaction products, which undergo oligoester formation through heterogeneous oxidation under high NOx conditions. Oligoesters produced by the dehydration reaction between nitrooxypolyol and 2-methylglyceric acid monomer or its oligomer were also discovered in these experiments with isoprene as the starting diene. These oligomers are possible sources of the 2-methyltetrols found in ambient aerosol samples collected under high NOx conditions. Furthermore, in low-temperature experiments also conducted in this study, the SOA yield measured with isoprene at 278 K was 2–3 times as high as that measured at 300 K under similar concentration conditions. Although oligomerization plays an important role in SOA formation from isoprene photooxidation, the observed temperature dependence of SOA yield is largely explained by gas/particle partitioning of semi-volatile compounds.

  16. Mitochondrial Ultrastructure and Glucose Signaling Pathways Attributed to the Kv1.3 Ion Channel.

    Kovach, Christopher P; Al Koborssy, Dolly; Huang, Zhenbo; Chelette, Brandon M; Fadool, James M; Fadool, Debra A

    2016-01-01

    Gene-targeted deletion of the potassium channel Kv1.3 (Kv1.3(-∕-)) results in "Super-smeller" mice with a sensory phenotype that includes an increased olfactory ability linked to changes in olfactory circuitry, increased abundance of olfactory cilia, and increased expression of odorant receptors and the G-protein, Golf. Kv1.3(-∕-) mice also have a metabolic phenotype including lower body weight and decreased adiposity, increased total energy expenditure (TEE), increased locomotor activity, and resistance to both diet- and genetic-induced obesity. We explored two cellular aspects to elucidate the mechanism by which loss of Kv1.3 channel in the olfactory bulb (OB) may enhance glucose utilization and metabolic rate. First, using in situ hybridization we find that Kv1.3 and the insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) are co-localized to the mitral cell layer of the OB. Disruption of Kv1.3 conduction via construction of a pore mutation (W386F Kv1.3) was sufficient to independently translocate GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in HEK 293 cells. Because olfactory sensory perception and the maintenance of action potential (AP) firing frequency by mitral cells of the OB is highly energy demanding and Kv1.3 is also expressed in mitochondria, we next explored the structure of this organelle in mitral cells. We challenged wildtype (WT) and Kv1.3(-∕-) male mice with a moderately high-fat diet (MHF, 31.8 % kcal fat) for 4 months and then examined OB ultrastructure using transmission electron microscopy. In WT mice, mitochondria were significantly enlarged following diet-induced obesity (DIO) and there were fewer mitochondria, likely due to mitophagy. Interestingly, mitochondria were significantly smaller in Kv1.3(-∕-) mice compared with that of WT mice. Similar to their metabolic resistance to DIO, the Kv1.3(-∕-) mice had unchanged mitochondria in terms of cross sectional area and abundance following a challenge with modified diet. We are very interested to

  17. 1,3-Propanediol production potential of Clostridium saccharobutylicum NRRL B-643.

    Gungormusler, Mine; Gonen, Cagdas; Ozdemir, Guven; Azbar, Nuri

    2010-12-31

    Owing to the significant interest in biofuel production in the form of biodiesel, vast amount of glycerol as a waste product is produced all over the world. Among the economically viable and ecologically acceptable solutions for the safe disposal of this waste, biotechnological conversion of glycerol into a valuable bioplastic raw material, namely 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) seems to be very promising. In this study, 1,3-PDO production potential of Clostridium saccharobutylicum NRRL B-643 was studied and the results were compared with other types of anaerobic microorganisms (Clostridium spp., Pantoea agglomerans, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Chyreseomonas luteola, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and aerobic microorganisms (Lactobacillus spp.). The results were important for understanding the significance of C. saccharobutylicum NRRL B-643 among other well-known 1,3-PDO producer species. According to the screening results only C. saccharobutylicum (B-643) was able to consume feed glycerol almost entirely. However, 1,3-PDO production yield was found to be 0.36mol/mol which is lower than that of Clostiridium beijerinckii (B-593). B-593 showed the highest value of production yields with 0.54 mol/mol. This microorganism is seen as a promising type for further 1,3-PDO studies, because it has the highest substrate utilization percentage among others. In this regard, this microorganism may have an important role in tolerating and converting glycerol during fermentation into 1,3-PDO. PMID:20647065

  18. Purification and Characterization of β-1,3-Glucanase from the Antagonistic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    SRI WAHYUNI BUDIARTI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma enzymes that inhibit fungal cell walls have been suggested to play an important role in mycoparasitic action against fungal root rot pathogen Ganoderma philippii. This experiment was aimed to purify and characterize the β-1,3-glucanase of T. reesei. Extracellular β-1,3-glucanase was produced by growing mycoparasite T. reesei isolate T13 in colloidal chitin and sucrose as carbon sources. The enzyme was then purified to its homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by gel filtration chromatography and chromatofocusing. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE 12% was used to confirm the purity of enzyme at each stage of preparation and to characterize purified protein. The results showed that T. reesei produced at least three extracellular β-1,3-glucanases. Estimation of molecular weight based on SDS-PAGE 12% have three isoform of β-1,3-glucanase were 90 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-I, 75 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-II, and 64 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-III. Their optimum pH and temperature were 5 and 50 oC, respectively.

  19. Experimental and computational thermochemical study of 1,3,5-trimethyl-, 1,5,5-trimethyl-, and 1,3,5,5-tetramethyl-barbituric acids

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The enthalpies of formation in condensed phase have been obtained. • The enthalpies of sublimation have been measured by transpiration method. • The gas-phase enthalpies of formation have been obtained. • The gas-phase enthalpies of formation have been calculated at G3 and G4 levels. - Abstract: This paper reports an experimental and computational thermochemical study on three barbituric acid derivatives: 1,3,5-trimethylbarbituric acid or (1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)pyrimidinetrione, CAS 7358-61-4), 1,5,5-trimethylbarbituric acid or (1,5,5-trimethyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)pyrimidinetrione, CAS 702-47-6), and 1,3,5,5-tetramethylbarbituric acid or (1,3,5,5-tetramethyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)pyrimidinetrione, CAS 13566-66-0). Values of standard (p0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the gas phase at T = 298.15 K have been derived from experiment. Energies of combustion were measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry and standard molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state at T = 298.15 K were calculated. Enthalpies of sublimation were derived from temperature dependence of vapour pressures measured by transpiration method. From these results, values of −(570.6 ± 2.3), −(599.4 ± 1.4), and −(605.1 ± 2.9) kJ · mol−1 for the gas-phase enthalpies of formation at T = 298.15 K of 1,3,5-trimethylbarbituric acid, 1,5,5-trimethylbarbituric acid, and 1,3,5,5-tetramethylbarbituric acid, respectively, were determined. Theoretical calculations at the G3 and G4 levels were performed, and a study of the molecular and electronic structure of the compounds has been carried out. Calculated enthalpies of formation were in good agreement with the experimental values

  20. Hierarchical Porous LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Nano-/Micro Spherical Cathode Material: Minimized Cation Mixing and Improved Li+ Mobility for Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    Chen, Zhen; Wang, Jin; Chao, Dongliang; Baikie, Tom; Bai, Linyi; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Yanli; Sum, Tze Chien; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Zexiang

    2016-01-01

    Although being considered as one of the most promising cathode materials for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) is currently limited by its poor rate performance and cycle stability resulting from the thermodynamically favorable Li+/Ni2+ cation mixing which depresses the Li+ mobility. In this study, we developed a two-step method using fluffy MnO2 as template to prepare hierarchical porous nano-/microsphere NCM (PNM-NCM). Specifically, PNM-NCM microspheres achieves a high reversible specific capacity of 207.7 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C with excellent rate capability (163.6 and 148.9 mAh g−1 at 1 C and 2 C), and the reversible capacity retention can be well-maintained as high as 90.3% after 50 cycles. This excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to unique hierarchical porous nano-/microsphere structure which can increase the contact area with electrolyte, shorten Li+ diffusion path and thus improve the Li+ mobility. Moreover, as revealed by XRD Rietveld refinement analysis, a negligible cation mixing (1.9%) and high crystallinity with a well-formed layered structure also contribute to the enhanced C-rates performance and cycle stability. On the basis of our study, an effective strategy can be established to reveal the fundamental relationship between the structure/chemistry of these materials and their properties. PMID:27185646

  1. Inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Owen, P E; Glaister, J R

    1990-01-01

    A 2-year inhalation study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats with 1,3-butadiene. Groups of 110 male and 110 female rats inhaled 1,3-butadiene at 0, 1000, or 8000 ppm for 6hr/day, 5 days/week. Interim clinical pathology, neuromuscular, and histopathology investigations were carried out. The study terminated at 20 to 25% survival (105 weeks for females, 111 weeks for males). Following exposure to 1,3-butadiene there were no effects on hematology, blood chemistry, urine analysis, and neuromusc...

  2. Strain gauges of GaSb-FeGa1.3 eutectic composites

    Aliyev, M.I.; Khalilova, A. A.; Arasly, D. H.; Rahimov, R. N.; Tanoğlu, Metin; ÖZYÜZER, Lütfi

    2004-01-01

    A needle-shaped metallic FeGa1.3 phase oriented in a specific direction and uniformly distributed within a GaSb matrix was grown by a vertical Bridgman method. Strain-gauge characteristics, such as strain-sensitivity coefficient (S), temperature coefficient of strain sensitivity (TCS) and temperature coefficient of resistance, of GaSb and GaSb-FeGa1.3 eutectic alloy have been investigated in the range of 200 to 400 K under deformation up to strains of 1.3 × 10-3. The value of S of the GaSb-Fe...

  3. Studying conformally flat spacetimes with an elastic stress energy tensor using 1+3 formalism

    Brito, I

    2012-01-01

    Conformally flat spacetimes with an elastic stress energy tensor given by a diagonal trace-free anisotropic pressure tensor are investigated using 1+3 formalism. We show how the null tetrad Ricci components are related to the pressure components and energy density. The 1+3 Bianchi and Jacobi identities and Einstein field equations are written for this particular case. In general the commutators must be considered since they supply potentially new information on higher order derivatives of the 1+3 quantities. We solve the system for the non rotating case which consist of ODEs of a spatial coordinate.

  4. Synthesis of new 4,6-disubstituted-1,3-oxazinan-2-one analogues

    Arun Jyoti Borah; Prodeep Phukan

    2013-11-01

    1,3-Oxazinan-2-one analogues are important heterocyclic compounds having significant biological activities. This study reports the synthesis of eight new 4,6-disubstituted -1,3-oxazinan-2-one analogues from corresponding homoallylic carbamates. Homoallylic carbamates were synthesized via a three-component reaction of aldehyde, allyltrimethylsilane and benzyl carbamate in presence of iodine as catalyst. In the next step, homoallylic carbamates were subjected to Sharpless dihydroxylation (racemic) to produce 3,4-dihydroxybutylcarbamate derivatives. This product was then treated with NaH in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to produce the desired 6-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxazinan-2-one in high yield.

  5. Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Various Foodstuffs Using GC-MS

    Kim, Wooseok; Jeong, Yun A; On, Jiwon; Choi, Ari; Lee, Jee-yeon; Lee, Joon Goo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Pyo, Heesoo

    2015-01-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) are not only produced in the manufacturing process of foodstuffs such as hydrolyzed vegetable proteins and soy sauce but are also formed by heat processing in the presence of fat and low water activity. 3-MCPD exists both in free and ester forms, and the ester form has been also detected in various foods. Free 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP are classified as Group 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although th...

  6. Spiro azepane-oxazolidinones as Kv1.3 potassium channel blockers - WO2010066840

    Wulff, Heike

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluates a patent application from Solvay Pharmaceuticals, which claims spiro azepane-oxazolidinones as novel blockers of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 for the treatment of diabetes, psoriasis, obesity, transplant rejection and T-cell mediated autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. The patent describes a new chemotype of Kv1.3 blockers and thus illustrates the growing interest of the pharmaceutical industry in Kv1.3 as a target of im...

  7. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s

  8. Accurately Predicting the Density and Hydrostatic Compression of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine from First Principles

    We predict the densities of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by introducing a factor of (1+1.5 × 10−4T) into the wavefunction-based potential of RDX constructed from first principles using the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory and the Williams—Stone—Misquitta method. The predicted values are within an accuracy of 1% of the density from 0 to 430 K and closely reproduced the RDX densities under hydrostatic compression. This work heralds a promising approach to predicting accurately the densities of high explosives at temperatures and pressures to which they are often subjected, which is a long-standing issue in the field of energetic materials. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  9. Novel reaction of N,N'-bisarylmethanediamines with formaldehyde. Synthesis of some new 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazines.

    Ghandi, Mehdi; Salimi, Farshid; Olyaei, Abolfazl

    2006-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed cyclocondensation of N,N'-bisaryl (aryl = 2-pyrimidinyl, 2-pyrazinyl and 4-nitrophenyl) methanediamines 5a-c with aqueous formaldehyde in refluxing acetonitrile leads to the formation of the corresponding 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexa-hydrotriazines 6a-c. The stoichiometric reactions of 2-aminopyrimidine and 2-amino-pyrazine with aqueous formaldehyde in acetonitrile under reflux conditions also afforded 6a and 6b, respectively. Treatment of 2-aminopyrimidine with aqueous formaldehyde in a 3:2 ratio yielded N,N',N"-tris(2-pyrimidinyl)dimethylenetriamine (7a) as a sole product, which upon subsequent reaction with formaldehyde also afforded 6a. The reaction of N,N'-biphenylmethanediamine with formaldehyde was also investigated. PMID:17971727

  10. Novel Reaction of N,N'-Bisarylmethanediamines with Formaldehyde. Synthesis of Some New 1,3,5-Triaryl-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazines

    Abolfazl Olyaei

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The acid-catalyzed cyclocondensation of N,N'-bisaryl (aryl = 2-pyrimidinyl, 2- pyrazinyl and 4-nitrophenyl methanediamines 5a-c with aqueous formaldehyde in refluxing acetonitrile leads to the formation of the corresponding 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexa- hydrotriazines 6a-c. The stoichiometric reactions of 2-aminopyrimidine and 2-amino- pyrazine with aqueous formaldehyde in acetonitrile under reflux conditions also afforded 6a and 6b, respectively. Treatment of 2-aminopyrimidine with aqueous formaldehyde in a 3:2 ratio yielded N,N',N"-tris(2-pyrimidinyldimethylenetriamine (7a as a sole product, which upon subsequent reaction with formaldehyde also afforded 6a. The reaction of N,N'-biphenylmethanediamine with formaldehyde was also investigated.

  11. Eficácia da vacina anti-rábica ERA em camundongos, frente a quatro diferentes variantes antigênicas do vírus da raiva Evaluation of ERA anti-rabies vaccine against four different antigenic strains of rabies virus in mice

    Elcio Benedito Erbolato

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a eficácia da vacina anti-rábica preparada em cultura primária de tecido renal de suínos, a partir da amostra ERA, na prevenção da raiva em camundongos, frente a quatro cepas antigenicamente distintas do vírus rábico, duas originadas de cão. C/SP e C/NG, uma originada de morcego, DR-19, e uma cepa fixa, CVS (Challenge Vírus Standard. O perfil antigênico desta cepa foi determinado pela técnica dos anticorpos antirrábicos monoclonais antinucleocapside. Os animais foram vacinados, aos 21 dias de idade, por via intramuscular na face interna da coxa, com uma única dose de 0,05 ml de vacina e desafiados aos 42 dias de idade, em conjunto com os animais do grupo testemunho, por via intramuscular na face interna da coxa, com 0,05 ml da suspensão da cepa viral correspondente. Os resultados obtidos permitiram constatar que a vacina ERA protegeu 100% dos animais desafiados com as cepas C/SP, C/NG e DR-19 e 83% dos animais desafiados com à cepa CVS, enquanto que a mortalidade no grupo testemunho variou entre 70 e 90%.ERA anti-rabies vaccine prepared in kidney tissue culture was evaluated against four different antigenic strains of rabies virus in mice: two of them dog strains, C/SP and C/NG, another a bat vampire strain, DR-19, and the CVS strain. The CVS antigenical characteristics were determined by means the antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies technique. Twenty one days old mice were vaccinated, intramuscularly, in the inner side of the thigh, with 0.05 ml of vaccine and challenged at 42 days old, together with those of the control group, intramuscularly, in the inner side of the thigh, with 0.05 ml of the corresponding viral strain dilution. The ERA anti-rabies vaccine protected 100% of all the mice challenged with C/SP, C/NG and DR-19 strains and 83% of those challenged with CVS. The control groups mortality rate varied between 70 and 90%.

  12. Avaliação da vacina anti-rábica ERA, frente a variantes antigênicas do vírus da raiva, em diferentes períodos pós-imunização Evaluation of the ERA antirabies vaccine against antigenic variants of rabies virus in different post-immunization periods

    Cláudia C. Cordeiro

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em camudongos, os níveis de proteção conferidos por uma vacina anti-rábica atenuada, preparada em cultura de tecido renal a partir da amostra ERA, frente a diferentes variantes antigênicas dos vírus da raiva. Utilizaram-se dois esquemas de vacinação, representados por uma única dose e por 6 doses aplicadas em dias alternados. Os diferentes camundogos dos grupos experimentais foram desafiados, em diversos períodos pós-imunização (15, 30, 60 e 120 dias, com variantes procedentes de cães (São Paulo e Nigéria, de morcego (DR-19 e Pernambuco, de raposa (Rio Grande do Norte e CVS "Challenge Virus Standard". Os resultados obtidos permitiram constatar que a vacina ERA foi eficaz contra todas as variantes de rua e silváticas do vírus rábico, independentemente do esquema vacinal. Contra as cepas adaptadas no laboratório DR-19 e CVS, quando aplicada em uma única dose, sua eficácia foi menor do que quando aplicada em 6 doses.Protection levels of an attenuated antirabies vaccine, of ERA origin, prepared in Kidney tissue culture, were evaluated in mice. Two schemes of vaccination were utilized: a single dose and 6 doses on alternate days. Animals of different experimental groups were challenged at 15, 30, 60 and 120 days post-immunization with six antigenic variants of rabies virus: strains of dog origin (S. Paulo, Brazil and Nigéria, vampire origin (DR-19 and Pernambuco, Brazil, fox origin (Rio Grande do Norte,Brazil, and CVS (Challenge Virus Standard. The results showed the effectiveness of the ERA vaccine against all antigenic variants of street and sylvatic rabies virus, independently of the vaccination scheme. Against the laboratory strains (DR-19 and CVS the ERA vaccine was less effective, mainly in the groups vaccinated with a single dose.

  13. Properties of quasi 1-3 piezoelectric PZT-epoxy composites obtained by dielectrophoresis

    Ende, D.A. van den; Bory, B.F.; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2010-01-01

    The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of piezoelectric particleepoxy polymer composites structured into 1-3 composites via dielectrophoresis during curing are reported. The dielectrophoretic alignment induces a textured microstructure in the composite, with particles forming chains in the dire

  14. Solvent-free one-pot 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of dihydropyran derived nitrone

    Bhaskar Chakraborty; Prawin Kumar Sharma; Neelam Rai; Chiran Devi Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Microwave-induced 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of dihydropyran derived nitrone with various activated alkenes have been studied in situ and found to afford new isoxazolidine derivatives with moderate selectivity.

  15. A Microring Resonator Sensor for Sensitive Detection of 1,3,5-Trinitrotoluene (TNT

    Nina Welschoff

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A microring resonator sensor device for sensitive detection of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT is presented. It is based on the combination of a silicon microring resonator and tailored receptor molecules.

  16. Effect of methyl substitution on optoelectronic properties of 1,3,6,8-tetraphenyl pyrenes

    LIU Yanling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geometric structures of the ground states and excited states,frontier molecular orbitals,ionization potentials,electron affinities,reorganization energies,and absorption and emission spectra of three novel methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes were studied theoretically by quantum-chemical methods,such as density functional theory (DFT.The results show that the position of methyl substituent on benzene ring has much effect on the optoelectronic properties of methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes.Interestingly,the geometric structures and optoelectronic properties of the designed compound 1,3,6,8-tetra-p-tolylpyrene (TPPy are similar to those of 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(3,5-dimethylphenylpyrene (TDMPPy,which is worthy of being further researched.

  17. Toxins Targeting the KV1.3 Channel: Potential Immunomodulators for Autoimmune Diseases

    Yipeng Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are usually accompanied by tissue injury caused by autoantigen-specific T-cells. KV1.3 channels participate in modulating calcium signaling to induce T-cell proliferation, immune activation and cytokine production. Effector memory T (TEM-cells, which play major roles in many autoimmune diseases, are controlled by blocking KV1.3 channels on the membrane. Toxins derived from animal venoms have been found to selectively target a variety of ion channels, including KV1.3. By blocking the KV1.3 channel, these toxins are able to suppress the activation and proliferation of TEM cells and may improve TEM cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes mellitus.

  18. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene under high NOx conditions

    D. R. Cocker III

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from atmospheric oxidation of isoprene has been the subject of multiple studies in recent years; however, reactions of other conjugated dienes emitted from anthropogenic sources remain poorly understood. SOA formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, isoprene-1-13C, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene is investigated for high NOx conditions. The SOA yield measured in the 1,3-butadiene/NOx/H2O2 irradiation system (0.089–0.178 was close to or slightly higher than that measured with isoprene under similar NOx conditions (0.077–0.103, suggesting that the photooxidation of 1,3-butadiene is a possible source of SOA in urban air. In contrast, a very small amount of SOA particles was produced in experiments with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene. Off-line liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the signals of oligoesters comprise a major fraction (0.10–0.33 of the signals of the SOA products observed from all dienes investigated. The oligoesters originate from the unsaturated aldehyde gas phase diene reaction products; namely, semi-volatile compounds produced by the oxidation of the unsaturated aldehyde undergo particle-phase oligoester formation. Oligoesters produced by the dehydration reaction between nitrooxypolyol and 2-methylglyceric acid monomer or its oligomer were also characterized in these experiments with isoprene as the starting diene. These oligomers are possible sources of the 2-methyltetrols found in ambient aerosol samples collected under high NOx conditions. Furthermore, in low-temperature experiments also conducted in this study, the SOA yield measured with isoprene at 278 K was 2–3 times as high as that measured at 300 K under similar concentration conditions. Although oligomerization plays an important role in SOA formation from isoprene photooxidation, the observed temperature dependence of SOA yield is largely explained by gas/particle partitioning

  19. 5-(4-Hydroxybenzylidene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione

    Wu-Lan Zeng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H12O5, was prepared by the reaction of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in ethanol. The 1,3-dioxane ring is in a distorted boat conformation. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds generate R22(20 rings.

  20. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements transportation and handling, SSDR 1.1.1.3.2

    This Subsystem Design Requirement document is a development specification that establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Transportation ampersand Material Handling Systems (WBS 1.1.1.3.2) of the NIF Laser System (WBS 1.3 and 1.4). The NIF is a multi-pass, 192-beam, high-power, neodymium-glass laser that meets requirements set forth in the NIF SDR 002 (Laser System). 5 figs

  1. RP-HPLC Determination of 1,3-Dideoxygalactonojirimycin in Bombycis Faeces

    QI Hui; ZHAO Hui; DING Zhen-ying; ZHU Yuan-yuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a simple and rapid method for the determination of 1,3-dideoxygalactonojirimycin in Bombycis Faeces, a potent glucosidase inihibitor, by HPLC. Methods A RP-HPLC method with fluorescence detection has been developed. Results The HPLC method developed in this research has a good reliability including accuracy and precision. The detection limit was less than 72 ng. Conclusion This method is sufficiently sensitive for determining 1,3-dideoxygalactonojirimycin in Bombycis Faeces and other related products.

  2. Construction of a reactive surface barrier to reduce fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene emissions.

    Zheng, Wei; Papiernik, Sharon K; Guo, Mingxin; Dungan, Robert S; Yates, Scott R

    2005-08-01

    Halogenated fumigants have been used extensively in production agriculture to control soilborne pests. These types of pesticides are highly volatile and are prone to affect air quality and imperil public health. In the present study, a chemical tarp approach, termed a reactive surface barrier (RSB), was developed to reduce the emission of fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) from the soil surface. The agrochemicals thiourea and allylthiourea were tested as active reagents for the construction of a RSB, where these soil amendments react with 1,3-D to form nonvolatile isothiuronium ions at the soil surface and, thereby, impede fumigant emission into the atmosphere. The feasibility of the method largely depends on the reactivity of 1,3-D and the RSB agrochemicals in soil as well as on the mobility, persistence, and toxicity of the transformation products. Therefore, the reaction kinetics and transformation mechanism of 1,3-D by thiourea and allylthiourea were studied comprehensively in aqueous solution and soil. A catalytic process occurring at the surface of soil colloids facilitated the reaction between 1,3-D and thiourea in amended soils. The rate of 1,3-D transformation in thiourea-amended soil increased with decreasing soil moisture or increasing thiourea amendment level. In a field trial, a thiourea RSB reduced cumulative 1,3-D emissions by more than 80% relative to that in bare soil surface. The present results clearly indicate that this chemical remediation technology has great potential to control the emissions of volatile halogenated organic contaminants and to mitigate atmospheric pollution. PMID:16152955

  3. β1,3-GLUCAN ANTICANCER EFFICACIES AND SYNERGIES: A REVIEW

    Story Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β1,3-glucans from fungi, cereals, seaweeds and bacteria have been shown to possess favourable biological and anti-carcinogenic activities including upregulation of phagocytosis, cytokine production enhancement, superoxide and nitrite production; antibody secretion and stimulation of signalling pathways associated with proto-oncogene expression. However, human dietary supplements containing β1,3-glucans vary in efficacy due to glucan source, the lifecycle stage of the source at extraction, extraction methods, purity, concentration and combination with other immunomodulators. A review of efficacy of some commercially available β1,3-glucan products is presented. Three apparently efficacious products in which β1,3-glucan was the only immunomodulator were identified: Glucan #300®, Maitake Gold 404® (diluted Yukiguni Maitake MD Fraction® and Betamune®. A trial of Maitake Gold 404® produced evidence of standardisation problems. It is recommended that Yukiguni Maitake MD Fraction® (a more standardised alternative, Glucan #300® and Betamune® be comparatively trialled at optimal doses across immunological measures and tumor reduction. β1,3-glucans have been shown to be synergistic with conventional cancer therapies and monoclonal antibodies, as well as immunomodulators including vitamin C, transresveratrol, humic acids and Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera. Trialled commercially available products containing immunomodulator combinations have been shown to be inefficacious, apart from RVB300®, a β1,3-glucan/transresveratrol/vitamin C combination. The efficacies of various combinations of β1,3-glucans with other immunomodulators and the details of specific β1,3-glucan/monoclonal antibody synergies in treating particular cancer cell lines, require systematic elucidation.

  4. 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions of Substituted Benzyl Azides with Acetylenic Compounds

    Sultan T. Abu-Orabi

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available We review in this article some of our work which has been published over the last fifteen years in the area of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of substituted benzyl azides with acetylenic compounds to form the corresponding 1,2-3-triazoles. Several triazole derivatives were transformed into triazolopyridazine and triazolo-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives upon their reactions with hydrazine.

  5. On the System of Diophantine Equations x+1 =3pqu2 and x2-x+1 =3v2%关于Diophantine方程组x+1=3pqu2,x2-x+1=3v2的整数解

    管训贵

    2015-01-01

    设p,q是互异的奇素数,p≡q≡1 (mod 6),主要利用递归序列、Pell方程和四次Diophantine方程解的性质证明了Diophantine方程组x+1=3 pqu2,x2-x+1=3v2除开pq=7×13有非平凡解外,仅有平凡解.

  6. Laccase-katalysierte Dominoreaktionen von Brenzcatechinen und Hydrochinonen mit 1,3-Dicarbonylverbindungen

    Hajdok, Szilvia

    2012-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden neuartige Dominoreaktionen beschrieben, die auf Laccase-katalysierten Oxidation von Brenzcatechinen und Hydrochinonen zu den entsprechenden o- und p-Chinonen und sich daran anschließenden Umsetzungen mit 1,3-Dicarbonylen beruhen. Im ersten Teil dieser Dissertation wurde ein effizienter Zugang zu 3,4-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxy-2H-dibenzofuran-1-onen entwickelt, der sich die Laccase-initiierte Dominoreaktion zwischen Cyclohexan-1,3-dionen und Brenzcatechinen mit...

  7. Symbiont-derived beta-1,3-glucanases in a social insect: mutualism beyond nutrition

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Schultheis, Kelley F.; Alla eYalonetskaya; Bulmer, Mark S.; William S DuComb; Benson, Ryan W.; John Paul eThottam; Veronica eGodoy-Carter

    2014-01-01

    Termites have had a long co-evolutionary history with prokaryotic and eukaryotic gut microbes. Historically, the role of these anaerobic obligate symbionts has been attributed to the nutritional welfare of the host. We provide evidence that protozoa (and/or their associated bacteria) colonizing the hindgut of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis, synthesize multiple functional beta-1,3-glucanases, enzymes known for breaking down beta-1,3-glucans, the main component of fungal cell w...

  8. Effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Program: Grades 1-3 and 7-9

    Karna, Antti; Voeten, Marinus; Little, Todd D.; Alanen, Erkki; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Program in two samples of students, one from Grades 1-3 (7-9 years old, N = 6,927) and the other from Grades 7-9 (13-15 years old, N = 16, 503). The Grades 1-3 students were located in 74 schools and Grades 7-9 students in 73 schools that were randomly assigned to intervention and…

  9. The Thermodynamic Conjugation Stabilization of 1,3-Butadiyne Is Zero

    Rogers, Donald W.; Zavitsas, Andreas A.; Matsunaga, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks point out that the thermodynamic stabilization enthalpy of 1 mol of 1,3-butadiene relative to 2 mol of 1-butene or to 1 mol of 1,4-pentadiene is slightly less than 4 kcal mol[superscript -1], owing to conjugation between the double bonds in the 1,3 configuration. It is reasonable to suppose that the analogous thermochemical…

  10. The 1:1 adduct of caffeine and 2-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-ylacetic acid

    Moazzam H. Bhatti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title adduct [systematic name: 2-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-ylacetic acid–1,3,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purine-2,6-dione (1/1], C8H10N4O2·C10H7NO4, the components are linked by an O—H...N hydrogen-bond and no proton transfer occurs.

  11. Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Various Foodstuffs Using GC-MS.

    Kim, Wooseok; Jeong, Yun A; On, Jiwon; Choi, Ari; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Joon Goo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Pyo, Heesoo

    2015-09-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) are not only produced in the manufacturing process of foodstuffs such as hydrolyzed vegetable proteins and soy sauce but are also formed by heat processing in the presence of fat and low water activity. 3-MCPD exists both in free and ester forms, and the ester form has been also detected in various foods. Free 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP are classified as Group 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although there is no data confirming the toxicity of either compound in humans, their toxicity was evidenced in animal experimentation or in vitro. Although few studies have been conducted, free 3-MCPD has been shown to have neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity. In contrast, 1,3-DCP only has mutagenic activity. The purpose of this study was to analyze 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in various foods using gas chromatography -mass spectrometry. 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP were analyzed using phenyl boronic acid derivatization and the liquid-liquid extraction method, respectively. The analytical method for 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation, accuracy and precision. Consequently, the LODs of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in various matrices were identified to be in the ranges of 4.18~10.56 ng/g and 1.06~3.15 ng/g, respectively. PMID:26483891

  12. Consequences of cps mutation of Klebsiella pneumoniae on 1,3-propanediol fermentation.

    Guo, Ni-Ni; Zheng, Zong-Ming; Mai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Hong-Juan; Liu, De-Hua

    2010-03-01

    The filtration in 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) downstream process is influenced by the large amounts of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae CGMCC 1.6366. The morphological and fermentation properties were investigated with the CPS-deficient mutant K. pneumoniae CGMCC 1.6366 CPS. Similar biomass was obtained with CGMCC 1.6366, and the mutant strain in batch cultures indicating the cell growth was slightly inhibited by CPS defection. The viscosity of fermentation broth by mutant strain decreased by 27.45%. The flux with ceramic membrane filter was enhanced from 168.12 to 303.6 l h(-1) m(-2), exhibiting the great importance for downstream processing of 1,3-PD fermentation. The products spectrum of mutant isolate changed remarkably regarding to the concentration of fermentation products. The synthesis of important 1,3-PD and 2,3-butanediol was enhanced from 9.73 and 4.06 g l(-1) to 10.37 and 4.77 g l(-1) in batch cultures. The noncapsuled K. pneumoniae provided higher 1,3-PD yield of 0.54 mol mol(-1) than that of encapsuled wild parent in batch cultures. The fed-batch fermentation of mutant strain resulted in 1,3-PD concentration, yield, and productivity of 78.13 g l(-1), 0.53 mol mol(-1), and 1.95 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively. PMID:19936735

  13. Nonlinear modeling on rate dependent ferroelectric and ferroelastic response of 1-3 piezocomposites

    Jayendiran, R.; Arockiarajan, A.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of loading rate on ferroelectric and ferroelastic behavior of 1-3 piezocomposites is presented in this work. Experiments are conducted for various loading rates under different loading conditions such as electrical and electromechanical to measure the rate dependent response of 1-3 piezocomposite compared with bulk piezoceramics. A thermodynamic based rate dependent domain switching criteria has been proposed to predict the ferroelectric and ferroelastic behavior of homogenized 1-3 piezocomposites. In this model, volume fraction of six distinct uni-axial variants are used as internal variables to describe the microscopic state of the material. Plasticity based kinematic hardening parameter is introduced as a function of internal variables to describe the grain boundary effects. Homogenization of 1-3 piezocomposite material properties are obtained by finite element (FE) resonator models using commercially available FE tool Abaqus. To evaluate the possible modes of vibration of 1-3 piezocomposite four different configuration of FE resonators are modeled. The FE resonator model is validated with the impedance spectra obtained experimentally for length extensional and thickness extensional resonator models. The predicted effective properties using the resonance based technique are incorporated in the proposed rate dependent macromechanical model to study the behavior of 1-3 piezocomposites. The simulated results are compared with the experimental observations.

  14. Crystallization of selenomethionyl exo-β-1,3-galactanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Selenomethionyl exo-β-1,3-galactanase from P. chrysosporium K-3 produced in Pichia pastoris was crystallized. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.8 Å and belonged to space group P21. Exo-β-1,3-galactanase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Pc1,3Gal43A) consists of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 catalytic domain and a substrate-binding domain that belongs to carbohydrate-binding module family 35. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-1,3-galactan, which is the backbone of the arabinogalactan proteins; the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module family 35 domain increases the local concentration of the enzyme around β-1,3-galactan by its high affinity for the substrate. To enable phase determination using the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method, selenomethionyl Pc1,3Gal43A was crystallized at 298 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The presence of selenium in the crystals was confirmed from the X-ray absorption spectrum. The crystals belonged to space group P21 and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution

  15. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S. [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States); Perkins, Edward J. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Meyer, Sharon A., E-mail: meyer@ulm.edu [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  16. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1+) or erythroid (CD71+) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid progenitor

  17. Breve historia del alma en la antigüedad

    Fructuoso, Josa

    2006-01-01

    La psicología como ciencia se erige sobre un concepto tan poco científico como el “alma”, un concepto fundamental en el pensamiento occidental y que, desde su categoría de mito, se inserta en la filosofía, recorriéndola a lo largo de toda su historia. En sus orígenes prefilosóficos y homéricos, el mito del alma es aún un concepto emergente y disperso que, antes de pasar a convertirse en el principio de inmortalidad atrapado en la cárcel mortal del cuerpo, propio de la corrie...

  18. Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110)

    Chen, Long; Li, Zhenjun; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2014-10-09

    The adsorption of 1,3-propylene glycol (1,3-PG) on partially reduced TiO2(110) and its conversion to products have been studied by a combination of molecular beam dosing and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). When the Ti surface sites are saturated by 1,3-PG, ~80% of the molecules undergo further reactions to yield products that are liberated during the TPD ramp. In contrast to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2- propylene glycol (1,2-PG) that yield only alkenes and water at very low coverages (< 0.05 ML), two additional products, HCHO and C2H4, along with propylene (CH3CHCH2) and water are observed for 1,3-PG. Identical TPD line shapes and desorption yields for HCHO and C2H4 suggest that these products result from C-C bond cleavage and are coupled. At higher 1,3-PG coverages (> 0.1 ML), propanal (CH3CH2CHO) and two additional products, 1-propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH) and acrolein (CH2CHCHO), are observed. The desorption of 1-propanol is found to be coupled with the desorption of acrolein, suggesting that these products are formed by the disproportionation of two 1,3-PG molecules. The coverage dependent TPD results further show that propylene formation dominates at low coverages (< 0.3 ML), while the decomposition and disproportionation channels increase rapidly at higher coverages and reach yields comparable to that of propylene at the 1,3-PG saturation coverage of 0.5 ML. The observed surface chemistry clearly shows how the molecular structure of glycols influences their reaction pathways on oxide surfaces.

  19. γ-radiolysis of 1,3-dimethyluracil in N2O-saturated aqueous solutions

    The γ-radiolysis of N2O-saturated aqueous solutions generates OH radicals and a small amount of H atoms. In 1,3-dimethyluracil solutions (10-3 M) these radicals add mainly to the 5-position of the C(5)-C(6) double bond of the solute. The resulting products have been identified by GC-MS after trimethylsilylation. The major products (G values in brackets) are dimers of the C(5)-OH-adduct radicals (3.4), 5,6-dihydro-5,6-dihudroxy-1,3-dimethyluracil (0.85), 5,6-dihydro-5-hydroxy-1,3-dimethyluracil (0.75), dimer of the C(5)-OH-adduct with the C(5)-H-adduct radical (0.2) and 5,6-dihydro-6-hydroxy-1,3-dimethyluracil (0.2). G(1,3-dimethyluracil consumption) has been found to be 5.7. The major reaction in this system is the dimerisation of the primary radicals. To a small extent the primary radicals also disproportionate by electron transfer to give the glycol 5,6-dihydro-5,6-dihydrocy-1,3-dimethyluracil as one of the products. Radiolytically formed H2O2 which could oxidise the C(5)-OH-adduct radical does not contribute to the formation of the glycol because the H2O2 yield is not reduced with respect to its expected ''molecular yield'' (G = 0.075). In contrast to the uracil system where it has been reported that drastic changes in radiolytic yields occur on going from neutral to alkaline irradiation conditions no such changes have been observed with 1,3-dimethyluracil. However, an acid-catalysed rearrangement from the C(5)-OH-adduct to the C(6)-OH-adduct radical is observed in the present system. (orig.)

  20. Is inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate a new second messenger

    Hansen, C.A.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    Hormone-stimulated hydrolysis of inositol (Ins) lipids results in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, the second messenger for intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization. Recently, a more polar inositol phosphate, Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ as well as its probable hydrolysis product Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ have been reported to accumulate in carbachol-stimulated brain slices. Vasopressin addition to hepatocytes prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)-Ins also showed a rapid increase of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/, which was similar to that of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, while the accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ was slower. In order to examine whether Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ has any functional effects on Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis, it was synthesized enzymatically from (/sup 3/H)-Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ using a partially purified phosphoinositol kinase activity from rat brain cortex. (/sup 3/H)-labeled inositol phosphates were separated by anion exchange chromatography and analyzed by HPLC using ammonium formate/phosphoric acid gradient elution. Preliminary experiments indicate that Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ up to 10 ..mu..M does not release Ca/sup 2 +/ from vesicular pools in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes. It has a slight inhibitory effect on Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release. The effect of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ on plasma membrane Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes are presently being investigated.

  1. Dietary Beta-1,3/1,6-Glucans Reduce Clinical Signs of Canine Atopy

    A. C. Beynen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There was evidence that beta-1,3/1,6-glucans modulate inflammatory activity. In an open, non-controlled trial, purified beta-1,3/1,6-glucans were found to improve the clinical signs of dogs with undefined chronic skin disorders. Given the design of that study, further work was required on the efficacy of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans in the treatment of canine atopy. Approach: The influence of a purified preparation of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans (MacroGard® on canine atopy was assessed in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Privately owned dogs were used and the clinical signs of atopic dermatitis were evaluated by the owners. For a period of 8 weeks, the dogs daily received a complete dry food without (n = 16 or with 800 ppm beta-1,3/1,6-glucans (n = 15. During the trial, all dogs were treated three times with the use of a flea remedy in order to exclude any influence of flea-bite allergy. To assess the severity of atopic dermatitis, the clinical signs scored were itching, redness, scaling, thickening and stripping of skin. Results: For all five clinical signs, the group-mean improvement, expressed as change of severity score over time, was greater in the test group than in the controls. Within each group, the changes for the five clinical signs were added up to arrive at an overall index of improvement of atopic dermatitis. The extra improvement caused by the ingestion of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans was 63%. The difference between the pooled group-mean changes of the scores for the control and test dogs was statistically significant (PConclusion: Beta-1,3/1,6-glucans can be considered safe and it is put forward that a dose of 800 ppm in a dry food is beneficial for dogs with atopic dermatitis.

  2. Blockade of lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPAR1/3 ameliorates lung fibrosis induced by irradiation

    Highlights: → Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels and its receptors LPAR1/3 transcripts were elevated during the development of radiation-induced lung fibrosis. → Lung fibrosis was obviously alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. → VPC12249 administration effectively inhibited radiation-induced fibroblast accumulation in vivo, and suppressed LPA-induced fibroblast proliferation in vitro. → LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling regulated TGFβ1 and CTGF expressions in radiation-challenged lungs, but only influenced CTGF expression in cultured fibroblasts. → LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling induced fibroblast proliferation through a CTGF-dependent pathway, rather than through TGFβ1 activation. -- Abstract: Lung fibrosis is a common and serious complication of radiation therapy for lung cancer, for which there are no efficient treatments. Emerging evidence indicates that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors (LPARs) are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Here, we reported that thoracic radiation with 16 Gy in mice induced development of radiation lung fibrosis (RLF) accompanied by obvious increases in LPA release and LPAR1 and LPAR3 (LPAR1/3) transcripts. RLF was significantly alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. VPC12249 administration effectively prolonged animal survival, restored lung structure, inhibited fibroblast accumulation and reduced collagen deposition. Moreover, profibrotic cytokines in radiation-challenged lungs obviously decreased following administration of VPC12249, including transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). In vitro, LPA induced both fibroblast proliferation and CTGF expression in a dose-dependent manner, and both were suppressed by blockade of LPAR1/3. The pro-proliferative activity of LPA on fibroblasts was inhibited by siRNA directed against CTGF. Together, our data suggest that the LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling system is involved in the

  3. Blockade of lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPAR1/3 ameliorates lung fibrosis induced by irradiation

    Gan, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Xue, Jian-Xin [Department of Thoracic Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li, Xin [Department of Thoracic Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Liu, De-Song [Department of Pediatrics, Sichuan Provincial Hospital of Women and Children, Chengdu (China); Ge, Yan; Ni, Pei-Yan; Deng, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Lu, You, E-mail: radyoulu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Thoracic Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: wcumsjw72@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels and its receptors LPAR1/3 transcripts were elevated during the development of radiation-induced lung fibrosis. {yields} Lung fibrosis was obviously alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. {yields} VPC12249 administration effectively inhibited radiation-induced fibroblast accumulation in vivo, and suppressed LPA-induced fibroblast proliferation in vitro. {yields} LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling regulated TGF{beta}1 and CTGF expressions in radiation-challenged lungs, but only influenced CTGF expression in cultured fibroblasts. {yields} LPA-LPAR1/3 signaling induced fibroblast proliferation through a CTGF-dependent pathway, rather than through TGF{beta}1 activation. -- Abstract: Lung fibrosis is a common and serious complication of radiation therapy for lung cancer, for which there are no efficient treatments. Emerging evidence indicates that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors (LPARs) are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Here, we reported that thoracic radiation with 16 Gy in mice induced development of radiation lung fibrosis (RLF) accompanied by obvious increases in LPA release and LPAR1 and LPAR3 (LPAR1/3) transcripts. RLF was significantly alleviated in mice treated with the dual LPAR1/3 antagonist, VPC12249. VPC12249 administration effectively prolonged animal survival, restored lung structure, inhibited fibroblast accumulation and reduced collagen deposition. Moreover, profibrotic cytokines in radiation-challenged lungs obviously decreased following administration of VPC12249, including transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). In vitro, LPA induced both fibroblast proliferation and CTGF expression in a dose-dependent manner, and both were suppressed by blockade of LPAR1/3. The pro-proliferative activity of LPA on fibroblasts was inhibited by siRNA directed against CTGF. Together, our data suggest that the LPA-LPAR1/3

  4. The effects of cell recycling on the production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Avci, Fatma Gizem; Huccetogullari, Damla; Azbar, Nuri

    2014-03-01

    The effects of both biomass age and cell recycling on the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) production by Klebsiella pneumoniae were investigated in a membrane-supported bioreactor using hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module in two separate experiments. It was determined that older cells have a negative effect on 1,3-PDO production. The concentrations of by-products, such as acetic acid and ethanol, increased in cultures with older cells, whereas the concentrations of succinic acid, lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol decreased. The effect of cell recycling was comparatively studied at a cell recycling ratio of 100 %. The results showed that cell recycling had also negative effects on 1,3-PDO fermentation. It was hypothesized that both cell recycling and biomass age caused metabolic shifts to undesired by-products which then inhibited the 1,3-PDO production. On the other hand, the use of hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module was found to be very effective in terms of removal of cells from the fermentation broth. PMID:23892658

  5. Developmental expression of proprotein convertase 1/3 in the rat

    Lee, Y C; Damholt, A B; Billestrup, N; Kisbye, T; Galante, P; Michelsen, Birgitte; Kofod, Hans; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    developing pancreas. Thus, we have identified a novel PC1/3 mRNA transcript in the rat by using sequence-specific probes and have demonstrated that the developmental expression of prohormone convertase PC1/3 is confined primarily to pancreas and intestine, suggesting that it may play a possible role in......We have isolated a clone that has 3' end sequence identity with prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) from a rat islet cDNA library. Northern blot analysis and immunocytochemical studies have confirmed its presence in the endocrine pancreas. Analysis of poly A mRNA from various adult tissues...... described previously. RT-PCR of RNA isolated from rat embryonic tissues using a primer set corresponding to the 3' end of the PC1/3 sequence showed a steady increase of expression in fetal pancreas and intestine during the course of development. In contrast, comparatively high and constant levels of PC1...

  6. The alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mouse. Implications for xenotransplantation.

    Tearle, R G; Tange, M J; Zannettino, Z L; Katerelos, M; Shinkel, T A; Van Denderen, B J; Lonie, A J; Lyons, I; Nottle, M B; Cox, T; Becker, C; Peura, A M; Wigley, P L; Crawford, R J; Robins, A J; Pearse, M J; d'Apice, A J

    1996-01-15

    Organ xenografts in discordant combinations such as pig-to-man undergo hyperacute rejection due to the presence of naturally occurring human anti-pig xenoantibodies. The galactose alpha(1,3)-galactose epitope on glycolipids and glycoproteins is the major porcine xenoantigen recognized by these xenoantibodies. This epitope is formed by alpha(1,3)-galactosyltransferase, which is present in all mammals except man, apes, and Old World monkeys. We have generated mice lacking this major xenoantigen by inactivating the alpha(1,3)-galactosyltransferase gene. These mice are viable and have normal organs but develop cataracts. Substantially less xenoantibody from human serum binds to cells and tissues of these mice compared with normal mice. Similarly, there is less activation of human complement on cells from mice lacking the galactose alpha(1,3)-galactose epitope. These mice confirm the importance of the galactose alpha(1,3)-galactose epitope in human xenoreactivity and the logic of continuing efforts to generate pigs that lack this epitope as a source of donor organs. PMID:8560551

  7. Electrochemical investigations of antioxidant interactions with radical anion and dianion of 1,3-dinitrobenzene

    Arshad, Nasima [Department of Chemistry, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Janjua, Naveed Kausar [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: nkausarjanjua@yahoo.com; Ahmed, Safeer [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Athar Yaseen [Department of Chemistry, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Skibsted, Leif H. [Food Chemistry, Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-11-01

    Interactions of five antioxidants (AO), quercetin (Q), morin (M), rutin (R), ascorbic acid (AA) and {beta}-carotene ({beta}-C) with anion radical and dianion of 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) in two aprotic solvents - dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) - have been studied by cyclic voltammetry using glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical parameters - peak potential (E{sub p}), half-wave potential (E{sub 1/2}), and peak current (i{sub p}) - for the reduction of 1,3-DNB before and after the addition of various concentrations of antioxidants, were evaluated. A gradual decrease in the oxidation peak current and finally irreversibility in 1,3-DNB radical anion and dianion systems upon the addition of antioxidant, reveals their interactions. The homogeneous bi-molecular rate constant (k{sub 2}) was determined from electrochemical data. In comparison to all other antioxidants used, enhanced homogeneous second order rate constant for the interaction of morin with 1,3-DNB anion radical and dianion, was observed. This aspect is attributable to protonation initiated by hydrogen bonding and greater acidic nature of morin.

  8. Electrochemical investigations of antioxidant interactions with radical anion and dianion of 1,3-dinitrobenzene

    Interactions of five antioxidants (AO), quercetin (Q), morin (M), rutin (R), ascorbic acid (AA) and β-carotene (β-C) with anion radical and dianion of 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) in two aprotic solvents - dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) - have been studied by cyclic voltammetry using glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical parameters - peak potential (Ep), half-wave potential (E1/2), and peak current (ip) - for the reduction of 1,3-DNB before and after the addition of various concentrations of antioxidants, were evaluated. A gradual decrease in the oxidation peak current and finally irreversibility in 1,3-DNB radical anion and dianion systems upon the addition of antioxidant, reveals their interactions. The homogeneous bi-molecular rate constant (k2) was determined from electrochemical data. In comparison to all other antioxidants used, enhanced homogeneous second order rate constant for the interaction of morin with 1,3-DNB anion radical and dianion, was observed. This aspect is attributable to protonation initiated by hydrogen bonding and greater acidic nature of morin.

  9. Dissociation of cephamycin C and clavulanic acid biosynthesis by 1,3-diaminopropane in Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Leite, Carla A; Cavallieri, André P; Baptista, Amanda S; Araujo, Maria L G C

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces clavuligerus produces simultaneously cephamycin C (CephC) and clavulanic acid (CA). Adding 1,3-diaminopropane to culture medium stimulates production of beta-lactam antibiotics. However, there are no studies on the influence of this diamine on coordinated production of CephC and CA. This study indicates that 1,3-diaminopropane can dissociate CephC and CA productions. Results indicated that low diamine concentrations (below 1.25 g l(-1)) in culture medium increased CA production by 200%, but not that of CephC. Conversely, CephC production increased by 300% when 10 g l(-1) 1,3-diaminopropane was added to culture medium. Addition of just L-lysine (18.3 g l(-1)) to culture medium increased both biocompounds. On the other hand, while L-lysine plus 7.5 g l(-1) 1,3-diaminopropane increased volumetric production of CephC by 1100%, its impact on CA production was insignificant. The combined results suggest that extracellular concentration of 1,3-diaminopropane may trigger the dissociation of CephC and CA biosynthesis in S. clavuligerus. PMID:26564965

  10. Pythagoras 1:3, an expression of the finite universe of mathematics

    Vinoo Cameron

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The author has published several papers which are may be hard to understand and stand as a testament to the discovery of 1:3 mathematics which is an absolute accommodation of  numbers, prime numbers placement , and precise angles. The author has published a continuous Prime sieve at the divergence of (5/6, 1/6 and (1/3 and 2/3, a final attempt is made here to communicate the simple mathematics of the finite universe of mathematics to the dead current mathematics, that in the authors opinion is dead to the absolute reality of mathematics, as a form of approximate mathematics and has offered this manuscript for review at any mathematical venue. This discussion is about 1:3 Pythagoras (√1+√9=√10 hypotenuse and points to the clear mathematical relationship between 19 and 3^2. The span of the divergence at 1:3 is clearly2+ 1/ (3^2 from the base of 2. Current mathematics is currently operating in the approximation of their myriad current theory, and they seem content. 

  11. Pharmacological, structural, and drug delivery properties and applications of 1,3-β-glucans.

    Lehtovaara, Benjamin C; Gu, Frank X

    2011-07-13

    1,3-β-Glucans are a class of natural polysaccharides with unique pharmacological properties and the ability to form single- and triple-helical structures that can be formed into resilient gels with the application of heat and humidity. The pharmacological capabilities of 1,3-β-glucans include the impartation of tumor inhibition, resistance to infectious disease, and improvements in wound healing. Curdlan is a linear 1,3-β-glucan that has been used extensively to study the nature of these helical structures and gels, and Curdlan sulfates have found ongoing application in the inhibition of HIV infection. 1,3-β-Glucan gels have been used in food science as stabilizers and encapsulating agents, in nanoscience as scaffolds to build nanofibers and nanowires, and in drug delivery to form nanoparticles and create helical micelles encapsulating polynucleotides. 1,3-β-Glucans are beginning to have enormous significance due to their dual nature as structure-forming agents and pharmacological substances, and research is especially focused on the application of these polymers in animal nutrition and drug delivery. PMID:21609131

  12. Rich methane laminar flames doped with light unsaturated hydrocarbons. Part II: 1,3butadiene

    Gueniche, Hadj-Ali; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2007-01-01

    In line with the study presented in the part I of this paper, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane flame doped with 1,3-butadiene has been investigated. The flame contains 20.7% (molar) of methane, 31.4% of oxygen and 3.3% of 1,3-butadiene, corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 1.8, and a ratio C4H6 / CH4 of 16 %. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 36 cm/s at 333 K. The temperature ranged from 600 K close to the burner up to 2150 K. Quantified species included usual methane C0-C2 combustion products and 1,3-butadiene, but also propyne, allene, propene, propane, 1,2-butadiene, butynes, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, 1,3-pentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), 1-pentene, 3-methyl-1-butene, benzene and toluene. In order to model these new results, some improvements have been made to a mechanism previously developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C3-C4 unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reacti...

  13. Performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules for removal of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) from aqueous solution

    The performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules to degrade octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was investigated under various conditions. The results of batch experiments showed that anaerobic granules were capable of removing HMX from aqueous solution with high efficiency. Both biotic and abiotic mechanisms contributed to the removal of HMX by anaerobic granules under mesophilic conditions. Adsorption appeared to play a significant role in the abiotic process. Furthermore, HMX could be biodegraded by anaerobic granules as the sole substrate. After 16 days of incubation, 99.04% and 96.42% of total HMX could be removed by 1 g VSS/L acclimated and unacclimated granules, respectively. Vancomycin, an inhibitor of acetogenic bacteria, caused a significant inhibition of HMX biotransformation, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, only resulted in a slight decrease of metabolic activity. The presence of the glucose, as a suitable electron donor and carbon source, was found to enhance the degradation of HMX by anaerobic granules. Our study showed that sulfate had little adverse effects on biotransformation of HMX by anaerobic granules. However, nitrate had significant inhibitory effect on the extent of HMX removal especially in the initial period. This study offered good prospects of using high-rate anaerobic technology in the treatment of munition wastewater.

  14. Effect of Drying on Particle Size and Sensitivities of Nano hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine

    Jie Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nano hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX was prepared using a bi-directional rotation mill and dried under different conditions (liquid, temperature and drying. It shows that the samples cake seriously and the particles grow up obviously by ordinary drying in different liquids at 70 °C, which occurs again after vacuum drying. With the increase of temperature, the degrees of caking and aggregation are enhanced. Well dispersed sample maintaining constant particle size is extracted by supercritical drying, especially freeze drying. Furthermore, the mechanical sensitivities of I-RDX, O-RDX and F-RDX, of which the average sizes are 88.03 μm, 15.32 μm and 0.16 μm, respectively, are evaluated. Compared with I-RDX, the friction, impact and shock sensitivities of O-RDX are slightly lower. However, the friction, impact and shock sensitivities of F-RDX are reduced by 30%, 99.0% and 59.9%, respectively.

  15. Synthesis of 2-(1-Benzofuran-2-yl-4-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl/ 1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl Quinolines as Blue Green Fluorescent Probes

    Yadav D. Bodke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 2-(1-benzofuran-2-yl-4-(1,3 benzoxazol-2-yl/1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl quinoline derivatives 4(a–d were synthesized in one step by the reaction of 2-(1-benzofuran-2-yl quinoline-4-carboxylic acids 3(a-b with o-aminophenol and o-amino thiophenol, respectively, using polyphosphoric acid (PPA as a cyclizing agent. The fluorescent properties of newly synthesized compounds were investigated in three different organic solvents like chloroform (CHCl3, tetrahydrofuran (THF, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The photophysical constants such as quantum yield and stokes shift were determined. From the results of fluorescence study, it is evident that all synthesized compounds are fluorescent in solution. Compound 4a emitted green light (490.4 nm, 518.2 nm, and 522.4 nm with high quantum yield in all the three solvents, while compounds 4b, 4c, and 4d emitted green light (512 nm, 499 nm, 510 nm only in polar solvent DMSO. All fluorescent probes exhibited a bathochromic shift on increase in polarity of the solvent.

  16. Accurately Predicting the Density and Hydrostatic Compression of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine from First Principles

    SONG HuarJie; HUANG Feng-Lei

    2011-01-01

    @@ We predict the densities of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine(RDX)by introducing a factor of(1+1.5×10(-4)T)into the wavefunction-based potential of RDX constructed from first principles using the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory and the Williams-Stone-Misquitta method.The predicted values are within an accuracy of 1%of the density from O to 430K and closely reproduced the RDX densities under hydrostatic compression.This work heralds a promising approach to predicting accurately the densities of high explosives at temperatures and pressures to which they are often subjected,which is a long-standing issue in the field of energetic materials.%We predict the densities of crystalline hexahydro-l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine (RDX) by introducing a factor of (1+1.5 x 10~* T) into the wavefunction-based potential of RDX constructed from first principles using the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory and the Williams-Stone-Misquitta method. The predicted values are within an accuracy of 1% of the density from 0 to 430 K and closely reproduced the RDX densities under hydrostatic compression. This work heralds a promising approach to predicting accurately the densities of high explosives at temperatures and pressures to which they are often subjected, which is a long-standing issue in the Beld of energetic materials.

  17. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation. PMID:27301804

  18. Monte Carlo calculations of the elastic moduli and pressure-volume-temperature equation of state for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine

    Isothermal-isobaric Monte Carlo calculations were used to obtain predictions of the elastic coefficients and derived engineering moduli and Poisson ratios for crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The elastic coefficients were computed using the strain fluctuation formula due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2662 (1982)]. Calculations were performed as a function of temperature (218 K≤T≤333 K) and hydrostatic pressure (0 GPa≤p≤4 GPa). The predicted values of the moduli and Poisson ratios under ambient conditions are in accord with general expectations for molecular crystals and with a very recent, unpublished determination for RDX. The moduli exhibit a sensitive pressure dependence whereas the Poisson ratios are relatively independent of pressure. The temperature dependence of the moduli is comparable to the precision of the results. However, the crystal does exhibit thermal softening for most pressures. An additional product of the calculations is information about the pressure-volume-temperature (pVT) equation of state. We obtain near-quantitative agreement with experiment for the case of hydrostatic compression and reasonable, but not quantitative, correspondence for thermal expansion. The results indicate a significant dependence of the thermal expansion coefficients on hydrostatic pressure. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  19. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  20. Platinum(0-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane Complex as a Pt Source for Pt/SnO2 Catalyst

    Agnieszka Martyla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new preparation method of Pt/SnO2, an important catalytic system. Besides of its application as a heterogenic industrial catalyst, it is also used as a catalyst in electrochemical processes, especially in fuel cells. Platinum is commonly used as an anode catalyst in low temperature fuel cells, fuelled with alcohols of low molecular weight such as methanol. Platinum(0-1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane complex was used as a precursor of metallic phase. The aim of the research was to obtain a highly active in electrochemical system Pt/SnO2 catalyst with low metal load. Considering small size of Pt crystallites, it should result in high activity of Pt/SnO2 system. The presented method of SnO2 synthesis allows for obtaining support consisting of nanoparticles. The effect of the thermal treatment on activity of Pt/SnO2 gel was demonstrated. The system properties were investigated using TEM, FTIR (ATR, and XRD techniques to describe its thermal structural evolution. The results showed two electrocatalytical activity peaks for drying at a temperature of 430 K and above 650 K.

  1. Vicarious nucleophilic substitution to prepare 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene

    Mitchell, A.R.; Pagoria, P.F.; Schmidt, R.D.

    1996-10-29

    The present invention relates to a process to produce 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6,trinitrobenzene (TATB) by: (a) reacting at ambient pressure and a temperature of between about 0 and 50 C for between about 0.1 and 24 hr, a trinitroaromatic compound of the structure shown within where X, Y, and Z are each independently selected from --H, or --NH{sub 2}, with the proviso that at least 1 or 2 of X, Y, and Z are hydrogen, with an amount effective to produce DATB or TATB, or 1,1,1-trialkylhydrazinium halide wherein alkyl is selected from methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl and halide is selected from chloride, bromide or iodide, in the presence of a strong base selected from sodium butoxide, potassium butoxide, potassium propoxide, sodium propoxide, sodium ethoxide, potassium ethoxide, sodium methoxide, potassium methoxide, and combinations thereof; in a solvent selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, dimethylsulfoxide, N-methylpyrrolidone, hexamethylphosphoramide, dimethylformide, dimethylacetamide and mixtures thereof, provided that when alcohols are present primarily DATB and picramide is formed; and (b) isolating the DATB or TATB produced. DATB and TATB are useful specialty explosives. TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials (optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds).

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    Popat B. Mohite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In attempt to find new pharmacologically active molecules, we report here the synthesis and in vitro antimicrobial activities of various novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole containing 5-phenyltetrazole. The Schiff bases were obtained by condensation 2-(5-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-1-ylacetohydrazide with various aromatic aldehydes. Cyclocondensation of Schiff’s bases with acetic anhydride results in 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives. The structures of the newly synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazole were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. The antimicrobial activity was determined by MIC method. All the compounds exhibited weak to potent antimicrobial activity. Some derivatives bearing a methoxy group exhibited very good antimicrobial activity at conc. of 62.5 µg/mL.

  3. Poly[tetraaqua(μ4-benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylatosodium(Izinc(II

    Chao-Hong Ma

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [NaZn(C9H3O6(H2O4]n, the ZnII atom is six-coordinated by four O atoms from two different benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate anions and two water O atoms in a distorted tetragonal-bipyramidal geometry and the NaI atom is five-coordinated by three O atoms from three different benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate anions and two water O atoms in a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. The benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate anion bridges two ZnII atoms and two NaI atoms, resulting in the formation of a two-dimensional layer structure. Intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions generate a three-dimensional superamolecular structure.

  4. Facile synthesis of 1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones as antitubercular agents.

    Subhedar, Dnyaneshwar D; Shaikh, Mubarak H; Arkile, Manisha A; Yeware, Amar; Sarkar, Dhiman; Shingate, Bapurao B

    2016-04-01

    We have developed, highly efficient, one-pot, solvent-free, [Et3NH][HSO4] catalyzed multicomponent reaction protocol for the synthesis of 1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones in excellent yields. For the first time, the 1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were evaluated in vitro for their antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis dormant MTB H37Ra and Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains. Among the synthesized basic 1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones, particularly the compounds 4c, 4d, 4e, 4f, 4h, 4i and 4j displays promising antitubercular activity along with no significant cytotoxicity against the cell lines MCF-7, A549 and HCT-116. PMID:26927426

  5. Proprotein convertase 1/3 inhibited macrophages: A novel therapeutic based on drone macrophages

    Marie Duhamel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated here thanks to proteomic, that proprotein convertase 1/3 knockdown macrophages present all the characteristic of activated pro-inflammatory macrophages. TLR4 and TLR9 signaling pathways can be enhanced leading to the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors and antitumor factors. We can control their activation by controlling one enzyme, PC1/3. In a tumor context, PC1/3 inhibition in macrophages may reactivate them and lead to a cytokine storm after stimulation “at distance” with a TLR ligand. Therefore, we name these proprotein convertase inhibited macrophages the “drone macrophages”. They constitute an innovative cell therapy to treat efficiently tumors.

  6. Evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-fuelled motor vehicles

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.; Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.

    This study reports the identification and quantification of 1,3-butadiene in petrol and in the evaporative emissions from Australian light-duty passenger vehicles. The mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in each of the different grades of any brand of Australian petrol was found to be relatively constant for a given marketing area. However, the mass fractions vary significantly between the different brands (or refineries) from 0.004±0.001% to 0.047±0.008%. The measurements of the evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from in-service motor vehicles were performed using standard Australian Design Rule 37/00 (ADR 37/00) Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination (SHED) tests. For post-1985 catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with unleaded petrol, average evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene were 9.4 (0.7-22) and 5.0 (0.1-23) mg per test for diurnal and hot soak SHED tests, respectively. The corresponding average evaporative emissions for the older, pre-1986 non-catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with leaded petrol were 26.5 (11.7-45.4) and 9.2 (4.3-13.1) mg per test, respectively, about double the observed emissions from newer vehicles. For the complete vehicle set (all ages), the average mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in the total hydrocarbon (sum of C 1-C 10 hydrocarbons) emission was 0.21±0.14% from the diurnal phase and was 0.11±0.06% from the hot-soak phase. Evaporative emissions were estimated to contribute about 4% (ranging from 1-15%) of the total (exhaust and evaporative) emissions of 1,3-butadiene from Australian motor vehicles.

  7. Rich premixed laminar methane flames doped by light unsaturated hydrocarbons. II. 1,3-Butadiene

    Gueniche, H.A.; Glaude, P.A.; Fournet, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F. [Departement de Chimie-Physique des Reactions, UMR 7630 CNRS, INPL-ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2007-10-15

    In line with the study presented in Part I of this paper, the structure of a rich premixed laminar methane flame doped with 1,3-butadiene has been investigated. The flame contains 20.7% (molar) of methane, 31.4% of oxygen, and 3.3% of 1,3-butadiene, corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 1.8, and a C{sub 4}H{sub 6}/CH{sub 4} ratio of 16%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 36 cm/s at 333 K. The temperature ranged from 600 K close to the burner up to 2150 K. Quantified species included the usual methane C{sub 0}-C{sub 2} combustion products and 1,3-butadiene, but also propyne, allene, propene, propane, 1,2-butadiene, butynes, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, 1,3-pentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), 1-pentene, 3-methyl-1-butene, benzene, and toluene. To model these new results, some improvements have been made to a mechanism previously developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reaction pathways of consumption of 1,3-butadiene and of formation of C{sub 6} aromatic species have been derived from flow rate analyses. In this case, the C{sub 4} route to benzene formation plays an important role in comparison to the C{sub 3} pathway. (author)

  8. A germline mutation in the BRCA1 3’UTR predicts Stage IV breast cancer

    A germline, variant in the BRCA1 3’UTR (rs8176318) was previously shown to predict breast and ovarian cancer risk in women from high-risk families, as well as increased risk of triple negative breast cancer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this variant predicts tumor biology, like other 3’UTR mutations in cancer. The impact of the BRCA1-3’UTR-variant on BRCA1 gene expression, and altered response to external stimuli was tested in vitro using a luciferase reporter assay. Gene expression was further tested in vivo by immunoflourescence staining on breast tumor tissue, comparing triple negative patient samples with the variant (TG or TT) or non-variant (GG) BRCA1 3’UTR. To determine the significance of the variant on clinically relevant endpoints, a comprehensive collection of West-Irish breast cancer patients were tested for the variant. Finally, an association of the variant with breast screening clinical phenotypes was evaluated using a cohort of women from the High Risk Breast Program at the University of Vermont. Luciferase reporters with the BRCA1-3’UTR-variant (T allele) displayed significantly lower gene expression, as well as altered response to external hormonal stimuli, compared to the non-variant 3’UTR (G allele) in breast cancer cell lines. This was confirmed clinically by the finding of reduced BRCA1 gene expression in triple negative samples from patients carrying the homozygous TT variant, compared to non-variant patients. The BRCA1-3’UTR-variant (TG or TT) also associated with a modest increased risk for developing breast cancer in the West-Irish cohort (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8, p = 0.033). More importantly, patients with the BRCA1-3’UTR-variant had a 4-fold increased risk of presenting with Stage IV disease (p = 0.018, OR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.3-11.0). Supporting that this finding is due to tumor biology, and not difficulty screening, obese women with the BRCA1-3’UTR-variant had significantly less dense breasts (p = 0.0398) in the

  9. Treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with 1,3-beta-glucan synthesis inhibitors.

    Schmatz, D M; Romancheck, M A; Pittarelli, L A; Schwartz, R. E.; Fromtling, R A; Nollstadt, K H; Vanmiddlesworth, F L; Wilson, K E; Turner, M J

    1990-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is a major cause of death in AIDS patients in the United States. The presently available treatments have limited use due to a high incidence of adverse reactions. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a safer method for treatment and prevention of this disease. Recent evidence has suggested that P. carinii is related to fungi and that the wall of the cyst form contains 1,3-beta-glucan as a major constituent. Based on this, several proposed 1,3-beta-glucan synth...

  10. Solvent-free production of 1,3-diglyceride of CLA: Strategy consideration and protocol design

    Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic production of a homogeneous 1,3-diglyceride of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was carried out using Novozym 435 as biocatalyst and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a model fatty acid. Three different operation modes, namely, magnetic stirring under vacuum, vacuum-driven N2 bubbling...... incubated with 10–12 mmol CLA for about 3 h at 45–55 °C and a pressure less than 10 mbar, with enzyme loading of 40–70 g l−1. Among the operational parameters, temperature and reaction time were found to have profound effects on the acylmigration and yield of 1,3-diglyceride. Moreover, the enzyme showed...

  11. Fabrication and Performances of 1-3-2 Piezoelectric Ceramic/Polymer Composite

    Likun Wang; Guang Li; Hongliang Du; Lei Qin; Shuxiang Li

    2006-01-01

    A novel 1-3-2 piezoelectric composite has been developed, which consists of piezoelectric ceramic plate and 1-3 piezoelectric composite. The composite was fabricated by dicing PZT ceramic along mutual perpendicular two directions and then filling epoxy into grooves. The piezoelectric and electromechanical properties of the novel composite were determined.The results show a coefficient d33 of 405 pC/N, a vibration displacement of 113.5 pm, an acoustic impendence of 13.3 Mraly,a bandwidth of 12 kHz and a thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.56.

  12. Microwave-prompted Reaction of Cinnamonitrile Derivatives with 5,5-Dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione

    TU,Shu-Jiang(屠树江); MIAO,Chun-Bao(缪春宝); GAO,Yuan(高原); FENG,You-Jian(冯友健); FENG,Jun-Cai(冯骏材)

    2002-01-01

    In the reactions of α-cyanocinamonitrile or β-cyano-β-carbo-thoxy styrene with 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione in the presence of ammonium acetate under microwave irradiation without solvent, the 2-amino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5-oxo-4-aryl-7,7-dimethyl-4H-benzo-[b]-pyran derivatives were obtained.However, in the reasons of arylidenecyanoacetamide with 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione under the same reaction conditions, the acridine derivatives were obtained. The structures of the products were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  13. Multicomponent Synthesis of 3,6-Dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones

    Frans J. J. de Kanter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-fused 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones constitute a so far rather unexplored class of compounds, with the latest report dating back more than two decades. Thiazine-2-thiones contain an endocyclic dithiocarbamate group, which is often found in pesticides, in substrates for radical chemistry and in synthetic intermediates towards thioureas and amidines. We now report the multicomponent reaction (MCR of in situ-generated 1-azadienes with carbon disulfide. With this reaction, a one-step protocol towards the potentially interesting 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones was established and a small library was synthesized.

  14. Coordination chemistry of 2,4,6-tri(pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine ligands

    Therrien, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    This review covers the rich coordination chemistry of 2,4,6-tri(pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine ligands. These polypyridyl derivatives have been coupled to transition metals and lanthanides, and the complexes obtained have been used in various fields such as luminescent materials, for the preparation of coordination polymers and networks as well as for the synthesis of discrete metalla-assemblies. The synthetic and structural aspects of the different isomers of 2,4,6-tri(pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine are p...

  15. Tandem dinucleophilic cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with pyridinium salts

    Mostafa Kiamehr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with various substituted pyridinium salts afforded functionalized 8-oxa-10-aza-tricyclo[7.3.1.02,7]trideca-2(7,11-dienes. The reaction proceeds by regioselective attack of the central carbon atom of the 1,3-dicarbonyl unit to 4-position of the pyridinium salt and subsequent cyclization by base-assisted proton migration and nucleophilic addition of the oxygen atom to the 2-position, as was elucidated by DFT computations. Fairly extensive screening of bases and additives revealed that the presence of potassium cations is essential for formation of the product.

  16. Selective Kv1.3 channel blocker as therapeutic for obesity and insulin resistance

    Upadhyay, Sanjeev Kumar; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L.; Mirbolooki, M Reza; Tjong, Indra; Griffey, Stephen M.; Schmunk, Galina; Koehne, Amanda; Halbout, Briac; Iadonato, Shawn; Pedersen, Brian; Borrelli, Emiliana; Ping H. Wang; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Chandy, K. George

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic in need of novel and safe therapeutics. We show that ShK-186, a selective blocker of the Kv1.3 potassium channel, has powerful antiobesity effects in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. ShK-186 increases energy expenditure by activating brown adipose tissue, causes profound changes in liver metabolism and reduces obesity-induced inflammation of white adipose tissue. Our studies highlight the potential use of selective Kv1.3 blockers in the treatment of obesity ...

  17. Synthesis and Structure Characterization of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3-Dioxolane

    XU Liang-zhong; JIAN Fang-fang; NIU Shu-yan; JIANG Zhi-guo

    2004-01-01

    Five novel triazole compounds containing group 1,3-dioxolane were designed and synthesized by taking difenoconazole as the start compound and changing diphenyl ether for benzyl phenyl ether. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analyses, 1H NMR and IR spectra. The single crystal structure of 2-[4-(2,4-dichlorophenylmethoxy]phenyl-2- (1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) methane-1, 3-dioxolane was determined by means of X-ray diffraction. The preliminary bioassays showed that the synthesized compounds exhibited some activities of fungicides and plant growth regulators.

  18. Tandem dinucleophilic cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with pyridinium salts

    Mostafa Kiamehr; Firouz Matloubi Moghaddam; Satenik Mkrtchyan; Volodymyr Semeniuchenko; Linda Supe; Alexander Villinger; Peter Langer; Iaroshenko, Viktor O.

    2013-01-01

    The cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with various substituted pyridinium salts afforded functionalized 8-oxa-10-aza-tricyclo[7.3.1.02,7]trideca-2(7),11-dienes. The reaction proceeds by regioselective attack of the central carbon atom of the 1,3-dicarbonyl unit to 4-position of the pyridinium salt and subsequent cyclization by base-assisted proton migration and nucleophilic addition of the oxygen atom to the 2-position, as was elucidated by DFT computations. Fairly extensive screening of ...

  19. Eu(Ⅲ) complexes involving 1,3,5-triazine diphosphine oxides

    O.Pietraszkiewicz; M.Pietraszkiewicz; J.Karpiuk; M.Jesie(n)

    2009-01-01

    The 1,3,5-triazine diphosphine oxide ligands with donor-acceptor properties formed strong complexes with europium(Ⅲ) ion in acetonitrile.Spectrophotometric titrations and mass spectra indicated that two ligands coordinated to one europium ion.The stability constants varied from 11.64 to 14.60 (log β).Binary complexes exhibited rather weak luminescence in solution.1,3,5-triazine diphosphine oxides engaged as co-ligands in Eu(Ⅲ) (2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)3 complex contributed to the overall photoluminescence and allowed for excitation with longer wavelengths than the parent complex.

  20. 1,3-Diphenylethenylcarbazolyl-Based Monomer for Cross-Linked Hole Transporting Layers

    Maryte Daskeviciene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new cross-linkable monomer containing 1,3-diphenylethenylcarbazolyl-based hole-transporting moieties and four reactive epoxy groups, was prepared by a multistep synthesis route from 1,3-bis(2,2-diphenylethenyl-9H-carbazol-2-ol and its application for the in situ formation of cross-linked hole transporting layers was investigated. A high concentration of flexible aliphatic epoxy chains ensures good solubility and makes this compound an attractive cross-linking agent. The synthesized compounds were characterized by various techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry, xerographic time of flight, and electron photoemission in air methods.

  1. Reaction of 1,3-di-tert-butyl-2,2-dimethyl-4,4-dichloro-1,3,2,4lambda4-diazasila-stannetidine with silver trifluoromethanesulphonate : the crystal structure of polymeric 1,3-di-tert-butyl-2,4-dimethyl-2,4-ditrifluoromethanesulphonate-1,3,2,4lambda 5-diazasilastannetidine

    Veith, Michael; Royan, Bruce W.; Huch, Volker

    1993-01-01

    When 1,3-di-tert-butyl-2,2-dimethyl-4,4-dichloro-1,3,2,4lambda2-diazasilastannetid ine (1) is allowed to react with the chloride abstracting reagent AgCF3SO3 the chlorides are displaced by triflates forming 2. At the same time a rearrangement in the molecule takes place, one of the methyl groups on silicon migrating to tin in exchange of a triflate. In the solid the new compound 2 is a coordination polymer with trigonal bi-pyramidal tin centers, which exhibit quite unusual short Sn-N bonds in...

  2. Poly[(μ4-benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylatobis(N,N-dimethylacetamideterbium(III

    Kun Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Tb(C9H3O6(C4H9NO2], shows a rare-earth three-dimensional metal-organic framework structure. In this complex of an eight-coordinated Tb3+ ion, the asymmetric unit contains one benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic ligand and two coordinated dimethylacetamide molecules. Each Tb3+ ion is coordinated by six O atoms from four carboxylate groups of the benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic ligands and two O atoms from two terminal dimethylacetamide molecules.

  3. Preparation and identification of 1.3 copies C-type HBV transgenic mice

    Chen, Mei-Juan; Yu-qin YOU; Guang-ze LIU; Tong, Ming-Hua; Jing-wei LI; Xiu-mei LI; Kong, Xiang-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Objective To prepare 1.3 copies C-type HBV transgenic mice for providing a better model for the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B.Methods The HBV transgenic mice were generated by microinjection of 1.3 copies C-type HBV genome into the pronucleus of FVB /N zygotes.PCR,ELISA,RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the integration,replication and expression of HBV gene in the transgenic mice.Results Tow thousand two hundred and eighty-two fertilized eggs were injected and a to...

  4. catena-Poly[[aqua(imidazolecadmium(II]-μ3-benzene-1,3-dicarboxylato

    Zhengfang Zeng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cd(C8H4O4(C3H4N2(H2O]n, the CdII ion is seven-coordinated by five O atoms from three crystallographically independent benzene-1,3-carboxylate ligands, one N atom from the imidazole ligand and one coordinated water molecule. Neighboring CdII ions are bridged by the benzene-1,3-dicarboxylate ligands, forming a zigzag polymeric chain structure. These chains are further extended into a three-dimensional supramolecular structure through O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  5. Alternative fruit and vegetables consumption for 1-3 year old Indonesian children

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:World Health Organization merekomendasikan konsumsi sayur dan buah paling sedikit 400 gr atau 5 (lima porsi sayur dan buah sehari. Penelitian ini untuk menentukan alternatif jumlah dan jenis anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah dan kecukupan vitamin A, vitamin C, potasium, asam folat dan serat yang dapat dipenuhi untuk kelompok umur 1-3 tahun anak Indonesia. Metode:Penelitian menggunakan data konsumsi sayur dan buah dari data Riskesdas tahun 2010. Analisis data menggunakan analisis linier programming untuk memperoleh lima alternatif jumlah dan jenis sayur dan buah untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun.Hasil:Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lima jenis buah yang paling banyak dikonsumsi anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah pisang, jeruk, pepaya, apel dan semangka. Lima jenis sayur yang paling banyak dikonsumsi anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah sayur bayam, sayur sop, sayur kangkung, sayur daun singkong, dan sayur asam. Jumlah anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah 100-200 gram sayuran dan 150-200 gram buah Kesimpulan: Alternatif anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah 100-200 gram (1-2 mangkok sayuran dan 150-200 gram (3-4 potong buah. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:74-7Kata kunci: anjuran, konsumsi, sayur, buah, anak usia 1-3 tahunAbstractBackground: WHO recommends the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables at least 400 grams or 5 servings. Based on national health survey Indonesia in 2007, means of daily portion of fruit and vegetable for Indonesian was less than 5 portion. This study was conducted to assess consumption of fruit and vegetables in 1-3 year old Indonesian children, and adequacy of daily requirement of vitamin A, vitamin C, potasium, folic acid and fiber. Methods: The study used consumption data from 2010 National Health Survey Indonesia. Using linier programming, we then could present 5 alternatives of combination of fruits and vegetables. Result:  The  study  found  five  kind  of

  6. 关于Diophantine方程x3-1=3py2%On the Diophantine Equation x3-1=3py2

    万飞; 杜先存

    2014-01-01

    The positive integer solutions of the Diophantine equation x3-1= 23 py are studied on condition that p is an odd prime of the form 6k+1 . By using the elementary method of the minimal solution of the Pell equation 2px -3 y 2 =1 , congruent formula, quadratic residue and Legendre symbol, two related conclusions are proved.%设p是6k+1型的奇素数,探讨了Diophantine方程23x -1=3 py 的正整数解的情况。运用Pell方程2px -3 y 2=1的最小解、同余式、平方剩余、勒让德符号等初等方法证明了两个结论。

  7. Validation of a novel extraction method for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation by ruminal microbiota.

    Giarrizzo, J G; Murty, L; Tanaree, D; Walker, K; Craig, A M

    2013-04-15

    A simple, fast liquid-liquid extraction method was developed for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation using small sample volumes. The method was tested in vitro with anaerobic incubations of RDX with whole rumen fluid (WRF) and a commercial Sporanaerobacter acetigenes strain in methanogenic media for RDX. Additionally, validation experiments were conducted in deionized water in order to show applicability toward various aqueous matrices. Conditions for extraction were as follows: 300 μL of sample were mixed with an equal volume of a 0.34 M ammonium hydroxide solution to reach a basic pH, extracted with a hexane/ethyl acetate 1:1 (v/v) solution (1 mL) and shaken vigorously for 10 s. The resulting organic phase was transferred, then dried under a constant flow of N2 and reconstituted with acetonitrile (300 μL) for HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS analysis. Percent recovery values were obtained (83-101%) in all matrices for RDX. In WRF (n=3 animals), RDX degradation was observed with almost 100% elimination of RDX after 4 h. The five nitroso and ring cleavage metabolites were observed by mass spectrometry. Liquid cultures of S. acetigenes did not show significant RDX biodegradation activity. RDX extractions from deionized water samples indicated acceptable recoveries with low variability, suggesting suitability of the method for aqueous matrices. Overall, the new method demonstrated acceptable efficiency and reproducibility across three matrices, providing an advantageous alternative for studies where complex matrices and small volume samples are in use. PMID:23523880

  8. Principais aspectos da polimerização do 1,3-butadieno Principles aspects of butadiene 1,3 polymerization

    Denise S. S. Nunes

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, há uma grande demanda pelo polibutadieno com alto teor de unidades 1,4-cis, devido às suas excelentes propriedades físicas, tais como alta resistência à abrasão, baixo desenvolvimento de calor, baixa resistência ao rolamento, maior resistência à tensão, alta resistência à fadiga, baixa histerese e alta resistência à fratura. Tais características fazem com que esse elastômero seja cada vez mais utilizado na indústria pneumática. Assim, este trabalho apresenta uma breve revisão sobre a polimerização do 1,3-butadieno com diferentes sistemas catalíticos, sendo os sistemas à base de lantanídeos o principal foco desta revisão, pois esses sistemas são os mais estereoespecíficos para a polimerização 1,4-cis do butadieno.Nowadays, there is a great demand for polybutadiene with high contents of cis groups owing to its excellent physical properties, such as high abrasion resistance and low heat build up. These characteristics make this elastomer one of the most used in pneumatic industry. Thus, this paper presents a brief review about the 1,3-butadiene polymerization by different catalysts systems, with the systems based on lanthanides being the main focus, as they are the most stereospecific for cis-1,4 polymerization of butadiene.

  9. Organocatalytic Asymmetric α-Chlorination of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds Catalyzed by 2-Aminobenzimidazole Derivatives

    Daniel Serrano Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bifunctional chiral 2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives 1 and 2 catalyze the enantioselective stereodivergent α-chlorination of β-ketoesters and 1,3-diketone derivatives with up to 50% ee using N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS or 2,3,4,4,5,6-hexachloro-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one as electrophilic chlorine sources.

  10. 4-[5-(2-Methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]benzohydrazide

    Muhammad Taha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 4-(5-(2-Methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylbenzohydrazide (5 was synthesized by three steps. The synthesis started with 2-methoxybenzohydrazide to form hydrazone (3 which was then cyclized to oxadiazole (4 and finally, treatment of oxadiazole (4 with hydrazine hydrate afforded the final product (5.

  11. Patriot Script 1.0.13 User Guide for PEM 1.3.2

    Cleland, Timothy James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kubicek, Deborah Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Phillip David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cuellar-Hengartner, Leticia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mathis, Mark [Descartes Labs, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-02

    This document provides an updated user guide for Patriot Script Version 1.0.13, for release with PEM 1.3.1 (LAUR-1422817) that adds description and instructions for the new excursion capability (see section 4.5.1).

  12. The output of lead storage battery in China accounts for 1/3 in the world

    2008-01-01

    <正>China has now become the world largest manu- facturer and exporter of lead storage battery, with its output taking 1/3 in the world.Accord- ing to incomplete statistics,there are about 1500 lead storage battery manufacturers in China and the output has been growing at a

  13. Triblock Copolymers Based on 1,3-Trimethylene Carbonate and Lactide as Biodegradable Thermoplastic Elastomers

    Zhang, Zheng; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Biodegradable triblock copolymers based on 1,3-trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and different lactides (i.e. D,L-lactide(DLLA), L-lactide (LLA), D-lactide (DLA)) designated as poly(DLLA-TMC-DLLA), poly(LLA-TMC-LLA) and poly(DLA-TMC-DLA) were prepared and their mechanical and thermal properties were comp

  14. N-[1-(2,5-Dimethyl-3-thienylethylidene]-1,3-benzothiazol-2-amine

    Abdullah Mohamed Asiri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, N-[1-(2,5-dimethyl-3-thienylethylidene]-1,3-benzothiazol-2-amine has been synthesized by condensation of 2-aminobenzothiazole and 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  15. 5,5-Dimethyl-2-methylseleno-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-2-one

    Grzegorz Cholewinski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H13O3PSe, was obtained in the reaction of 5,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-seleno-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinane potassium salt with methyl iodide. The selenomethyl group is in the axial position in relation to the six-membered dioxaphosphorinane ring.

  16. 1 = 3 õige või vale / Tiia-Triin Truusa

    Truusa, Tiia-Triin

    2001-01-01

    1. märtsil 2001 esietendus Tartu Teatrilaboris Zuga ja teatrilabori ühisprojekt tantsuetendus "1=3 õige või vale". Etenduse lavastaja on Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli kultuuriteaduskonna koreograafia eriala lõpetaja Jarmo Karing. Tantsivad TPÜ koreograafia eriala üliõpilased Annika Üprus, Tiina Mölder, Katrin Essenson ja Taavet Jansen

  17. 5-(2-Fluorobenzylidene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione

    Wu-Lan Zeng

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H11FO4, was prepared by the reaction of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione and 2-fluorobenzaldehyde in ethanol. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked into chains by weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  18. 5,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl-2-phenyl-1,3-dioxane

    Yi-Ming Luo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H16O4, the 1,3-dioxane ring adopts a chair conformation; the 2-phenyl substitutent occupies an equatorial position. Adjacent molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds into a chain.

  19. A non-boost-invariant solution of relativistic hydrodynamics in 1+3 dimensions

    Hatta, Yoshitaka; Yang, Di-Lun

    2015-01-01

    We present a new solution of relativistic hydrodynamics in 1+3 dimensions which depends on both the transverse coordinate and rapidity. At early times the flow expands dominantly longitudinally in a non-boost-invariant manner, and at late times it expands nearly spherically. These two regimes are shown to be related by symmetry. The effect of viscosity is also discussed.

  20. The Self-Assembly Properties of a Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide Derivative

    Stals, Patrick J. M.; Haveman, Jan F.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments involving the synthesis and characterization of a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide derivative and its self-assembly properties are reported. These laboratory experiments combine organic synthesis, self-assembly, and physical characterization and are designed for upper-level undergraduate students to introduce the topic of…

  1. Role of (1,3)(1,4)-β-glucan in cell walls: interaction with cellulose.

    Kiemle, Sarah N; Zhang, Xiao; Esker, Alan R; Toriz, Guillermo; Gatenholm, Paul; Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2014-05-12

    (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-Glucan (mixed-linkage glucan or MLG), a characteristic hemicellulose in primary cell walls of grasses, was investigated to determine both its role in cell walls and its interaction with cellulose and other cell wall polysaccharides in vitro. Binding isotherms showed that MLG adsorption onto microcrystalline cellulose is slow, irreversible, and temperature-dependent. Measurements using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring showed that MLG adsorbed irreversibly onto amorphous regenerated cellulose, forming a thick hydrogel. Oligosaccharide profiling using endo-(1,3)(1,4)-β-glucanase indicated that there was no difference in the frequency and distribution of (1,3) and (1,4) links in bound and unbound MLG. The binding of MLG to cellulose was reduced if the cellulose samples were first treated with certain cell wall polysaccharides, such as xyloglucan and glucuronoarabinoxylan. The tethering function of MLG in cell walls was tested by applying endo-(1,3)(1,4)-β-glucanase to wall samples in a constant force extensometer. Cell wall extension was not induced, which indicates that enzyme-accessible MLG does not tether cellulose fibrils into a load-bearing network. PMID:24678830

  2. Synthesis, Purification, and Characterization of a [mu]-(1,3-Propanedithiolato)-Hexacarbonyldiiron

    Works, Carmen F.

    2007-01-01

    A project which exposes students to biologically important transition-metal chemistry is illustrated by taking an example of the iron-carbonyl compound, [mu]-(1,3-Propanedithiolaro)-hexa-carbonyldiiron as a structural model for an iron-only hydro-genase. The project provides the students with experience of Schlenk line techniques, purification,…

  3. Pressure-induced amorphization of La1/3TaO3

    La1/3TaO3, an A-site cation deficient perovskite, has been studied under pressure by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It undergoes irreversible pressure induced amorphization at P=18.5 GPa. An almost linear unit cell volume decrease vs. pressure is observed from ambient pressure up to the phase transition. The Raman spectroscopy also shows amorphization at the same pressure, with positive shifts of all modes as a function of pressure. The pressure dependence of the Eg and A1g Raman modes arising from the octahedral oxygen network is discussed. - Graphical abstract: La1/3Tao3 exhibits linear pressure–volume relation until irreversible pressure induced amorphization at 18.5 Gpa. - Highlights: • La1/3TaO3 has been studied under pressure by synchrotron XRD and Raman spectroscopy. • La1/3TaO3 undergoes irreversible pressure induced amorphization around 18.5 GPa. • The transition is manifested in both XRD and Raman measurements. • A linear P–V relation is observed from ambient pressure up to the phase transition

  4. (Z-2-[(2,4-Dimethylphenylimino]-1,3-thiazinan-4-one

    Xiang-Wu Meng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H14N2OS, the 1,3-thiazinane ring displays a screw-boat conformation. In the crystal, pairs of centrosymmetrically related molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds into dimers. C—H...π interactions occur between adjacent dimers.

  5. Development of 1.3 GHz nine cell SCRF cavities at RRCAT

    Efforts are ongoing at RRCAT towards the development of multi-cell SCRF cavities, following the successful development of 1.3 GHz single cell and five cell SCRF cavity with simple beam tube. The purpose of development is to gain experience in manufacturing technology for multi-cell cavities. Large number of multi-cell SCRF cavities will be required in the SC linac for future accelerators. Initially a prototype 1.3 GHz nine cell aluminum RF cavity was fabricated to qualify the manufacturing process as well as tooling required for machining, chemical cleaning, electron beam welding and tuning of dumbbells. Based on this experience, a full scale 1.3 GHz nine cell SCRF cavity in niobium was taken-up. The paper presents complete manufacturing process, development of weld parameter, dumbbells, end-groups and qualifications at intermediate stages. The cavity has been pre-qualified for various tests including dimensional measurement, vacuum leak testing and RF testing at 300K and 77K. The processing and cold testing of 1.3 GHz nine cell SCRF cavity is being planned at RRCAT facilities. This paper presents the approach for manufacturing of multi-cell SCRF cavity with future plans. (author)

  6. Regioselective synthesis and evaluation of 3-alkylidene-1, 3-dihydroisobenzofurans as potential antidepressant agents

    C Praveen; C Iyyappan; K Girija; K Suresh Kumar; P T Perumal

    2012-03-01

    3-Alkylidene-1,3-dihydroisobenzofurans exhibited moderate antidepressant activity as evaluated by forced swim and tail suspension test methods. Virtual screening was carried out by docking the designed compounds into the serotonin binding sites of arabinase protein to predict the analogue binding mode of the compounds to the SSRIs.

  7. Compactified black holes in five-dimensional U(1)**3 ungauged supergravity

    Tomizawa, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    We present stationary, nonextremal three charge rotating black hole solutions in the five-dimensional U(1)^3 ungauged supergravity. At infinity, our solutions behave as a four-dimensional flat spacetime with a compact extra-dimension and hence describe spherical black holes with Kaluza-Klein asymptotics.

  8. The Effect of Feature Complexity in Spanish Spelling in Grades 1-3

    Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Huang, Francis L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored a possible continuum of spelling features that children receiving literacy instruction in Spanish might be expected to master in Grades 1-3. We administered a developmental spelling inventory representing nine distinct Spanish spelling features to 864 students in bilingual and dual language schools across the U.S.…

  9. Self-assembled monolayers of azobenzene functionalized 1,3,5-triazine-4,6-dithiols

    Two novel azobenzene-functionalized 1,3,5-triazine-4,6-dithiols were synthesized and their ultrathin films were prepared by self-assembling (SA) technique. The switching between trans-and cis-forms was observed by measuring the surface potential using the Kelvin probe technique while alternating irradiation the SA monolayer (SAM) with ultraviolet or visible light

  10. Anomalous reaction of oxide radical ion (O) with 1, 3, 5-triazine analogue of cytosine

    The reaction of O with 1, 3, 5-triazine analogue of cytosine viz. 5-azacytosine has been studied using the pulse radiolysis technique. On addition (k2 = 1.9x109 dm3 mol-1 s-1) of O followed by the protonation of the adduct system has been proposed, and this anomalous reaction is supported by quantum chemical calculations. (author)

  11. Investigation of Isomerization of 2-Seleno-1, 3, 2-diazaphospholidine Derivatives

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the isomerization of 1, 3, 2-diazaphospholidine-2-selenide derivatives in refluxing benzene in the presence of trace water was observed. The structures of isomerized products were determined by IR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. The mechanism of isomerization was also proposed.

  12. FLOW CYTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF 1,3-DINITROBENZENE ON RAT SPERMATOGENESIS

    Exposure of 100-d old rats to 1,3-dinitiobenzene (m-DNB) at dosages up to 48 mg/kg resulted in disruption of spermatogenesis as measured by flow cytometry (FCM) of acridine orange-stained sperm and testis cells. ne day (d 1) after a single exposure to 48 mg/kg m-DNB. CM measureme...

  13. EFFECT OF 1,3-DINITROBENZENE ON PREPUBERTAL, PUBERTAL, AND MOUSE SPERMATOGENESIS

    Exposure of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult mice to 0.8, 16, 32, 40, or 48 mg 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB)/kg body weight and measuring responses 1-25 d posttreatment (dpt) demonstrated significant effects on testicular function only at 48 mg/kg dosage m-DNB had no effect on body ...

  14. Structural characterization and catalytic properties of bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium) dichromate

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Ståhl, Kenny; Boghosian, Soghomon; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    The structure of bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium) dichromate was determined from powder X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P21/n) with a = 10.79714 (15) Å, b = 11.75844 (16) Å, c = 8.15097 (11) Å, β = 109.5248 (6)º. The structure consists of...

  15. 1,3,2,5-Diazadiborinine featuring nucleophilic and electrophilic boron centres.

    Wu, Di; Kong, Lingbing; Li, Yongxin; Ganguly, Rakesh; Kinjo, Rei

    2015-01-01

    The seminal discovery in 1865 by Kekulé that benzene nucleus exists with cyclic skeleton is considered to be the beginning of aromatic chemistry. Since then, a myriad of cyclic molecules displaying aromatic property have been synthesized. Meanwhile, borazine (B3N3H6), despite the isostructural and isoelectronic relationships with benzene, exhibits little aromaticity. Herein, we report the synthesis of a 1,3,2,5-diazadiborinine (B2C2N2R6) derivative, a hybrid inorganic/organic benzene, and we present experimental and computational evidence for its aromaticity. In marked contrast to the reactivity of benzene, borazine, and even azaborinines previously reported, 1,3,2,5-diazadiborinine readily forms the adducts with methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate and phenylacetylene without any catalysts. Moreover, 1,3,2,5-diazadiborine activates carbon dioxide giving rise to a bicycle[2,2,2] product, and the binding process was found to be reversible. These results, thus, demonstrate that 1,3,2,5-diazadiborinine features both nucleophilic and electrophilic boron centres, with a formal B(+I)/B(+III) mixed valence system, in the aromatic six-membered B2C2N2 ring. PMID:26073993

  16. NMR characterization of a 264-residue hyperthermostable endo-beta-1,3-glucanase.

    Ippel, J.H.; Koutsopoulos, S.; Nabuurs, S.M.; Berkel, W.J. van; Oost, J. van der; Mierlo, C.P. van

    2010-01-01

    Insight into the hyperthermostable endo-beta-1,3-glucanase pfLamA from Pyrococcus furiosus is obtained by using NMR spectroscopy. pfLamA functions optimally at 104 degrees C and recently the X-ray structure of pfLamA has been obtained at 20 degrees C, a temperature at which the enzyme is inactive. I

  17. NMR characterization of a 264-residue hyperthermostable endo-ß-1,3-glucanase

    Ippel, J.H.; Koutsopoulos, S.; Nabuurs, S.M.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Oost, van der J.; Mierlo, van C.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Insight into the hyperthermostable endo-beta-1,3-glucanase pfLamA from Pyrococcus furiosus is obtained by using NMR spectroscopy. pfLamA functions optimally at 104 degrees C and recently the X-ray structure of pfLamA has been obtained at 20 degrees C, a temperature at which the enzyme is inactive. I

  18. Voglibose-inspired synthesis of new potent α-glucosidase inhibitors N-1,3-dihydroxypropylaminocyclitols.

    Worawalai, Wisuttaya; Sompornpisut, Pornthep; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha

    2016-06-24

    Voglibose, an N-1,3-dihydroxypropylaminocyclitol, has widely been used as an effective α-glucosidase inhibitor for diabetes therapy. Several attempts have been made to synthesize closely related analogues through the coupling of various aminocyclitols and propane-1,3-diol; however, most of them showed weaker or no inhibition. In this communication, we synthesized a pair of new N-1,3-dihydroxypropylaminocyclitols (10 and 11) using (+)-proto-quercitol (1) as a cyclitol core structure. The newly synthesized compounds revealed potent rat intestinal α-glucosidases, particularly against maltase, with IC50 values at submicromolar. Subsequent study on mechanisms underlying the inhibition of 11 indicated the competitive manner towards maltase and sucrase. The potent inhibition of these compounds was elaborated by docking study, in which their binding profiles towards key amino acid residues in the active site were similar to that of voglibose. Therefore, introduction of propane-1,3-diol moiety to suitable cyclohexane core structure such as aminoquercitol would be a potential approach to discover a new series of effective α-glucosidase inhibitors. PMID:27140506

  19. Emission of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-driven motor vehicles

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.

    This study reports the measurement of 1,3-butadiene emissions from 30 petrol-driven vehicles from the Australian car fleet using the Australian Design Rule 37/00 vehicle test procedure. Six of the cars tested were not equipped with catalytic converters and used leaded petrol as fuel. The remaining 24 cars were fitted with catalytic converters and used unleaded petrol. 1,3-Butadiene in exhaust samples was found to degrade rapidly in SUMMA treated stainless steel canisters and the degradation followed first-order kinetics. The rate coefficient of the decay can be represented by a linear dependence on the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust ( r2 = 0.79, n = 43), and the gas-phase reaction of NO 2 and 1,3-butadiene may have a major role in this loss. The 1,3-butadiene concentrations used to estimate vehicle emissions were corrected for this loss using the decay rate constant either observed from replicate analyses or from the NO x concentrations in the samples. The measurements showed that 1,3-butadiene was emitted at a rate of 20.7 ± 9.2 mg km -1 from 6 non-catalyst vehicles. There was considerable scatter in the observations from catalyst equipped vehicles and we infer that this was due to the malfunction of the emission control devices on some vehicles. The 19 vehicles that appeared to have functioning catalyst emission control devices had an average emission rate of 2.1 ± 1.5 mg km -1. These emission rates are consistent with atmospheric observations and are much higher than those reported previously. We calculate that more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene in engine exhaust comes from the common alkane and aromatic constituents of the fuel. A comparison of emissions in the different phases of the drive cycle indicates that current emission controls remove more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene from the initial exhaust mixture.

  20. Antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000 Tipificação antigênica de amostras brasileiras de vírus rábico isoladas de animais e humanos, no período de 1989 a 2000

    Silvana Regina FAVORETTO

    2002-04-01

    í, guaxinim e humanos, totalizaram 330 amostras. Seis variantes antigênicas foram definidas, compatíveis com perfís observados no painel de anticorpos monoclonais pré-estabelecido utilizado, as de número 2 (cão, 3 (Desmodus rotundus, 4 (Tadarida brasiliensis, 5 (Vampiro da Venezuela, 6 (Lasiurus cinereus e Lab (reagente a todos os anticorpos utilizados, além de outros seis perfís desconhecidos, não compatíveis com aqueles observados no painel utilizado. A maior variabilidade foi observada entre as amostras isoladas de morcegos insetívoros e a variante mais comum isolada entre as espécies foi a variante 3 (Desmodus rotundus. Estes fatos podem representar a existência de múltiplos ciclos de transmissão independentes, envolvendo diferentes espécies de morcegos.

  1. Thermodynamic study of 1,2,3-triphenylbenzene and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.; Lima, Luis M. Spencer S. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The energetic study of 1,2,3-triphenylbenzene (1,2,3-TPhB) and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (1,3,5-TPhB) isomers was carried out by making use of the mini-bomb combustion calorimetry and Knudsen mass-loss effusion techniques. The mini-bomb combustion calorimetry technique was used to derive the standard (p{sup o} = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state from the measured standard molar energies of combustion for both isomers. The Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique was used to measure the dependence with the temperature of the vapour pressure of crystalline 1,2,3-TPhB, which allowed the derivation of the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, by application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The sublimation study of 1,3,5-TPhB had been performed previously. From the combination of data obtained by both techniques, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous state, for both isomers, at T = 298.15 K, were calculated. The results indicate a higher stability of the 1,3,5-TPhB isomer relative to 1,2,3-TPhB, similarly to the terphenyls. Nevertheless, the 1,2,3-TPhB isomer is not as energetically destabilized as one might expect, supporting the existence of a pi-pi displacive stacking interaction between both pairs of outer phenyl rings. The volatility difference between the two isomers is ruled by the enthalpy of sublimation. The volatility of the 1,2,3-TPhB is two orders of magnitude higher than the 1,3,5-TPhB isomer, at T = 298.15 K.

  2. New CuM 2/3Sb 1/3O 2 and AgM 2/3Sb 1/3O 2 compounds with the delafossite structure

    Nagarajan, R.; Uma, S.; Jayaraj, M. K.; Tate, J.; Sleight, A. W.

    2002-05-01

    Several new compounds have been prepared with the delafossite structure: CuMn 2/3Sb 1/3O 2, CuCo 2/3Sb 1/3O 2, CuNi 2/3Sb 1/3O 2, CuZn 2/3Sb 1/3O 2, CuMg 2/3Sb 1/3O 2, AgNi 2/3Sb 1/3O 2, and AgZn 2/3Sb 1/3O 2. The structures of the CuM 2/3Sb 1/3O 2 compounds are generally based on 2H stacking along the c axis, and the M 2+ and Sb 5+ cations can be ordered or disordered. The structures of the AgM 2/3Sb 1/3O 2 compounds are based on 3R stacking along c with the M 2+ and Sb 5+ cations disordered. The structures of CuMn 2/3Sb 1/3O 2 (disordered) and CuMg 2/3Sb 1/3O 2 (ordered) were refined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Pellets and transparent thin films of CuNi 2/3Sb 1/3O 2 with 10% Sn doping for Sb showed p-type electronic conduction.

  3. Catalytic enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of azomethine ylides for biology-oriented synthesis.

    Narayan, Rishikesh; Potowski, Marco; Jia, Zhi-Jun; Antonchick, Andrey P; Waldmann, Herbert

    2014-04-15

    Cycloaddition reactions are among the most powerful methods for the synthesis of complex compounds. In particular, the development and application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, an important member of this reaction class, has grown immensely due to its powerful ability to efficiently build various five-membered heterocycles. Azomethine ylides are commonly used as dipoles for the synthesis of the pyrrolidine scaffold, which is an important motif in natural products, pharmaceuticals, and biological probes. The reaction between azomethine ylides and cyclic dipolarophiles allows access to polycyclic products with considerable complexity. The extensive application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is based on the fact that the desired products can be obtained with high yield in a regio- and stereocontrolled manner. The most attractive feature of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides is the possibility to generate pyrrolidines with multiple stereocenters in a single step. The development of enantioselective cycloadditions became a subject of intensive and impressive studies in recent years. Among many modes of stereoinduction, the application of chiral metal-ligand complexes has emerged as the most viable option for control of enantioselectivity. In chemical biology research based on the principle of biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS), compound collections are prepared inspired by natural product scaffolds. In BIOS, biological relevance is employed as the key criterion to generate hypotheses for the design and synthesis of focused compound libraries. In particular, the underlying scaffolds of natural product classes provide inspiration for BIOS because they define the areas of chemical space explored by nature, and therefore, they can be regarded as "privileged". The scaffolds of natural products are frequently complex and rich in stereocenters, which necessitates the development of efficient enantioselective methodologies. This Account highlights examples

  4. (1H-1,3-Benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid(5-carboxylato-1H-1,3-benzimidazole-6-carboxylic acidsilver(I monohydrate

    Hong Zhai

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ag(C9H5N2O4(C9H6N2O4]·H2O, contains one independent Ag atom, a neutral 1H-benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid (bdcH, its monodeprotonated form, i.e. 5-carboxylato-1H-1,3-benzimidazole-6-carboxylic acid (bdc, and one solvent water molecule, the latter being disordered over three sites with site occupancy factors of 0.375 (× 2 and 0.25. In addition, the H atom on one carboxylic acid residue is disordered, being connected to each of the O atoms 50% of the time. The Ag atom is in a virtually linear geometry defined by two N atoms derived from the bdc and bdcH ligands. The three-dimensional supramolecular structure is stablized by extensive O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is also present.

  5. The electronic, structural and magnetic properties of La1-1/3Sr1/3MnO3 film with oxygen vacancy: a first principles investigation

    Li, Jia

    2016-03-01

    We have systematically investigated the influence of oxygen vacancy defects on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of La1-xSrxMnO3 (x = 1/3) film by means of ab initio calculations using bare GGA as well as GGA+U formalism, in the latter of which, the on-site Coulombic repulsion parameter U for Mn 3d orbital has been determined by the linear response theory. It is revealed that the introduction of the vacancy defects causes prominent structural changes including the distortion of MnO6 octahedra and local structural deformation surrounding the oxygen vacancy. The GGA+U formalism yields a significantly larger structural change than the bare GGA method, surprisingly in contrast with the general notion that the inclusion of Hubbard U parameter exerts little influence on structural properties. The distortion of MnO6 octahedra leads to a corresponding variation in the hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p, which gets strengthened if the Mn-O distance becomes smaller and vice versa. The magnetic moments of the Mn atoms located in three typical sites of the vacancy-containing supercell are all larger than those in the pristine system. We have characterized the O-vacancy defect as a hole-type defect that forms a negative charge center, attracting electrons.

  6. N-(5-Benzylsulfanyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl-2-(piperidin-1-ylacetamide

    D. S. Ismailova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H20N4OS2, was synthesized by the reaction of 2-benzylsulfanyl-5-chloroacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole and piperidine in a 1:2 ratio. The planes of the acetamide and 1,3,4-thiadiazole units are twisted by 10.8 (4°. The thiadiazole S atom and the acetamide O atom are syn-oriented due to a hypervalent S...O interaction of 2.628 (4 Å. In the crystal, molecules form centrosymmetric dimers via N—H...N hydrogen bonds. These dimers are further connected by C—H...O interactions into (100 layers.

  7. High extraction ability of 1,3-dialkynyl calixarene towards mercury(Ⅱ) ion

    Lin Bo Gong; Shu Ling Gong; Qin Zheng; Xiong Li; Yuan Yin Chen

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of 1,3-dipropyn-2-yloxycalix[4]arene with mercury(Ⅱ) acetate could give mercury-containing alkynyl calixarene polymer. The extraction behavior of 1,3-dipropyn-2-yl-oxycalix[4]arene towards mercury(H) ion was examined. When the mole ratio of Hg2+/calixarene was 1∶1, the extractive percent can reach to 99.1%, and the extraction capacity was up to 431 mg/g. It could also decrease the Hg2+ concentration from 5 to 0.85 mg/L, which was only 17% of the national standard of effluent and satisfied the national standard of drinking water. The extraction process included chemical reaction.

  8. Symbiont-derived beta-1,3-glucanases in a social insect: mutualism beyond nutrition

    Rebeca B Rosengaus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Termites have had a long co-evolutionary history with prokaryotic and eukaryotic gut microbes. Historically, the role of these anaerobic obligate symbionts has been attributed to the nutritional welfare of the host. We provide evidence that protozoa (and/or their associated bacteria colonizing the hindgut of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis, synthesize multiple functional beta-1,3-glucanases, enzymes known for breaking down beta-1,3-glucans, the main component of fungal cell walls. These enzymes, we propose, may help in both digestion of ingested fungal hyphae and protection against invasion by fungal pathogens. This research points to an additional novel role for the mutualistic hindgut microbial consortia of termites, an association that may extend beyond ligno-cellulolytic activity and nitrogen fixation to include a reduction in the risks of mycosis at both the individual- and colony-levels while nesting in and feeding on microbial-rich decayed wood.

  9. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives.

    Kumar, Sujeet; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Hegde, Mahesh; Rana, Vivek; Dhepe, Sharad S; Ramareddy, Sureshbabu A; Leoni, Alberto; Locatelli, Alessandra; Morigi, Rita; Rambaldi, Mirella; Srivastava, Mrinal; Raghavan, Sathees C; Karki, Subhas S

    2014-10-01

    A series of 2,5,6-substituted imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives have been prepared and were tested for antiproliferative activity on cancer cells at the National Cancer Institute. Results showed that molecules with a benzyl group at position 2, exhibited an increase in activity for the introduction of a formyl group at the 5 position. The compound 2-benzyl-5-formyl-6-(4-bromophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole 22 has been chosen for understanding the mechanism of action by various molecular and cellular biology studies. Results obtained from cell cycle evaluation analysis, analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential and Annexin V-FITC by flow cytometric analysis, ROS production and expression of apoptotic and DNA-repair proteins suggested that compound 22 induced cytotoxicity by activating extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, however, without affecting cell cycle progression. PMID:25205189

  10. N-[(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl]benzenesulfonamide: an analogue of capsaicin

    Stella H. Maganhi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H13NO4S, an analogue of capsaicin, differs from the latter by having a 1,3-benzodioxole ring rather than a 2-methoxyphenol moiety, and having a benzenesulfonamide group instead of an aliphatic amide chain. The five-membered ring is in an envelope conformation with the methylene C atom lying 0.221 (6 Å out of the plane formed by the other four atoms. The dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the mean plane of the 1,3-benzodioxole fused-ring system is 84.65 (4°. In the crystal, molecules aggregate into supramolecular layers in the ac plane through C—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...π interactions.

  11. SonoPanel(TM) 1-3 Piezocomposite Panels for Active Surface Control

    Gentilman, R.; Bowen, L.; Fiore, D.; Pham, H.; Serwatka, W.

    1996-01-01

    Materials Systems Inc. has developed a cost-effective technology for producing 1-3 piezoelectric ceramic/polymer composites for use in active surface control. MSI's 103 piezocomposite SonoPanel(TM) transducers consist of an array of piezoelectric ceramic rods arranged in a compliant polymer matrix. The standard SonoPanel(TM) composite consists of 15 volume percent PZT-5H rods 1.1 mm diameter x 6.3 mm long in a matrix of soft polyurethane. Stiff face plates are then bonded to the 1-3 composite sheet for stress amplification when used as a sensor and to enhance the surface response uniformity when used as an actuator. Many variations on this composite design have been produced for specific application requirements.

  12. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Novel Imidazo[2,1-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    Kamal F. M. Atta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 2-Amino-5-(2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 2-4 have been synthesized by the reaction of 2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acids 1 with thiosemicarbazide. Their reaction with phenacyl (p-substituted phenacyl bromides led to formation of the respective 6-aryl-2-(2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylimidazo[2,1-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 5. Reactivity of the latter fused ring towards reaction with different electrophilic reagents afforded the corresponding 5-substituted derivatives 6-8. The structure of the above compounds was confirmed from their spectral characteristics. Some of these compounds were found to possess slight to moderate activity against the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli.

  13. Polymeric reagents with propane-1,3-dithiol functions and their precursors for supported organic syntheses

    Bertini; Lucchesini; Pocci; De Munno A

    2000-08-11

    Reliable completely odorless syntheses of soluble copolymeric reagents of styrene type containing propane-1,3-dithiol functions able to convert carbonyl compounds into 1,3-dithiane derivatives and to support other useful transformations are reported together with their progenitor copolymers containing benzenesulfonate or thioacetate groups perfectly stable in open air and suitable for unlimited storage. The effectiveness of the prepared reagents as tools for polymer-supported syntheses to produce ketones by aldehyde umpolung and alkylation is tested in the conversion of benzaldehyde to phenyl n-hexyl ketone starting from copolymers with different contents of active units and molecular weights. To facilitate the adaptation of the prepared soluble copolymeric reagents to other possible applications, a table of solvents and nonsolvents is presented. PMID:10956461

  14. Covalent dimers of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran for singlet fission: synthesis and electrochemistry.

    Akdag, Akin; Wahab, Abdul; Beran, Pavel; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Dron, Paul I; Ludvík, Jiří; Michl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of covalent dimers in which two 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran units are connected through one phenyl substituent on each is reported. In three of the dimers, the subunits are linked directly, and in three others, they are linked via an alkane chain. A seventh new compound in which two 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran units share a phenyl substituent is also described. These materials are needed for investigations of the singlet fission process, which promises to increase the efficiency of solar cells. The electrochemical oxidation and reduction of the monomer, two previously known dimers, and the seven new compounds have been examined, and reversible redox potentials have been compared with results obtained from density functional theory. Although the overall agreement is satisfactory, some discrepancies are noted and discussed. PMID:25384731

  15. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 5,7-Dichloro-1,3-benzoxazole Derivatives

    N. D. Jayanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of 5,7-dichloro-1,3-benzoxazole derivatives 4–11 were synthesized by fusing 5,7-dichloro-2-hydrazino-1,3-benzoxazole 3 nucleus with aliphatic acids, active methylene compounds, and with selected esters to form heterocyclic ring systems like 1,2,4-triazoles, pyrazoles, and triazine moieties. The compound 3 on diazotization reaction affords the tetrazole compound. The synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, IR, Mass, and 13C NMR spectral data and screened for cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antilipase activities. The compounds 4, 5, and 8 have shown significant antimicrobial activities, whereas compounds 6 and 8 have been emerged as leading cytotoxic agents. The compounds 9, 10, and 11 were found to be strong enzyme inhibitors.

  16. On the (1 + 3) threading of spacetime with respect to an arbitrary timelike vector field

    Bejancu, Aurel [Kuwait University, Department of Mathematics, P.O.Box 5969, Safat (Kuwait); Calin, Constantin [Technical University ' ' Gh.Asachi' ' , Department of Mathematics, Iasi (Romania)

    2015-04-15

    We develop a newapproach on the (1 + 3) threading of spacetime (M, g) with respect to a congruence of curves defined by an arbitrary timelike vector field. The study is based on spatial tensor fields and on theRiemannian spatial connection ∇*, which behave as 3D geometric objects. We obtain new formulas for local components of the Ricci tensor field of (M, g) with respect to the threading frame field, in terms of the Ricci tensor field of ∇* and of kinematic quantities. Also, new expressions for time covariant derivatives of kinematic quantities are stated. In particular, a new form of Raychaudhuri's equation enables us to prove Lemma 6.3, which completes a well-known lemma used in the proof of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems. Finally, we apply the new (1 + 3) formalism to the study of the dynamics of a Kerr-Newman black hole. (orig.)

  17. On the (1 + 3) threading of spacetime with respect to an arbitrary timelike vector field

    We develop a newapproach on the (1 + 3) threading of spacetime (M, g) with respect to a congruence of curves defined by an arbitrary timelike vector field. The study is based on spatial tensor fields and on theRiemannian spatial connection ∇*, which behave as 3D geometric objects. We obtain new formulas for local components of the Ricci tensor field of (M, g) with respect to the threading frame field, in terms of the Ricci tensor field of ∇* and of kinematic quantities. Also, new expressions for time covariant derivatives of kinematic quantities are stated. In particular, a new form of Raychaudhuri's equation enables us to prove Lemma 6.3, which completes a well-known lemma used in the proof of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems. Finally, we apply the new (1 + 3) formalism to the study of the dynamics of a Kerr-Newman black hole. (orig.)

  18. Doubly excited 2s2p 1,3p1 resonances in photoionization of helium

    Wan Jian-Jie; Dong Chen-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method is implemented to study doubly excited 2s2p 1,3P1 resonances of the helium atom and the interference between photoionization and photoexcitation autoionization processes.In order to reproduce the total photoionization sprectra,the excited energies from the ground ls2 1 S0 state to the doubly excited 2s2p 1'3P1 states and the relevant Auger decay rates and widths are calculated in detail. Furthermore,the interference profile determined by the so-called Fano parameters q and p2 is also reproduced. Good agreement is found between the present results and other available theoretical and experimental results. This indeed shows a promising way to investigate the Fano resonances in photoionization of atoms within the MCDF scheme,although there are some discrepancies in the present calculations of the 2s2p 3P1 state.

  19. Electrochemical performance of compounds Ho6Fe23-xCox (x=0,1,3)

    HE Wei; ZHAO Yunhong; HUANG Jinli; ZHANG Yongzhi; ZENG Lingmin

    2011-01-01

    Alloys with composition of Ho6Fe23-xCox(x=0, 1, 3) were prepared and e xamined by X-ray diffraction technique and automatic battery testing instrument. The compounds Ho6Fe23-xCox(x=0, 1, 3) crystallized in cubic Th6Mn23-type structure with space group Fm(-3)m (No. 225). The electrochemical properties of these alloys such as discharge capacity, cycling performance and high rate dischargeability were investigated by battery testing instruments in alkaline electrolyte. Substitution of small amounts of Co for Fe in Ho6Fe23-xCox improved the activation, discharge capacity and the high rate dischargeability. The alloy with x=3 (Ho6Fe20Co3) had better discharge capacity, HRD and plateau pressure at discharge current density of 150 mA/g.

  20. Pd adsorption on Si(1 1 3) surface: STM and XPS study

    Pd-induced surface structures on Si(1 1 3) have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the initial process of the Pd adsorption below 0.10 ML, Pd silicide (Pd2Si) clusters are observed to form randomly on the surface. By increasing the Pd coverage to 0.10 ML, the clusters cover the entire surface, and an amorphous layer is formed. After annealing the Si(1 1 3)-Pd surface at 600 deg. C, various types of islands and chain protrusions appears. The agglomeration, coalescence and crystallization of these islands are observed by using high temperature (HT-) STM. It is also found by XPS that the islands correspond to Pd2Si structure. On the basis of these results, evolution of Pd-induced structures at high temperatures is in detail discussed

  1. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  2. Catalytic Chemo- and Regioselective Coupling of 1,3-Dicarbonyls with N-Heterocyclic Nucleophiles.

    Kenny, Miles; Kitson, Daniel J; Franckevičius, Vilius

    2016-06-17

    The development of a decarboxylative palladium-catalyzed coupling of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with indole, pyrrole, imidazole, and pyrazole nucleophiles via an allylic linker under neutral conditions is disclosed. This process enables the installation of an all-carbon quaternary center and new C-C and C-N bonds in a single operation. Despite the weakly acidic nature of N-heterocycles, the reactions proceed with good efficiency and complete regio- and chemoselectivity. PMID:27211875

  3. D1.3. Report on the role of main stakeholders in crisis situations

    Blaha, Manfred; Bonnamour, Marie-Christine; Miskuf, Robert; De Vries, David; Groenendaal, Jelle; Helsloot, Ira

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The purpose of deliverable 1.3 “Report on the role of main stakeholders in crisis situations” is for COSMIC to examine the role of the different emergency response agencies before and during crisis situations, and to focus on the communication challenges they face during those situations. The presentation of two case studies illustrates the differences between various services throughout the European Union and identifies common challenges. This is followed by ...

  4. HPRT Mutations in Lymphocytes from 1,3-Butadiene-Exposed Workers in China

    Liu, Shengxue; Ao, Lin; Du, Bing; Zhou, Yanhong; Yuan, Jian; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2007-01-01

    Background 1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial chemical and an environmental and occupational pollutant. The carcinogenicity of BD in rodents has been proved, but its carcinogenic and mutagenic molecular mechanism(s) are not fully elucidated in humans. Objectives In the present study, we compared the mutation frequencies and exon deletions of BD-exposed workers with that of control subjects in China to identify the characteristic mutations associated with BD exposure in the human HP...

  5. Novel Compound 1, 3-bis (3, 5-dichlorophenyl) urea Inhibits Lung Cancer Progression

    Sharad S. Singhal; Figarola, James; Singhal, Jyotsana; Nagaprashantha, Lokesh; Rahbar, Samuel; Awasthi, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    The successful clinical management of lung cancer is limited by frequent loss-of-function mutations in p53 which cooperates with chronic oxidant-stress induced adaptations in mercapturic acid pathway (MAP) which in turn regulates critical intracellular signaling cascades that determine therapeutic refractoriness. Hence, we investigated the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of action of a novel compound called 1, 3 bis (3, 5-dichlorophenyl) urea (COH-SR4) in lung cancer. Treatment with COH-SR...

  6. Stereo- and regio-selectivity in the photosensitized dimerization of 1, 3-dimethylthymine in solution

    HEI Xiaoming; SONG Qinhua; TANG Wenjian; WANG Hongbo; GUO Qingxiang; YU Shuqin

    2005-01-01

    The effects of reaction pathway and temperature on stereo- and regio-selectivity of photocycloaddition of 1, 3-dimethylthymine (DMT) which gives four cyclobutane type dimers in solution using acetone as the photosensitizer, are investigated by measuring the product distribution. It is demonstrated that the ground-state aggregation between DMT molecules mainly leads to (h-t)dimers, and the diffusion-controlled triplet dimerization is favorable to the formation of (h-h) dimers.

  7. Antibacterial action of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol (bronopol).

    Shepherd, J A; Waigh, R D; Gilbert, P

    1988-01-01

    Patterns of growth inhibition of Escherichia coli in the presence of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol (bronopol) indicate a period of biocide-induced bacteriostasis followed by growth at an inhibited rate. The length of the bacteriostatic period, but not the subsequent growth inhibition, was reduced by the addition of excess cysteine. Patterns of growth inhibition were unaffected by catalase or superoxide dismutase. The bactericidal concentrations (100 to 500 micrograms/ml) were considerably i...

  8. 2-(2-Chlorophenyl-5-methyl-1,3-dioxane-5-carboxylic acid

    Guo-Kai Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H13ClO4, the 1,3-dioxane ring adopts a chair conformation and the 2-chlorobenzene and methyl substituents occupy equatorial sites. The carboxyl group is in an axial inclination. In the crystal, carboxylic acid inversion dimers linked by pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds generate R22(8 loops.

  9. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in...... nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  10. The range of 1-3 keV electrons in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror-substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements on solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen. (orig.)

  11. High performance 1.3 μm InGaAsN superluminescent diodes

    QU Yi; LI Hui; J.X.Zhang; BO BaoXue; GAO Xin; LIU GuoJun

    2009-01-01

    High performance 1.3 μm InGaAsN superluminescent diodes(SLDs)were fabricated with Schottkycontact.The structure was grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition(MOCVD).Output power of 3 mW was obtained in continuous wave(CW)mode at room temperature.The full width at half maximum(FWHM)of the emission spectrum was 30 nm.The devices operated up to 100℃.

  12. Theoretical study on conformational conversion of 1,3-dioxane inside a capsular host

    Ju Wang; Zuo Yin Yang; Xiu Li Wang; Jing Chang Zhang; Wei Liang Cao

    2007-01-01

    The conformational conversion of 1,3-dioxane guest encapsulated inside a cylindrical capsular host was investigated with PM3method and single point energies were evaluated by B3LYP method. When entrapped in the capsule, the guest tumbles were slower than that in the free condition. The influences of the inner phase of the capsule on the guest conformational conversion were discussed in detail.

  13. 2D self-assembly of 1,3,2-dioxaborine derivatives on HOPG

    LU JiQun; YAN CunJi; YAN HuiJuan; WAN LiJun

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) self-assembly of two 1,3,2-dioxaborine derivatives was investigated by STM. The molecules consist of π system and steric end groups. A droplet of toluene solution containing the molecules was deposited onto HOPG for preparing the assemblies. STM images showed that the molecular structures affect the assembly structure. The dipole-dipole interaction and steric repulsion played important roles in the formation of the self-assembled monolayers.

  14. New Piperazine Derivatives Synthesized from Thio-Substituted Polyhalogeno-2-nitro-1,3-butadienes

    S. Goksin Aydinli; Cemil Ibis

    2010-01-01

    It is known that polyhalogeno-nitro-1,3-butadienes are important starting materials for the synthesis of polyfunctionalized bioactive heterocycles. Novel N,S-substituted nitrobutadienes (4a-j) were synthesized from the reaction of the monothio-substituted nitrodiene derivatives (2a) and (2b) with some piperazine derivatives. These new compounds are stable and the structures of these products were characterized by spectroscopic data. The structure of the novel N,S-substituted nitrodiene compou...

  15. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Nupur Jaiswal; Arvind Kumar Singh; Deepika Singh; Tanveer Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds possess diverse biological properties that has lead to intense study and research of these compounds. One of these compounds is oxadiazole which has been found to exhibit various pharmacological activities. Oxadiazole is a five membered heterocyclic ring which is a versatile lead compound for designing potent bioactive agents. It exists in four isomeric forms. Out of its four isomers 1, 3, 4-oxadizole exhibited a wide range of biological activities which includes antib...

  16. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen;

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in...... nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  17. Catalytic Enantioselective 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions of Azomethine Ylides for Biology-Oriented Synthesis

    Narayan, Rishikesh; Potowski, Marco; Jia, Zhi-Jun; Antonchick, Andrey P.; Waldmann, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus Cycloaddition reactions are among the most powerful methods for the synthesis of complex compounds. In particular, the development and application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, an important member of this reaction class, has grown immensely due to its powerful ability to efficiently build various five-membered heterocycles. Azomethine ylides are commonly used as dipoles for the synthesis of the pyrrolidine scaffold, which is an important motif in natural products, pharmaceutica...

  18. Metabolism and function of β-1,3-glucan in marine diatoms

    Granum, Espen

    2002-01-01

    β-1,3-Glucan (chrysolaminaran) is the principal storage polysaccharide in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae), the major primary producers in the sea. The glucan generally contributes a substantial fraction of the algal biomass, but its level varies markedly in response to growth conditions. The scope of this work was to study the metabolism and function of the polysaccharide in marine diatoms. Axenic cultures of the marine planktonic diatom Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Cleve were used in the experim...

  19. An unexpected isomerization of 1,3-benzothiazine and isoquinoline-condensed β-lactams

    Fodor, Lajos; Csomós, Péter; Fülöp, Ferenc; Csámpai, Antal; Sohár, Pál

    2010-11-01

    A series of novel aryl-substituted β-lactams condensed with 1,3-benzothiazines, isoquinolines or 1,4-benzothiazepine were obtained by means of the Staudinger reaction and isomerized in the presence of sodium methoxide to the thermodynamically more stable form. The structures of the new molecules were determined by NMR spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations corroborate the experimentally observed structure-reactivity relationships.

  20. Preparation and Reaction Chemistry of Novel Silicon-Substituted 1,3-Dienes

    Partha P. Choudhury; Mark E. Welker

    2015-01-01

    2-Silicon-substituted 1,3-dienes containing non transferrable groups known to promote transmetallation were prepared by Grignard chemistry and enyne metathesis. These dienes participated in one pot metathesis/Diels-Alder reactions in regio- and diastereoselective fashions. Electron-rich alkenes showed the fastest rates in metathesis reactions, and ethylene, a commonly used metathesis promoter slowed enyne metathesis. 2-Pyridyldimethylsilyl and 2-thienyldimethylsilyl substituted Diels-Alder cy...

  1. Rotationally-resolved spectroscopy of the ν16 band of 1,3,5-trioxane

    Gibson, Bradley M.; Koeppen, Nicole C.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-11-01

    Rotationally-resolved spectra of the ν16 band of 1,3,5-trioxane, centered near 1177 cm-1, have been obtained via cavity ringdown spectroscopy using a continuous-wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser and a slit expansion nozzle. 219 transitions were identified and fitted to determine the excited state rotational constants for this band. In addition to fundamental interest, these data could facilitate spectroscopic detection of trioxane in cometary comae as a tracer for polyoxymethylene.

  2. The intertextual reception of Genesis 1-3 in Irenaeus of Lyons

    Presley, Stephen O.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the intertextual nature of Irenaeus’ reading of Genesis 1-3. In this study, we assume a different mode of investigation than previous works on Irenaeus’ use of scripture. Drawing from contemporary discussions on intertextuality in Fishbane, Boyrin, Hays, and Young, we challenge a tradition of investigation into Irenaeus’ exegesis that has marginalized the significance of scriptural networking inherent to his hermeneutic. This perspective is evident in the previous works o...

  3. Electrochemical Reduction of 1,3-Alt-tetranitrothiacalix[4]arenes

    Liška, Alan; Ludvík, Jiří

    Ústí nad Labem : Best Servis, 2014 - (Navrátil, T.; Fojta, M.; Pecková, K.), s. 85-89 ISBN 978-80-905221-2-1. [Moderní Elektrochemické Metody /34./. Jetřichovice (CZ), 19.05.2014-23.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * 1,3-Alt-tetranitrothiacalix[4]arenes * calixarenes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  4. Targeting Kv1.3 channels to reduce white matter pathology after traumatic brain injury.

    Reeves, Thomas M; Trimmer, Patricia A; Colley, Beverly S; Phillips, Linda L

    2016-09-01

    Axonal injury is present in essentially all clinically significant cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). While no effective treatment has been identified to date, experimental TBI models have shown promising axonal protection using immunosuppressants FK506 and Cyclosporine-A, with treatment benefits attributed to calcineurin inhibition or protection of mitochondrial function. However, growing evidence suggests neuroprotective efficacy of these compounds may also involve direct modulation of ion channels, and in particular Kv1.3. The present study tested whether blockade of Kv1.3 channels, using Clofazimine (CFZ), would alleviate TBI-induced white matter pathology in rodents. Postinjury CFZ administration prevented suppression of compound action potential (CAP) amplitude in the corpus callosum of adult rats following midline fluid percussion TBI, with injury and treatment effects primarily expressed in unmyelinated CAPs. Kv1.3 protein levels in callosal tissue extracts were significantly reduced postinjury, but this loss was prevented by CFZ treatment. In parallel, CFZ also attenuated the injury-induced elevation in pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1-β. The effects of CFZ on glial function were further studied using mixed microglia/astrocyte cell cultures derived from P3-5 mouse corpus callosum. Cultures of callosal glia challenged with lipopolysaccharide exhibited a dramatic increase in IL1-β levels, accompanied by reactive morphological changes in microglia, both of which were attenuated by CFZ treatment. These results support a cell specific role for Kv1.3 signaling in white matter pathology after TBI, and suggest a treatment approach based on the blockade of these channels. This therapeutic strategy may be especially efficacious for normalizing neuro-glial interactions affecting unmyelinated axons after TBI. PMID:27302680

  5. Synthesis of 2-dichloromethyl-2-methyl[2-14C]-1,3-dioxolane

    The labelled compound was prepared by chlorination of [2-14C]acetone obtained from the barium salt of [1-14C]acetic acid by pyrolysis. The reaction product 1,1-dichloro[2-14C]acetone was converted to 2-dichloromethyl-2-methyl[2-14C]-1,3-dioxolane by condensation with ethylene glycol in the presence of thionyl chloride. Radiochemical yield: 62% based on [1-14C]acetic acid. (author) 7 refs

  6. Phenomenological theory of 1-3 type multiferroic composite thin film: thickness effect

    The effect of thickness on the para-ferro-phase transition temperatures, the spontaneous polarization and magnetization and hysteresis loops of 1-3 type multiferroic composite thin films was studied in the framework of Landau phenomenological theory. We took into account the electrostrictive and magnetostrictive effects, misfit strains induced from the interfaces of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic portions and film/substrate. Butterfly loops under external fields were also simulated.

  7. Phenomenological theory of 1-3 type multiferroic composite thin film: thickness effect

    Lu Xiaoyan; Wang Biao; Zheng Yue [School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ryba, Earle [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States)], E-mail: wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2009-01-07

    The effect of thickness on the para-ferro-phase transition temperatures, the spontaneous polarization and magnetization and hysteresis loops of 1-3 type multiferroic composite thin films was studied in the framework of Landau phenomenological theory. We took into account the electrostrictive and magnetostrictive effects, misfit strains induced from the interfaces of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic portions and film/substrate. Butterfly loops under external fields were also simulated.

  8. 2-(4-tert-Butylphenyl-5-p-tolyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole

    Biao Jin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H20N2O, the dihedral angles between the 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring and the pendant 4-tert-butylphenyl and 4-methylphenyl rings are 12.53 (17 and 2.14 (17°, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming chains.

  9. Quantum dynamic of massive particle On 1+3 De Sitter space-time

    A Rabeie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  The phase space which is related to the motion of massive particle on 1+3- De sitter space is a 3-dimensional complex sphere. Our main aim in this study is discribing this movement in the frame quantum mechanics. Transfering from classical mechanic to quantum mechanics is possible by means of coherent states. Thus, after determination of this state, we quantize some of the classical observables.

  10. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRIAZOLE CONTAINING LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS THROUGH 1,3-DIPOLAR CYCLOADDITION POLYMERIZATION

    Devamani; Srividhya; Sundaram; Manjunathan; Sivashankaran; Nithyanandan; Subramanan; Balamurugan; Sengodan; Senthil

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystalline polymers containing 1,2,3-triazole units as linking groups have been synthesized from the monomers containing triad ester diazide and flexible dialkyne ester by 1,3-cycloaddition reaction and were characterized. Click reaction of azide and alkyne functionals catalyzed by Cu(I) yielded target polyesters with 1,2,3-triazole groups.The structure of the polymer was confirmed by spectral techniques.GPC analysis reveals that the polymers have moderate molecular weight with narrow distributio...

  11. Synthesis of Silsesquioxane Cages from Phenyl-cis-tetrol,1,3-Divinyltetraethoxydisiloxane and Cyclopentyl Resins

    LIU Zhi-hua; Alan R. Bassindale; Peter G. Taylor

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of Ts, T10 and T12 silsesquioxane cages from a range of starting materials: phenyl-cistetrol, 1,3-divinyltetraethoxydisiloxane and cyclopentyl T resins by using tetra n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF) as the catalyst is described in this paper. The reaction yields obtained via the current route are better compared to those via the literature routes. Some of the cage compounds have been characterized by X-ray crystallography.

  12. Continuous recrystallization in pure Al-1.3% Mn investigated by local orientation analysis

    1999-01-01

    Local orientation analysis was used to investigate the continuous recrystallization process in a pure Al-1.3% Mn alloy with the emphasis on the influence of matrix orientations on the subgrain growth and precipitation. Results show that the differences of (mis)orientations in deformed matrices give rise to inhomogeneous subgrain growth and precipitation with respect to precipitate density and morphologies. Moreover, no apparent high angle grain boundaries were developed by accumulation of misorientations during subgrain growth.

  13. Synergistic Rhodium/Copper Catalysis: Synthesis of 1,3-Enynes and N-Aryl Enaminones.

    Wang, Nan-Nan; Huang, Lei-Rong; Hao, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Tian-Shu; Li, Guigen; Tu, Shu-Jiang; Jiang, Bo

    2016-03-18

    Synergistic rhodium/copper catalysis enables new three-component coupling reactions of terminal alkynes and α-diazoketones and/or arylamines, allowing dediazotized carbene C-H insertion for the synthesis of functionalized 1,3-enynes and N-aryl enaminones with high stereoselectivity. The synthetic utility of these transformations results in subsequent C-C or/and C-N bond-forming reactions to effectively build up functional molecules with potential significance. PMID:26987884

  14. NMR studies on 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides to norbornenes

    Gucma, Miroslaw; Golebiewski, W. Marek; Krawczyk, Maria, E-mail: golebiewski@ipo.waw.pl [Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of nitrile oxides to norbornenes substituted with an acrylate-derived moiety was examined. Only adducts to norbornene system were formed with a good exo selectivity and complete site-selectivity. Structures of the products were elucidated by an extensive application of electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 2D {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (author)

  15. Enthalpy of formation of 5-fluoro-1,3-dimethyluracil: 5-Fluorouracil revisited

    Highlights: • Enthalpies of formation measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. • Sublimation enthalpies determined by the Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique. • Quantum chemical calculations allowed estimation of ΔfHmo (g). • New values of enthalpies of formation for 5-fluorouracil are recommended. - Abstract: In the present work, a re-determination of thermochemical data for 5-fluorouracil was performed and a new determination of thermochemical parameters for 5-fluoro-1,3-dimethyluracil are presented. The standard (po = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, of 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluoro-1,3-dimethyluracil, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion in oxygen, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. For these compounds, the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were determined from the temperature-vapour pressure dependence, obtained by the Knudsen mass-loss effusion method. Using the values for the heat capacity differences between the gas and the crystalline phases of the compounds studied, the standard (po = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs free energies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived. From the experimentally determined values, the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the gas phase, at T = 298.15 K, of 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluoro-1,3-dimethyluracil were calculated as −(454.5 ± 1.6) and −(478.5 ± 1.3) kJ · mol−1, respectively. These values were compared with estimates obtained from very accurate theoretical calculations using the G3(MP2)//B3LYP composite method and appropriately chosen reactions

  16. Synthesis, enzyme inhibition and anticancer investigation of unsymmetrical 1,3-disubstituted ureas

    Mustafa Sana; Perveen Shahnaz; Khan Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    In this research work seventeen urea derivatives, including five new derivatives N-mesityl-N'-(3-methylphenyl)urea (2), N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-N'-(3-methylphenyl)urea (4), N-mesityl-N'-(4-methylphenyl)urea (6), N-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-N'-(3-methylphenyl)urea (9) and N-(2-methylphenyl)-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinecarboxamide (15) have synthesized by reacting ortho, meta and para tolyl isocyanate with primary and secondary amines by previously reported method. We...

  17. 1.3 Billion People: A Weighty Responsibility——China's Population Policy

    LURUCAI

    2005-01-01

    A sample survey of the 2004 population increase releasedby the State Statistics Bureau shows that by the end of 2004 the total population of the Chinese mainland was 1.29988 billion, and that it was increasing by 208,000 people per day. According to this data,on January 6, 2005,China's population(excluding HongKong, Macao andTaiwan) reached 1.3 billion.

  18. A facile regioselective synthesis of novel spiroacenaphthene pyrroloisoquinolines through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions

    Sarrafi, Yaghoub; Asghari, Asieh; Sadatshahabi, Marzieh, E-mail: ysarrafi@umz.ac.ir [Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamzehloueian, Mahshid [Department of Chemistry, Jouybar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alimohammadi, Kamal [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Shariati Branch, University of Farhangian, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    An efficient one-pot three-component procedure for the synthesis of novel spiroacenaphthene pyrroloisoquinolines with high regioselectivity is described. These compounds were prepared from 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azomethine ylide generated from acenaphthenequinone and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline via [1,5]-H shift, with chalcone and nitrostyrene derivatives as dipolarophiles. The structure and stereochemistry of the cycloadducts have been established by single crystal X-ray structure and spectroscopic techniques. (author)

  19. Catalytic effects of Lewis acids on 1,3-DC reaction: A luminescent study

    Chaudhuri, Tandrima, E-mail: tanchem_bu@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Bhupendra Nath Dutta Smriti Mahavidyalaya, Hatgobidopur, Burdwan-713407 (India); Department of Chemistry, University of Burdwan, Burdwan-713104 (India); Banerjee, Manas, E-mail: manasban@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Burdwan, Burdwan-713104 (India)

    2012-06-15

    Competitive coordination by the nitrone and the dipolarophile to the Lewis acid catalysts like metal triflates controls the acceleration and deceleration of the catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions as compared to the uncatalyzed one. This fact has been established through variation in steady state fluorescence of the substrates in presence of catalyst. Li{sup +} found to catalyze both the cycloaddition between {alpha}-p-chlorophenyl-N-phenyl nitrone (N1) and Benzylidene acetophenone (D1) as well as between N1 and 3-Phenyl-1-pyridin-2-yl-propenone (D2) efficiently. While Yb{sup 3+} can catalyze only the cycloaddition between N1 and D2. The experimental findings have been rationalized on the basis of DFT calculations and analysis based on the frontier molecular orbital energies and relative electrophilicity of the reactants. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A fluorescence study of catalytic effect of an 1,3-DC reaction between an acyclic nitrone (N1) with two different dipolarophiles D1 and D2 in toluene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yb{sup 3+} quenches the fluorescence intensity of N1 more efficiently than Li{sup +}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Li{sup +} shows better interaction with both the two dipolarophiles D1 and D2 hence can accelerate the 1,3-DC reaction rate between N1 and D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yb{sup 3+} can only be used as good catalyst for the 1,3-DC reaction between N1 and D2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic findings are rationalized with DFT calculated electrophilicity indices of the reactants.

  20. Bridged 2,2'-biazole derivatives by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition

    Pablo, María S. de; Gandasegui Rodríguez, María Teresa; Vaquero López, Juan José; García Navío, José Luis; Álvarez-Builla Gómez, Julio

    1992-01-01

    Azomethine ylides derived from 3,4-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazinium salts undergo 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions to yield 5,6-dihydrodipyrrolo[1,2-a:2',1'-c]-pyrazine and 5,6-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]-pyrrolo[2,1-c]pyrazin-4-inium-2-olate and 2-thiolate derivatives. S-Methylation followed by nucleophilic displacement of methylthio group convened the 2-thiolate derivatives into new conjugated betaines.

  1. Catalytic effects of Lewis acids on 1,3-DC reaction: A luminescent study

    Competitive coordination by the nitrone and the dipolarophile to the Lewis acid catalysts like metal triflates controls the acceleration and deceleration of the catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions as compared to the uncatalyzed one. This fact has been established through variation in steady state fluorescence of the substrates in presence of catalyst. Li+ found to catalyze both the cycloaddition between α-p-chlorophenyl-N-phenyl nitrone (N1) and Benzylidene acetophenone (D1) as well as between N1 and 3-Phenyl-1-pyridin-2-yl-propenone (D2) efficiently. While Yb3+ can catalyze only the cycloaddition between N1 and D2. The experimental findings have been rationalized on the basis of DFT calculations and analysis based on the frontier molecular orbital energies and relative electrophilicity of the reactants. - Highlights: ► A fluorescence study of catalytic effect of an 1,3-DC reaction between an acyclic nitrone (N1) with two different dipolarophiles D1 and D2 in toluene. ► Yb3+ quenches the fluorescence intensity of N1 more efficiently than Li+. ► Li+ shows better interaction with both the two dipolarophiles D1 and D2 hence can accelerate the 1,3-DC reaction rate between N1 and D. ► Yb3+ can only be used as good catalyst for the 1,3-DC reaction between N1 and D2. ► Spectroscopic findings are rationalized with DFT calculated electrophilicity indices of the reactants.

  2. Synthesis of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions

    Wilson Silva do Nascimento; Mauro Gomes da Silva; Ronaldo Nascimento de Oliveira; Celso Amorim Câmara

    2010-01-01

    Naphthoquinones are known according to their important bio-activities, such as their antitumoral and topoisomerase inhibition properties. From 2-azido (3) or 2,3-diacetylene-1,4-naphthoquinone (4) it was possible to obtain triazole derivatives (naphthoquinonic). This work describes the synthesis of two novel molecules, with triazole groups linked to 1,4-naphthoquinone using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Sonogashira reactions. The synthetic strategy followed two routes (Scheme 1). First, w...

  3. Enhanced hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol by fermentation using mixed cultures

    Selembo, Priscilla A.

    2009-12-15

    The conversion of glycerol into high value products, such as hydrogen gas and 1,3-propanediol (PD), was examined using anaerobic fermentation with heat-treated mixed cultures. Glycerol fermentation produced 0.28 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (72 mL-H2/g-COD) and 0.69 mol-PD/mol-glycerol. Glucose fermentation using the same mixed cultures produced more hydrogen gas (1.06 mol-H2/mol-glucose) but no PD. Changing the source of inoculum affected gas production likely due to prior acclimation of bacteria to this type of substrate. Fermentation of the glycerol produced from biodiesel fuel production (70% glycerol content) produced 0.31 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (43 mL H2/g-COD) and 0.59 mol-PD/mol-glycerol. These are the highest yields yet reported for both hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from pure glycerol and the glycerol byproduct from biodiesel fuel production by fermentation using mixed cultures. These results demonstrate that production of biodiesel can be combined with production of hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol for maximum utilization of resources and minimization of waste. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Emission reduction of 1,3-dichloropropene by soil amendment with biochar.

    Wang, Qiuxia; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Yan, Dongdong; Ma, Taotao; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Chenglei; Wang, Ruoqi; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2014-09-01

    Soil fumigation is an important treatment in the production chain of fruit and vegetable crops, but fumigant emissions contribute to air pollution. Biochar as a soil amendment has shown the potential to reduce organic pollutants, including pesticides, in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. A laboratory column study was performed to determine the effects of soil applications of biochar for reducing emissions of the fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). The experimental treatments comprised of unamended and amended with biochar at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% (w/w) in the top 5 cm soil layer. The unamended treatment resulted in the highest emission peak flux at 48 to 66 μg m s. Among the biochar amendment treatments, the highest peak flux (0.83 μg m s) was found in the biochar 0.5% treatment. The total emission loss was 35.7 to 40.2% of applied for the unamended treatment and 99.8% and showed total 1,3-D emission loss by >92% compared with that without biochar. The amendment of surface soil with biochar shows a great potential for reducing fumigant emissions. PMID:25603251

  5. FAINT END OF 1.3 mm NUMBER COUNTS REVEALED BY ALMA

    We present the faint end of number counts at 1.3 mm (238 GHz) obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Band 6 observations were carried out targeting 20 star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.4 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey field. In the observations, we serendipitously detect 15 sources (≥3.8σ, S1.3 mm = 0.15-0.61 mJy) other than the targeted sources. We create number counts by using these ''sub-mJy sources'', which probe the faintest flux range among surveys at millimeter wavelengths. The number counts are consistent with (flux-scaled) number counts at 850 μm and 870 μm obtained with gravitational lensing clusters. The ALMA number counts agree well with model predictions, which suggest that these sub-mJy populations are more like ''normal'' star-forming galaxies than ''classical'' submillimeter galaxies with intense star-forming activity. In this flux range, ∼80% of the extragalactic background light at 1.3 mm is resolved into individual sources

  6. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of 1,3-butadiene in mice: Final report

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1987-11-01

    Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in CD-1 mice following whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200 and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female mice, which had mated with unexposed males were exposed to the chemical for 6 hours/day on 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 18 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11 and 18 dg; the mice were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. Significant concentration-related decreases were detected in a number of maternal body weight measures. There was a significant concentration-related depression of fetal body weights and placental weights. Body weights of male fetuses of all exposed groups were significantly lower than values for control fetuses; weights of female fetuses were significantly depressed in the mice exposed to 200 and 1000 ppM. In the 200- and 1000-ppM exposure groups, weights of placentas of male fetuses were significantly decreased, but placental weights of female fetuses were significantly affected only in litters exposed to the highest 1,3-butadiene concentration. This exposure regimen produced significant signs of maternal toxicity at concentrations of 200 and 1000 ppM 1,3-butadiene.

  7. Supramolecular Wiring of Benzo-1,3-chalcogenazoles through Programmed Chalcogen Bonding Interactions.

    Kremer, Adrian; Fermi, Andrea; Biot, Nicolas; Wouters, Johan; Bonifazi, Davide

    2016-04-11

    The high-yielding synthesis of 2-substituted benzo-1,3-tellurazoles and benzo-1,3-selenazoles through a dehydrative cyclization reaction has been reported, giving access to a large variety of benzo-1,3-chalcogenazoles. Exceptionally, these aromatic heterocycles proved to be very stable and thus very handy to form controlled solid-state organizations in which wire-like polymeric structures are formed through secondary N⋅⋅⋅Y bonding interactions (SBIs) engaging the chalcogen (Y=Se or Te) and nitrogen atoms. In particular, it has been shown that the recognition properties of the chalcogen centre at the solid state could be programmed by selectively barring one of its σ-holes through a combination of electronic and steric effects exerted by the substituent at the 2-position. As predicted by the electrostatic potential surfaces calculated by quantum chemical modelling, the pyridyl groups revealed to be the stronger chalcogen bonding acceptors, and thus the best ligand candidate for programming the molecular organization at the solid state. In contrast, the thiophenyl group is an unsuitable substituent for establishing SBIs in this molecular system as it gives rise to chalcogen-chalcogen repulsion. The weaker chalcogen donor properties of the Se analogues trigger the formation of feeble N⋅⋅⋅Se contacts, which are manifested in similar solid-state polymers featuring longer nitrogen-chalcogen distances. PMID:26899235

  8. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Hua Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computations by density functional theory (DFT method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different substituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that –N3 and –NN– groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMO–LUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the Kamlet–Jacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that –NO2, –NF2, –NH–, –NH–NH– and –NN– groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the –CH2–, –CH2–CH2– and –CHCH– groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  9. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Hua ZHOU; Zhong-liang MA; Jian-long WANG; Dong WANG

    2014-01-01

    Computations by density functional theory (DFT) method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different sub-stituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF ) is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that eN3 and eN]Ne groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMOeLUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the KamleteJacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that eNO2, eNF2, eNHe, eNHeNHe and eN]Ne groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the eCH2e, eCH2eCH2e and eCH]CHe groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  10. Substituent effect on photophysical properties of bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives in solution

    Chen, Fangyi; Tian, Taiji; Zhao, Chengxiao; Bai, Binglian; Li, Min; Wang, Haitao

    2016-04-01

    A series of phenyl substituted bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were designed and synthesized; the effect of substituent on the photophysical properties and molecular electronic structures was fully studied by the combination of experimental techniques and theoretical calculations. Compared to parent compound without any substituent (BOXD), fluoro-substituent shows little effect on the absorption and emission spectra, whilst a little larger spectral red-shift could be observed for methoxy-, nitro-substituted derivatives and thienyl-substituted bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole (TBOXD). These spectral changes can be well explained by theoretically calculated HOMO and LUMO energy level changes. All these molecules show high fluorescence quantum yield except for nitro-substituted derivative in dilute solutions. The quantum yield of BOXD changes with the concentration and exhibits a high value at the concentrated solution. This work revealed the influence of substituent on the photophysical properties of bi-1,3,4-oxadizaole derivatives in dilute solutions and provided guidance for designing molecules with potential application.

  11. Halophilic biohydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from raw glycerol: A genomic perspective

    Kivisto, A.

    2013-11-01

    Glycerol is produced in large amounts as a by-product in biodiesel industry (10 kg per 100 kg biodiesel). By-products and waste materials are typically economical substrates for bioprocesses. Furthermore, microorganisms are able to combine the degradation of organic material with production of a wide range of metabolites and other cellular products. The current biotechnological interest of industrial glycerol lies on bioprocesses yielding environmentally friendly energy carrier molecules (hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol) and reduced chemicals (1,3-propanediol, dihydroxyacetone). Industrial glycerol also called as raw or crude glycerol, however, is a challenging substrate for microorganisms due to its impurities including alcohol, soaps, salts and metals. Halophiles (the salt-loving microorganisms) require salt for growth and heavy metal resistances have been characterized for numerous halophiles. Therefore, halophiles are potentially useful for the utilization of raw glycerol from biodiesel waste streams without pre-processing. Another challenge for large-scale microbial bioprocesses is a potential contamination with unfavorable microorganisms. For example, H{sub 2}-producing systems tend to get contaminated with H{sub 2}-consuming microorganisms. Extremophiles are organisms that have been adapted for life under extreme conditions, such as high salinity, high or low temperature, asidic or basic pH, dryness or high pressure. For extremophilic pure cultures contamination and thus the need to ensure a sterile environment might not be a problem due to the extreme process conditions that efficiently prevent the growth of most other bacteria. In addition, hypersaline environments (above 12 % NaCl) do not support the growth of H{sub 2} utilizing methanogens due to bioenergetic reasons. Halophilic fermentative H{sub 2} producers, on the other hand, have been shown to be active up to near salt saturation. The aims of the present study can be divided into two categories

  12. SYNTHESIS THROUGH MICROWAVE IRRADIATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 2-PHENYL-1, 3-BENZOXAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Tariq Sana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 2-phenyl-1,3-benzoxazoles were synthesized by the reaction of 2-aminophenol and acyl chlorides using microwave irradiation. Purity of compounds was determined by TLC. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis (FTIR, 1H-NMR . The compounds were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis (Gram positive; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative and Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by agar-well diffusion method at 2.5, 5, 10mg/ml. Compounds 2-(2-methoxyphenyl-1,3-benzoxazole, 2-(4-bromophenyl-1,3-benzoxazole, 2-(3-cholorophenyl-1,3-benzoxazole, 2-(2-nitrophenyl-1,3-benzoxazole have been found to have good antibacterial activity. Compounds 2-pheny-1,3-benzoxazole, 2-(4-bromophenyl-1,3-benzoxazole, were potent antifungal compounds amongst the series.

  13. Docking and Antiherpetic Activity of 2-Aminobenzo[de]-isoquinoline-1,3-diones

    Rashad Al-Salahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of our search for new compounds having antiviral effects, the prepared 2-aminonaphthalimide series was examined for its activity against the herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2. This represents the first study of the antiviral effects of this class of compounds. The new series of 2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones was examined against HSV-1 and HSV-2 using a cytopathic effect inhibition assay. In terms of effective concentration (EC50, furaldehyde, thiophene aldehyde and allyl isothiocyanide derivatives 14‒16 showed potent activity against HSV-1 (EC50 = 19.6, 16.2 and 17.8 μg/mL, compared to acyclovir as a reference drug (EC50 = 1.8 μg/mL. Moreover, 14 and 15 were found to exhibit valuable activity against HSV-2. Many of the tested compounds demonstrated weak to moderate EC50 values relative to their inactive parent compound (2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione, while compounds 7, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 21 and 22 were the most active set of antiviral compounds throughout this study. The cytotoxicity (CC50, EC50, and the selectivity index (SI values were determined. In a molecular docking study, the ligand-receptor interactions of compounds 1–24 and their parent with the HSV-1 thymidine kinase active site were investigated using the Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD software. Based on the potent anti-HSV properties of the previous naphthalimide condensate products, further exploration of this series of 2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones is warranted.

  14. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies of 1,3-butadiene in the rat: Final report

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1987-11-01

    Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley-derived rats during and following 6 hours/day, whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200, and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female rats (Ns = 24 to 28), which had mated with unexposed males, were exposed to the chemical from 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 20 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11, 16 and 20 dg; the rats were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. There were no significant differences among treatment groups in maternal body weights or extragestational weights of rats exposed to 1,3-butadiene concentrations of 40 or 200 ppM, but, in animals exposed to 1000 ppM, significantly depressed body weight gains were observed during the first 5 days of exposure and extragestational weight gains tended to be lower than control values. These results, and the absence of clinical signs of toxicity, were considered to indicate that there was no maternal toxicity at exposure levels of 200 ppM or lower. The percentage of pregnant animals and the number of litters with live fetuses were unaffected by treatment. Under the conditions of this exposure regimen, there was no evidence for a teratogenic response to 1,3-butadiene exposure.

  15. Exposure to particulates, microorganisms, beta(1-3)-glucans, and endotoxins during soybean harvesting.

    Roy, Chad J; Thorne, Peter S

    2003-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an emerging fungal pathogen affecting soybeans in the United States. In response to its emergence, exposures to particulates, bioaerosols, endotoxins, S. sclerotiorum, and beta(1-3)-glucans were characterized during soybean harvesting. Air sampling was performed on soybean harvesters (combines) and on the farmers in closed cabs as personal samples during harvesting at 17 farms in 1997 and repeated at 15 in 1998. S. sclerotiorum infestation was evident in the fields at 8 of the sites (44%). The geometric mean concentrations (and geometric standard deviations) measured on the combines in 1998 were as follows: total dust, 11.9 (2.8) mg/m(3); inhalable dust 11.7 (6.4) mg/m(3); and beta(1-3)-glucans, 5027 (7) ng/m(3). Values for the personal samples in 1998 were as follows: total dust, 1.2 (6.7) mg/m(3); inhalable dust, 1.1 (5.3); and beta(1-3)-glucans, 674 (9) ng/m(3). These concentrations were two- to threefold higher than in the previous year. Ambient endotoxin concentrations were 4438 EU/m(3) in Year I and 459 EU/m(3) in Year II. Particle size distribution measurements on the combines yielded mass median aerodynamic diameters of 6.6 microm on the combine and 4.0 microm inside the combine cab. Closed combine cabs provided an average workplace protection factor of 11.7 for total dust. Nevertheless, personal exposures to organisms inside combine cabins ranged from 3.6 x 10(4) to 4.0 x 10(8) organisms/m(3). These data indicate the potential exists for high exposures to organic dust and bioaerosols during soybean harvesting. PMID:12908864

  16. Preparation and identification of 1.3 copies C-type HBV transgenic mice

    Mei-juan CHEN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To prepare 1.3 copies C-type HBV transgenic mice for providing a better model for the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B.Methods The HBV transgenic mice were generated by microinjection of 1.3 copies C-type HBV genome into the pronucleus of FVB /N zygotes.PCR,ELISA,RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the integration,replication and expression of HBV gene in the transgenic mice.Results Tow thousand two hundred and eighty-two fertilized eggs were injected and a total of 2024 survived.The survival rate of injection was 88.7%.The injected eggs were transplanted into 72 pseudo pregnant female mice,among which 59 became pregnant.The pregnancy rate was 81.9%.One hundred and eighty-five F0 offsprings were produced with 19 positive mice as detected by PCR,and the positive rate was 10.3%.RT-PCR revealed that HBV DNA replication of 102-103 copies/ml existed in serum of 6 mice.Ninety-six F1 offsprings were produced,of which 33 were positive for HBV DNA replication as detected by PCR,the positive rate was 34.4%.RT-PCR showed that HBV DNA replication was observed in 10 mice with 102-103 copies/ml.Three mice were randomly chosen from each of F0 and F1 generations to detect the HBsAg expression in livers and kidneys by immunohistochemistry.The results showed that HBsAg expressed in both livers and kidneys,and it was stronger in kidneys than in livers.Conclusion The 1.3 copies C-type HBV gene can not only replicate and express in the transgenic mice produced,but it also can be transmitted to the next generation of these mice.

  17. Purification and properties of endo-alpha-1,3-glucanase from a Streptomyces chartreusis strain.

    Takehara, T; Inoue, M; Morioka, T; Yokogawa, K

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme hydrolyzing the water-insoluble glucans produced from sucrose by Streptococcus mutans was purified from the culture concentrate of Streptomyces chartreusis strain F2 by ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose columns and gel filtration on Bio-Gel A-1.5m. The purification achieved was 6.4-fold, with an overall yield of 27.3%. Electrophoresis of the purified enzyme protein gave a single band on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel slab. Its molecular weight was estimated to be approximately 68,000, but there is a possibility that the native enzyme exists in an aggregated form or is an oligomer of the peptide subunits, have a molecular weight larger than 300,000. The pH optimum of the enzyme was 5.5 to 6.0, and its temperature optimum was 55 degrees C. The enzyme lost activity on heating at 65 degrees C for 10 min. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by the presence of 1 mM Mn2+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag2+, or Merthiolate. The Km value for the water-insoluble glucan of S. mutans OMZ176 was an amount of glucan equivalent to 1.54 mM glucose, i.e., 0.89 mM in terms of the alpha-1,3-linked glucose residue. The purified enzyme was specific for glucans containing an alpha-1,3-glucosidic linkage as the major bond. The enzyme hydrolyzed the S. mutans water-insoluble glucans endolytically, and the products were oligosaccharides. These results indicate that the enzyme elaborated by S. chartreusis strain F2 is an endo-alpha-1,3-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.59). Images PMID:7462159

  18. Chlorido(1,3-dimethylthiourea-κSbis(triphenylphosphine-κPcopper(I acetonitrile hemisolvate

    Brian W. Skelton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [CuCl(C3H8N2S(C18H15P2]·0.5CH3CN, was prepared by the reaction of copper(I chloride with 1,3-dimethylthiourea (dmtu and triphenylphosphine (PPh3 in acetonitrile. The CuI atom has a distorted tetrahedral environment formed by two P atoms from triphenylphosphine, one S atom from the dmtu ligand and one Cl atom. In addition, the molecules exhibit intra- and intermolecular N—H...Cl interactions.

  19. 1-[3-({[Bis(2-methylpropylcarbamothioyl]amino}carbonylbenzoyl]-3,3-bis(2-methylpropylthiourea

    N. Selvakumaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H42N4O2S2, adopts a shallow U-shape as both pendant arms of the 1,3-substituted benzene ring are orientated in the same direction. The thione S atoms lie to the same side of the benzene ring and the carbonyl O atoms to the other. The most prominent feature of the crystal packing is the formation of inversion dimers mediated by N—H...S hydrogen bonds. One of the 2-methylpropyl groups is statistically disordered over two positions.

  20. Glenn Goddard TDRSS Waveform 1.1.3 On-Orbit Performance Report

    Chelmins, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed is to study the development, testing, and operation of software defined radios (SDRs) and their associated appliations in the operational space environment to reduce cost and risk for future space missions. This report covers the results of on-orbit performance testing completed using the Glenn Goddard Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) waveform version 1.1.3 in the ground and space environments. The Glenn Goddard TDRSS (GGT) waveform, operating on the SCaN Testbed Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) SDR, is capable of a variety of data rates and frequencies, operating using Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK).

  1. Stark-modulation spectroscopy of the B(1)[3Π] state of PbO

    We report detailed spectroscopic measurements of the X(0)[1Σ+](v=0)→B(1)[3Π](v=5) transition in PbO. Using a Stark-modulated laser absorption technique, we have measured the hyperfine constant of 207PbO in the B(1) state, as well as the B(1)(v=5) rotational constant, X-B isotope shifts, etc. The hyperfine constant of the B(1) state is of interest as a benchmark for calculations of PbO electronic structure related to experiments to search for the electric dipole moment of the electron

  2. On exotic supersymmetries of the φ1,3 deformation of minimal models

    Using algebraic and field theoretical methods, we study the fractional spin symmetries of the φ1,3 deformation of minimal models. The particular example of the D=2 three state tricritical Potts model is examined in detail. Various models based on subalgebras and appropriate discrete automorphism groups of the two dimensional fractional spin algebra are obtained. General features such as superspace and superfield representations, the Uq(sl2) symmetry, the spontaneous exotic supersymmetry breaking, relations with the N=2 Landau Ginzburg models as well as other things are discussed. (author). 24 refs

  3. 2-Isobutyl-6-(4-methoxyphenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H17N3OS, the dihedral angle between the statistically planar imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole fused-ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.002 Å and the methyoxbenzene ring is 4.52 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are arranged into columns and stacked down the a axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak C—H...π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid separations = 3.6053 (8 and 3.7088 (7 Å].

  4. Tunable phononic crystals based on piezoelectric composites with 1-3 connectivity.

    Croënne, Charles; Ponge, Marie-Fraise; Dubus, Bertrand; Granger, Christian; Haumesser, Lionel; Levassort, Franck; Vasseur, Jérôme O; Lordereau, Albert; Pham Thi, Mai; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine

    2016-06-01

    Phononic crystals made of piezoelectric composites with 1-3 connectivity are studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that they present Bragg band gaps that depend on the periodic electrical boundary conditions. These structures have improved properties compared to phononic crystals composed of bulk piezoelectric elements, especially the existence of larger band gaps and the fact that they do not require severe constraints on their aspect ratios. Experimental results present an overall agreement with the theoretical predictions and clearly show that the pass bands and stop bands of the device under study are easily tunable by only changing the electrical boundary conditions applied on each piezocomposite layer. PMID:27369154

  5. Triazol-substituted titanocenes by strain-driven 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions

    Andreas Gansäuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An operationally simple, convenient, and mild strategy for the synthesis of triazole-substituted titanocenes via strain-driven 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions between azide-functionalized titanocenes and cyclooctyne has been developed. It features the first synthesis of titanocenes containing azide groups. These compounds constitute ‘second-generation’ functionalized titanocene building blocks for further synthetic elaboration. Our synthesis is modular and large numbers of the complexes can in principle be prepared in short periods of time. Some of the triazole-substituted titanocenes display high cyctotoxic activity against BJAB cells. Comparison of the most active complexes allows the identification of structural features essential for biological activity.

  6. Abnormal bipolar resistive switching behavior in a Pt/GaO1.3/Pt structure

    A stable and repeatable abnormal bipolar resistive switching behavior was observed in a Pt/GaO1.3/Pt sandwich structure without an electroforming process. The low resistance state (LRS) and the high resistance state (HRS) of the device can be distinguished clearly and be switched reversibly under a train of the voltage pulses. The LRS exhibits a conduction of electron tunneling, while the HRS shows a conduction of Schottky-type. The observed phenomena are considered to be related to the migration of oxygen vacancies which changes the space charge region width of the metal/semiconductor interface and results in a different electron transport mechanism

  7. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety

    Moger, Manjunath [Mangalore University, Karnataka (India). Department of Chemistry; Satam, Vijay; Paniraj, A.S.; Gopinath, Vadiraj S.; Hindupur, Rama Mohan; Pati, Hari N., E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com [Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 and 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Darshan Raj C. [Department of Bio-Medicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-15

    A series of ten novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety were synthesized using linear as well as convergent synthesis approach. All the compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among ten analogs, four compounds, namely, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8j were found to be highly active antibacterial and antifungal agents (author)

  8. Synthesis of 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5- trinitrobenzene

    Gilson da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TATB is perhaps the most thermostable and insensitive explosive known. Its low sensibility to shock makes it suitable for military and civil applications. TATB application is done either alone or in combination with another high energetic material. This study aimed at reporting the review about many processes to produce TATB and the problems associated with them, as well as suggest techniques like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, which can be useful in the characterization of this energetic compound.

  9. 2,2-Dimethyl-5-(2-nitrobenzylidene-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione

    Angel Mendoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C13H11NO6, contains two molecules in both of which the six-membered 1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione ring shows a screw-boat conformation. The dihedral angles between the best planes through the six-membered rings are 47.8 (2 and 49.8 (2°. In the crystal, C—H...O interactions link the molecules, building a supramolecular sheet parallel to the c axis.

  10. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New 1,3-Dioxolanes as Potential Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds

    Hatice Başpınar Küçük

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of new enantiomerically pure and racemic 1,3-dioxolanes 1-8 was synthesized in good yields and short reaction times by the reaction of salicylaldehyde with commercially available diols using a catalytic amount of Mont K10. Elemental analysis and spectroscopic characterization established the structure of all the newly synthesized compounds. These compounds were tested for their possible antibacterial and antifungal activity. Biological screening showed that all the tested compounds, except 1, show excellent antifungal activity against C. albicans, while most of the compounds have also shown significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa.

  11. Synthesis and Bioassay of a New Class of Furanyl-1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    Galila A. Yacout

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase enzyme is a monophenol monoxygenase enzyme, which plays an important role in human as a rate limiting step enzyme for different specific metabolic pathways, as well as its useful application in industry and agriculture. So this study was carried out to test the effect of newly prepared compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazoles with different substituted groups on tyrosinase enzyme activity, hoping to use them in the treatment of some diseases arising from tyrosinase activity disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, autism, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and cancer.

  12. An $L (1/3)$ Discrete Logarithm Algorithm for Low Degree Curves

    Enge, Andreas; Gaudry, Pierrick; Thomé, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    International audience We present an algorithm for solving the discrete logarithm problem in Jacobians of families of plane curves whose degrees in $X$ and $Y$ are low with respect to their genera. The finite base fields $\\FF_q$ are arbitrary, but their sizes should not grow too fast compared to the genus. For such families, the group structure and discrete logarithms can be computed in subexponential time of $L_{q^g}(1/3, O(1))$. The runtime bounds rely on heuristics similar to the ones u...

  13. Synthesis of new pyrazolyl-1,3-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hexe-3-ene derivatives

    Kiyani, Hamzeh; Albooyeh, Fereshteh; Fallahnezhad, Saied

    2015-07-01

    A series of new of photochromic 1,3-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-ene derivatives based on the skeleton of five-membered pyrazole moiety have been synthesized and characterized by spectral techniques, as well as their photochromic properties were examined under UV light irradiation in various solutions. All these newly synthesized compounds showed good photochromic properties in the both solution and solid states. The UV-Visible spectral analysis of the corresponding pyrazolyl bicyclic aziridines established structure-photochromic behavior relationships.

  14. Synthesis and photochromic properties of 1,3-diaminopropane-induced MoO3 powder

    In the present work, molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) powder with novel morphology and good photochromic properties was successfully synthesized via a facile chemical method. The capping agent 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP) was found to be vital in the formation of the morphology, as well as the good photochromism of MoO3. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption analysis (BET) and ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-vis).

  15. Integrable Spin Chains with U(1)^3 symmetry and generalized Lunin-Maldacena backgrounds

    Freyhult, L.; Kristjansen, C.; Mansson, T.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the most general three-state spin chain with U(1)^3 symmetry and nearest neighbour interaction. Our model contains as a special case the spin chain describing the holomorphic three scalar sector of the three parameter complex deformation of N=4 SYM, dual to type IIB string theory in the generalized Lunin-Maldacena backgrounds discovered by Frolov. We formulate the coordinate space Bethe ansatz, calculate the S-matrix and determine for which choices of parameters the S-matrix fulfi...

  16. Heteroarylazo derivatives of cyclohexane-1,3-dione and their metal complexes

    Ummathur Muhammed Basheer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of diazotized 2-aminothiazole and 2-aminobenzo-thiazole with cyclohexane-1,3-dione yielded a new type of tridentate ligand systems (HL. Analytical, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data indicate the existence of the compounds in the intramolecularly hydrogen bonded azo-enol tautomeric form. Monobasic tridentate coordination of the compounds in their [CuL(OAc] and [ML2] complexes [M = Ni(II and Zn(II] has been established on the basis of analytical and spectral data. The Zn(II chelates are diamagnetic while Cu(II and Ni(II complexes showed normal paramagnetic moment.

  17. Heteroarylazo derivatives of cyclohexane-1,3-dione and their metal complexes

    Ummathur Muhammed Basheer; Babu Damodaran Kamalakshy; Krishnankutty Krishnannair

    2014-01-01

    The coupling of diazotized 2-aminothiazole and 2-aminobenzo-thiazole with cyclohexane-1,3-dione yielded a new type of tridentate ligand systems (HL). Analytical, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data indicate the existence of the compounds in the intramolecularly hydrogen bonded azo-enol tautomeric form. Monobasic tridentate coordination of the compounds in their [CuL(OAc)] and [ML2] complexes [M = Ni(II) and Zn(II)] has been established on the basis o...

  18. High performance continuous wave 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers on silicon

    We demonstrate record performance 1.3 μm InAs quantum dot lasers grown on silicon by molecular beam epitaxy. Ridge waveguide lasers fabricated from the as-grown material achieve room temperature continuous wave thresholds as low as 16 mA, output powers exceeding 176 mW, and lasing up to 119 °C. P-modulation doping of the active region improves T0 to the range of 100–200 K while maintaining low thresholds and high output powers. Device yield is presented showing repeatable performance across different dies and wafers

  19. 1,3-Butadiene hydrogenation on pd-supported systems: geometric effects

    Souza P.R.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong metal support interaction (SMSI effect was observed on Pd/Nb2O5 and Pd/TiO2 catalysts, and it produces small, exposed Pd ensembles. A decrease in the trans/cis 2-butene ratio was observed after reduction at 773 K. Selectivity changes were ascribed to the decoration model. Theoretical models were developed based on semi-empirical molecular-orbital calculations for 1,3-butadiene and Pd n clusters. Experimental results are in agreement with our theoretical model, which proposes a greater stabilization of the cisoid intermediate on small Pd ensembles.

  20. Shape-independent expansion for the 3S1 - 3D1 mixing parameter

    A low-energy shape-independent expansion is suggested for the function [tan(2εBB)/(2 k2)], where εBB is the Blatt-Biedenharn mixing parameter for the 3 S1-3 D1 channel. This expansion allows an evaluation of the mixing parameters εBB from a knowledge of the deuteron asymptotic D to S ratio, pion mass and other low-energy observables, such as the scattering lengths, deuteron binding etc., of the nucleon-nucleon system. It is demonstrated that the correct long range behavior of the tensor potential is essential for a realistic reproduction of εBB. (author)

  1. A 1.3GHz Inductive Output Tube for Particle Accelerators

    Sobieradzki, Edward

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing requirement for RF power sources in the L-band frequency range for operation in particle accelerators. The paper describes the development and presents test results of a new inductive output tube (IOT) for use at 1.3GHz. A target specificationof 16kW cw output power at an efficiency of 60% was set. The paper discusses progress to date having used an electron gun geometry that minimizes transit time effects in the cathode to grid gap.

  2. Ultrafast polyene dynamics: the ring opening of 1,3-cyclohexadiene derivatives.

    Arruda, Brenden C; Sension, Roseanne J

    2014-03-14

    The light activated ring-opening reaction of the 1,3-cyclohexadiene chromophore finds application in optical control, optical switching, optical memory, light activated molecular machines, photobiology, photochromic materials, and conformation-specific photocatalysts. The development of ultrafast spectroscopic methods and powerful computational methods have accelerated the understanding and facilitated the application of this important chromophore in a wide range of systems. Here we look at the current state of theoretical and experimental understanding for the ring-opening reaction of the isolated cyclohexadiene molecule and the ring-opening reactions of substituted cyclohexadienes, including fulgides, diarylethenes, and provitamin D. PMID:24457943

  3. Critical phase transition temperatures of 1-3 type multiferroic composite thin films

    The critical phase transition temperatures of the ferroelectric (FE) phase and the ferromagnetic (FM) phase in epitaxial 1-3 type multiferroic thin films were obtained based on the thermodynamic model. Analytic expressions of the para-ferro transition temperatures were derived as functions of the volume fraction of the FM phase by considering the effect of the coupled elastic stresses arising from the FE/FM and the film/substrate interfaces. Our results show that the critical temperatures are significantly affected by the induced stresses and can be controlled by adjusting the volume fractions of the different phases within the thin film

  4. Critical phase transition temperatures of 1-3 type multiferroic composite thin films

    Lu Xiaoyan [Electro-Optics Technology Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang Biao [Electro-Optics Technology Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng Yue [Electro-Optics Technology Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ryba, Earle [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2007-03-21

    The critical phase transition temperatures of the ferroelectric (FE) phase and the ferromagnetic (FM) phase in epitaxial 1-3 type multiferroic thin films were obtained based on the thermodynamic model. Analytic expressions of the para-ferro transition temperatures were derived as functions of the volume fraction of the FM phase by considering the effect of the coupled elastic stresses arising from the FE/FM and the film/substrate interfaces. Our results show that the critical temperatures are significantly affected by the induced stresses and can be controlled by adjusting the volume fractions of the different phases within the thin film.

  5. 1,3-dioxolane pretreatment to improve the interfacial characteristics of a lithium anode

    DING Fei; LIU Yuwen; HU Xinguo

    2006-01-01

    1,3-dioxolane (DOL) was originally used to pretreat a lithium metal electrode to improve its interfacial characteristics. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements revealed that, after the DOL pretreatment, the lithium electrode had better interfacial stability during immersion in electrolyte and as repeated charge/discharge cycles. It was proved by SEM that the pretreated one has smoother morphology and less dendrite after repeated charge/discharge cycles.Consequentially, benefiting from the better interface characteristics of the lithium electrode, the rechargeable lithium cell with a DOL-pretreated lithium anode had the obviously enhanced discharging performance and better cyclability.

  6. Michael Reaction of 2,4-Dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine

    ZHONG,Ming

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the extensive investigation of the Michael reaction, not the methylene compounds activated by electron withdrawing group[1,2] but other activated unsaturated compounds containing such as activate N-H or O-H have been used as Michael acceptor.[3,4] However, the research on the Michael reaction of 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (DHT) has not been reported. After the systematic researches on the substitution reactions of DHT, we first report the Michael reaction of DHT with acrylic esters in this paper.

  7. Synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization of new 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    B Chandrakantha; Arun M Isloor; Reji Philip; M Mohesh; Prakash Shetty; A M Vijesh

    2011-07-01

    A new series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing 2-fluoro-4-methoxy phenyl were synthesized by refluxing mixture of acid hydrazide 3 with different aromatic carboxylic acids (a–e) in phosphorous oxychloride. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR, mass spectral, and IR spectral studies, and also by C, H, N analyses. The open-aperture z-scan experiment was employed to measure the optical nonlinearity of the samples at 532 nm, using 5 ns laser pulses. The measurements indicate that compound 4a, which contains Bromine, behaves as an optical limiter at this wavelength, with potential applications in optoelectronics.

  8. Transformation of 1,3-dioxacycloalkanes by the action of di-ethylaluminum hydride and triethylaluminum

    Volkov, A.A.; Kravets, E.K.; Rakhmankulov, D.L.; Zlot-skii, S.S.

    1985-12-01

    The authors study the possibility of a selective hydrogenation of different 1,3-dioxacycloalkanes by industrial grade mixtures of diethylaluminum hydride and triethylaluminum. Experiments have shown that by the action of 0.4 mole of diethylaluminum hydride and 0.3 mole of triethylaluminum in 100 g of kerosene, 2-mono- and 2,2-disubstituted 2,3-dioxacycloalkanes selectively transform into the corresponding ethylene glycol monoethers. The PMR spectra of the isolated compounds are given. A Tesla BS-467 spectrometer, hexamethyldisiloxane as internal standard, and CC1/sub 4/ as solvent were used.

  9. Equations of motion with respect to the (1 + 1 + 3) threading of a 5D universe

    Bejancu, Aurel [Kuwait University, Department of Mathematics, Safat (Kuwait)

    2016-01-15

    We continue our research work started in Bejancu (Eur Phys J C 75:346, 2015), and obtain in a covariant form the equations of motion with respect to the (1+1+3) threading of a 5D universe (anti M, anti g). The natural splitting of the tangent bundle of anti M leads to the study of three categories of geodesics: spatial geodesics, temporal geodesics, and vertical geodesics. As an application of the general theory, we introduce and study what we call the 5D Robertson-Walker universe. (orig.)

  10. Pilot 1.3-cm IDVObservation of Two Dozens of AGNs at Urumqi

    M.-Q. Lin; X. Liu; J. Liu

    2014-09-01

    We carried out a pilot 1.3-cm IDV observations of two dozens of AGNs at Urumqi from 23 to 25 November 2011. Six sources, namely J0136+4751, J0217+0144, J1058+0133, J1751+0939, J1833−2103 and DA193 were detected as IDV sources at a 99% confidence level (about 3 level). The weather was fine during the observation period, but the system noise after calibration remained which could be due to the data sampled are relatively sparse for each source in the observations.

  11. Three-Photon Absorption and Upconversion Fluorescence Properties of Series 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    HUANG Wei; LU Chang-Gui; QIAN Ying; LIU Chang; WANG Zhu-Yuan; CUI Yi-Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ A newly synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been studied using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system.The series molecules present strong three-photon absorption and frequency upconversion fluorescence at wavelengths from 1205nm to 1575nm.Furthermore,there is no proportional relationship between three-photon absorption cross sections and the chemical structure transformation from monomer,dimer to trimer.Effective charge-transfer distance by π-conjugation bonds may be the contributing factor.In the experimental design,the far-field intensity distribution of femtosecond laeer beam has been taken into account.

  12. Synthesis and 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions of Chiral Maleimides

    Lubor Fisera

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available New routes to the synthesis of various novel chiral maleimides are described. The oxabicyclic anhydride 2 readily available exo-Diels-Alder adduct of furan and maleic anhydride was used as a vehicle, which in turn reacted with hydrochlorides of amino acids 3a-f in the presence of Et3N with release of furan to give the requisite novel chiral imides 4a-f in good to moderate yields. The stereoselectivity of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides with prepared chiral imides 4a-f is investigated.

  13. 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-containing histone deacetylase inhibitors: anticancer activities in cancer cells.

    Valente, Sergio; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; De Luca, Teresa; Nebbioso, Angela; Labella, Donatella; Lenoci, Alessia; Bigogno, Chiara; Dondio, Giulio; Miceli, Marco; Brosch, Gerald; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Altucci, Lucia; Mai, Antonello

    2014-07-24

    We describe 1,3,4-oxadiazole-containing hydroxamates (2) and 2-aminoanilides (3) as histone deacetylase inhibitors. Among them, 2t, 2x, and 3i were the most potent and selective against HDAC1. In U937 leukemia cells, 2t was more potent than SAHA in inducing apoptosis, and 3i displayed cell differentiation with a potency similar to MS-275. In several acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, as well as in U937 cells in combination with doxorubicin, 3i showed higher antiproliferative effects than SAHA. PMID:24972008

  14. 2-[(5-Chloro-2-oxidobenzylideneazaniumyl]-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol

    Dong-Yue Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H14ClNO3, was prepared by the condensation of equimolar quantities of 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde and 2-amino-2-methylpropane-1,3-diol in methanol. In the crystal, it exists in the zwitterionic form, with nominal proton transfer from the phenol group to the imine N atom. This results in the formation of an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond, which generates an S(6 ring. Intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds arise from the hydroxy groups, forming (001 sheets.

  15. On the Effect of Fluorination of 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole

    Nielsen, Christian B.

    2015-04-22

    The 4,7-dithieno-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DTBT) moiety and its fluorinated counterpart are important pi-conjugated building blocks in the field of organic electronics. Here we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation into fundamental properties relating to these two molecular entities and discuss the potential impact on extended π-conjugated materials and their electronic properties. While the fluorinated derivative, in the solid state, packs with a smaller co-facial overlap than DTBT, we report experimental evidence for stronger optical absorption as well as stronger intra- and intermolecular contacts upon fluorination.

  16. Excitation Localization/Delocalization Isomerism in a Strongly Coupled Covalent Dimer of 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran

    Schrauben, Joel N.; Akdag, Akin; Wen, Jin; Havlas, Zdenek; Ryerson, Joseph L.; Smith, Millie B.; Michl, Josef; Johnson, Justin C.

    2016-05-26

    Two isomers of both the lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) states of the directly para, para'-connected covalent dimer of the singlet-fission chromophore 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran have been observed. In one isomer, excitation is delocalized over both halves of the dimer, and in the other, it is localized on one or the other half. For a covalent dimer in solution, such 'excitation isomerism' is extremely rare. The vibrationally relaxed isomers do not interconvert, and their photophysical properties, including singlet fission, differ significantly.

  17. CO2 Capture Using 2,2-Dialkylpropane-1,3-diamines

    O' Brien, MJ; Farnum, RL; Perry, RJ

    2013-01-01

    A series of 2,2-dialkylpropane-1,3-diamines were synthesized and evaluated as potential phase-changing CO2 sorbents. In general, these compounds readily absorbed CO2 to form solid carbamate salts, which were relatively insensitive to the presence of moisture. This is one of the key performance attributes phase-changing sorbents must possess. However, these diamines were found to be less thermally stable in air than expected. The main reaction products obtained during heat aging at 150 degrees C appeared to be 1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives.

  18. Protective possibility of gammaphos (1/3 LD50) in lethal irradiation rats

    Gammaphos or WR-2721 was injected i.p. in rats in a dose of only 1/3 of the toxic LD50, 10-15 min. before the lethal gamma-irradiation (60Co). A scanty but not negligible protective effect was obtained by this dose (164 mg/kg). The increase of LD50/30 was 1 Gy only (DRF=1.12). Nevertheless, if with an adequate nontoxic dose of WR-2721 a similar protection should be achieved in humans, it would mean a significant benefit: all protected persons, irradiated with a midlethal dose, will be able to survive. (author). 5 refs.; 1 tab.; 1 fig

  19. On the collective mode spectrum for composite fermions at 1/3 filling factor

    The collective mode spectrum of the composite fermion state at 1/3 filling factor is evaluated. At zero momentum, the result coincides with the cyclotron energy at the external magnetic field value, and not at the effective field, in spite of the fact that only the former enter in the equations, thus, the Kohn theorem is satisfied. Unexpectedly, in place of the magneto-roton minimum, the collective mode gets a threshold indicating the instability of the mean field composite fermion state under the formation of crystalline structures. However, the question about if this outcome only appears within the mean field approximation should be further considered. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  20. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z = 1.3. I. THE LYNX SUPERCLUSTER: CLUSTER AND GROUPS AT z = 1.3. MORPHOLOGY AND COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION

    Mei, Simona; Raichoor, Anand; Huertas-Company, Marc [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 5 Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon Cedex (France); Adam Stanford, S.; Rettura, Alessandro; Jee, Myungkook J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holden, Brad P.; Illingworth, Garth D. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 (United States); Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Nakata, Fumiaki; Kodama, Tadayuki [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85478 Garching (Germany); Ford, Holland C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rosati, Piero [European South Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Tanaka, Masayuki; Koyama, Yusei [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Shankar, Francesco [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Carrasco, Eleazar R. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Demarco, Ricardo [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Eisenhardt, Peter [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); and others

    2012-08-01

    We confirm the detection of three groups in the Lynx supercluster, at z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, through spectroscopic follow-up and X-ray imaging, and we give estimates for their redshifts and masses. We study the properties of the group galaxies compared to the two central clusters, RX J0849+4452 and RX J0848+4453. Using spectroscopic follow-up and multi-wavelength photometric redshifts, we select 89 galaxies in the clusters, of which 41 are spectroscopically confirmed, and 74 galaxies in the groups, of which 25 are spectroscopically confirmed. We morphologically classify galaxies by visual inspection, noting that our early-type galaxy (ETG) sample would have been contaminated at the 30%-40% level by simple automated classification methods (e.g., based on Sersic index). In luminosity-selected samples, both clusters and groups show high fractions of bulge-dominated galaxies with a diffuse component that we visually identified as a disk and which we classified as bulge-dominated spirals, e.g., Sas. The ETG fractions never rise above Almost-Equal-To 50% in the clusters, which is low compared to the fractions observed in other massive clusters at z Almost-Equal-To 1. In the groups, ETG fractions never exceed Almost-Equal-To 25%. However, overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions (ETG plus Sas) are similar to those observed for ETGs in clusters at z {approx} 1. Bulge-dominated galaxies visually classified as spirals might also be ETGs with tidal features or merger remnants. They are mainly red and passive, and span a large range in luminosity. Their star formation seems to have been quenched before experiencing a morphological transformation. Because their fraction is smaller at lower redshifts, they might be the spiral population that evolves into ETGs. For mass-selected samples of galaxies with masses M > 10{sup 10.6} M{sub Sun} within {Sigma} > 500 Mpc{sup -2}, the ETG and overall bulge-dominated galaxy fractions show no significant evolution with respect to local

  1. Experiment data report: Gap Conductance Test Series, Test GC 1-3 postirradiation examination. [BWR

    Murdock, B. A.

    1977-09-01

    The results of the postirradiation examination of four boiling water reactor type, zircaloy-clad, UO/sub 2/-fueled rods tested as part of the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program are discussed. These rods were employed in Gap Conductance Test GC 1-3 which was conducted to obtain experimental data from which test rod gap conductance values could be determined by both the steady state integral kdT and the power oscillation methods. The postirradiation examination results provided will aid in interpreting and understanding the experimental data obtained during Test GC 1-3 and in evaluating the effect of fuel behavior on the fuel rod thermal response and interpreted gap conductances. Fuel rod fill gas composition and pressure and rod power profiles are discussed. Evidence is presented showing that significant amounts of water had been present in two of the four fuel rods during testing. For the two fuel rods that remained intact during the test, measurements of fuel pellet-to-cladding gap, as well as the surface area of the fuel cracks at several axial locations are presented. A total effective radial gap is calculated and the fuel structure and porosity are analyzed.

  2. A possible upgrade of FLASH for harmonic lasing down to 1.3 nm

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2012-10-15

    We propose the 3rd harmonic lasing in a new FLASH undulator as a way to produce intense, narrow-band, and stable SASE radiation down to 1.3 nm with the present accelerator energy of 1.25 GeV. To provide optimal conditions for harmonic lasing, we suggest to suppress the fundamental with the help of a special set of phase shifters. We rely on the standard technology of gap-tunable planar hybrid undulators, and choose the period of 2.3 cm and the minimum gap of 0.9 cm; total length of the undulator system is 34.5 m. With the help of numerical simulations we demonstrate that the 3rd harmonic lasing at 1.3 nm provides peak power at a gigawatt level and the narrow intrinsic bandwidth, 0.1% (FWHM). Pulse duration can be controlled in the range of a few tens of femtoseconds, and the peak brilliance reaches the value of 10{sup 31} photons/(s mrad{sup 2} mm{sup 2} 0.1% BW). With the given undulator design, a standard option of lasing at the fundamental wavelength to saturation is possible through the entire water window and at longer wavelengths. In this paper we briefly consider additional options such as polarization control, bandwidth reduction, self-seeding, X-ray pulse compression, and two-color operation. We also discuss possible technical issues and backup solutions.

  3. The Galaxy Cluster Mid-Infrared Luminosity Function at 1.3

    Wylezalek, Dominika; De Breuck, Carlos; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Galametz, Audrey; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Jarvis, Matt; Hatch, Nina; Seymour, Nick; Stanford, Spencer A

    2014-01-01

    We present 4.5 {\\mu}m luminosity functions for galaxies identified in 178 candidate galaxy clusters at 1.3 1.3. The luminosity functions are derived for different redshift and richness bins, and the IRAC imaging reaches depths of m*+2, allowing us to measure the faint end slopes of the luminosity functions. We find that {\\alpha} = -1 describes the luminosity function very well in all redshifts bins and does not evolve significantly. This provides evidence that the rate at which the low mass galaxy population grows through star formation, gets quenched and is replenished by in-falling field galaxies does not have a major net effect on the shape of the luminosity function. Our measurements for m* are consistent with passive evolution models and high formation redshifts z_f ~ 3. We find a slight trend towards fainter m* for the richest clusters, implying that the most massive clusters in our sample could contain older stellar populations, yet another example of cosmic downsizing. Modelling shows that a contribu...

  4. The structure of LpxD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1.3 Å resolution

    The crystal structure of the bacterial protein LpxD from P. aeruginosa was solved and refined at 1.3 Å resolution. The overall domain architecture and biological assembly are similar to those found in previously solved structures of LpxD from other species. LpxD is a bacterial protein that is part of the biosynthesis pathway of lipid A and is responsible for transferring 3-hydroxymyristic acid from the R-3-hydroxymyristoyl-acyl carrier protein to the 2-OH group of UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl) glucosamine. The crystal structure of LpxD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been determined at high resolution (1.3 Å). The crystal belonged to space group H3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 106.19, c = 93.38 Å, and contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the known structure of LpxD from Escherichia coli as a search model and was refined to Rwork = 16.4% (Rfree = 18.5%) using 91 655 reflections. The final protein model includes 355 amino-acid residues (including 16 amino acids from a 20 amino-acid N-terminal His tag), one chloride ion and two ethylene glycol molecules

  5. Molar heat capacities of some aqueous (2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol + glycol) systems

    Highlights: ► The molar heat capacities for several aqueous (2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol + glycol) systems were measured. ► The glycols considered were ethylene glycols and propylene glycols. ► The temperature studied was (30 to 70) °C. ► The measured data were reported as functions of temperature and composition. ► The measured data were represented satisfactorily by the applied correlations. - Abstract: A new set of molar heat capacity data for aqueous {2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol (TRIS) + glycol} at (30 to 80) °C and different concentrations (4% to 16% by weight TRIS or 56% to 44% by weight water, in a fixed amount of glycol – 40% by weight) were gathered via reliable measurement method and are presented in this report. The glycols considered were diethylene glycol (DEG), triethylene glycol (TEG), tetraethylene glycol (T4EG), propylene glycol (PG), dipropylene glycol (DPG), and tripropylene glycol (TPG). The 198 data points gathered fit the equation, Cp = Cp,a + B1m + B2m2 + B3m3, where Cp and Cp,a are the molar heat capacities of the (TRIS + glycol + water) and (water + glycol) systems, respectively, Bi the temperature-dependent parameters, and m the mole TRIS per kilogram (glycol + water). The overall average absolute deviation (AAD) of the experimental data from the corresponding values calculated from the correlation equation was 0.07%.

  6. Characterization and biological activities of recombinant human plasminogen kringle 1-3 produced in Escherichia coli.

    You, Weon-Kyoo; So, Seung-Ho; Sohn, Young-Doug; Lee, Hyosil; Park, Doo-Hong; Chung, Soo-Il; Chung, Kwang-Hoe

    2004-07-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries from preexisting blood vessels, is involved in many pathological conditions, for example, tumorigenesis, diabetic retinopathy, and rheumatoid arthritis. Angiostatin, which contains the kringle 1-4 domains of plasminogen, is known to be a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and a strong suppressor of various solid tumors. In this study, we expressed recombinant protein containing the kringle 1-3 domains of human plasminogen in Escherichia coli and investigated its biological activities. The protein was successfully refolded from inclusion bodies and purified at a 30% overall yield, as a single peak by HPLC. The purified recombinant protein had biochemical properties that were similar to those of the native form, which included molecular size, lysine-binding capacity, and immunoreactivity with a specific antibody. The recombinant protein was also found to strongly inhibit the proliferation of bovine capillary endothelial cells in vitro, and the formation of new capillaries on chick embryos. In addition, it suppressed the growth of primary Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma in an in vivo mouse model. Our findings suggest that the recombinant kringle 1-3 domains in a prokaryote expression system have anti-angiogenic activities, which may be useful in clinical and basic research in the field of angiogenesis. PMID:15177278

  7. Optical-Infrared Properties of Faint 1.3 mm Sources Detected with ALMA

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Yabe, Kiyoto; Seko, Akifumi; Makiya, Ryu; Akiyama, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We report optical-infrared (IR) properties of faint 1.3 mm sources (S_1.3mm = 0.2-1.0 mJy) detected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) field. We searched for optical/IR counterparts of 8 ALMA-detected sources (>=4.0 sigma, the sum of the probability of spurious source contamination is ~1) in a K-band source catalog. Four ALMA sources have K-band counterpart candidates within a 0.4" radius. Comparison between ALMA-detected and undetected K-band sources in the same observing fields shows that ALMA-detected sources tend to be brighter, more massive, and more actively forming stars. While many of the ALMA-identified submillimeter-bright galaxies (SMGs) in previous studies lie above the sequence of star-forming galaxies in stellar mass--star-formation rate plane, our ALMA sources are located in the sequence, suggesting that the ALMA-detected faint sources are more like `normal' star-forming galaxies rather than `classical' SMGs. We found a regio...

  8. Exact phi (cursive,open) Greek1,3 boundary flows in the tricritical Ising model

    We consider the tricritical Ising model on a strip or cylinder under the integrable perturbation by the thermal phi (cursive,open) Greek1,3 boundary field. This perturbation induces five distinct renormalization group (RG) flows between Cardy type boundary conditions labelled by the Kac labels (r,s). We study these boundary RG flows in detail for all excitations. Exact thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations are derived using the lattice approach by considering the continuum scaling limit of the A4 lattice model with integrable boundary conditions. Fixing the bulk weights to their critical values, the integrable boundary weights admit a thermodynamic boundary field ξ which induces the flow and, in the continuum scaling limit, plays the role of the perturbing boundary field phi Greek1,3. The excitations are completely classified, in terms of string content, by (m,n) systems and quantum numbers but the string content changes by either two or three well-defined mechanisms along the flow. We identify these mechanisms and obtain the induced maps between the relevant finitized Virasoro characters. We also solve the TBA equations numerically to determine the boundary flows for the leading excitations

  9. Synthesis and activity of benzimidazole-1,3-dioxide inhibitors of separase.

    Do, Ha T; Zhang, Nenggang; Pati, Debananda; Gilbertson, Scott R

    2016-09-15

    Due to the oncogenic activity of cohesin protease, separase in human cancer cells, modulation of separase enzymatic activity could constitute a new therapeutic strategy for targeting resistant, separase-overexpressing aneuploid tumors. Herein, we report the synthesis, structural information, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of separase inhibitors based on modification of the lead molecule 2,2-dimethyl-5-nitro-2H-benzimidazole-1,3-dioxide, named Sepin-1, (1) identified from a high-throughput-screen. Replacement of -NO2 at C5 with other functional groups reduce the inhibitory activity in separase enzymatic assay. Substitution of the two methyl groups with other alkyl chains at the C2 moderately improves the effects on the inhibitory activity of those compounds. Modifications on 2H-benzimidazole-1,3-dioxide or the skeleton have variable effect on inhibition of separase enzymatic activity. Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest there may be a correlation between the charges on the oxide moieties on these compounds and their activity in inhibiting separase enzyme. PMID:27530289

  10. A possible upgrade of FLASH for harmonic lasing down to 1.3 nm

    Schneidmiller, E A

    2012-01-01

    We propose the 3rd harmonic lasing in a new FLASH undulator as a way to produce intense, narrow-band, and stable SASE radiation down to 1.3 nm with the present accelerator energy of 1.25 GeV. To provide optimal conditions for harmonic lasing, we suggest to suppress the fundamental with the help of a special set of phase shifters. We rely on the standard technology of gap-tunable planar hybrid undulators, and choose the period of 2.3 cm and the minimum gap of 0.9 cm; total length of the undulator system is 34.5 m. With the help of numerical simulations we demonstrate that the 3rd harmonic lasing at 1.3 nm provides peak power at a gigawatt level and the narrow intrinsic bandwidth, 0.1% (FWHM). Pulse duration can be controlled in the range of a few tens of femtoseconds, and the peak brilliance reaches the value of 10^31 photons/(s mrad^2 mm^2 0.1%BW). With the given undulator design, a standard option of lasing at the fundamental wavelength to saturation is possible through the entire water window and at longer ...

  11. Thermodynamic calculations for molecules with asymmetric internal rotors--application to 1,3-butadiene.

    Wong, Bryan M; Raman, Sumathy

    2007-03-01

    We present quantum mechanical partition functions, free energies, entropies, and heat capacities of 1,3-butadiene derived from ab initio calculations. Our technique makes use of a reaction path-like Hamiltonian to couple all 23 vibrational modes to the large-amplitude torsion, which involves heavy asymmetric functional groups. Ab initio calculations were performed at the B3LYP, MP2, and CCSD(T) levels of theory and compared with experimental values as a reference case. By using the ab initio potentials and projected frequencies, simple perturbative expressions are presented for computing the couplings of all the vibrational modes to the large-amplitude torsion. The expressions are particularly suited for programming in the new STAR-P software platform which automatically parallelizes our codes with distributed memory via a familiar MATLAB interface. Using the efficient parallelization scheme of STAR-P, we obtain thermodynamic properties of 1,3-butadiene for temperatures ranging from 50 to 500 K. The free energies, entropies, and heat capacities obtained from our perturbative formulas are compared with conventional approximations and experimental values found in thermodynamic tables. PMID:17226834

  12. Image analysis of the microstructure of pseudo-1-3 magnetostrictive composites

    Dong, Xufeng; Qi, Min; Guan, Xinchun; Ou, Jinping

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies did by some scholars proved applying a magnetic field during the manufacture process of polymer-bonded Terfenol-D could orient the magnetic easy direction of the particles along the field direction and form a pseudo-1-3 structure. Compared to the 0-3 composites composed of Terfenol-D particles dispersed randomly in a polymer matrix, pseudo-1-3 magnetostrictive composites present much larger magnetostrictive performance. In this paper, magnetostrictive composites based on Terfenol-D particles in an unsaturated polyester resin matrix were fabricated under different magnetic fields. Magentostriction was tested and compared to get the detail effects of orientation fields on magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive composites. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe their microstructures. Image analysis was applied to describe the microstructures. The distribution of the angles between the major axis of the particles and the magnetic field direction was used to evaluate the arrangement of particles in the matrix quantitatively. The results confirm particle chain-like structures in composites prepared under larger magnetic field, and show that particle arrangement changes with the strength of the orientation field, which is result in the changes of magnetostrictive performance.

  13. Reactions of organyl and silyl alanes with 1,3,4,5,6-pentamethyl-2-aminoborazine.

    Fan, Maomin; Duesler, Eileen N; Nöth, Heinrich; Paine, Robert T

    2010-03-15

    The reactions of (Me(3)Si)(3)Al, Me(3)Al, Et(3)Al, and i-Bu(3)Al with 1,3,4,5,6-pentamethyl-2-aminoborazine have been examined. An amine alane adduct (Me(3)Si)(3)Al.NH(2)B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3) (1) and several elimination products [(Me(3)Si)(2)AlN(H)B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (2), [(Me(3)SiAl)(4)(Me(3)SiN)(3)NH] (3), [Me(2)AlN(H) B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (4), [Et(2)AlN(H) B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (5), and [i-Bu(2)AlN(H) B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (6) have been isolated. Compounds 1, 2, 4-6 have been spectroscopically characterized, and single crystal X-ray diffraction structure determinations have been completed for 1-4 and 6. The molecular chemistry provides insight into the reaction of Me(3)Al and 1,3,5-N-trimethyl-2,4,6-B-triaminoborazine that, upon pyrolysis, produces AlN/BN composite ceramic materials. PMID:20158196

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 μl took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to 0. Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  15. Synthesis, enzyme inhibition and anticancer investigation of unsymmetrical 1,3-disubstituted ureas

    Mustafa Sana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work seventeen urea derivatives, including five new derivatives N-mesityl-N'-(3-methylphenylurea (2, N-(3-methoxyphenyl-N'-(3-methylphenylurea (4, N-mesityl-N'-(4-methylphenylurea (6, N-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl-N'-(3-methylphenylurea (9 and N-(2-methylphenyl-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinecarboxamide (15 have synthesized by reacting ortho, meta and para tolyl isocyanate with primary and secondary amines by previously reported method. We exhibited all series (1-17 to urease, β-glucuronidase and snake venom phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibition assays. The ranges of % inhibition for urease, β-glucuronidase and phosphodiesterase enzymes were 0.3-45.3, 4.9-44.9 and 1.2-46.4 % respectively. Moreover, the effect of these compounds on prostate cancer cell lines was also observed. The new compound N-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl-N'-(3-methylphenylurea (9 showed in vitro anticancer activity with IC50 value of 78.28 ± 1.2 μM. All the compounds were characterized by state of art spectroscopic techniques.

  16. Quantum dynamics study of singlet-triplet transitions in s-trans-1,3-butadiene

    Nikoobakht, Behnam; Köppel, Horst

    2016-05-01

    The intersystem crossing dynamics of s-trans-1,3-butadiene in its lowest singlet and triplet states is studied theoretically, employing a fully quantal approach for the first time. The electronic states 21Ag, 11Bu, 13Bu and 13Ag, which interact vibronically and via the spin-orbit coupling are treated in the calculation, thus covering the lowest spin-forbidden electronic transitions. Up to five nuclear degrees of freedom, including out-of-plane dihedral angles are included in our investigation. The calculation of potential energy surfaces relies on the CASPT2 method, and the evaluation of spin-orbit coupling matrix elements using the full two-electron Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian is performed by utilizing the MRCI wavefunction. The latter dependence on the nuclear coordinates is included for the first time. An electronic population transfer on the sub-picosecond time scale due to intersystem crossing is obtained, a mechanism that can contribute to the singlet-triplet transitions in the electron energy loss spectrum of s-trans-1, 3-butadiene. It is found that the dependence of the spin-orbit coupling on the out-of-plane coordinates plays a dominant role in these singlet-triplet transitions. The amount of population transfer to the 13Ag and 13Bu states is roughly of the same order of magnitude.

  17. Unique Roll-Off Roof for Housing 1.3 m Telescope at Devasthal, Nainital

    Bangia, Tarun

    2016-05-01

    Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) had set up a 1.3 m telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India in the year 2010. Country's largest roll-off roof was indigenously designed, fabricated and installed on top of a building (17 × 8 m) for housing 1.3 m telescope. Telescope was supplied by M/s DFM Engineering Inc., USA to ARIES and was installed in the building with unique roll-off roof to protect it from external environment. Roll-off roof was designed and fabricated considering various parameters and available manpower and resources at ARIES. This paper presents mechanical development work, simple but distinct design approach and innovative selection of materials to economically manufacture roll-off roof of large size (8 × 8 × 4 m) at hilly remote site of Devasthal situated in Central Himalayan region. All operations in the roof viz. opening of shutters and rolling of roof were motorized to facilitate observers during night observations.

  18. Stereoselective Synthesis of Substituted 1,3,5,7,9-Decapentaenes

    CAO Xiaoping; WANG Xiaolong; WANG Feng; YANG Yuying; Liu Dong

    2001-01-01

    @@ Conjugated 1,3,5,7,9-decapentaene is an important structural unit in various of natural products such as phytoene, aurenin, vitamin At and A2[1]. It has been shown that conjugated polyenes are potentially useful compounds for non-linear optical materials. In the meantime the study of well-defined molecules has advanced into a strong field on its own right, because of the promising electronic and optical properties of these compounds[2]. It also attracts the interests of physical chemists as a calculation model[3] during the past decades. In the literature, there are only a few general strategies for the stereocontrolled construction of the decapentaene unit. This is mainly due to the instability and the facile (E)-(Z) isomerization of pentaene system. Synthetic methods for the construction of conjugated decapentaenes relied on the Wittig olefination[4], the Heck coupling reaction[5], the mixed crossed aldol condensation between conjugated esters and aldehydes[6], opening reaction of fulvalene complexes[7]. In our previous studies[8] on stereoseletive synthesis of polyene, we reported that conjugated trienes and enediynes could be prepared by our modified Ramberg-Backlund reaction from corresponding diallylic sulfones and dipropagylic sulfones. This synthetic method was applied to the synthesis of natural products containing a conjugated triene unit such as Galbanolenes. Reported here are our finding that bis-dienylic sulfones when submitted our Ramberg-Backlund conditions, provide decapentaenes in good yield. We use this synthetic method to synthesize 1,3,5,7,9-dec apentaene.

  19. Crystal structure of bis(propane-1,3-diammonium hexafluoridoaluminate fluoride trihydrate

    I. Abdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C3H10N22[AlF6]F·3H2O, was obtained using the solvothermal method with aluminium hydroxide, HF and propane-1,3-diamine as precursors in ethanol as solvent. The structure consists of isolated [AlF6]3− octahedra, diprotonated propane-1,3-diamine cations [(H2dap2+], free fluoride ions and water molecules of solvation. The Al—F bond lengths in the octahedral [AlF6]3− anions range from 1.7690 (19 to 1.8130 (19 Å, with an average value of 1.794 Å. Each [AlF6]3− anion is surrounded by three water molecules and by six diprotonated amine cations. The `free' fluoride ion is hydrogen bonded to four H atoms belonging to four dications and has a distorted tetrahedral geometry. The three water molecules are connected by hydrogen bonds, forming trimers that connect the AlF6 octahedra and dications into a three-dimensional framework.

  20. Synthesis of novel N-, S-substituted-polyhalo-1, 3-butadienes and crystal structure of dibutadienyl homopiperazine

    Nahide Gulsah Deniz; Cemil Ibis

    2013-07-01

    Polyhalogenated-2-nitro-1, 3-butadienes are important synthetic precursors for a variety of polyfunctionalized bioactive heterocycles. Herein, we report the reactions of 1, 1, 3, 4, 4-pentachloro-2-nitro-1, 3-butadiene 1 and 4-bromo-1, 1, 3, 4-tetrachloro-2-nitro-1, 3-butadiene 2 with amino and thiol containing nucleophiles to obtain highly functionalized (E)-polyhalodiene-2-nitro-1, 3-butadiene derivatives. Most of these reactions were found to be highly selective resulting in good to high yields of the products. All new compounds have been characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopic data. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis of compound 8c is reported.