Sample records for 03-02-1999 amplicor roche

  1. Comparison of the Abbott m2000 HIV-1 Real-Time and Roche AMPLICOR Monitor v1.5 HIV-1 assays on plasma specimens from Rakai, Uganda

    Ssebugenyi, I.; Kizza, A; Mpoza, B; Aluma, G.; Boaz, I.; Newell, K.; Laeyendecker, O; Shott, J P; Serwadda, D; Reynolds, S.J.


    The need for viral load (VL) monitoring of HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings (RLS) has become apparent with studies showing the limitations of immunological monitoring. We compared the Abbott m2000 Real-Time (Abbott) HIV-1 assay with the Roche AMPLICOR Monitor v1.5 (Roche) HIV-1 assay over a range of VL concentrations. Three hundred and eleven plasma samples were tested, including 164 samples from patients on ART ≥ six months and 147 from ART-naï...

  2. Comparison of the Sensitivities of the Version 1.5 and Version 1.0 Ultrasensitive Roche AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR Kits at Low Concentrations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus RNA

    Brambilla, Donald J.; Jennings, Cheryl; Morack, Ralph; Granger, Suzanne; Bremer, James W.


    The sensitivities of the version 1.5 and 1.0 Roche UltraSensitive AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR tests were compared using panels of coded samples of subtype B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 spiked into plasma at predetermined concentrations. Results indicate that the version 1.5 kit is more sensitive than the version 1.0 kit.

  3. Evaluation of the NucliSens EasyQ v2.0 assay in comparison with the Roche Amplicor v1.5 and the Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 Test v2.0 in quantification of C-clade HIV-1 in plasma.

    Maximilian Muenchhoff

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genetic diversity poses a challenge to reliable viral load monitoring. Discrepancies between different testing platforms have been observed, especially for non-clade-B virus. Therefore we compare, in antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve South African subjects predominantly infected with HIV-1 clade-C, three commercially available assays: the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test version 2.0 by Roche (CAP/CTM v2.0, the BioMérieux NucliSens Version 2.0 Easy Q/Easy Mag (NucliSens v2.0 and the Roche COBAS Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test Version 1.5 (Amplicor v1.5. Strong linear correlation was observed and Bland-Altman analyses showed overall good agreement between the assays with mean viral load differences of 0.078 log cp/ml (NucliSens v2.0 - Amplicor v1.5, 0.260 log cp/ml (CAP/CTM v2.0 - Amplicor v1.5 and 0.164 log cp/ml (CAP/CTM v2.0 - NucliSens v2.0, indicating lower mean viral load results for the Amplicor v1.5 and higher mean readings for the CAP/CTM v2.0. Consistent with observations following previous comparisons of CAP/CTM v2.0 versus Amplicor v1.5, the CAP/CTM v2.0 assay detected low-level viremia (median 65 cp/ml in more than one-third of those in whom viremia had been undetectable (<20 cp/ml in assays using the NucliSens platform. These levels of viremia are of uncertain clinical significance but may be of importance in early detection of ART resistance in those on treatment. Overall the three assays showed good comparability of results but with consistent, albeit relatively small, discrepancies for HIV-1 clade-C samples, especially in the low-viremic range that should be taken into account when interpreting viral load data.

  4. Comparison of the Abbott m2000 RealTime CT Assay and the Cepheid GeneXpert CT/NG Assay to the Roche Amplicor CT Assay for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Ocular Samples from Tanzania

    Dize, Laura; West, Sheila; Williams, James A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.


    The GeneXpert CT/NG assay (GeneXpert) and the Abbott m2000 RealTime CT (m2000) assay were compared to Amplicor for detecting ocular Chlamydia trachomatis. Discordant specimens were tested by the Aptima CT assay. The m2000 assay sensitivity was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90% to 100%), and specificity was 98.46% (95% CI, 95.2% to 99.2%); GeneXpert sensitivity was 100% (95% CI, 90% to 100%), and specificity was 100% (95% CI, 98.1% to 100%). The m2000 and GeneXpert assays appear to perfo...

  5. Evaluation of automated COBAS AMPLICOR PCR system for detection of several infectious agents and its impact on laboratory management.

    Jungkind, D; Direnzo, S; Beavis, K G; Silverman, N S


    We evaluated the COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR system (Roche Diagnostic Systems) designed for automated PCR amplification and detection of nucleic acids from infectious agents in clinical samples. The Roche AMPLICOR microwell plate (MWP) PCR was the reference method. CA amplifies target nucleic acid, captures the biotinylated amplification products by using magnetic particles coated with specific oligonucleotide probes, and detects the bound products colorimetrically. For Mycobacterium tuberculosis...

  6. Meeting C.Roche



    Exposé de Christian Roche suite à un certain nombre d'évémements survenus depuis septembre 1985 concernant la restructuration de l'administration qui ont abouti à une décision prise par la direction

  7. Homage to Jean Roche


    It was with deep sadness that we learnt that Jean Roche had died. Jean was one of those quietly efficient and conscientious pillars of our community who beaver away unobtrusively for decades and make such a contribution to building CERN. An expert in thermal engineering, he left his mark on many buildings on the Meyrin and Prévessin sites. At the time of the LEP project at the beginning of the 1980s he was in charge of defining the principles of the ventilation systems for the new accelerator. Through his design studies and the calls for tenders that he launched, he developed these high-performance state-of-the-art installations which not only made LEP’s successes possible but also served as benchmarks for the fundamental principles underpinning the design of the LHC ventilation system. Jean always liked to surround himself with young people and during the years of his stewardship the design office was a splendid training ground. Despite his responsibilities, Jean was always keen t...

  8. Evaluation of the Amplicor Chlamydia trachomatis test versus culture in genital samples in various prevalence populations.

    de Barbeyrac, B.; Pellet, I; Dutilh, B.; Dumon, B.; Géniaux, M; Bébéar, C.


    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate a newly developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, Amplicor C trachomatis for the detection of C trachomatis in genital samples using cell culture for comparison. SUBJECTS--501 patients (431 women and 70 men) attending an STD clinic in Hôpital Pellegrin (high-risk population) and gynaecological clinics (low-risk population) in Bordeaux, France. METHODS--The genital samples (cervical and urethral) were tested for the presence of C trachomatis using the Amplicor tes...

  9. A Java Interface for Roche Lobe Calculations

    Leahy, D. A.; Leahy, J. C.


    A JAVA interface for calculating various properties of the Roche lobe has been created. The geometry of the Roche lobe is important for studying interacting binary stars, particularly those with compact objects which have a companion which fills the Roche lobe. There is no known analytic solution to the Roche lobe problem. Here the geometry of the Roche lobe is calculated numerically to high accuracy and made available to the user for arbitrary input mass ratio, q.

  10. Monomials, Binomials, and Riemann-Roch

    Manjunath, Madhusudan; Sturmfels, Bernd


    The Riemann-Roch theorem on a graph G is related to Alexander duality in combinatorial commutive algebra. We study the lattice ideal given by chip firing on G and the initial ideal whose standard monomials are the G-parking functions. When G is a saturated graph, these ideals are generic and the Scarf complex is a minimal free resolution. Otherwise, syzygies are obtained by degeneration. We also develop a self-contained Riemann-Roch theory for artinian monomial ideals.

  11. Ice cream and orbifold Riemann-Roch

    Buckley, Anita; Reid, Miles; Zhou, Shengtian


    We give an orbifold Riemann-Roch formula in closed form for the Hilbert series of a quasismooth polarized n-fold X,D, under the assumption that X is projectively Gorenstein with only isolated orbifold points. Our formula is a sum of parts each of which is integral and Gorenstein symmetric of the same canonical weight; the orbifold parts are called "ice cream functions". This form of the Hilbert series is particularly useful for computer algebra, and we illustrate it on examples of K3 surfaces...

  12. On Grothendieck's Riemann-Roch Theorem

    Navarro, Alberto


    We prove that, for smooth quasi-projective varieties over a field, the $K$-theory $K(X)$ of vector bundles is the universal cohomology theory where $c_1(L\\otimes \\bar L)=c_1(L)+c_1(\\bar L)-c_1(L)c_1(\\bar L)$. Then, we show that Grothendieck's Riemann-Roch theorem is a direct consequence of this universal property, as well as the universal property of the graded $K$-theory $GK^\\bullet (X)\\otimes \\mathbb{Q}$.

  13. Ice cream and orbifold Riemann-Roch

    We give an orbifold Riemann-Roch formula in closed form for the Hilbert series of a quasismooth polarized n-fold (X,D), under the assumption that X is projectively Gorenstein with only isolated orbifold points. Our formula is a sum of parts each of which is integral and Gorenstein symmetric of the same canonical weight; the orbifold parts are called ice cream functions. This form of the Hilbert series is particularly useful for computer algebra, and we illustrate it on examples of K3 surfaces and Calabi-Yau 3-folds. These results apply also with higher dimensional orbifold strata (see [1] and [2]), although the precise statements are considerably trickier. We expect to return to this in future publications.

  14. Ice cream and orbifold Riemann-Roch

    Buckley, Anita; Reid, Miles; Zhou, Shengtian


    We give an orbifold Riemann-Roch formula in closed form for the Hilbert series of a quasismooth polarized n-fold (X,D), under the assumption that X is projectively Gorenstein with only isolated orbifold points. Our formula is a sum of parts each of which is integral and Gorenstein symmetric of the same canonical weight; the orbifold parts are called ice cream functions. This form of the Hilbert series is particularly useful for computer algebra, and we illustrate it on examples of {K3} surfaces and Calabi-Yau 3-folds. These results apply also with higher dimensional orbifold strata (see [1] and [2]), although the precise statements are considerably trickier. We expect to return to this in future publications.

  15. Roche volume filling and the dissolution of open star clusters

    Ernst, A; Just, A; Noel, T


    From direct N-body simulations we find that the dynamical evolution of star clusters is strongly influenced by the Roche volume filling factor. We present a parameter study of the dissolution of open star clusters with different Roche volume filling factors and different particle numbers. We study both Roche volume underfilling and overfilling models and compare with the Roche volume filling case. We find that in the Roche volume overfilling limit of our simulations two-body relaxation is no longer the dominant dissolution mechanism but the changing cluster potential. We call this mechnism "mass-loss driven dissolution" in contrast to "two-body relaxation driven dissolution" which occurs in the Roche volume underfilling regime. We have measured scaling exponents of the dissolution time with the two-body relaxation time. In this experimental study we find a decreasing scaling exponent with increasing Roche volume filling factor. The evolution of the escaper number in the Roche volume overfilling limit can be d...

  16. Comparison of COBAS AMPLICOR Neisseria gonorrhoeae PCR, including confirmation with N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR, with traditional culture

    Luijt, D.S.; Bos, P.A.; van Zwet, A.A.; Voorst-Vader, P.C.; Schirm, J.


    : A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased

  17. Comparison of COBAS AMPLICOR Neissefia gonorrhoeae PCR, including confirmation with N-gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR, with traditional culture

    Luijt, DS; Bos, PAJ; van Zwet, AA; Vader, PCV; Schirm, J


    A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased t

  18. Binary Evolution: Roche Lobe Overflow and Blue Stragglers

    Ivanova, Natalia


    One of the principal mechanisms that is responsible for the origin of blue stragglers is mass transfer that takes place while one of the binary companions overfills its Roche lobe. In this Chapter, we overview the theoretical understanding of mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow: classification, how both the donor and of the accretor respond to the mass transfer on different timescales (adiabatic response, equilibrium response, superadiabatic response, time-dependent response) for different types of their envelopes (convective and radiative). These responses, as well as the assumption on how liberal the process is, are discussed in terms of the stability of the ensuing mass transfer. The predictions of the theory of mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow are then briefly compared with the observed mass-transferring systems with both degenerate and non-degenerate donors. We conclude with the discussion which cases of mass transfer and which primordial binaries could be responsible for blue stragglers formation...

  19. A Riemann-Roch theorem for the noncommutative two torus

    Khalkhali, Masoud; Moatadelro, Ali


    We prove the analogue of the Riemann-Roch formula for the noncommutative two torus Aθ = C(Tθ2)equipped with an arbitrary translation invariant complex structure and a Weyl factor represented by a positive element k ∈C∞(Tθ2). We consider a topologically trivial line bundle equipped with a general holomorphic structure and the corresponding twisted Dolbeault Laplacians. We define a spectral triple (Aθ , H , D) that encodes the twisted Dolbeault complex of Aθ and whose index gives the left hand side of the Riemann-Roch formula. Using Connes' pseudodifferential calculus and heat equation techniques, we explicitly compute the b2 terms of the asymptotic expansion of Tr(e-tD2) . We find that the curvature term on the right hand side of the Riemann-Roch formula coincides with the scalar curvature of the noncommutative torus recently defined and computed in Connes and Moscovici (2014) and independently computed in Fathizadeh and Khalkhali (2014).

  20. An application of the Riemann-Roch theorem


    Applying the Riemann-Roch theorem,we calculate the dimension of a kind of mero- morphicλ-differentials’ space on compact Riemann surfaces.And we also construct a basis of theλ-differentials’ space.As the main result,the Cauchy type of integral formula on compact Riemann surfaces is established.

  1. Riemann-Roch Spaces and Linear Network Codes

    Hansen, Johan P.

    We construct linear network codes utilizing algebraic curves over finite fields and certain associated Riemann-Roch spaces and present methods to obtain their parameters. In particular we treat the Hermitian curve and the curves associated with the Suzuki and Ree groups all having the maximal num...

  2. Comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction with the COBAS Amplicor test for quantitation of hepatitis B virus DNA in serum samples

    Ming Shi; Yong Zhang; Ying-Hua Zhu; Jing Zhang; Wei-Jia Xu


    AIM: To compare the clinical performance of a real-time PCR assay with the COBAS Amplicor Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Monitor test for quantitation of HBV DNA in serum samples. METHODS: The reference sera of the Chinese National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products and the National Center for Clinical Laboratories of China, and 158 clinical serum samples were used in this study. The linearity, accuracy, reproducibility, assay time, and costs of the real-time PCR were evaluated and compared with those of the Cobas Amplicor test. RESULTS: The intra-assay and inter-assay variations of the real-time PCR ranged from 0.3% to 3.8% and 1.4% to 8.1%, respectively. The HBV DNA levels measured by the real-time PCR correlated very well with those obtained with the COBAS Amplicor test (r = 0.948). The real-time PCR HBV DNA kit was much cheaper and had a wider dynamic range. CONCLUSION: The real-time PCR assay is an excellent tool for monitoring of HBV DNA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B.


    Salmon, Julien; Canup, Robin M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)


    We use a hybrid numerical approach to simulate the formation of the Moon from an impact-generated disk, consisting of a fluid model for the disk inside the Roche limit and an N-body code to describe accretion outside the Roche limit. As the inner disk spreads due to a thermally regulated viscosity, material is delivered across the Roche limit and accretes into moonlets that are added to the N-body simulation. Contrary to an accretion timescale of a few months obtained with prior pure N-body codes, here the final stage of the Moon's growth is controlled by the slow spreading of the inner disk, resulting in a total lunar accretion timescale of {approx}10{sup 2} years. It has been proposed that the inner disk may compositionally equilibrate with the Earth through diffusive mixing, which offers a potential explanation for the identical oxygen isotope compositions of the Earth and Moon. However, the mass fraction of the final Moon that is derived from the inner disk is limited by resonant torques between the disk and exterior growing moons. For initial disks containing <2.5 lunar masses (M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon }), we find that a final Moon with mass > 0.8 M{sub Last-Quarter-Moon} contains {<=}60% material derived from the inner disk, with this material preferentially delivered to the Moon at the end of its accretion.

  4. Submaximal Riemann-Roch expected curves and symplectic packing.

    Wioletta Syzdek


    Full Text Available We study Riemann-Roch expected curves on $mathbb{P}^1 imes mathbb{P}^1$ in the context of the Nagata-Biran conjecture. This conjecture predicts that for sufficiently large number of points multiple points Seshadri constants of an ample line bundle on algebraic surface are maximal. Biran gives an effective lower bound $N_0$. We construct examples verifying to the effect that the assertions of the Nagata-Biran conjecture can not hold for small number of points. We discuss cases where our construction fails. We observe also that there exists a strong relation between Riemann-Roch expected curves on $mathbb{P}^1 imes mathbb{P}^1$ and the symplectic packing problem. Biran relates the packing problem to the existence of solutions of certain Diophantine equations. We construct such solutions for any ample line bundle on $mathbb{P}^1 imes mathbb{P}^1$ and a relatively smallnumber of points. The solutions geometrically correspond to Riemann-Roch expected curves. Finally we discuss in how far the Biran number $N_0$ is optimal in the case of mathbb{P}^1 imes mathbb{P}^1. In fact we conjecture that it can be replaced by a lower number and we provide evidence justifying this conjecture.

  5. Comparison of two commercial assays for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical scrape specimens: validation of the Roche AMPLICOR HPV test as a means to screen for HPV genotypes associated with a higher risk of cervical disorders.

    Ham, M.A. van; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Harbers, G.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Melchers, W.J.G.


    Certain high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical disorders. Women with persistent HR HPV infections have an increased risk of developing high-grade cervical lesions, compared with those who have no or low-risk HPV infections. Therefore, im

  6. Small-scale hydro-electric scheme in Roches, Switzerland

    The small hydropower plant (SHPP) project 'PCH Roches' is planned to be built in Roches, a small village located in the Jura region of the canton of Bern. The goal of this undertaking is to reactivate a site with hydro potential of the river Birs on a section that was already well exploited by some ancient SHPP (since 1953 or probably even earlier). Several modifications were performed on this plant over the years; not all contributed positively on its production figures. Following a transfer of the water rights in 1987, claims became loud against the owner to perform maintenance on the river banks and to modify the weir such that a free passage for the fishes will be granted. Those issues contributed to inflate a conflict which ended in the repeal of the water rights and a total plant shut down in 2001. The new project plans to reuse the existing pen stock and to carry out some refurbishing activities to grant security and better performance. The weir and the intake structure are also redesigned such that the water storage can be somewhat raised for normal operation; a weir gate will however allow to better discharge the river in flood situations. A new turbine house will be erected at the current location where the tail water pen stock rejoins the river. Hence, the existing old turbine house will be obsolete and the upper and lower pen stock sections are to be linked with each other. Limited by the existing pen stock size, the new plant is expected to produce some 50 kW power and 362,000 kWh/year. This represents an increase in energy generation of around 200% compared with the ancient SHPP. Gross head is 5.38 m, net head 4.12 m with a turbine flow of at least 1.6 m3/s. The expected energy sales price applicable to this project reaches about 0.17 CHF/kWh as per the current tariffs set by the grid owner. This project calls for the building of a state-of-the-art SHPP. It will avoid the total dismantling of the existing works to take place and allow the small

  7. Small-scale hydro-electric scheme in Roches, Switzerland; Projet de concession. Petite centrale hydroelectrique de Roches

    Hausmann, M.


    The small hydropower plant (SHPP) project 'PCH Roches' is planned to be built in Roches, a small village located in the Jura region of the canton of Bern. The goal of this undertaking is to reactivate a site with hydro potential of the river Birs on a section that was already well exploited by some ancient SHPP (since 1953 or probably even earlier). Several modifications were performed on this plant over the years; not all contributed positively on its production figures. Following a transfer of the water rights in 1987, claims became loud against the owner to perform maintenance on the river banks and to modify the weir such that a free passage for the fishes will be granted. Those issues contributed to inflate a conflict which ended in the repeal of the water rights and a total plant shut down in 2001. The new project plans to reuse the existing pen stock and to carry out some refurbishing activities to grant security and better performance. The weir and the intake structure are also redesigned such that the water storage can be somewhat raised for normal operation; a weir gate will however allow to better discharge the river in flood situations. A new turbine house will be erected at the current location where the tail water pen stock rejoins the river. Hence, the existing old turbine house will be obsolete and the upper and lower pen stock sections are to be linked with each other. Limited by the existing pen stock size, the new plant is expected to produce some 50 kW power and 362,000 kWh/year. This represents an increase in energy generation of around 200% compared with the ancient SHPP. Gross head is 5.38 m, net head 4.12 m with a turbine flow of at least 1.6 m{sup 3}/s. The expected energy sales price applicable to this project reaches about 0.17 CHF/kWh as per the current tariffs set by the grid owner. This project calls for the building of a state-of-the-art SHPP. It will avoid the total dismantling of the existing works to take place and allow

  8. A remark on an algebraic Riemann-Roch formula for flat bundles

    Esnault, H


    We propose an algebraic Riemann-Roch formula for moving flat bundles on contant families in characteristic zero with values in the ring of algebraic differential characters. This formula lifts Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch formula in the Chow groups and Bismut-Lott formula in the odd dimensional Betti cohomology with $\\C/\\Z$ coefficients over the field of complex numbers.

  9. Anti-CD18 mAb (Genentech/Roche).

    Brown, W M


    Genentech and Roche are collaborating on the development of an anti-CD18 humanized monoclonal antibody (rhuMAb). Inhibition of leukocyte adhesion with antibodies to CD18 is proposed as a therapeutic intervention for indications with an inflammatory component resulting from a reperfusion injury. In June 2000, the company reported that the primary objectives of its phase II trial of the antibody were not met according to preliminary results of the 415-patient trial for the treatment of myocardial infarction [371173], although the company is currently undecided about the implications of the data, and plans to meet with investigators. In 1999, phase II studies for reperfusion injury in patients successfully treated with thrombolytics were planned; enrollment was expected to finish in the third quarter of 1999 [317276]. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted the drug had a 30% probability of reaching market. Assuming a successful launch, Lehman Brothers analysts estimated peak sales would occur in 2009, with sales at that time of 100 million dollars [319225]. PMID:16059812

  10. Disainmööbel Roche Bobois, kokteil sarmist ja romantikast / Reet Krause

    Krause, Reet, 1967-


    Luksuslikku kodumööblit tootvast prantsuse firmast. Firma disainerid itaallased Paola Navone ja Massimo Iosa Ghini, Vladimir Kagan, Hans Hopper ja prantslased Jean Claude Magirard ja Sylvain Joly. Philippe Roche ja disainer Hans Hopperi kommentaar

  11. Thermal waters as cosmeceuticals: La Roche-Posay thermal spring water example

    Seite, Sophie


    Sophie SeiteLa Roche-Posay Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Asnières, FranceAbstract: The curative use of thermal spring water is well known, but further investigation of its biological properties and therapeutic benefits is necessary. This present article reports all available scientific data concerning La Roche-Posay Thermal Spring Water and provides a better understanding of the biological mechanism of action of this water in regard to its composition and physicochemical properties ...


    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Hedman, Matthew M. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Burns, Joseph A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Castillo-Rogez, Julie [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    We consider the Roche critical density ({rho}{sub Roche}), the minimum density of an orbiting object that, at a given distance from its planet, is able to hold itself together by self-gravity. It is directly related to the more familiar ''Roche limit,'' the distance from a planet at which a strengthless orbiting object of given density is pulled apart by tides. The presence of a substantial ring requires that transient clumps have an internal density less than {rho}{sub Roche}. Conversely, in the presence of abundant material for accretion, an orbiting object with density greater than {rho}{sub Roche} will grow. Comparing the {rho}{sub Roche} values at which the Saturn and Uranus systems transition rapidly from disruption-dominated (rings) to accretion-dominated (moons), we infer that the material composing Uranus' rings is likely more rocky, as well as less porous, than that composing Saturn's rings. From the high values of {rho}{sub Roche} at the innermost ring moons of Jupiter and Neptune, we infer that those moons may be composed of denser material than expected, or more likely that they are interlopers that formed farther from their planets and have since migrated inward, now being held together by internal material strength. Finally, the ''Portia group'' of eight closely packed Uranian moons has an overall surface density similar to that of Saturn's A ring. Thus, it can be seen as an accretion-dominated ring system, of similar character to the standard ring systems except that its material has a characteristic density greater than the local {rho}{sub Roche}.

  13. On the Use of Roche Equipotentials in Analysing the Problems of Binary and Rotating Stars

    A. Pathania; A. K. Lal; C. Mohan


    Kopal (Adv. Astron. Astrophys., 9, 1, 1972) introduced the concept of Roche equipotentials to analyse the effects of rotational and tidal distortions in case of stars in binary systems. In this approach a mathematical expression for the potential of a star in a binary system is obtained by approximating its inner structure with Roche model. This expression for the potential has been used in subsequent analysis by various authors to analyse the problems of structures and oscillations of synchronous and nonsynchronus binary stars as well as single rotating stars. Occasionally, doubts have been expressed regarding the validity of the use of this approach for analysing nonsynchronous binaries and rotationally and tidally distorted single stars. In this paper we have tried to clarify these doubts.

  14. Life near the Roche limit - Behavior of ejecta from satellites close to planets

    Dobrovolskis, A. R.; Burns, J. A.


    A study of the dynamics of nearby debris from impact craters was made to explain the distinctive features seen on Phobos, Deimis, and Amalthea. The planetary tides and satellite rotation were considered, and the usual pseudo-energy (Jacobi) integral was numerically calculated in the framework of a restricted body problem where satellites are modelled as triaxial ellipsoids rather than point masses. Iso-contours of this integral show that Deimos and Amalthea are entirely closed by Roche lobes, and the surfaces of their model ellipsoids lie nearly along equipotentials. Presently, the surface of Phobos overflows its Roche lobe, except for regions within a few km of the sub-Mars and anti-Mars points. The behavior of crater ejecta from the satellites of Mars were also examined by numerical integration of trajectories for particles leaving their surfaces in the equatorial plane.

  15. Riemann-Roch theorems and elliptic genus for virtually smooth schemes

    For a proper scheme X with a fixed 1-perfect obstruction theory E·, we define virtual versions of holomorphic Euler characteristic, X-y-genus, and elliptic genus; they are deformation invariant, and extend the usual definition in the smooth case. We prove virtual versions of the Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch and Hirzebruch-Riemann-Roch theorems. We show that the virtual X-y-genus is a polynomial, and use this to define a virtual topological Euler characteristic. We prove that the virtual elliptic genus satisfies a Jacobi modularity property; we state and prove a localization theorem in the toric equivariant case. We show how some of our results apply to moduli spaces of stable sheaves. (author)


    Through tidal dissipation in a slowly spinning host star, the orbits of many hot Jupiters may decay down to the Roche limit. We expect that the ensuing mass transfer will be stable in most cases. Using detailed numerical calculations, we find that this evolution is quite rapid, potentially leading to the complete removal of the gaseous envelope in a few gigayears, and leaving behind an exposed rocky core (a hot super-Earth). Final orbital periods are quite sensitive to the details of the planet's mass-radius relation and to the effects of irradiation and photo-evaporation, but could be as short as a few hours or as long as several days. Our scenario predicts the existence of planets with intermediate masses (hot Neptunes) that should be found precisely at their Roche limit and in the process of losing mass through Roche lobe overflow. The observed excess of small single-planet candidate systems observed by Kepler may also be the result of this process. If so, the properties of their host stars should track those of the hot Jupiters. Moreover, the number of systems that produced hot Jupiters could be two to three times larger than one would infer from contemporary observations

  17. Roche tomography of cataclysmic variables - V. A high-latitude star-spot on RU Pegasi

    Dunford, Alexander; Smith, Robert Connon


    We present Roche tomograms of the secondary star in the dwarf nova system RU Pegasi derived from blue and red arm ISIS data taken on the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. We have applied the entropy landscape technique to determine the system parameters and obtained component masses of M1 = 1.06 Msun, M2 = 0.96 Msun, an orbital inclination angle of i = 43 degrees, and an optimal systemic velocity of gamma = 7 km/s. These are in good agreement with previously published values. Our Roche tomograms of the secondary star show prominent irradiation of the inner Lagrangian point due to illumination by the disc and/or bright spot, which may have been enhanced as RU Peg was in outburst at the time of our observations.We find that this irradiation pattern is axi-symmetric and confined to regions of the star which have a direct view of the accretion regions. This is in contrast to previous attempts to map RU Peg which suggested that the irradiation pattern was non-symmetric and extended beyond the terminator. We also d...

  18. iAssembler: a package for de novo assembly of Roche-454/Sanger transcriptome sequences

    Zheng Yi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs have played significant roles in gene discovery and gene functional analysis, especially for non-model organisms. For organisms with no full genome sequences available, ESTs are normally assembled into longer consensus sequences for further downstream analysis. However current de novo EST assembly programs often generate large number of assembly errors that will negatively affect the downstream analysis. In order to generate more accurate consensus sequences from ESTs, tools are needed to reduce or eliminate errors from de novo assemblies. Results We present iAssembler, a pipeline that can assemble large-scale ESTs into consensus sequences with significantly higher accuracy than current existing assemblers. iAssembler employs MIRA and CAP3 assemblers to generate initial assemblies, followed by identifying and correcting two common types of transcriptome assembly errors: 1 ESTs from different transcripts (mainly alternatively spliced transcripts or paralogs are incorrectly assembled into same contigs; and 2 ESTs from same transcripts fail to be assembled together. iAssembler can be used to assemble ESTs generated using the traditional Sanger method and/or the Roche-454 massive parallel pyrosequencing technology. Conclusion We compared performances of iAssembler and several other de novo EST assembly programs using both Roche-454 and Sanger EST datasets. It demonstrated that iAssembler generated significantly more accurate consensus sequences than other assembly programs.

  19. Roche-lobe filling factor of mass-transferring red giants - the PIONIER view

    Boffin, Henri M J; Berger, J P; Jorissen, A; Blind, N; Bouquin, J B Le; Mikolajewska, J; Lazareff, B


    Using the PIONIER visitor instrument that combines the light of the four Auxiliary Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, we measure precisely the diameters of several symbiotic and related stars: HD 352, HD 190658, V1261 Ori, ER Del, FG Ser, and AG Peg. These diameters - in the range of 0.6 to 2.3 milli-arcseconds - are used to assess the filling factor of the Roche lobe of the mass-losing giants and provide indications on the nature of the ongoing mass transfer. We also provide the first spectroscopic orbit of ER Del, based on CORAVEL and HERMES/Mercator observations. The system is found to have an eccentric orbit with a period of 5.7 years. In the case of the symbiotic star FG Ser, we find that the diameter is changing by 13% over the course of 41 days, while the observations of HD 352 are indicative of an elongation. Both these stars are found to have a Roche filling factor close to 1, as is most likely the case for HD 190658 as well, while the three other stars have factors below 0.5-0....

  20. Roche lobe underfilling of the secondary star in PSR J102347.6+003841?

    McConnell, O.; Callanan, P. J.; Kennedy, M.; Hurley, D.; Garnavich, P.; Menzies, J.


    PSR J102347.6+003841 is a radio pulsar system with a spin period of 1.69 ms and an orbital period of 4.75 h. Uniquely, it undergoes periods of transient accretion from its companion star: it occupies an important position in the evolutionary track from X-ray binary to isolated millisecond radio pulsar. Here, we present a spectroscopic study of this system showing late-type absorption features which match those of a G2V star. We find a semi-amplitude of 286 ± 3 kms-1 and a best-fitting orbital period of 0.198 0966(1) d. We combine these measurements with optical photometry which suggests the secondary star may be underfilling its Roche lobe by between 15 and 20 per cent. We weakly constrain the mass of the neutron star to be ≤2.2 M⊙ at the 2σ level. We also discuss the possible origins of the Hα emission line in our template subtracted, averaged spectrum. Finally, we present and discuss new optical photometry of J1023 taken during the recent outburst of the system.

  1. Roche Lobe Underfilling of the Secondary Star in PSR J102347.6+003841?

    McConnell, O; Kennedy, M; Hurley, D; Garnavich, P; Menzies, J


    PSR J102347.6+003841 is a radio pulsar system with a spin period of 1.69 ms and an orbital period of 4.75 hours. Uniquely, it undergoes periods of transient accretion from its companion star: it occupies an important position in the evolutionary track from X-ray binary to isolated millisecond radio pulsar. Here we present a spectroscopic study of this system showing late-type absorption features which match those of a G2V star. We find a semiamplitude of $286 \\pm 3$ kms$^{-1}$ and a best fit orbital period of 0.1980966(1) days. We combine these measurements with optical photometry which suggests the secondary star may be underfilling its Roche lobe by between 15\\% and 20\\%. We weakly constrain the mass of the neutron star to be $\\leq$ 2.2 M$_\\odot$ at the 2$\\sigma$ level. We also discuss the possible origins of the H$\\alpha$ emission line in our template subtracted, averaged spectrum. Finally we present and discuss new optical photometry of J1023 taken during the recent outburst of the system.

  2. Robotic Enrichment Processing of Roche 454 Titanium Emlusion PCR at the DOE Joint Genome Institute

    Hamilton, Matthew; Wilson, Steven; Bauer, Diane; Miller, Don; Duffy-Wei, Kecia; Hammon, Nancy; Lucas, Susan; Pollard, Martin; Cheng, Jan-Fang


    Enrichment of emulsion PCR product is the most laborious and pipette-intensive step in the 454 Titanium process, posing the biggest obstacle for production-oriented scale up. The Joint Genome Institute has developed a pair of custom-made robots based on the Microlab Star liquid handling deck manufactured by Hamilton to mediate the complexity and ergonomic demands of the 454 enrichment process. The robot includes a custom built centrifuge, magnetic deck positions, as well as heating and cooling elements. At present processing eight emulsion cup samples in a single 2.5 hour run, these robots are capable of processing up to 24 emulsion cup samples. Sample emulsions are broken using the standard 454 breaking process and transferred from a pair of 50ml conical tubes to a single 2ml tube and loaded on the robot. The robot performs the enrichment protocol and produces beads in 2ml tubes ready for counting. The robot follows the Roche 454 enrichment protocol with slight exceptions to the manner in which it resuspends beads via pipette mixing rather than vortexing and a set number of null bead removal washes. The robotic process is broken down in similar discrete steps: First Melt and Neutralization, Enrichment Primer Annealing, Enrichment Bead Incubation, Null Bead Removal, Second Melt and Neutralization and Sequencing Primer Annealing. Data indicating our improvements in enrichment efficiency and total number of bases per run will also be shown.

  3. Roche tomography of cataclysmic variables - VII. The long-term magnetic activity of AE Aqr

    Hill, C. A.; Watson, C. A.; Steeghs, D.; Dhillon, V. S.; Shahbaz, T.


    We present a long-term study of the secondary star in the cataclysmic variable AE Aqr, using Roche tomography to indirectly image starspots on the stellar surface spanning 8 years of observations. The seven maps show an abundance of spot features at both high and low latitudes. We find that all maps have at least one large high-latitude spot region, and we discuss its complex evolution between maps, as well as its compatibility with current dynamo theories. Furthermore, we see the apparent growth in fractional spot coverage, fs, around 45° latitude over the duration of observations, with a persistently high fs near latitudes of 20°. These bands of spots may form as part of a magnetic activity cycle, with magnetic flux tubes emerging at different latitudes, similar to the `butterfly' diagram for the Sun. We discuss the nature of flux tube emergence in close binaries, as well as the activity of AE Aqr in the context of other stars.

  4. Roche tomography of cataclysmic variables - VII. The long-term magnetic activity of AE Aqr

    Hill, C A; Steeghs, D; Dhillon, V S; Shahbaz, T


    We present a long-term study of the secondary star in the cataclysmic variable AE~Aqr, using Roche tomography to indirectly image starspots on the stellar surface spanning 8~years of observations. The 7 maps show an abundance of spot features at both high and low latitudes. We find that all maps have at least one large high-latitude spot region, and we discuss its complex evolution between maps, as well as its compatibility with current dynamo theories. Furthermore, we see the apparent growth in fractional spot coverage, $f_{\\mathrm{s}}$, around $45^{\\circ}$~latitude over the duration of observations, with a persistently high $f_{\\mathrm{s}}$ near latitudes of $20^{\\circ}$. These bands of spots may form as part of a magnetic activity cycle, with magnetic flux tubes emerging at different latitudes, similar to the `butterfly' diagram for the Sun. We discuss the nature of flux tube emergence in close binaries, as well as the activity of AE~Aqr in the context of other stars.

  5. High-resolution spectroscopy of the intermediate polar EX Hydrae. I. Kinematic study and Roche tomography

    Beuermann, K


    EX Hya is one of the few double-lined eclipsing cataclysmic variables that allow an accurate measurement of the binary masses. We analyze orbital phase-resolved UVES/ VLT high resolution spectroscopic observations of EX Hya with the aims of deriving the binary masses and obtaining a tomographic image of the illuminated secondary star. We present a novel method for determining the binary parameters by directly fitting an emission model of the illuminated secondary star to the phase-resolved line profiles of NaI lambda 8183/ 8195 in absorption and emission and CaII lambda 8498 in emission. The fit to the NaI and CaII line profiles, combined with the published K1, yields a white-dwarf mass M1 = 0.790 +/- 0.026 Msun, a secondary mass M2 = 0.108 +/- 0.008 Msun, and a velocity amplitude of the secondary star K2 = 432.4 +/- 4.8 km s-1. The secondary is of spectral type dM5.5 +/- 0.5 and has an absolute K-band magnitude of MK = 8.8. Its Roche radius places it on or very close to the main sequence of low-mass stars. I...

  6. El concepto de límite en el B-Mu de François Roche

    Eugenio Pandolfini


    Full Text Available


    Algunos proyectos, como el Dusty relief/B‐mu (2002 de François Roche demuestran como edificios complejos, que toman distancia desde los modelos mecanicistas para referirse a nuevos paradigmas, se pueden interpretar y comprenderse  mejor gracias a un análisis perceptivo que acerca el proyecto de arquitectura a cuestiones como la relación psicológica del hombre con la arquitectura, el miedo al espacio, y las  patologías  vinculadas a la percepción y a las neurosis modernas.
    En este caso, aparte de las repercusiones que la fachada de  polvo podría tener en el ámbito de la ecología urbana, es interesante analizar algunos aspectos ligados a la dicotomía  entre forma externa y volúmenes internos para la que François Roche cita como referencia el raumplan de Adolf Loos, pero que presenta motivos para una reflexión vinculada a los aspectos  perceptivos.
    El artículo trata de analizar como François Roche proyecta sus edificios extremando la dicotomía entre interior/visual y  exterior/táctil, desarrollando así una nueva relación con el lugar. Roche diseña la fachada exterior del B‐mu autoimponiéndose  una limitación del sentido de la vista, a favor de una dimensión háptica del proyecto y lo hace envolviendo los ámbitos arquitectónicos más familiares de una interfaz abstracta y táctil.

    Palabras clave

    edificio, percepción, entorno, envolvente, límite


    Some projects such as Dusty relief/B‐mu (2002 by François  Roche demonstrate how complex buildings, which distance themselves from the mechanicist models in order to refer  themselves to new paradigms, can be better understood and interpreted thanks to a perceptive analysis.
    This analysis brings the architectural project closer to matters  such as man’s psychological relationship to Architecture, the fear of space

  7. The Quasi-Roche lobe overflow state in the evolution of Close Binary Systems containing a radio pulsar

    Benvenuto, O G; Horvath, J E


    We study the evolution of close binary systems formed by a normal (solar composition), intermediate mass donor star together with a neutron star. We consider models including irradiation feedback and evaporation. These non-standard ingredients deeply modify the mass transfer stages of these binaries. While models that neglect irradiation feedback undergo continuous, long standing mass transfer episodes, models including these effect suffer a number cycles of mass transfer and detachment. During mass transfer the systems should reveal themselves as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), whereas when detached they behave as a binary radio pulsars. We show that at these stages irradiated models are in a Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) state or in a quasi-RLOF state. Quasi-RLOF stars have a radius slightly smaller than its Roche lobe. Remarkably, these conditions are attained for orbital period and donor mass values in the range corresponding to a family of binary radio pulsars known as "redbacks". Thus, redback companions ...

  8. QTrim: a novel tool for the quality trimming of sequence reads generated using the Roche/454 sequencing platform

    Shrestha, Ram Krishna; Lubinsky, Baruch; Bansode, Vijay B; Moinz, Mónica BJ; McCormack, Grace P; Travers, Simon A.


    Background Many high throughput sequencing (HTS) approaches, such as the Roche/454 platform, produce sequences in which the quality of the sequence (as measured by a Phred-like quality scores) decreases linearly across a sequence read. Undertaking quality trimming of this data is essential to enable confidence in the results of subsequent downstream analysis. Here, we have developed a novel, highly sensitive and accurate approach (QTrim) for the quality trimming of sequence reads generated us...

  9. Tidal decay and stable Roche-lobe overflow of short-period gaseous exoplanets

    Jackson, Brian; Jensen, Emily; Peacock, Sarah; Arras, Phil; Penev, Kaloyan


    Many gaseous exoplanets in short-period orbits are on the verge or are in the process of Roche-lobe overflow (RLO). Moreover, orbital stability analysis shows tides can drive many hot Jupiters to spiral inevitably toward their host stars. Thus, the coupled processes of orbital evolution and RLO likely shape the observed distribution of close-in exoplanets and may even be responsible for producing some of the short-period rocky planets. However, the exact outcome for an overflowing planet depends on its internal response to mass loss, and the accompanying orbital evolution can act to enhance or inhibit RLO. In this study, we apply the fully-featured and robust Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics suite to model RLO of short-period gaseous planets. We show that, although the detailed evolution may depend on several properties of the planetary system, it is largely determined by the core mass of the overflowing gas giant. In particular, we find that the orbital expansion that accompanies RLO often stops and reverses at a specific maximum period that depends on the core mass. We suggest that RLO may often strand the remnant of a gas giant near this orbital period, which provides an observational prediction that can corroborate the hypothesis that short-period gas giants undergo RLO. We conduct a preliminary comparison of this prediction to the observed population of small, short-period planets and find some planets in orbits that may be consistent with this picture. To the extent that we can establish some short-period planets are indeed the remnants of gas giants, that population can elucidate the properties of gas giant cores, the properties of which remain largely unconstrained.

  10. Whole-Exome Enrichment with the Roche NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Exome Library SR Platform

    Chen, Rui; Im, Hogune; Snyder, Michael


    Multiple platforms are available for whole-exome enrichment and sequencing (WES). This protocol is based on the Roche NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Exome Library SR platform, which enriches for ~44 Mb of the human exonic regions. The SeqCap system uses 55- to 105-base DNA probes to capture known coding DNA sequences (CDS) from the NCBI Consensus CDS Database, RefSeq, and Sanger miRBase. The protocol can be performed at the benchside without the need for automation, and the resulting library can be used...

  11. 基于 Roche 454 GS FLX 的钝吻黄盖鲽(Pleuronectes yokohamae)微卫星标记的开发%Microsatellite Loci Isolated by Roche 454 GS FLX in Pleuronectes yokohamae

    潘婷; 张岩; 张辉; 高天翔; 肖永双; 姜云荣


    Roche 454 GS FLX, the second-generation sequencing technique, can read longer fragments accurately and isolate SSR markers, and thus has been widely used in many fields of research. In this study, we applied Roche 454 GS FLX to isolate the microsatellite loci and developed the identification of microsatellites markers in Pleuronectes yokohamae. (AC)12, (AG)12, (AAT)12, (AGG)8, (AGC)8, (AGAT)8 and (ACAG)6 were hybridized with shotgun library of DNA samples. This SSR library was constructed through magnetic beads enrichment, cleaning, elution and purification. The SSR library was then sequenced with Roche 454 GS FLX. MISA was used to search for microsatellite motifs and primer 3 was used to design the primers for P. yokohamae. FAM, HEX, and TAMRA were used to label the microsatellite primers (5′), which were used in the triplex PCR or the nested PCR to identify the genotype of the microsatellite loci. The cluster similarity comparison method was first used to analyze 5641 loci that we obtained, and 247 types of loci with high polymorphism were screened. Among these loci, 52.22% were perfect, 20.24% were imperfect and the rest 27.54% were compound. The percentage of (AC)n and (AG)n was 44% in these loci, and 87.5% of them were more than 10-time repeats. Eleven pairs of fluorescent primers were designed according to the selected loci (more than 10-time repeats) and were applied in 5 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 8 with an average value of 5. The average values of Ho, He and PIC were 0.588, 0.788 and 0.670 respectively. Four loci among 11 deviated from Hardy-Weinberg. The results of this research indicated that 454 GS FLX was an intuitive and efficient technique for microsatellite isolating. Our study provides essential information about the population genetic diversity of P. yokohamae, and helps improve the artificial breeding.%利用 Roche 454 GS FLX 平台测序技术进行了钝吻黄盖鲽微卫星引物筛选,并采用聚

  12. High-throughput sequencing of core STR loci for forensic genetic investigations using the Roche Genome Sequencer FLX platform

    Fordyce, Sarah L; Avila-Arcos, Maria C; Rockenbauer, Eszter;


    The analysis and profiling of short tandem repeat (STR) loci is routinely used in forensic genetics. Current methods to investigate STR loci, including PCR-based standard fragment analyses and capillary electrophoresis, only provide amplicon lengths that are used to estimate the number of STR...... repeat units. These methods do not allow for the full resolution of STR base composition that sequencing approaches could provide. Here we present an STR profiling method based on the use of the Roche Genome Sequencer (GS) FLX to simultaneously sequence multiple core STR loci. Using this method in...... combination with a bioinformatic tool designed specifically to analyze sequence lengths and frequencies, we found that GS FLX STR sequence data are comparable to conventional capillary electrophoresis-based STR typing. Furthermore, we found DNA base substitutions and repeat sequence variations that would not...


    We study the evolution of close binary systems formed by a normal (solar composition), intermediate-mass-donor star together with a neutron star. We consider models including irradiation feedback and evaporation. These nonstandard ingredients deeply modify the mass-transfer stages of these binaries. While models that neglect irradiation feedback undergo continuous, long-standing mass-transfer episodes, models including these effects suffer a number of cycles of mass transfer and detachment. During mass transfer, the systems should reveal themselves as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), whereas when they are detached they behave as binary radio pulsars. We show that at these stages irradiated models are in a Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) state or in a quasi-RLOF state. Quasi-RLOF stars have radii slightly smaller than their Roche lobes. Remarkably, these conditions are attained for an orbital period as well as donor mass values in the range corresponding to a family of binary radio pulsars known as ''redbacks''. Thus, redback companions should be quasi-RLOF stars. We show that the characteristics of the redback system PSR J1723-2837 are accounted for by these models. In each mass-transfer cycle these systems should switch from LMXB to binary radio pulsar states with a timescale of approximately one million years. However, there is recent and fast growing evidence of systems switching on far shorter, human timescales. This should be related to instabilities in the accretion disk surrounding the neutron star and/or radio ejection, still to be included in the model having the quasi-RLOF state as a general condition

  14. The Quasi-Roche Lobe Overflow State in the Evolution of Close Binary Systems Containing a Radio Pulsar

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.


    We study the evolution of close binary systems formed by a normal (solar composition), intermediate-mass-donor star together with a neutron star. We consider models including irradiation feedback and evaporation. These nonstandard ingredients deeply modify the mass-transfer stages of these binaries. While models that neglect irradiation feedback undergo continuous, long-standing mass-transfer episodes, models including these effects suffer a number of cycles of mass transfer and detachment. During mass transfer, the systems should reveal themselves as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), whereas when they are detached they behave as binary radio pulsars. We show that at these stages irradiated models are in a Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) state or in a quasi-RLOF state. Quasi-RLOF stars have radii slightly smaller than their Roche lobes. Remarkably, these conditions are attained for an orbital period as well as donor mass values in the range corresponding to a family of binary radio pulsars known as "redbacks." Thus, redback companions should be quasi-RLOF stars. We show that the characteristics of the redback system PSR J1723-2837 are accounted for by these models. In each mass-transfer cycle these systems should switch from LMXB to binary radio pulsar states with a timescale of approximately one million years. However, there is recent and fast growing evidence of systems switching on far shorter, human timescales. This should be related to instabilities in the accretion disk surrounding the neutron star and/or radio ejection, still to be included in the model having the quasi-RLOF state as a general condition.

  15. Etude en laboratoire de l'anisotropie des roches par méthode ultrasonique : Application au gneiss de Valabres (Alpes-Maritimes)

    Gasc Barbier, Muriel; Wassermann, Jérôme


    Parmi les essais non destructifs, l'auscultation des roches par méthode ultrasonore est un moyen couramment utilisé pour caractériser l'état initial d'un spécimen au laboratoire. S'il est courant de faire ces mesures pour caractériser l'état de fracturation d'une roche, ce type de mesure est moins utilisé pour caractériser l'état d'anisotropie. Des essais de compression uniaxiale avec mesure des vitesses des ondes élastiques ont été réalisés sur des gneiss carottés parallèlement et perpendicu...

  16. Diseño de estrategias para optimizar la calidad de los servicios de la Biblioteca Marcel Roche del Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC)

    Echezuria Perozo, Jorge Enrique; Rondon, Maria Carolina; Gutierrez Luna, Melany


    As to design new strategies for the quality improvement of all services offered by the Marcel Roche Library (MRL) of the Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Investigations (IVIC) this work studies the beginnings and evolution of quality management improvement reviewing some of the studies presented by some of the most outstanding authors in this subject as well as analyzing the basic components and principles of the total quality management (TQM). This document also focuses on the analysis of ...

  17. Efficient Quantification of HIV-1 in Heparin Plasma Spiked with Cultured HIV-1 by the Roche Cobas TaqMan and Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Tests

    Jagodzinski, Linda L; Weston, Holly R.; Liu, Ying; O'Connell, Robert J.; Peel, Sheila A


    The current automated real-time HIV-1 viral load assays, the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan test and the Abbott RealTime test, are FDA cleared for use with EDTA plasma. We show that both real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) tests reliably quantify HIV-1 RNA in heparin plasma specimens spiked with HIV-1 isolate MN.

  18. "... bey einer guten Handlung böse Grundsätze zu argwohnen!" : empfindsame Diskurse bei Gellert, Sophie von La Roche und in Goethes "Werther"

    Dörr, Volker C.


    Drei paradigmatische empfindsame Romane – Gellerts "Das Leben der Schwedischen Gräfinn von G***", Sophie von La Roches "Geschichte des Fräuleins von Sternheim" und Goethes "Werther" – werden darauf hin befragt, was sich ihnen hinsichtlich der diskursiven Struktur der Empfindsamkeit ablesen läßt. Dabei werden, aufbauend auf Foucaults Bestimmungen, ein starker und ein schwacher Diskursbegriff unterschieden: Kriterium der Unterscheidung ist, ob eine "Formation" sich selbst als Diskurs organisier...

  19. From Roche Vitamins to DSM Nutritional Products%从罗氏维生素到帝斯曼营养产品


    In October 2003, the Dutch group DSM has acquired the Vitamins and Fine Chemicals business from Roche to create DSM Nutritional Products-one of the world's leading suppliers of vitamins and carotenoids for Animal Nutrition industry, the Food and Pharmaceutical industries as well as the Cosmetics industry by offering a wide range of products to help improve nutrition and prevent disease. In China market, B vitamins are provided by DSM Nutritional Products for food fortification.

  20. Roche-lobe overflow systems powered by black holes in young star clusters: the importance of dynamical exchanges

    We have run 600 N-body simulations of intermediate-mass (∼3500 M ☉) young star clusters (SCs; with three different metallicities (Z = 0.01, 0.1, and 1 Z ☉). The simulations include the dependence of stellar properties and stellar winds on metallicity. Massive stellar black holes (MSBHs) with mass >25 M ☉ are allowed to form through direct collapse of very massive metal-poor stars (Z < 0.3 Z ☉). We focus on the demographics of black hole (BH) binaries that undergo mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow (RLO). We find that 44% of all binaries that undergo an RLO phase (RLO binaries) formed through dynamical exchange. RLO binaries that formed via exchange (RLO-EBs) are powered by more massive BHs than RLO primordial binaries (RLO-PBs). Furthermore, the RLO-EBs tend to start the RLO phase later than the RLO-PBs. In metal-poor SCs (0.01-0.1 Z ☉), >20% of all RLO binaries are powered by MSBHs. The vast majority of RLO binaries powered by MSBHs are RLO-EBs. We have produced optical color-magnitude diagrams of the simulated RLO binaries, accounting for the emission of both the donor star and the irradiated accretion disk. We find that RLO-PBs are generally associated with bluer counterparts than RLO-EBs. We compare the simulated counterparts with the observed counterparts of nine ultraluminous X-ray sources. We discuss the possibility that IC 342 X-1, Ho IX X-1, NGC 1313 X-2, and NGC 5204 X-1 are powered by an MSBH.

  1. Analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing options on the Roche/454 next-generation titanium sequencing platform.

    Hideyuki Tamaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing approach has revolutionized studies in microbial ecology. While primer selection and short read length can affect the resulting microbial community profile, little is known about the influence of pyrosequencing methods on the sequencing throughput and the outcome of microbial community analyses. The aim of this study is to compare differences in output, ease, and cost among three different amplicon pyrosequencing methods for the Roche/454 Titanium platform METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following three pyrosequencing methods for 16S rRNA genes were selected in this study: Method-1 (standard method is the recommended method for bi-directional sequencing using the LIB-A kit; Method-2 is a new option designed in this study for unidirectional sequencing with the LIB-A kit; and Method-3 uses the LIB-L kit for unidirectional sequencing. In our comparison among these three methods using 10 different environmental samples, Method-2 and Method-3 produced 1.5-1.6 times more useable reads than the standard method (Method-1, after quality-based trimming, and did not compromise the outcome of microbial community analyses. Specifically, Method-3 is the most cost-effective unidirectional amplicon sequencing method as it provided the most reads and required the least effort in consumables management. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly demonstrated that alternative pyrosequencing methods for 16S rRNA genes could drastically affect sequencing output (e.g. number of reads before and after trimming but have little effect on the outcomes of microbial community analysis. This finding is important for both researchers and sequencing facilities utilizing 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing for microbial ecological studies.

  2. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott Realtime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA

    M. Schutten (Martin); D. Peters (D.); N. Back (Nicole); A.W. van den Beld (Annewieke); B. Beuselinck (B.); V. Foulongne (V.); A.M. Geretti (Anna Maria); L. Pandiani (L.); M. Tiemann; H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)


    textabstractThe analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche

  3. Multicenter evaluation of the new Abbott RealTime assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA

    Schutten, M; Peters, D; Back, N K T; Beld, M; Beuselinck, K; Foulongne, V; Geretti, A-M; Pandiani, L; Tiemann, C; Niesters, H G M


    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS TaqMa

  4. Performance of the Roche Total Mycophenolic Acid® assay on the Cobas Integra 400®, Cobas 6000® and comparison to LC-MS/MS in liver transplant patients

    Decavele, An-Sofie; FAVOREEL, NIELS; VANDER HEYDEN, FIEN; Verstraete, Alain


    Background: Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressant for which therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is performed for optimal prophylaxis and avoidance of toxicity in transplant patients. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is ideally suited for TDM of MPA. There have been several method comparisons of the Roche Total MPA assay, but none have been performed with respect to liver transplant patients. Methods: We validated the Roche Total MPA assay on the Cobas Inte...

  5. Alteration hydrothermale et deformation ductile des roches volcaniques acides associees au gisement sulfure de draa sfar (Jebilet Centrales, Maroc

    Zinbi, Y.


    Full Text Available The volcanics and volcanoclastic rocks of Draa Sfar (Central Jebilet, Moroccan hercynian belt are affected by ductile stress and hydrothermal alteration accompanied by a weak degree of metamorphism (greenschist facies. Some N-S oriented shearing zones, affect locally these formations while being the site of an important hydrothermal activity. The consequences of these transformations from a non to slightly- deformed rhyodacite, show that through these ductile shearing zones: (1 the mineralogical assemblage of hydrothermal alteration is essentially formed by chlorite, sericite, quartz and magnetite; (2 the gradual increase of the alteration indexes is accompanied by the destruction of the phenocrists and the recrystallization of the matrix by phyllosilicates and quartz; (3 the progressive transfer of material is more intense in the more deformed zones where the values of Ti, Al and Zr remain constant. These shearing zones played a very important role in the circulation of fluids and the transformation of the rhyodacite of Draa Sfar.Les roches volcaniques et volcanoclastiques de Draa Sfar (Jebilet centrales, Maroc hercynien sont affectées par une déformation ductile accompagnée d’un métamorphisme de faible degré (faciès schistes verts et d’une altération hydrothermale. Des zones de cisaillement de direction N-S, ont affecté localement ces formations tout en étant vecteurs d’une importante activité hydrothermale. Le suivi de ces transformations à partir de la rhyodacite non ou peu déformée, montre qu’à travers ces zones de cisaillements ductiles : (1 l’assemblage minéralogique d’altération hydrothermale est formé essentiellement de chlorite, de séricite, de quartz et de magnétite ; (2 l’augmentation graduelle des indices d’altération s’exprime par la destruction des phénocristaux au profit d’une matrice recristallisée en phyllosilicates et quartz ; (3 le transfert progressif de la matière est plus intense

  6. Gyrotropy and Anisotropy of Rocks: Similarities and Differences Gyrotropie et anisotropie des roches : similitudes et différences

    Chichinina T. I.


    Full Text Available The main features of wave propagation in gyrotropic media are compared with wave propagation in anisotropic media. The results of numerical modelling are presented for three typical seismic exploration models. The first two models are azimuthally anisotropic media (of orthorombic symmetry system, group 2m without and with gyration. The third model is a gyrotropic transversely isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis. The computations have been made for propagation of shear waves along the vertical symmetry axis. For sufficiently short wave paths (in our models less than 400 m the two-component (x, y seismograms are similar for all three models. For longer paths both signal shape and signal duration for the first and the third model differ noticeably. Some evidence (experimental data and a micromodel is given to show that the gyrotropy of rocks does exist or, at least, can exist. Les principales caractéristiques de la propagation des ondes dans les milieux gyrotropes sont comparées avec la propagation des ondes dans les milieux azimutalement anisotropes. Les résultats d'une modélisation numérique sont présentés pour trois modèles caractéristiques d'exploration sismique. Les deux premiers modèles sont des milieux anisotropes (de symétrie orthorhombique, groupe 2m avec et sans gyrotropie. Le troisième modèle est un milieu gyrotrope transverse isotrope avec un axe de symétrie vertical. Ces calculs ont été réalisés pour la propagation des ondes transversales le long de l'axe de symétrie vertical. Pour des trajets sismiques suffisamment courts (pour nos modèles, moins de 400 m, les sismogrammes à deux composantes (x, y sont similaires pour les trois modèles. Pour des trajets plus longs, la forme et la durée du signal diffèrent sensiblement pour les modèles 1 et 3. Ceci a pour but de montrer (à l'aide des données expérimentales et d'un micromodèle que la gyrotropie dans les roches existe, ou, tout au moins, peut

  7. Method of chemical analysis of silicate rocks (1962); Methode d'analyse chimique des roches silicatees (1962)

    Pouget, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A rapid method of analysis for the physical and chemical determination of the major constituents of silicate rocks is described. Water losses at 100 deg. C and losses of volatile elements at 1000 deg. C are estimated after staying in oven for these temperatures, or by mean of a thermo-balance. The determination of silica is made by a double insolubilization with hydrochloric acid on attack solution with sodium carbonate; total iron and aluminium, both with calcium and magnesium, after ammoniacal precipitation of Fe and Al, are determined on the filtration product of silica by titrimetry-photometry of their complexes with EDTA. The alkalis Na and K by flame spectrophotometry, Mn by colorimetry of the permanganate, and Ti by mean of his complex with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, are determined on fluosulfuric attack solution. Phosphorus is determined by his complex with 'molybdenum blue' on a fluoro-nitro-boric attack solution; iron is estimated by potentiometry, with the help of bichromate on hydrofluoric solution. (author) [French] Une methode d'analyse rapide est decrite pour la determination physico-chimique des constituants principaux des roches silicatees. Les pertes en eau a 100 deg. C et en matieres volatiles a 1000 deg. C sont evaluees apres passage au four a ces temperatures, ou a l'aide d'une thermobalance. La determination de la silice se fait par double insolubilisation a l'acide chlorhydrique, sur une attaque au carbonate de sodium; le fer total et l'aluminium ainsi que le calcium et le magnesium, apres precipitation a l'ammoniaque des deux premiers metaux, sont determines sur le filtrat de la silice par titrimetrie-photometrie de leurs complexes avec l'E.D.T.A. Les alcalins sodium et potassium par spectrophotometrie de flamme, le manganese par colorimetrie du permanganate, le titane a l'aide de son complexe avec l'eau oxygenee, sont determines sur une attaque fluosulfurique. Le phosphore est determine par son

  8. Testing single-grain quartz OSL methods using sediment samples with independent age control from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d'Abilly site, Central France)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter;


    We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating and...... standard multi-grain OSL dating using both quartz and feldspar. The effect of rejection criteria usually employed in single-grain dating on dose and over-dispersion is tested using both laboratory irradiated samples and natural samples. It is shown that had these samples been analysed in the absence of...

  9. Roche and IAEA announce joint initiative to train healthcare workers for Africa's fight against cancer. EDUCARE partnership to launch IAEA's VUCCnet training networks

    Full text: Roche and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) announced today the launch of the EDUCARE (EDUcation for Cancer in African REgions) project to provide concerted support to help combat the growing cancer epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The EDUCARE project is to be piloted in Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia, and is linked with the IAEA's wider initiative to build regional training networks in cancer control and a Virtual University for Cancer Control (VUCCnet) in Africa. A core component for the successful fight against cancer in any country is the education and training of health care providers. The VUCCnet will allow for training to be provided in an integrated and sustainable way in Africa by taking advantage of low-cost online learning tools. The IAEA is working in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international partners to develop the VUCCnet across Africa. The EDCUARE project will facilitate a first-of-its-kind exchange of knowledge and skills, both at the healthcare provider and country-wide level. Training will be provided by an on-line training resource centre, known as the Virtual University for Cancer Control (VUCC), the first such platform for health workers across the continent. Maturin Tchoumi, General Manager Roche South Africa said: 'As a leader in oncology, Roche believes that its strengths, expertise and resources can be used to improve the quality of oncology training and education in the poorest countries in the world. There is a real lack of basic education in oncology in Africa. By contributing our skills and competencies on the ground, Roche can make a real and sustainable improvement.' This new public-private partnership reflects a shared concern over the increasing cancer burden in sub-Saharan Africa, a region of the world where cancer rates are growing rapidly. Cancer now accounts for 12.5% of all deaths worldwide, more than HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria combined. By 2020, there are expected to

  10. Aprovechamiento del salto de Bourg-Lés-Valence. La Presa de la Roche de Glun-Drôme – Francia

    Française d´Enterprise, Compagnie


    Full Text Available To take the fullest advantage of the hydroelectric and agricultural usefulness of the Rhône, the Compagnie Nationale du Rhône has divided the river into a number of sections, and these have been separately developed. The hydraulic gradient at La Roche de Glun, at the end of the central section, involves a hydraulic system consisting of a reservoir, a dam and dykes, a canal, a power station, an overflow canal and drainage works in the , surrounding zones. This project has been carried out by the Compagnie Française d'Enterprises.Para explotar al máximo las posibilidades hidroeléctricas y agrícolas del Ródano, la Compagnie Nationale du Rhône ha dividido dicho río en una serie de tramos para proceder a su distribución. El salto de La Roche de Glun, último del tramo central, forma un complejo hidráulico que consta de: un embalse cerrado por diques, una presa, un canal de alimentación, una central, una esclusa, un canal de descarga y unas obras anejas de drenaje para evitar inundaciones en las ciudades próximas. Las obras han sido realizadas por la Compagnie Française d'Entreprises.

  11. Modèle d'anisotropie des propriétés magnétiques induites par l'orientation préférentielle de forme dans une roche déformée

    Vergne, R.; Mollard, P.; Vialon, P.; Rochette, P.


    Le but essentiel de ce travail est de montrer comment il est possible, à l'aide d'arguments simples : de justifier les corrélations observées entre l'anisotropie des propriétés magnétiques d'une roche et sa déformation interne et de les chiffrer dans le cas particulier de l'O.P.F. Pour modéliser une roche polyminérale, on considère l'ensemble des grains d'un même minéral : les marqueurs et le reste de la roche : la matrice. On applique à cet ensemble le modèle hydrodynamique en se bornant au ...

  12. A propos du dernier livre de Sebastian Roché, Police de proximité, Nos politiques de sécurité, Paris, Seuil, 2005.

    Olivier Hassid


    Full Text Available Les émeutes urbaines de novembre 2005 viennent de relancer le débat sur la nécessité de disposer d’une police de proximité. Mise en place par Jean-Pierre Chevènement et stoppée par Nicolas Sarkozy, la réforme de la police de proximité est, pour de nombreux observateurs, indispensable au maintien du pacte républicain. La sortie du livre de Sebastian Roché est, en ce sens, une aubaine pour le décideur public. L’objectif de ce livre est simple : éclairer celui-ci sur les causes de l’échec de cet...

  13. Strategie uvedení nového výrobku řady Kerium značky La Roche-Posay na český trh

    Holubinková, Hana


    I am describing a launch strategy of a anti-hairloss product on the Czech market. The launch took place in October 2008 by L'Oreal. It's brand La Roche-Posay has very strict policy, doesn't use any ATL activities. It is a medical brand and is available only in pharmacies.

  14. De Sébastien Roch à L’agneau chaste ou de la construction à la déconstruction de la matrice romanesque de la pédophilie

    Szczur Przemysław


    Full Text Available L’obiettivo del presente articolo è di paragonare l’immagine della pedofilia in due romanzi : Sébastien Roch di Octave Mirbeau e L’agneau chaste di Franck Varjac. Mentre il primo ha contribuito a costruire la matrice romanzesca della pedofilia, il secondo prova a decostruirla.

  15. De Sébastien Roch à L’agneau chaste ou de la construction à la déconstruction de la matrice romanesque de la pédophilie

    Szczur Przemysław


    L’obiettivo del presente articolo è di paragonare l’immagine della pedofilia in due romanzi : Sébastien Roch di Octave Mirbeau e L’agneau chaste di Franck Varjac. Mentre il primo ha contribuito a costruire la matrice romanzesca della pedofilia, il secondo prova a decostruirla.

  16. Apport des expériences de mécaniques des roches à la géologie structurale des bassins sédimentaires Contribution of Rock-Mechanics Experiments to the Stuctural Geology of Sedimentary Basins

    Poulet M.


    Full Text Available Dans le but de préciser le domaine d'application des expériences de Mécanique des Roches à la Géologie Structurale, l'auteur définit d'abord les ordres de grandeur des différents facteurs qui contrôlent, dans la nature, les relations contrainte déformation : contraintes mises en leu, vitesse de déformation, température, anisotropie des roches. Sont ensuite passés en revue les résultats des essais de laboratoire de type uniaxial (conditions de surface puis de type triaxial (conditions de fond en distinguant dans chaque cas la nature des contraintes intervenant : tension, compression, cisaillement. Le comportement des roches dans les essais en compression permet de les classer en trois catégories : les roches dites élastiques (roches sédimentaires compactes, métamorphiques et cristallines, les roches dites élastoplastiques possédant une certaine porosité (grés, calcaires, les roches dites plastiques (sel, gypse. Sur chaque type ainsi défini les expériences de laboratoire permettent d'étudier l'influence des paramètres suivants : la pression de confinement qui augmente avec la profondeur et permet une déformation permanente importante des roches élasto-plastiques, la pression des fluides qui les rend au contraire plus fragiles, la température dont l'influence est prédominante pour les roches plastiques, le temps qui seul permet des déformations continues importantes sous de faibles contraintes, l'anisotropie liée soit au dépôt (stratification, soit aux déformations antérieures. Bien que les caractéristiques mécaniques mesurées en laboratoire ne soient pas transposables directement dans la nature, les résultats des essais fournissent au géologue une clef pour l'interprétation qualitative de nombreuses observations à petite et grande échelle : relations socle-couverture sédimentaire, conditions de rejeu des accidents anciens, formation des plis, répartition et nature de la tracturation. In on attempt ta

  17. Spoon-Feeding Giant Stars to Supermassive Black Holes: Episodic Roche Lobe Overflow from Evolving Stars and Their Contribution to the Quiescent Activity of Galactic Nuclei

    MacLeod, Morgan; Grady, Sean; Guillochon, James


    Stars may be tidally disrupted if, in a single orbit, they are scattered too close to a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Tidal disruption events are thought to power luminous but short-lived accretion episodes that can light up otherwise quiescent SMBHs in transient flares. Here we explore a more gradual process of tidal stripping where stars approach the tidal disruption radius by stellar evolution while in an eccentric orbit. After the onset of mass transfer, these stars episodically overflow their Roche lobes every pericenter passage giving rise to low-level flares that repeat on the orbital timescale. Giant stars, in particular, will exhibit a runaway response to mass loss and "spoon-feed" material to the black hole for tens to hundreds of orbital periods. In contrast to full tidal disruption events, the duty cycle of this feeding mode is of order unity for black holes with mass greater than approximately 10 million solar masses. This mode of quasi-steady SMBH feeding is competitive with indirect SMBH feed...

  18. Diffusion Properties of Carbonated Caprocks from the Paris Basin Propriétés diffusives de roches de couverture carbonatées du Bassin de Paris

    Berne P.


    carbonated caprocks (regardless of the problem of alteration by acidified water, not addressed here. Lastly, a few simple rules for extending the results presented here to other experimental conditions are proposed. L’efficacite d’un stockage geologique de CO2 repose sur les proprietes de confinement des roches de couverture. Parmi ces proprietes, les caracteristiques diffusives jouent un role important qui est parfois sous-estime. En effet, la diffusion est un processus lent mais qui peut s’averer non negligeable sur le long terme. De plus, les caracteristiques recherchees pour une roche de couverture, principalement une forte pression d’entree et une faible permeabilite, ne sont pas incompatibles avec des coefficients de diffusion relativement eleves, puisque ces grandeurs sont liees a des caracteristiques geometriques differentes (schematiquement, les tailles de pore pour les unes et la tortuosite pour les autres. Dans le cadre du projet Geocarbone–INTEGRITE, finance par l’ANR de 2006 a 2008, on a donc mesure les coefficients de diffusion de l’eau et de l’ion bicarbonate dans des echantillons de roche de couvertures carbonatees provenant de trois niveaux (formations des Calcaires du Comblanchien et de la Dalle Nacree. Ces deux especes permettent en effet de couvrir, en premiere approximation, les situations rencontrees en conditions de stockage (espece neutre/espece chargee, interagissant ou non avec la matrice solide. Dans un premier temps, on presente le modele simple de diffusion utilise pour le depouillement des experiences, ce qui permet de passer en revue les differentes grandeurs utiles : coefficient de diffusion effectif, coefficient de diffusion de pore, coefficient de diffusion apparent, porosite accessible, facteur de retard. Le coefficient d’autodiffusion de l’eau est mesure par deux techniques differentes (Resonance Magnetique Nucleaire et tracage radioactif a l’eau tritiee 1H3HO dans deux echantillons. Les resultats obtenus sont

  19. Determination of lithium, rubidium, and caesium in rock by flame spectrophotometry; Dosage du lithium, du rubidium et du cesium dans les roches par spectrophotometrie de flamme

    Pouget, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    After sulfo-hydrofluoric attack of rock, and quantitative estimation of Na and K, the end solution is brought to 10 per cent in Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O In order to prepare it under the same conditions as standards; interfering ions are precipitated with calcium carbonate, flame spectrophotometry is conducted with an hydrogen-oxygen flame. Limits of detection are: 2.10{sup -6} g for Li, 4.10{sup -6} g for Rb, and 6.10{sup -6} g for Ca. (author) [French] Apres attaque sulfofluorhydrique de la roche et dosage du sodium et du potassium, on amene la solution finale a 10 pour cent en Na{sub 2}O et K{sub 2}O afin de la preparer dans les memes conditions quelles etalons. Les ions interferents sont precipites a l'aide du carbonate de calcium. La spectrophotometrie est executee avec une flamme hydrogene-oxygene. Les limites de sensibilite sont: 2.10{sup -6} g pour Li, 4.10{sup -6} g pour Rb, et 6.10{sup -6} g pour Ca. (auteur)

  20. Leidenschaftliche Liebe? : Überlegungen zur Darstellung von Liebe im ausgehenden 18. Jahrhundert bei Sophie von La Roche und Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

    Charvát, Filip


    Ve své studii se autor soustředí na měnící se kulturu emocí a formy lásky v německé literatuře koncem 18. století. Do popředí zájmu se postupně dostává otázka po historiĉnosti smyslné lásky, přiĉemţ autor zastává tezi, ţe smyslná láska není v první řadě přirozený, ale spíše kulturní jev. Hlavní ĉást studie obsahuje tři interpretace: Na příkladu románu "Geschichte des Fräuleins von Sternheim" autorky Sophie von La Roche nejprve prezentuje, ţe v období sentimentalizmu se pochopení lásky zakláda...

  1. The Bolivian Source Rocks. Sub Andean Zone. Madre de Dios. Chaco Les roches mères de Bolivie. Subandin. Madre de Dios. Chaco

    Diaz Martinez E.


    connaissances sur les roches mères de Bolivie. Ce travail a été fait dans le cadre de la convention de coopération qui lie depuis 1987 YPFB et l'ORSTOM - Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération. L'établissement de cette base de données a permis une synthèse du potentiel pétrolier du pays, la partie concernant le bassin de Madre de Dios, la zone subandine et le Chaco, c'est-à-dire toute la zone potentiellement pétrolière du pays, hors Altiplano, est ici présentée. La base contient actuellement les analyses d'un peu plus de 3000 échantillons. Les roches mères sont Paléozoïques et se sont déposées dans un contexte de bassin d'avant-pays; celui ci s'étendait sur la cordillère ainsi que sur l'avant-pays actuel du Silurien au Permien. Le bassin, restreint initialement à la zone sud-ouest, s'est ensuite étendu vers le nord. La bordure ouest n'est pas connue, elle devait se situer au niveau de l'Altiplano actuel. La bordure est correspond au bouclier Brésilien affleurant actuellement à l'est du pays et sur laquelle se biseaute le Paléozoique. La sédimentation est marine, il s'agit d'une plate-forme carbonatée s'approfondissant au Carbonifère. De nombreuses évidences de diamectites et de figures de resédimentation ont été notées à partir de la fin du Dévonien. Le Trias marque la fin de ces dépôts et se caractérise par une érosion, sans doute due à une phase de rifting avortée. La sédimentation Jurassique et Crétacée est presque toujours continentale et souvent éolienne, il n'y a pas de structuration marquée. Au nord, dans la zone de Madidi, les dépôts du Crétacé terminal (Maestrichian montrent des intercalations marines riches en matière organique (Fm Flora, alors que son équivalent au centre et au Sud (Fm Cajones est purement gréseux. Le soulèvement de la cordillère orientale démarre à la fin de l'Oligocène (27 Ma, Sempere et al. , 1990 et le front de compression se déplace ensuite

  2. Evaluation of the Prototype Roche DNA Amplification Kit Incorporating the New SSK145 and SKCC1B Primers in Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 DNA in Zimbabwe

    Zijenah, Lynn S.; Humphrey, Jean; Nathoo, Kussum; Malaba, Lucie; Zvandasara, Parteson; Mahomva, Agnes; Iliff, Peter; Mbizvo, Michael T.


    We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of a newly developed DNA PCR kit (Roche Diagnostic Corporation, Indianapolis, Ind.) that incorporates primers for all the group M viruses for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Zimbabwe. A total of 202 whole-blood samples from adults whose HIV status was known were studied. This included 100 HIV-1-positive and 102 HIV-1-negative samples selected on the basis of concordant results obtained with two enzyme-...

  3. Total Vitamin D Assay Comparison of the Roche Diagnostics “Vitamin D Total” Electrochemiluminescence Protein Binding Assay with the Chromsystems HPLC Method in a Population with both D2 and D3 forms of Vitamin D

    Gemma Patras; Louisa Grundy; Fasila Pallinalakam; Nafiz Hussein; Faten Mustafa; Arwa Salem; Shoukat Khan; Andrew Turner; Afrozul Haq; Laila Abdel-Wareth; Jaishen Rajah


    This study compared two methods of assaying the 25-hydroxylated metabolites of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). A fully automated electrochemiluminescence assay from Roche Diagnostics and an HPLC based method from Chromsystems were used to measure vitamin D levels in surplus sera from 96 individuals, where the majority has the D2 form of the vitamin. Deming regression, concordance rate, correlation and Altman Bland agreement were performed. Seventy two subjects (7...

  4. Un habitat orné en abri sous-roche au Magdalénien Moyen, Angles-sur-l'Anglin (Vienne, France

    Iakovleva, Ludmila


    Full Text Available Not Available.

    [fr] L'originalité du site du Roc-aux-Sorciers à Angles-sur l´Anglin dans la Vienne (France se traduit par la présence d'un art pariétal magdalénien sculpté dont une partie, disposée sur la paroi du fond de l'abri sous roche, forme une frise sur près de 18 mètres de long. L´ étude, tant thématique que technique ou stylistique, de cet art pariétal in situ démontre une organisation et une construction dans ce complexe figuratif sculpté. Les sujets, aussi bien dans leur traitement que dans leur rendu, répondent à des règles précises propres au site d'Angles. Ils se regroupent par espèce en s'associant à d'autres sujets animaliers ou humains dans des espaces nettement délimités formant ainsi une composition sculptée. Des zones figuratives rassemblant plusieurs de ces compositions sculptées assimilées à des "panneaux", sont mises en relation avec le positionnement de grands foyers installés sur la roche-mère. Cette analyse nous amène à mettre en valeur une structure complexe d'habitat en liaison avec cette frise pariétale. [es] Un hábitat decorado del Magdaleniense Medio en el abrigo de Angles-sur-l'Anglin (Vienne, France. La originalidad del yacimiento de Roc-aux-Sorciers en Angles-sur-l 'Anglin, en Vienne (Francia, se debe a la existencia de un arte parietal magdaleniense esculpido del que una parte, situada en la pared del fondo del abrigo, forma un friso de 18 m. de largo, aproximadamente. El estudio, tanto temático como técnico o estilístico, de este arte parietal in situ demuestra una organización en este complejo figurativo esculpido. Las figuras, tanto en su tratamiento como en su expresión, responden a reglas precisas, propias del yacimiento de Angles. Se agrupan por especies, asociándose a otras figuras animales o humanas, en unos espacios estrictamente limitados, formando así una composición esculpida. Las zonas figurativas que integran muchas de estas

  5. Apports de l’archéobotanique à la compréhension de la Source des Roches, Chamalières (Puy-de-Dôme The archaeobotanic contribution to the understanding of la Source des Roches, Chamalières (Puy-de-Dôme

    Béatrice Prat


    Full Text Available Au tout début de la période romaine, un taux d’arbres inhabituellement élevé a été mis en évidence par la palynologie sur le site de la Source des Roches à Chamalières (Puy-de-Dôme, gisement qui a livré plus de 3500 ex-voto en bois au début des années 70. Durant le second âge du Fer et l’époque romaine, un tel niveau de boisement n’est observé nulle part ailleurs, ni en plaine de Limagne, ni sur le plateau des Dômes. L’hypothèse d’un sanctuaire de plein air, soutenue par Anne-Marie Romeuf qui a dirigé la fouille, se trouve ainsi confortée par l’analyse pollinique, qui permet d’envisager la possibilité de la présence d’un « bois sacré » composé principalement de chênes. La combinaison des données archéobotaniques issues de la palynologie et de la carpologie contribue à renforcer la compréhension du site d’un point de vue paysager et nous renseigne également sur les types d’offrandes végétales associées au dépôt des ex-voto.Unusually high levels of tree pollen were revealed by palynology on the site of the Source des Roches in Chamalières (Puy-de-Dôme for the very beginning of the Roman period. The site had yielded more than 3500 wooden offerings in the early 70s. Such a high density of woodland can be found nowhere else for the Second Iron Age and the Roman period, neither in the plain of Limagne, nor on the plateau of Les Dômes. The hypothesis of an open air sanctuary, first advanced by Anne-Marie Romeuf, director of excavation, is therefore reinforced by the pollen analysis which leads us to consider the possibility that a “sacred grove” made up principally of oaks was present. The correlation of the archaeobotanic data from palynology and paleœthnobotany contributes to the strengthening of the site’s knowledge from the landscape’s point of view. We also have a better understanding of the vegetal offerings associated with the wooden statues.

  6. Credibilidad del usuario final de traducciones científicas de la empresa farmacéutica Roche S.A. según el proceso traductor y sus competencias

    Mora González, Ángela María; Arias Rivero, Jennifer Paola


    El presente estudio monográfico que tiene como título “Credibilidad del usuario final de traducciones científicas de la empresa farmacéutica Roche S.A. según el proceso traductor y sus competencias”, tiene como objetivo identificar las competencias que poseen los traductores científicos y el proceso que siguen los documentos traducidos dentro de las misma con el fin de verificar la credibilidad que tiene el usuario. La intención de éste trabajo se centra en el análisis de los procesos me...

  7. Gamma-emissions of some meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Evaluation of lunar soil radioactivity; Emissions gamma de quelques meteorites et roches terrestres. Evaluation de la radioactivite du sol lunaire

    Nordemann, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The gamma-emissions of some terrestrial rocks and of the following meteorites: Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes, and Dosso were studied by quantitative low background gamma spectrometry. These measurements and their interpretation lead to the evaluation of the possible gamma-emissions of several models of lunar soils. (author) [French] Les emissions gamma des meteorites Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes et Dosso et de quelques roches terrestres ont ete etudiees par spectrometrie gamma quantitative a faible mouvement propre. Ces mesures et leur interpretation permettent d'evaluer les principales contributions des emissions gamma du sol lunaire pour des modeles de compositions possibles variees. (auteur)

  8. Etude de l’activité pouzzolanique d’une roche andésitique en Algérie Study of the pozzolanic activity of an andesitic rock in Algeria

    Clastres P.


    Full Text Available Ce travail s’inscrit dans le cadre de l’accord programme Tassili N° 09 MDU 773 entre le Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Matériaux, USTO-Oran et le Laboratoire des Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions (LMDC, INSA-UPS-Toulouse, France. La présente étude est une contribution aux travaux de la recherche de nouvelles sources d’approvisionnement en ajouts et en matières premières et la valorisation des matériaux naturels locaux utilisés dans la fabrication du ciment. Cette étude porte sur l’activité pouzzolanique des roches volcaniques, elle a pour but de comparer les caractéristiques physiques et mécaniques d’un mortier témoin à ciment de type CEMI 52,5R fourni par la firme Lafarge et d’un mortier à ciment du même type avec ajout dont les taux de substitution de la roche Andésitique est de 0- 40%. Dans notre travail, nous avons utilisé des roches volcaniques appartenant à la famille des Andésites, provenant de la région de Tipaza, Nord Ouest Algérois. L’étude des caractéristiques mécaniques et de l’indice de pouzzolanicité ont montré que les ciments fabriqués sont capables de remplacer certains ciments Portland pour une éventuelle utilisation dans le domaine de construction. This work is a part of the agreement programs Tassili N° 09 MDU 773 between Laboratory of Physic-chemistry Materials, USTO-Oran and Laboratory of Materials and Durability of Constructions (LMDC, INSA-UPS-Toulouse, France. The present study is an attempt to the research of new supply sources in admixtures and raw materials and the evaluation of local natural materials used in the manufacture of cement. It deals with the pozzolanic activity of the volcanic rocks and aims to compare the physical and mechanical characteristics of a mortar control made with cement CEMI 52,5R provided by Lafarge firm and of a mortar made with the same cement incorporated by different replacement rate of andesitic rock in a range of 0 – 40

  9. Indices chimiques pour l'évaluation de l'état diagénétique des huiles et des roches sapropéliques Chemical Evidence for Evaluating the Diagenetic State of Sapropelic Oils and Rocks

    Du Rouchet J.


    Full Text Available Les analyses chromatographiques des vapeurs produites par le chauffage à 220 °C d'huiles brutes et de roches mettent en évidence une augmentation avec la diagenèse des teneurs en n-alcanes relativement aux teneurs en cyclones et en iso-alcanes. Une étude statistique permet de préciser la regularite de l'evolution des rapports des teneurs en n-C 6 et en méthylcyclopentane etdes teneurs en n-C 7 et en I-trans-2-diméthylcyclopentane et met en évidence pour les roches une corrélation significative entre ces rapports et les réflectances de la vitrinite. Ces rapports peuvent donc être considérés comme des indicateurs diagénétiques; ils paraissent être moins dépendants des caractéristiques particulières de la matière organique originelle que les couples pristane-n-C 17 et phytane-n-C 18 habituellement utilisés pour repérer l'état d'évolution des huiles et des extraits de roche. Une calibration en termes de réflectance de la vitrinite est proposée. Chromatographic analyses of the vapors produced by crude cils and rocks heated to 220°C reveal, with diagenesis, an increase in the n-alkane contents with respect to the cyclone and isoalkane contents. A statistical survey shows the regularity of the variation in the ratios of the n-C 6 and methylcyclopentane contents and the n-C7 and I-trans-2-dimethylcyclopentane contents and reveals a meaningful corrélation for rocks between these ratios and the vitrinite reflectances. Therefore, these ratios may be considered as diagenetic indicators. They appear to depend less on the particular properties of the original organic motter thon on the pristane/n-C 17 and phytane/n-C 18 pairs normally used to determine the state of evolution of ails and of rock extracts. A calibration in terms of vitrinite reflectance is proposed.

  10. Case report: When measured free T4 and free T3 may be misleading. Interference with free thyroid hormones measurements on Roche® and Siemens® platforms

    Lewandowski Krzysztof C


    Full Text Available Abstract A 59-year old female patient presented with apathy and 6 kg weight gain. Investigations revealed severe primary hypothyroidism (TSH>100 μIU/ml. L-thyroxine (L-T4 was started and titrated up to 75 μg, once daily, with clinical improvement. Other investigations revealed very high titres of anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg antibodies. After three months, there was a fall in TSH to 12.74 μIU/ml, however, with unexpectedly high free T4 (FT4 - 6.8 ng/ml and free T3 (FT3 - 6.7 pg/ml concentrations [reference range (rr: 0.8-1.9 ng/ml and 1.5-4.1 pg/ml (Siemens®, respectively]. At this stage L-T4 was stopped, and this was followed by a rapid increase in TSH (to 77.76 μIU/ml and some decrease in FT4 and FT3, however FT4 concentration remained elevated (2.1 ng/ml. Following this, L-T4 was restarted. On admission to our Department, she was clinically euthyroid on L-T4, 88 μg, once daily. Investigations on Roche® platform confirmed mildly elevated TSH - 5.14 (rr: 0.27-4.2 μIU/ml with high FT4 [4.59 (rr: 0.93-1.7 ng/ml] and FT3 [4.98 (rr: 2.6-4.4 pg/ml] concentrations. Other tests revealed hypoechogenic ultrasound pattern typical for Hashimoto thyroiditis. There was no discrepancy in calculated TSH value following TSH dilution (101% recovery. Concentrations of FT4 and FT3 were assessed on the day of discontinuation of L-T4 and after four days by the means of Abbott® Architect I 1000SR platform. These revealed FT4 and FT3 concentrations within the reference range [e.g., FT4 - 1.08 ng/ml (rr: 0.7-1.48] vs 4.59 ng/ml (rr: 0.93-1.7, Roche®, FT3 - 3.70 pg/ml (rr: 1.71-3.71 vs 4.98 (rr: 2.6-4.4, Roche®], confirming assay interference. Concentrations of ferritin and SHBG were normal. Conclusions Clinicians must be aware of possible assay interference, including the measurements of FT4 and FT3 in the differential diagnosis of abnormal results of thyroid function tests that do not fit the patient clinical

    Relations entre évolution de perméabilité et échelles des mécanismes d'endommagement

    Dautriat, Jérémie


    La compréhension et la prévention des mécanismes d'endommagement ayant un impact sur les cinétiques de production et les taux de récupération reste un problème ouvert en ingénierie de réservoir. L'objectif de cette étude repose sur la caractérisation du comportement hydromécanique de roches gréseuses et carbonatés en 'condition de réservoir' et l'identification des mécanismes locaux responsables des évolutions de perméabilité mesurables macroscopiquement. L'essentiel du travail expérimental s...

  12. Méthodes d'étude de la fabrique magnétique appliquées aux roches sédimentaires peu déformées : exemple des Terres Noires subalpines .

    Aubourg, Charles


    L'Anisotropie de Susceptibilité Magnétique (ASM) est maintenant une technique bien éprouvée qui permet de détecter rapidement et précisément l'orientation préférentielle des minéraux d'une roche même faiblement déformée. Lorsque plusieurs marqueurs magnétiques interagissent, il est nécessaire de coupler l'ASM à des études de minéralogie magnétique qui préciseront la nature des marqueurs, et à d'autres types de mesure d'anisotropie. Sont étudiées ici : l'anisotropie de susceptibilité anhystéré...

  13. Mechanical Properties of Rocks: Pore Pressure and Scale Effects Propriétés mécaniques des roches : pression de pore et effets d'échelle

    Gueguen Y.


    Full Text Available Pore pressure plays a major role when considering rocks mechanical properties. In that field, the concept of effective pressure is a key one to deal with fluids mechanical effects. However, its frequent use has been the source of frequent confusing statements. Because of the various meanings which have been attached to that concept, an attempt is made in this paper to clarify it and examine the validity of its various uses relative to rock mechanical behaviour or rock properties. At a macroscopic scale, thermodynamics provides a powerful tool to investigate this. Reversible or irreversible thermodynamics provide general relationships of great interest. But because real rocks are non homogeneous systems, a microscopic approach is also required in order to analyze the mechanical properties from a description of the small scale processes. The microscopic approach is complementary of the macroscopic thermodynamic one as it leads to the calculation of the effective properties of the medium. In this last approach, effective medium theory is a powerful tool. The effective properties as derived from the microscale can be nicely combined to thermodynamic relations to interpret pore fluid pressure effects and scale effects. The example of elastic properties of porous rocks is more specifically emphasized to illustrate this because of both its intrinsic interest and importance as far as applications are concerned. La pression de pore joue un rôle de première importance dans la considération des propriétés mécaniques des roches. Dans ce domaine, le concept de contrainte effective est essentiel pour aborder les effets mécaniques. Toutefois, son utilisation fréquente a conduit à de nombreuses affirmations trompeuses. Compte tenu des significations diverses accordées à ce concept, nous tentons ici de le clarifier et examinons le domaine d'application de ses divers emplois dans le cadre du comportement mécanique ou des propriétés des roches. À l

  14. Une méthode précise pour la mise en évidence et l'étude de l'anisotropie dans les roches An Accurate Method for Detecting and Analyzing Anisotropy in Rocks

    Talebi S.


    Full Text Available L'objectif essentiel de cette recherche était de mettre au point une méthode expérimentale pour étudier l'anisotropie de la vitesse des ondes longitudinales (P dans les roches. Cette anisotropie aurait deux causes principales : d'une part, l'existence d'un réseau de pores, de fissures ou de microfissures, distribué de façon anisotrope dans la roche et d'autre part, la structure elle-même, dont l'anisotropie résulte de la nature des minéraux et de leur disposition. Dans un premier temps, nous avons commencé les essais sur des échantillons de carotte, forés dans trois directions perpendiculaires X, Y et Z d'un bloc de deux types de grès : grès des Vosges et grès de Fontainebleau. La vitesse du son a été mesurée sur 3 à 4 sections de carotte avec des intervalles de 30° (6 directions. Elles se distribuent nettement selon une ellipse, appelée l'ellipse d'anisotropie. Ces ellipses ont été tracées par mini-ordinateur et ont permis de mettre en évidence l'état d'anisotropie et l'homogénéité des carottes. La méthode est tellement précise qu'une erreur de repérage des axes sur un échantillon (Y de grès des Vosges a été détectée et certifiée à l'aide de direction des micas. Nous avons effectué le même essai sur les mêmes échantillons saturés sous vide. Une tendance générale à l'augmentation des vitesses, la diminution du degré d'anisotropie (le rapport de Vmax/Vmin et le changement de position de l'axe d'anisotropie a été observée. La comparaison des résultats secs et saturés permet d'avoir une idée de la nature des vides et de leur rôle dans l'anisotropie globale. Dans l'étape suivante de l'étude, nous avons mis au point une méthode de mesure sur les cubes à faces tronquées (66 faces au maximum de différents types de roches (2 grès, 2 marbres, 1 andésite, 1 balsate, et 1 calcaire. Les valeurs de vitesses des ondes (P ont été mesurées et reportées sur un diagramme de Schmidt. Ensuite

  15. Application of paper chromatography to the determination of some elements in minerals and rocks; Application de la chromatographie sur papier a la determination de certains elements dans les mineraux et les roches

    Agrinier, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This publication describes our work in applying paper chromatography to the fields of mineralogy and geology. We have studied the separation and determination of the following elements: Nb, Ta, Ti, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Ge, As, Sb, Bi, U, Th, Be, Au, Pb, Zn, V and Mo. The development of separation methods for these various elements has led us to solve many interference problems. These methods make it possible to separate and measure mineral components. They also enable us to search for trace elements in ores, rocks soils and carbonaceous materials. Finally let us point out that this technique may equally be used for analysis in very radioactive environment. (author) [French] Dans cette etude, nous etendons le champ d'application de la chromatographie sur papier aux domaines de la mineralogie et de la geologie. Nous avons etudie la separation et la determination des elements suivants: Nb, Ta, Ti, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Ge, As, Sb, Bi, U, Th, Be, Au, Pb, Zn, V et Mo. La mise au point des methodes de separation concernant ces differents elements nous a amenes a resoudre de nombreux problemes d'interference. Ces methodes permettent la separation et le dosage des constituants des mineraux, ainsi que la recherche d'elements en traces dans les minerais, les roches, les sols et les materiaux carbonnes. Signalons pour terminer que cette technique peut egalement trouver son utilisation dans le domaine de l'analyse en milieu tres radio-actif. (auteur)

  16. Etude de la distribution des terres rares et des autres éléments en traces dans les roches carbonatées du district minier de Bou-Azzer-Bleïda (Anti-Atlas, Maroc) : conséquences génétiques et variations à l'approche des minéralisations

    Zouita, Fouzia


    Différents types de roches carbonatées se trouvent dans les formations géologiques précambriennes du district minier de Bou-Azzer-Bleïda. Il s'agit de filons hydrothermaux ou de niveaux sédimentaires. L'utilisation de différentes méthodes d'analyses (dont la Spectrométrie de Masse à étincelles) permet de dresser l'inventaire des éléments majeurs et en traces y compris les Terres Rares dans ces différentes roches carbonatées. L'étude particulière de la répartition des Terres Rares dans ces mat...

  17. Quantitation of HIV-1 RNA in breast milk by real time PCR

    Becquart, Pierre; Foulongne, Vincent; Willumsen, J.; Rouzioux, C; Segondy, Michel; Van De Perre, Philippe


    HIV-1 RNA in breast milk is a strong predictor of HIV-1 transmission through breastfeeding. In the present report, breast milk samples from HIV-1 uninfected donors were spiked with dilution of quantified culture supernatant from HIV-1(NDK) infected PBMC. Two RNA extraction techniques based on silica extraction, Nuclisens (R) (BioMerieux) and Triazol (Qiagen), two techniques based on guanidine thiocynanate/chloroforme extraction, TRIzol (Life Technologic) and Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor (TM) (Roche...

  18. External Quality Assessment Program for Chlamydia trachomatis Diagnostic Testing by Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays

    Land, Sally; Tabrizi, Sepehr; Gust, Anthony; Johnson, Elizabeth; Garland, Susan; Dax, Elizabeth M.


    We report the results from 57 Australian diagnostic laboratories testing two external quality assessment panels using either the Roche Amplicor Chlamydia trachomatis test (R-PCR) or the Abbott LCx Chlamydia trachomatis assay (A-ligase chain reaction [LCR]). Panel samples were either normal urine spiked with Chlamydia trachomatis antigen or clinical urine specimens. There was no significant difference between laboratories or between assays in detection of C. trachomatis-positive clinical sampl...

  19. Comparison of Two Amplification Technologies for Detection and Quantitation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA in the Female Genital Tract

    Bremer, James; Nowicki, Marek; Beckner, Suzanne; Brambilla, Donald; Cronin, Mike; Herman, Steven; Kovacs, Andrea; Reichelderfer, Patricia


    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels in female genital tract and peripheral blood samples were compared using two commercial amplification technologies: the Roche AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR test and either the Organon Teknika nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA-QT) assay or the NucliSens assay. Estimates of HIV-1 RNA copy number were derived from internal kit standards and analyzed unadjusted and adjusted to a common set of external standards. We found a discordance...

  20. Grouped frequent sequential patterns derived from terrestrial image time series to monitor landslide behaviour - Application to the dynamics of the Sanières/Roche Plombée rockslide.

    Péricault, Youen; Pothier, Catherine; Méger, Nicolas; Trouvé, Emmanuel; Vernier, Flavien; Rigotti, Christophe; Malet, Jean-Philippe


    Image time series acquired with remote sensing methods based on optical terrestrial photogrammetry have great potential for understanding and monitoring the Earth surface dynamics at local scale, and are particularly interesting for landslide monitoring. Image correlation techniques can be applied to calculate the displacement fields, in either the image geometry or the terrain geometry if orthorectification procedures are applied. The resulting products are times series of displacement vectors for each epoch in which knowledge extraction techniques can be applied to discover relevant movement patterns in space and time. We used an unsupervised method (Grouped Frequent Sequential patterns / GFS-patterns) based on the mining of the displacement field. The method was originally developed for the analysis of time series of satellite images. It involves the extraction of trends / sub-trends affecting each pixel covering at least a minimum surface area and sufficiently connected to each other. The results of the mining are presented in spatio-temporal location maps (STL-map) of each GFS-pattern. In these maps, the spatial information is given by the pixel locations and the time information is displayed using a color ramp. The method is tested on a time series of 36 optical terrestrial images of the Sanières/Roche Plombée rockslide (South East French Alps) from 28 of July to 1 September 2014. From this series 35 2D displacement fields were calculated for epochs of three days, and the time series of vector magnitude and direction were analysed with GFS-patterns / STL-map. The method allowed identifying several patterns corresponding to different kinematical behaviour of the rockslide (long-term creep at the top of the slope, surficial movement of the debris at the base of the slope). The unsupervised knowledge extraction method GFS-pattern / STL-map, originally developed to analyse time series of satellite images showed in this study real possibilities of use for

  1. Multicenter Evaluation of the New Abbott RealTime Assays for Quantitative Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus RNA▿

    Schutten, M.; Peters, D.; Back, N.K.T.; Beld, M; Beuselinck, K.; Foulongne, V.; Geretti, A.-M.; Pandiani, L.; Tiemann, C; Niesters, H.G.M.


    The analytical performances of the new Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load assays were compared at nine laboratories with different competitor assays. These included the Abbott LcX, Bayer Versant bDNA, Roche COBAS Amplicor, and Roche COBAS TaqMan assays. Two different protocols used during the testing period with and without a pre-m1000 RNA isolation spin were compared. The difference proved to be nonsignificant. A uracil-N-glycosylase (U...

  2. An arithmetic Lefschetz-Riemann-Roch theorem

    Tang, Shun


    In this article, we consider regular arithmetic schemes in the context of Arakelov geometry, endowed with an action of the diagonalisable group scheme associated to a finite cyclic group. For any equivariant and proper morphism of such arithmetic schemes, which is smooth over the generic fibre, we define a direct image map between corresponding higher equivariant arithmetic K-groups and we discuss its transitivity property. Then we use the localization sequence of higher arithmetic K-groups a...

  3. EUROarray human papillomavirus (HPV) assay is highly concordant with other commercial assays for detection of high-risk HPV genotypes in women with high grade cervical abnormalities.

    Cornall, A M; Poljak, M; Garland, S M; Phillips, S; Machalek, D A; Tan, J H; Quinn, M A; Tabrizi, S N


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the EUROIMMUN EUROArray HPV genotyping assay against the Roche Cobas 4800, Roche HPV Amplicor, Roche Linear Array and Qiagen Hybrid Capture 2 assays in the detection of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) from liquid based cervical cytology samples collected from women undergoing follow-up for abnormal cervical cytology results. Cervical specimens from 404 women undergoing management of high-grade cytological abnormality were evaluated by EUROarray HPV for detection of HR-HPV genotypes and prediction of histologically-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (≥CIN2). The results were compared to Hybrid Capture 2, Cobas 4800 HPV, Amplicor and Linear Array HPV. Positivity for 14 HR-HPV types was 80.0 % for EUROarray (95 % CI; 75.7-83.8 %). Agreement (κ, 95 % CI) between the EUROarray and other HPV tests for detection of HR-HPV was good to very good [Hybrid Capture κ = 0.62 (0.54-0.71); Cobas κ = 0.81 (0.74-0.88); Amplicor κ = 0.68 (0.60-0.77); Linear Array κ = 0.77 (0.70-0.85)]. For detection of HR-HPV, agreement with EUROarray was 87.90 % (Hybrid Capture), 93.58 % (Cobas), 92.84 % (Amplicor) and 92.59 % (Linear Array). Detection of HR-HPV was not significantly different between EUROarray and any other test (p < 0.001). EUROarray was concordant with other assays evaluated for detection of high-risk HPV and showed sensitivity and specificity for detection of ≥ CIN2 of 86 % and 71 %, respectively. PMID:27048314

  4. Petrophysical and Mineralogical Research on the Influence of CO2 Injection on Mesozoic Reservoir and Caprocks from the Polish Lowlands Études pétrographique et minéralogique de l’impact de l’injection de CO2 dans les roches réservoirs de la Basse Plaine de Pologne

    Tarkowski R.


    Full Text Available Special equipment, simulating formation conditions, was designed to study interactions between injected CO2, rocks and brines. The investigations were carried out on samples collected from reservoir and caprocks of the Pagórki (Cretaceous deposits and Brześć Kujawski (Jurassic deposits boreholes. Mineralogical and petrographic investigations were carried out on the samples before and after the experiment to determine changes occurring as a result of the processes. The investigations proved that these rocks show good quality reservoir and sealing properties. The experiment did not significantly worsen the reservoir properties of the rocks. Afin de mener des recherches sur l’impact CO2 – roche – saumures, nous avons développé un modèle de simulation des conditions de gisement, pour lesquelles l’injection de dioxyde de carbone est envisagée. Des analyses ont été effectuées sur des échantillons de carotte de roche provenant des réservoirs et de la couverture, prélevés dans les forages de Pagórki (formations du Crétacé et de Brześć Kujawski (formations du Jurassique. Ces échantillons ont été soumis, avant et après les expériences, à des analyses pétrographiques et minéralogiques classiques, afin de déterminer les variations induites par les expériences. Les études menées ont montré que les réservoirs possèdent de bonnes propriétés de stockage de CO2, et les roches de couverture de bonnes propriétés d’étanchéité. L’expérimentation réalisée ne montre pas d’impact notable du gaz injecté sur les propriétés des roches réservoir analysées.

  5. Impact de la température sur les propriétés mécaniques et acoustiques des roches concernées par la production en SAGD, lors de l'injection de vapeur dans les réservoirs d'huile lourde

    Doan, Dinh Hong


    L'injection de vapeur lors de la production des bruts lourds par SAGD soumet les roches réservoirs (sables bitumineux non consolidés ou faiblement consolidés) à une élévation de température (jusqu'à 280°C). L'apport de fluide chaud augmente la pression de pore, dilate le squelette rocheux et le fluide interstitiel, ce qui modifie le champ de contrainte in situ. Le travail de thèse, à forte connotation expérimentale, vise à contribuer à la caractérisation mécanique et acoustique des réservoirs...

  6. Generation of Anomalous Internal Pressures in Source Rocks and Its Role in Driving Petroleum Migration La genèse de pressions internes anormales dans les roches mères et son rôle de poussée dans la migration du pétrole

    Barker C.


    . La présence de gaz conduit à des comportements très différents et la pression de pores dans les roches mères inférieure à la normale à moins qu'il n'y ait une genèse suffisante de la matière organique en hydrocarbures pour la compenser. En l'absence d'une genèse continue (c'est-à-dire pour le méthane biogénique, le gaz se dissout régulièrement et les pressions chutent considérablement en dessous de la pression hydrostatique. A l'inverse, sur les élévations, les systèmes gazéifères ont tendance à la surpression et la pression peut atteindre la charge de fracturation de la roche. Le craquage thermique des bitumes qui restent dans une roche mère au cours de l'enfouissement va de pair avec une augmentation de volume et, dans un pore isolé, le système des pressions atteint des valeurs élevées. Il suffit qu'un pour cent des bitumes de type huile soit transformé en gaz pour que la pression atteigne la charge pour laquelle la fracturation de la roche est une conséquence inévitable.

  7. Méthode rapide de caractérisation des roches mètres, de leur potentiel pétrolier et de leur degré d'évolution Rapid Method for Source Rocks Characrerysation and for Determination of Petroleum Potential and Degree of Evolution

    Espitalié J.


    Full Text Available Les études fondamentales réalisées sur les kérogènes à l'aide de diverses méthodes physico-chimiques d'analyse ont permis de mettre au point une méthode et un appareillage adaptés à l'exploration pétrolière. On expose dans cet article la mise au point de cette méthode et on montre, à l'aide des paramètres qu'elle permet d'obtenir, ses applications dans le domaine de l'exploration pétrolière - reconnaissance des différents types de roche mère et de leur potentiel pétrolier; - caractérisation de leur degré d'évolution (zone à huile - zone à gaz. On montre aussi que cette méthode convient particulièrement bien à l'estimation du rendement en huile des roches bitumineuses et à l'étude de la qualité et du rang des charbons. Fundamental research on kerogens by different physico-chemical analysis methods have led to the development of a method and equipment suited for petroleum exploration. This article describes the development of this method and, by means of the parameters it determines, shows how it con be applied in the field of petroleum exploration - exploring different types of source rock and their petroleum potential ; - characterizing their degree of evolution (ail zone/gas zone. This method is also shown ta be particularly suited for estimating the oil yield of cil shales and investigating the quality and classification of cool.

  8. Single-step PCR in molecular diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection.

    Farma, E; E. Boeri; Bettini, P.; Repetto, C M; McDermott, J.; Lillo, F B; Varnier, O E


    The diagnostic utility of two PCR systems and three PCR detection methods for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA was evaluated in serum samples. A nested PCR was considered the reference assay and was compared with two single-step PCR methods: the first is based on the detection of PCR products by liquid hybridization with a 32P-end-labeled probe, and the second is the Roche Amplicor colorimetric assay using microwell plate hybridization with a specific nucleic acid probe. Using the Pelicheck HCV RN...

  9. Étude de la mouillabilité des roches réservoir à l'échelle du pore par cryomicroscopie électronique à balayage Wettability of Reservoir Rock At the Pore Scale: Contribution of Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Fassi-Fihri O.


    Full Text Available Le but de cette étude est de caractériser, à l'échelle du pore, la mouillabilité des roches réservoir, en relation avec leur géométrie et/ou leur minéralogie. Cette caractérisation se fait, après congélation des échantillons, par l'observation de la distribution des fluides au sein du milieu poreux (saumure et huile brute, en microscopie électronique à balayage. Les expériences ont d'abord été effectuées sur des roches modèles parfaitement mouillables à l'eau, verre fritté et grès naturels. Certains de ces minéraux ont été rendus hydrophobes par greffage de silane. L'étude de ces systèmes a mis en évidence une corrélation entre la mouillabilité et la distribution des fluides. Puis, une roche réservoir (grès argileux de la formation de Brent, de mer du Nord connue comme étant de mouillabilité intermédiaire a été étudiée. Un travail précédent (étude de déplacements eau/huile par tomographie X avait abouti à la conclusion que si ces roches présentaient des hétérogénéités de mouillabilité, l'échelle de ces hétérogénéités devait être inférieure au millimètre. Les études de cryomicroscopie ont montré le caractère hydrophobe de la kaolinite, tandis que les illites, le quartz et les feldspaths sont préférentiellement mouillables à l'eau. L'imbibition spontanée d'huile pourrait ainsi être attribuée à l'existence au sein de la roche d'un réseau de kaolinite, tandis que l'imbibition spontanée de saumure serait due à l'existence d'un second réseau plus ou moins imbriqué avec le premier et constitué des autres minéraux. Un autre cas de roche réservoir a été étudié, à savoir un carbonate du Moyen-Orient. Les mésopores intergranulaires y ont été observés comme étant mouillables à l'huile tandis que les micropores restaient mouillables à l'eau. Dans ce cas, la mouillabilité intermédiaire de ces échantillons s'explique par la géométrie plutôt que par la min

  10. 罗氏 Cobas e601与雅培 Architect i2000检测乙肝表面抗原的比较%Comparison of HBsAg Results between Roche Cobas e601 and Abbott Architect i2000 analysis systems

    孙彬; 李康; 吴纯; 郭奉洁; 白光亮; 董梅


    目的:比较罗氏电化学发光检测仪Cobas e601与雅培化学发光微粒子免疫分析仪Architect i2000检测乙肝表面抗原的结果。方法选取在雅培 i2000检测仪上检测乙肝表面抗原结果为有反应性,且定量结果小于250 IU/mL 的标本,同时在罗氏 e601进行检测,分析比较检测结果间的差别,并进行直线相关和回归分析。结果共检测46份临床标本,剔除1份两台仪器上检测结果反应性不符的标本外,其余结果具有很好的相关性。其中雅培检测值为0.05~1.00 IU/mL 的15份,两者的直线回归方程为Y =17.49X +0.843,相关系数 r=0.979;1.1~10.00 IU/mL 的15份,两者的直线回归方程为Y =15.72X +21.06,相关系数 r=0.952;11~250 IU/mL 的15份,两者的直线回归方程为Y =29.17X -129,相关系数 r=1.000。结论两种方法的检测结果具有很好的相关性,并可以通过公式进行相互换算。%Objective To compare the difference of the HBsAg detected results between the Roche cobas e601 electrochemilumi-nescence immunoassay instrument and the Abbott Architect i2000chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay instrument.Methods The HBsAg positive specimens with the quantitation results of lower than 250IU/mL detected by the Abbott Architect i2000 were selected and simultaneously detected by the Roche cobas e601.The differences of detected results were compared and per-formed the linear correlation and analysis regression.Results 46 clinical specimens were detected.The detected results had best correlation between the two instruments by getting rid of 1 specimen with unconformable reactivity of detected results.15 speci-mens had the HBsAg detected result of 0.05-1.00 IU/mL by the Abbott Architect i2000,the linear regression equation was Y =17.49X+0.843(r=0.979);15 specimens had the HBsAg detected result of 1.1 -10.00 IU/mL IU/mL by the Abbott Architect i2000,the linear

  11. Étude numérique du couplage thermohydromécanique dans les roches. Influence des termes de couplage non linéaires pour un matériau isotrope linéaire Numerical Analysis of a Thermohydromechanical Coupling in Rocks. Influence of Nonlinear Coupling Terms on a Linear Isotropic Material

    Henry J. P.


    Full Text Available Nous présentons dans ce travail une étude numérique basée sur la méthode des éléments finis, du comportement thermoporoélastique de certaines roches. Les trois effets de couplage : déformabilité de la roche, pression interstitielle et température sont pris en compte simultanément dans la résolution numérique. Une application simple sur un puits pétrolier en conditions axisymétriques est finalement présentée afin de dégager en particulier l'influence du terme de couplage convectif non linéaire, obtenu dans l'équation de diffusivité thermique, sur l'évolution de la température et de la pression interstitielle autour du forage. This article describes a finite-element method for solving the problem of nonlinear coupling between interstitial pressure and temperature during stress on a poroelastic rock. Such coupling phenomena occur during massive injection of cold water into a petroleum borehole for example. The implementation of such a numerical solution, used here with the assumption of small deformations, first requires a review of the behavior law of the material (Eq. 2. 2 and of the equations for hydraulic diffusivity (Eq. 2. 3 and thermal diffusivity (Eq. 2. 4. This last equation (2. 4 is the one containing the nonlinear coupling terms in Grad P Grad P and Grad T. Grad P. During simulation of flow at a high flow rate, these products can no longer be neglected as shown by the results in Fig. 2. The variational formulation of the problem is then determined in relation to the three equations for equilibrium, thermal diffusivity and hydraulic diffusivity. After geometric and temporal discretizations, this formulation leads to a finite-element calculating scheme resulting in the simultaneous solving of all three equations. This solution, based on the inversion of the system of equations (2. 15, requires the updating of the rigidity matrix at each time step to take nonlinear coupling into consideration. Calculations with an

  12. In the heart of rock; Au coeur de la roche



    This educational document gives a presentation of the Andra underground research laboratory of Bure (Haute-Marne and Meuse, France) devoted to the study of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The document is presented in the form of a comics. It describes the geological setting of the laboratory, located in the eastern edge of the Paris basin, the properties of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay layer, the digging of the boreholes and galleries, the mine-by test and its instrumentation, the backfilling and sealing of the galleries and the reversibility of the burial of radioactive waste containers. (J.S.)

  13. Riemann-Roch Spaces and Linear Network Codes

    Hansen, Johan P.

    number of points for curves of their respective genera. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possibly altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang %\\cite{DBLP:journals/tit/KoetterK08} introduced a...

  14. Mida roheline tarbija tahab / Catherine Roche ; intervjueerinud Michael S. Hopkins

    Roche, Catherine, 1977-


    2008. a. tehtud uuringust, mille abil selgitati välja, mis põhjustel inimesed eelistavad tarbimisel rohelist tootevalikut. Skeemid: Valmisolek maksta rohelise eest rohkem sõltub tootekategooriast ja tajutavatest eelistest; Teadlikkus ja valik

  15. Le souffre thiophénique dans les pétroles et les extraits de roche. Analyse par spectrométrie de masse et chromatographie en phase gazeuse Mass-Spectrometry and Gas-Chromatography Analysis of Thiophene Sulfur in Oil and Rock Extracts

    Castex H.


    Full Text Available On étudie par spectrométrie de masse à haute résolution la répartition du soufre thiophénique par coupe de distillation et par nombre de carbone dans la fraction > C10 d'un pétrole brut. Parallèlement on chromatographie à l'aide d'un détecteur sélectif à photométrie de flamme les diverses fractions thiophéniques. L'examen des chromatogrammes permet de déterminer les zones dé réponse et l'allure générale des différentes coupes thiophéniques. Les applications sont variées : on vérifie le bien-fondé de l'utilisation d'un spectromètre de masse à basse résolution pour les analyses en routine d'huiles brutes et on peut, par la connaissance des différents profils de type thiophénique prévoir des analogies ou des différences au sein d'huiles brutes et d'extraits de roche d'un même bassin pétrolier, ce qui limite le nombre d'échantillons à analyser en détail. High-resolution mass spectrometry is used to analyze the distribution of thiophenic sulfur per distillation cut and per carbon number in the > C10 fraction of a crude oil. At the same time, a selective flame-photometry sensor is used to chromatograph the different thiophenic fractions. An analysis of the chromatograms serves to determine the response zones and the general aspect of the different thiophenic cuts. There are various applications of this process. The validity of using a low-resolution mass spectrometer is checked for routine crude-cil analyses. By determining the different profiles of the thiophenic type, similarities or differences can be predicted in the crude cils and rock extracts from the saure cil basin. This limits the number of samples having to be analyzed in detail.

  16. Quantification and Prediction of the 3D Pore Network Evolution in Carbonate Reservoir Rocks Quantification et prédiction de l’évolution d’un réseau 3D de pores dans des roches réservoir de carbonates

    De Boever E.


    transport de milieux poreux, résultant des phénomènes de dissolution/cimentation. La validité et prédictibilité de ces modèles dépendent toutefois de la représentativité des réseaux de pores équivalents utilisés et des équations et paramètres utilisés pour modéliser les événements diagénétiques. L’approche développée est appliquée au cas réel d’une roche dolomitique de la formation arabe moyen orientale. La microscopie 2D standard montre que le processus principal affectant la qualité de réservoir consiste en la dolomitisation, suivie d’un renforcement de la porosité dû à une dissolution de la dolomie et à une destruction de la porosité secondaire par cimentation de l’anhydrite diagénétique tardive. La microtomographie par rayons X informatisée (X-rayμ-CT; X-ray computer (microtomography permet de quantifier le volume et la distribution en 3D des différents constituants d’échantillon. Les résultats sont comparés avec les mesures de laboratoire. Des réseaux de pores équivalents avant la dissolution dolomitique et préalablement à la précipitation d’anhydrite tardive sont reconstruits et utilisés pour simuler les caractéristiques de porosité, de perméabilité lors de ces étapes diagénétiques. En utilisant ces structures 3D de pores, la PNM-R (Pore Network Modeling Reactive; modélisation réactive de réseau de pores peut suivre les voies d’évolution plausible de porositéperméabilité entre ces étapes. Les conditions d’écoulement et les vitesses de réaction obtenues par modélisation des voies de réaction géochimiques peuvent être utilisées en tant que référence pour définir les paramètres de modèle de PNM-R. L’approche peut être utilisée pour un typage dynamique de roches et le passage à une échelle supérieure de propriétés pétrophysiques, nécessaires pour la modélisation de réservoir.

  17. Rock Permeability and Fluid Pressure At the Ktb. Implications from Laboratory-And Drill Hole-Measurements Perméabilité des roches et pression dans le KTB : enseignements tirés des mesures de laboratoire et des mesures en puits

    Zimmermann G.


    Full Text Available Rock permeability and the fluid pressure were investigated at different scales at the two drill holes of the Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB. Drill hole tests and fluid inclusion investigations both implicate the existence of hydrostatic fluid pressure in situ with respect to salinity of the formation fluid. Matrix permeability and in situ values from hydraulic tests differ up to three decades with higher values in situ. Further on, the pressure dependence of core permeability and in situ determined values differ significantly. All these observed effects support the well known theory of scale variance. This conclusion is supported by observations of hydraulic communications between both drill holes. These scale effects implicate a pronounced hydraulic heterogeneity of the KTB surroundings. Therefore, stochastic network modelling with parameters derived from structural borehole measurements and under the consideration of the observed permeabilities were performed. Under the presumption of existing driving forces fluid transport takes place dominantly on discrete connected pathways characterised by fracture width, fracture length and fracture orientation and is subordinate in the rock matrix. La perméabilité des roches et la pression des fluides ont été étudiées à différentes échelles sur les deux forages du Programme continental de forage profond - Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB. Les essais de puits et les recherches d'inclusions de fluides impliquent l'existence d'une pression de fluide fonction de la salinité du fluide de formation. Les valeurs déduites des essais de puits dépassent largement les perméabilités matricielles, l'écart allant jusqu'à trois ordres de grandeur. De plus, l'évolution de la perméabilité mesurée sur échantillon en fonction de la pression et celle déterminée in situ diffèrent largement. Ces observations renforcent la théorie bien connue des effets d'échelle. Cette conclusion est

  18. Approche numérique et quantitative de l'étude sur clichés aériens de la fracturation des réservoirs en roches fissurées Numerical and Quantitative Approach to Investigating Fracture Maps of Fissured Reservoirs from Airphotos

    Razack M.


    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de la détermination de la structure des réservoirs en roches fissurées, une méthodologie de traitement numérique et quantitative de la fractu-ration relevée sur clichés aériens a été mise au point. La numérisation du relevé est obtenue par digitalisation sur un lecteur de courbes. Cette information est ensuite traitée à l'aide d'un algorithme (programme RAFRAC qui permet d'identifier numériquement la fracturation par un ensemble de para-mètres élémentaires (orientation, longueur , densité... à partir desquels il devient possible de procéder à une analyse approfondie du champ de fractures considéré. Un exemple d'application est présenté à propos de l'étude de la fracturation d'une zone à structure tabulaire (Causse du Larzac. Ces premiers résultats tendent à mettre en évidence une double nature mathématique de l'information analysée aléatoire d'une part, déterministe d'autre part. On montre également, à partir de la théorie desvariables régionalisées, que la fracturation suit une certaine logique dans sa répartition spatiale. Par ailleurs une organisation des familles de fractures a pu être mise en évidence, sur laquelle la structure géométrique du réservoir sous-jacent s'ajuste de façon très proche. As part of efforts ta determine the structure of reservoirs in fissured rocks, a numerical and quantitative processing methodology has been developed for mapping fractures with airphotos. The survey is digitized on a curve reader. This data is then processed by means of an algorithm (RAFRAC program sa as ta numerically identify fracturing by a set of elementary parameters (direction, length, density, etc. which con be used ta make an in-depth analysis of the fracture field being considered. A sample application is described having ta do with the surveying of the fracturing in a tabular structure (Causse plateau of Larzac. These initial results tend to reveol a dual mathematical nature

  19. Propagation des ondes élastiques dans les matériaux non linéaires Aperçu des résultats de laboratoire obtenus sur les roches et des applications possibles en géophysique Propagation of Elastic Waves in Nonlinear Materials Survey of Laboratory Results on Rock and Geophysical Applications

    Rasolofosaon P.


    Full Text Available Les roches présentent souvent un comportement élastique nettement non linéaire, entraînant des conséquences importantes sur la propagation des ondes. Cette non-linéarité élastique est surtout causée par les microdéfauts mécaniques ubiquistes (microfissures, joints de grains, macles, etc. dont la rigidité varie sous l'effet de la contrainte. Ce sujet fait l'objet d'études de plus en plus nombreuses. Nous nous proposons de présenter très sommairement les bases théoriques et les résultats expérimentaux permettant d'avoir un ordre de grandeur des effets caractéristiques observés dans les roches afin de pouvoir proposer une approche critique des possibilités d'applications en géophysique. Deux disciplines se sont développées en parallèle à partir du même principe physique et avec des formalismes très proches : - L'acousto-élasticité étudie l'effet des précontraintes statiques sur les vitesses de propagation des ondes élastiques. On dispose d'un formalisme mécanique élaboré permettant de relier quantitativement variation de contrainte et variation de vitesse élastique (par exemple pour ce qui concerne l'anisotropie acoustique induite par un état de contrainte et d'une méthode expérimentale de mesure des coefficients de non-linéarité. - L'acoustique non linéaire s'intéresse aux conséquences de la variation des modules élastiques au passage d'une onde qui ne peut plus être considérée comme une petite perturbation, mais qui induit localement des modifications mesurables du milieu de propagation ; modifications entraînant l'apparition de phénomènes inconnus en acoustique linéaire tels que la génération d'harmoniques et l'interaction onde-onde. Les applications à la sismique pétrolière semblent fort lointaines puisque, avec les méthodes classiques de surface ou de puits, il y a peu d'espoir de réussir à faire propager jusqu'aux couches profondes des ondes dont l'amplitude dépasserait le seuil de

  20. Evolution of the Petrophysical and Mineralogical Properties of Two Reservoir Rocks Under Thermodynamic Conditions Relevant for CO2 Geological Storage at 3 km Depth Évolution des propriétés physiques et minéralogiques de deux roches réservoirs dans des conditions thermodynamiques correspondant à un stockage géologique de CO2 à 3 km de profondeur

    Rimmelé G.


    est considérée comme une solution pour contribuer à la réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre dans l’atmosphère. Les interactions entre le CO2 supercritique et la roche-réservoir potentielle doivent être étudiées en détail en conditions de stockage géologique. Quarante échantillons de calcaire de Lavoux et de grès d’Adamswiller, provenant de roches réservoirs du bassin parisien, ont été expérimentalement exposés au CO2 dans un autoclave spécialement construit pour reproduire les conditions thermodynamiques d’un réservoir de stockage de CO2. Les deux types de roches ont été exposés pendant un mois à du CO2 supercritique humide et à de l’eau saturée en CO2, à 28 MPa et 90 °C, ce qui correspond à des conditions d’enfouissement de 3 km de profondeur. L’évolution de leurs propriétés minéralogiques a été suivie par des analyses par diffraction des rayons X, par spectroscopie Raman et par microscopie électronique couplée à un système de microanalyses X. Leurs propriétés physiques et microtexturales ont été estimées en mesurant, avant et après les expériences, le poids, la densité, les propriétés mécaniques, la perméabilité, la porosité globale et la présence d’éventuels gradients de porosité de chaque échantillon. Les résultats montrent que les deux roches ont préservé leurs propriétés mécaniques et minéralogiques, malgré une augmentation de la porosité et de la perméabilité. Des zones microscopiques de dissolution de la calcite observées dans le calcaire sont vraisemblablement responsables de cette augmentation de la perméabilité et de la porosité. Dans le grès, une altération de la pétro-fabrique est supposée se produire due à la réaction des minéraux argileux avec le CO2. Tous les échantillons du calcaire de Lavoux et du grès d’Adamswiller ont montré une altération mesurable dans le CO2 humide et dans l’eau chargée en CO2. Ces expériences en autoclave sont

  1. Impact of Diagenetic Alterations on the Petrophysical and Multiphase Flow Properties of Carbonate Rocks Using a Reactive Pore Network Modeling Approach Impact des altérations diagénétiques sur les propriétés pétrophysiques et d’écoulement polyphasique de roches carbonates en utilisant une modélisation par l’approche réseau de pores

    Algive L.


    replacing the original complex pore structure of real porous media by a conceptual network. The second step consists of resolving the governing equations of the precipitation and dissolution phenomena (i.e. reactive convection diffusion equation in the conceptual 3D pore network and deducing the local reactive fluxes and the motion of the fluid-solid interface. The third step consists of updating the new pore structure and calculating the new petrophysical properties of the modified porous media. Those steps are repeated in order to mimic a given diagenetic scenario. Finally, the multiphase flow properties of the current porous media are calculated. The impact of one diagenetic cycle of dissolution and precipitation on the pore networks’ heterogeneity and consequently on the petrophysical properties (i.e. porosity and permeability and multiphase flow properties (i.e. relative permeability and capillary pressure have been investigated. The permeability and porosity evolution during a given diagenetic cycle are calculated and analyzed as a function of the relevant dimensionless numbers (Peclet and Damköhler numbers that characterize the flow and reaction regime. The correlation between these numbers and the dissolved/precipitated layer thickness distribution is investigated. This work contributes to improve the understanding of the impact of dissolution and precipitation on permeability and porosity modification. Using the PNM approach, multiphase flow properties and permeability-porosity relationship have been determined for different reactive flow regimes. These relationships are relevant input data to improve the quality of reservoir simulation predictions. Les roches sédimentaires présentent souvent une structure porale hétérogène qui est intrinsèquement liée à la texture de la roche d’origine et aux modifications diagénétiques subies. Ces altérations sont régies par la texture de la roche d’origine, les fluides impliqués (et les interactions rock

  2. Rapid diagnosis of enterovirus infection by a new one-step reverse transcription-PCR assay.

    Kessler, H H; Santner, B; Rabenau, H; Berger, A; Vince, A; Lewinski, C; B. Weber; Pierer, K.; Stuenzner, D; Marth, E; Doerr, H W


    The AMPLICOR Enterovirus Test was evaluated with 103 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. Twenty-seven CSF specimens were culture positive. With the AMPLICOR test, enterovirus RNA was detected in 34 specimens. Compared with culture, the AMPLICOR test gave a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 100%. The sensitivity of culture was 79.4% in comparison with the AMPLICOR test.

  3. Strategy for the maximization of clinically relevant information from hepatitis C virus, RT-PCR quantification.

    Levis, J


    BACKGROUND: The increasing clinical application of viral load assays for monitoring viral infections has been an incentive for the development of standardized tests for the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple model for the prediction of baseline viral load in individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus. METHODOLOGY: Viral load quantification of each patient\\'s first sample was assessed by RT-PCR-ELISA using the Roche MONITOR assay in triplicate. Genotype of the infecting virus was identified by reverse line probe hybridization, using amplicons resulting from the qualitative HCV Roche AMPLICOR assay. RESULTS: Retrospective evaluation of first quantitative values suggested that 82.4% (n=168\\/204) of individuals had a viral load between 4.3 and 6.7 log(10) viral copies per ml. A few patients (3.4%; n=7\\/204) have a serum viremia less than the lower limit of the linear range of the RT-PCR assay. Subsequent, prospective evaluation of hepatitis C viral load of all new patients using a model based on the dynamic range of viral load in the retrospective group correctly predicted the dynamic range in 75.9% (n=33\\/54). CONCLUSION: The dynamic range of hepatitis C viremia extends beyond the linear range of the Roche MONITOR assay. Accurate determination of serum viremia is substantially improved by dilution of specimens prior to quantification.

  4. Alteration in sample preparation to increase the yield of multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction assay for diagnosis of genital ulcer disease

    G Rao


    Full Text Available Purpose: Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD is common sexually transmitted infection (STI. Multiple studies have shown that GUDs are strongly associated with the transmission and the acquisition of HIV infection. An accurate diagnosis of common etiology of GUD namely Herpes, syphilis and Chancroid is possible using Multiplex PCR (M-PCR. However, frequent presence of Polymerase Chain Reaction inhibitors in the ulcer swab specimen limits the performance of the assay. In order to overcome this problem, alternative specimen preparation method was used. Materials and Methods: To determine the common etiology, GUD specimens obtained under an STI operations research study were tested with M-PCR after the samples were prepared using Roche Amplicor specimen preparation kit. PCR inhibiting samples were identified from that, which showed negative results. These samples were subjected to phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation before the conduct of M-PCR on them. Results: Of the 237 GUD specimens tested, in 145 etiologies could be detected, whereas 92 samples were found negative. Further spiking with one of the target DNA, 128 of the negative samples were found to contain the inhibitors. These 126 samples were then subjected to phenol chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation followed by M-PCR. Using this method for sample preparation, etiology could be determined in 46 (23% additional samples. This success rate of altered sample preparation method has been lower than that has reported. Conclusion: The results indicate that sample preparation using phenol chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation, prior to M-PCR helps to eliminate the inhibitors and increase the yield of the assay. However, being a laborious procedure, it may be used for samples giving negative results after the screening by Roche Amplicor specimen preparation kit.

  5. Prospective Active Media for 2-20nm X-Ray Lasers

    Vrbová, M.; Vrba, Pavel

    Prague : ČVUT, 1999 - (Fiala, P.; Kvarda, J.; Maruna, Z.). s. 7+0 [Scientific seminar on Czech Technical University Prague /8./. 02.02.1999-03.02.1999, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/1559 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  6. Measurements of phytoplankton of sub-nanomolar chlorophyll concentrations by a modified double-modulation fluorometer

    Dijkman, N.; Kaftan, David; Trtílek, M.; Nedbal, Ladislav


    Roč. 37, č. 2 (1999), s. 249-254. ISSN 0300-3604. [Regional Photosynthesis Workshop /2./. Lipno, 31.01.1999-03.02.1999] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 271 Grant ostatní: INCO-COPERNICUS(EC) IC15CT95-0105 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.734, year: 1999

  7. Defending the Freedom to Innovate: Faculty Intellectual Property Rights after "Stanford v. Roche"

    American Association of University Professors, 2014


    Tensions over faculty control of the fruits of their scholarship have been slowly building since the 1980s, but they have also intensified since late 2011. There have long been differences of opinion over ownership of patentable inventions, but over the last two years a number of universities have categorically asserted that they own these…

  8. Elasticité à anisotropie ellipsoïdale pour les roches et les massifs rocheux



    Les modèles d'anisotropie ellipsoïdale en élasticité linéaire présentent plusieurs intérêts. D'abord, les solutions analytiques de beaucoup de problèmes classiques d'élasticité linéaire connues pour le cas de comportement isotrope peuvent s'étendre à certains types d'anisotropie ellipsoïdale à l'aide d'une transformation linéaire simple (Pouya 2000, Pouya et Zaoui 2006). Ces modèles permettent aussi une analyse simple des données expérimentales. Dans ce travail nous montrons que ces modèles p...

  9. H08116A: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Roche Harbor and Mosquito Pass, Washington, 1954-09-13

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. H08116: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Roche Harbor and Mosquito Pass, Washington, 1954-09-13

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. H08117: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Roche Harbor and Mosquito Pass, Washington, 1959-04-28

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. H08115: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Roche Harbor and Mosquito Pass, Washington, 1954-06-29

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. Analytical validation of the Roche 25-OH Vitamin D Total assay

    Knudsen, Cindy Soendersoe; Nexo, Ebba; Højskov, Carsten Schriver;


    evaluated the 25-OH Vitamin D Total assay in comparison to our in-house liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method [194 patient samples without 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 (25OHD2) and 23 patient samples containing 25OHD2]. Results: At concentrations of 34 and 56 nmol/L within-run CVs were 4.......8% and 1.9% and total CVs were 8.3% and 6.1%. We verified that the limit of quantification was 22.5 nmol/L, as stated by the manufacturer. No significant difference was observed between serum and plasma samples (Li-heparin). Comparison with LC-MS/MS using 194 samples containing 25OHD3 only (no 25OHD2...

  14. Roche genome sequencer FLX based high-throughput sequencing of ancient DNA

    Alquezar-Planas, David E; Fordyce, Sarah Louise


    Since the development of so-called "next generation" high-throughput sequencing in 2005, this technology has been applied to a variety of fields. Such applications include disease studies, evolutionary investigations, and ancient DNA. Each application requires a specialized protocol to ensure tha...

  15. Integrity and activity of photosystem 2 complexes isolated from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus using various detergents

    Šetlíková, Eva; Sofrová, D.; Prášil, Ondřej; Budáč, Petr; Koblížek, Michal; Šetlík, Ivan


    Roč. 37, č. 2 (1999), s. 183-200. ISSN 0300-3604. [Regional Photosynthesis Workshop /2./. Lipno, 31.01.1999-03.02.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/96/1266; GA ČR GA206/98/P110; GA MŠk VS96085; GA MŠk ME 138 Grant ostatní: NATO(EC) LG970388 Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.734, year: 1999

  16. Srovnání důsledků užívání detergentů na kvalitu vodních zdrojů řasovou mikrometodou

    Kočí, V.; Lukavský, Jaromír

    Praha : Česká vědeckotechnická vodohospodářská společnost, 1999 - (Sládeček, V.; Ambrožová, J.), s. 146-150 ISBN 80-02-01258-5. [Aktuální otázky vodárenské biologie /15./. Praha (CZ), 03.02.1999-04.02.1999] Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  17. HPV: screening and prevalence of genotypes in the lower-Molise

    Mariangela Spinosa


    Full Text Available HPV is a double-stranded DNA virus. It is a sexually transmitted virus about 75% of women contact it throughout their lives.Among the 100 classified genotypes about 40 can infect the genital mucosa. Depending on the type of lesion can be identified genotypes with a “low risk” and “high risk”.These are associated with cervical dysplasia and carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Il “Pap smear” is the cytological test that highlights the changes of the cervical cells. L’’HPV-DNA-PCR can detect DNA and determine the infecting viral genotype. It is a susceptible, specific and not invasive. test.Aim of our work was to evaluate a screening program aimed at testing the prevalence of HPV genotypes in the lower-Molise. We have examined 339 samples obtained from cervical swabs of women aged 18-45 years.Was used-Amplicor HPV test (Roche a qualitative method for detection of 13 high-risk genotypes. Genotype was identified using the Linear Array HPV-Genotyping (Roche method. Among 339 women tested, 292 (86% were negative, 47 (14% positive. It has been performed genotyping on 47 positiv samples. 16 and 18 were the prevalent genotypes (average 8%.There was a lower prevalence between 3% and 2% among the other genotypes. These results allow us to draw some considerations while taking into account the limited number of samples.The frequency of positive HPVDNA test it is very high.The HPV-DNA testing is a valuable aid in diagnosis by HPV alongside the Pap Test. The prevalence of genotypes found in the Low-Molise is consistent with data reported in literature.The genotypes 16 and 18 have a higher frequency, taking into account that these genotypes are responsible for 70% of cervical cancer, the determination may be a useful aid in the diagnosis and prevention.

  18. Stable hepatitis C virus RNA detection by RT-PCR during four days storage

    Horsmans Yves


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal specimen processing and storage conditions of samples which contain hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA may result in a decline of HCV RNA concentration or false-negative results in the detection of HCV RNA in serum. We evaluated the stability of HCV RNA in serum and clotted blood samples stored at room temperature or at 4°C for 4 days with the aim of optimizing the standard procedures of processing and storage of samples. Methods Blood from five HCV RNA positive patients was collected in tubes with and without separator gel, centrifuged 1 or 6 hours after collection. Samples were then left 6, 24, 48, 72 or 96 h at room temperature (21.5 – 25.4°C or at 4°C before determining their HCV RNA level using the COBAS AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR Test, vs 2.0 (Roche Diagnostic Systems. Results The logarithm of the HCV RNA level measurements remained within a 0.3 value of the means for 4 days at both temperatures (room temperature or 4°C. Conclusions We conclude that blood samples may be collected and aliquoted within 6 h of collection and can be stored at 4°C for 72 hours as proposed by the manufacturer without significant differences in measured HCV RNA level. Our results indicate that lapses in this scheme may still yield reliable results.

  19. Lyophilized standards for the calibration of real time PCR assay for hepatitis C virus RNA

    WANG Lu-nan; WU Jian-min; DENG Wei; SHEN Zi-yu; CHEN Wen-xiang; LI Jin-ming


    Background Since October 1997, an international standard for hepatitis C virus (HCV) nucleic acid amplification technology assay, 96/790, has been available. We compared a series of lyophilized standards with known HCV RNA concentrations against the international standard in fluorescence quantitative PCR detection.Methods A series of lyophilized sera were calibrated by ROCHE COBAS AMPLICOR HCV Monitor test against the international standard and sent to various manufacturers to analyse the samples using their own kits.Then calibration curves from the series were compared with that obtained from the external standard calibration curve with the manufacture's series.Results The standard calibration curve with the series of lyophilized serum showed an excellent correlation(R2>0.98), slope and intercept that were similar to those from the manufacture's series. When the standard calibration curve from the series of lyophilized standards were used to define the values of the given sample,lower coefficients of variation between kits from different manufactures were obtained.Conclusion The results showed that the lyophilized standards could be used to setup the standard calibration curve for clinical HCV RNA quantitative PCR detection.

  20. Persistence of hepatitis C virus in a white population: associations with human leukocyte antigen class 1.

    Fanning, Liam J


    The aim of this study was to define novel associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class 1 alleles and persistence or clearance of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a white population. All individuals in the study were seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies. Viral status was determined by the Roche HCV Amplicor test. HLA-A, -B, -C allelic group profile was molecularly defined by reverse line probe hybridization. The strongest individual allelic group associations with persistent HCV infection were HLA A*11 (p = 0.044) and Cw*04 (p = 0.006). However, only the HLA C*04 association survived correction for multiple comparisons. Further analysis of alleles in linkage with HLA Cw*04 revealed that the haplotype HLA A*11, Cw*04 was present in 11 individuals, 10 of whom were viremic (p = 0.05). No gene dosage effect was observed. No association between HLA class 1 allelic groups and aviremia and virus load was evident in this white population. HLA B*44 is associated with low virus load in human immunodeficiency virus disease, but this association was not evident in this HCV-infected population. Novel HLA class 1 alleles associated with persistence of HCV have been identified.

  1. Near-complete genome sequencing of swine vesicular disease virus using the Roche GS FLX sequencing platform

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo; Wadsworth, Jemma; Knowles, Nick J.; Gilbert, M Thomas P


    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is an enterovirus that is both genetically and antigenically closely related to human coxsackievirus B5 within the Picornaviridae family. SVDV is the causative agent of a highly contagious (though rarely fatal) vesicular disease in pigs. We report a rapid meth...

  2. About Jules et Jim: Some Figures of Matriarchy from Bachofen to Truffaut via Benjamin, Roché and Hessel

    Michael Hollington


    Full Text Available Cet article essaie de relever quelques aspects d'un mouvement de pensée « matriarcale » du XXe siècle, parfois plutôt souterrain, et de montrer dans quelle mesure cette pensée fait partie du contexte du grand film des années soixante de François Truffaut. Il s'agit des hypothèses de Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815-1887, juriste et archéologue suisse, qui proposait la théorie d'un matriarcat primitif à l'origine de la société humaine. Dans un premier temps, en Méditerranée par exemple, existait selon lui un système communiste où l'idée de propriété privée était absente, fondé sur l'« hétaïrisme », où les rapports sexuels, organisés selon les vœux des femmes, étaient complètement libres.The purpose of this paper is, first, to provide a brief sketch map of a comparative nature of some linked, formative appropriations in Germany and elsewhere in the early part of this century of the Swiss jurist and archaeologist Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815-1887, famous for his influential but controversial theory of the precedence of primitive matriarchy over patriarchy in the Mediterranean and elsewhere.Este artίculo trata de señalar algunos aspectos de una corriente de pensamiento "matriarcal" del siglo veinte, a veces más bien subterránea, y muestra en qué medida dicho pensamiento forma parte del contexto de la famosa película de los años sesenta de François Truffaut. Se trata de las hipótesis de Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815-1887, jurista y arqueólogo suizo, quien propuso la teoría de un matriarcado primitivo en el origen de la sociedad humana. En un primer momento, en la región mediterránea, por ejemplo, dice que existía un sistema comunista carente de la idea de propiedad privada, y basado en el "hetaerismo", en el que las relaciones sexuales, organizadas según el voto de las mujeres, eran completamente libres.

  3. Comparison of Hybribio GenoArray and Roche Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Linear Array for HPV Genotyping in Anal Swab Samples

    Low, Huey Chi; Silver, Michelle I.; Brown, Brandon J.; Leng, Chan Yoon; Blas, Magaly M; GRAVITT, Patti E; Woo, Yin Ling


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with anal cancer, as HPV DNA is detected in up to 90% of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and anal cancers. With the gradual increase of anal cancer rates, there is a growing need to establish reliable and clinically relevant methods to detect anal cancer precursors. In resource-limited settings, HPV DNA detection is a potentially relevant tool for anal cancer screening. Here, we evaluated the performance of the Hybribio GenoArray (GA) for geno...

  4. Comparison of hybribio genoarray and roche human papillomavirus (HPV) linear array for HPV genotyping in anal swab samples

    Low, HC; Silver, MI; Brown, BJ; Leng, CY; Blas, MM; Gravitt, PE; Woo, YL


    © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with anal cancer, as HPV DNA is detected in up to 90% of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and anal cancers. With the gradual increase of anal cancer rates, there is a growing need to establish reliable and clinically relevant methods to detect anal cancer precursors. In resource-limited settings, HPV DNA detection is a potentially relevant tool for anal cancer screening. Here, we e...

  5. Migration de l’iode et du sélénium au travers de roches argileuses

    Frasca, Benjamin


    Deep argillaceous formations are considered as potential host rock for high-level radioactive waste repository. Based on safety assessment calculations, active selenium (79Se) and iodine (129I) from high level radioactive waste might be ones of the major dose contributors due to their longevity and their anionic character. However, because of their high sensitivity to redox condition, a special attention to the oxidation state of these elements is required. A comparative study on the diffusio...

  6. Roche-lobe overflow systems powered by black holes in young star clusters: the importance of dynamical exchanges

    Mapelli, Michela


    We have run 600 N-body simulations of intermediate-mass (~3500 Msun) young star clusters (SCs) with three different metallicities (Z=0.01, 0.1 and 1 Zsun). The simulations include the dependence of stellar properties and stellar winds on metallicity. Massive stellar black holes (MSBHs) with mass >25 Msun are allowed to form through direct collapse of very massive metal-poor stars (Z20 per cent of all RLO binaries are powered by MSBHs. The vast majority of RLO binaries powered by MSBHs are RLO-EBs. We have produced optical color-magnitude diagrams of the simulated RLO binaries, accounting for the emission of both the donor star and the irradiated accretion disk. We find that RLO-PBs are generally associated with bluer counterparts than RLO-EBs. We compare the simulated counterparts with the observed counterparts of nine ultraluminous X-ray sources. We discuss the possibility that IC 342 X-1, Ho IX X-1, NGC 1313 X-2 and NGC 5204 X-1 are powered by a MSBH.

  7. Nucleic acid amplification technology screening for hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus for blood donations

    To investigate the performance of the commercial Roche COBAS AmpliScreen assay, and demonstrate whether the COBAS AmpliScreen human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) test, v1.5, and COBAS AmpliScreen hepatitis C virus (HCV) v 2.0 for screening for HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the donated blood units from which plasma mini pools were collected, by nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT), could detect the positive pools and reduce the risk of transmission of infections for those routinely tested by serological assays. The study was performed on 3288 plasma samples collected from blood donors in a period of 13 months, from August 2004 to August 2005, at Al-Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were tested by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after RNA extraction (this represents the major method in NAT assays), in parallel with the routine serological testing to detect qualitatively for HIV-1 and HCV. The NAT assays that include an automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays, and the routine serological screening assays for the detection of the HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the plasma samples from the blood donors have shown to be a reliable combination that would meet our requirements. The collected data further confirms the results from the serological assays and enables us to decrease the residual risk of transmission to a minimum with the finding of no seronegative window period donation. The results demonstrate that out of 3288 samples, the percentages of RT-PCR (NAT) negative blood donations that were also confirmed as seronegative were 99% for HCV, and 99.1% for HIV-1. The modified combined systems (automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays) for NAT screening assays has allowed the release of all blood donations supplied in the

  8. Does chronic alcohol use by HIV-infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP drug regimen effect the HIV viral load and what is the therapeutic window of the drugs, CD4+ count and WBC count in patients with high viral load during the 9 months period of follow up?

    Godfrey S. Bbosa


    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of chronic alcohol use on HIV viral load in HIV-infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP drug regimen during 9 months follow up period. It also determined plasma drug concentrations of d4T, 3TC and NVP; CD4+ and WBC counts for patients with high HIV viral load. A case-control study using repeated measures with serial measurements was used. A total of 41 patients (20 alcohol group and 21 control group were screened for alcohol use using WHO AUDIT tool and chronic alcohol use biomarkers. Blood sampling was done at 3 month intervals for a period of 9 months. HIV viral load was determined using Roche Amplicor HIV-1 monitor test, version 1.5 (Amplicor. The d4T, 3TC and NVP concentrations were determined by Shimadzu Class-VPTM HPLC Chromatography data system version 6.1. The CD4+ cell count was determined using FACSCalibur flow cytometer. The WBC was determined using automated hematological Coulter CBC-5 Hematology Analyzer system. Results show that % patients with HIV viral load ≥400 copies/ml in control group was highest (23.8%, n=5 at 3 month while in chronic alcohol use group, it was at 0 month (35%, n=7 for both WHO AUDIT tool and chronic alcohol-use biomarkers groups. Generally patients with high viral load ≥400 copies/ml was observed in chronic alcohol use as compared to control group in both WHO AUDIT tool and biomarkers group despite of patients having high steady state d4T, 3TC and NVP plasma drug concentrations in circulation that is available to suppress HIV virus. The high viral load could be associated with the emergence of resistance of the HIV virus and these patients generally had a low CD4+ cell count. Some of these patients had no detectable d4T plasma drug concentrations in circulation and most of them with high viral load had sub-therapeutic NVP plasma drug concentrations in their blood circulation. Chronic ethanol use by HIV-infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP drug regimen increased HIV viral load and

  9. Indeterminate RIBA results were associated with the absence of hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA in blood donors

    Felicidade Mota Pereira


    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies and is supplemented by confirmatory testing methods, such as recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA and HCV-RNA detection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of RIBA testing to diagnose HCV infection in blood donors positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Methods: A total of 102 subjects positive for anti-HCV determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation of Bahia (HEMOBA were later assessed with new samples using the Abbott Architect anti-HCV test (Abbott Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany, the RIBA III test (Chiron RIBA HCV 3.0 SIA, Chiron Corp., Emeryville, CA, USA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; COBAS® AMPLICOR HCV Roche Diagnostics Corp., Indianapolis, IN, USA and line probe assay (LiPA - Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA genotyping for HCV diagnosis. Results: Of these new samples, 38.2% (39/102 were positive, 57.8% (59/102 were negative and 3.9% (4/102 were indeterminate for anti-HCV; HCV-RNA was detected in 22.5% (23/102 of the samples. RIBA results were positive in 58.1% (25/43, negative in 9.3% (4/43 and indeterminate in 32.6% (14/43 of the samples. The prevailing genotypes were 1 (78.3%, 18/23, 3 (17.4%, 4/23 and 2 (4.3%, 1/23. All 14 samples with indeterminate RIBA results had undetectable viral loads (detection limit ≤50 IU/mL. Of these samples, 71.4% (10/14 were reevaluated six months later. Eighty percent (8/10 of these samples remained indeterminate by RIBA, and 20% (2/10 were negative. Conclusions: In this study, individuals with indeterminate RIBA results had no detectable HCV-RNA.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland.

    O'Connell, Emer


    BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were

  11. Stratigraphic and technological evidence from the middle palaeolithic-Châtelperronian-Aurignacian record at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d’Abilly site, Central France)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Almeida, Miguel;


    This paper presents a geoarchaeological study of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic (Châtelperronian, Aurignacian and Solutrean) occupations preserved at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter in Central France. The lithostratigraphic sequence is composed of near-surface sedimentary facies with vertical and...... includes Châtelperronian artefacts, inter-stratified between Middle Palaeolithic and Aurignacian occupations. Systematic refitting and spatial analysis reveal that the Châtelperronian point production and flake blanks retouched into denticulates, all recovered in the same stratigraphic unit, result from...

  12. Fractures inside crystalline rocks. Effects of deformations on fluid circulations; Fractures dans les roches cristallines. Effets des deformations sur les circulations de fluides

    Gentier, S


    The modeling of fluid flows inside granite massifs is an important task for the evaluation of the feasibility of radioactive waste storage inside such formations. This document makes a synthesis of the works carried out since about 15 years, in particular by the French bureau of geological and mining research (BRGM), about the hydro-mechanical behaviour of a fracture and about the hydrodynamical characterization of fracture networks inside crystalline rocks: 1 - introduction; 2 - hydro-mechanical behaviour under normal stress: experimental results (hydro-mechanical behaviour, flow regimes, mechanical behaviour, test protocol, complementary tests, influence of samples size), geometrical interpretation of experimental results (relation with walls geometry, relation with voids geometry, relation with contacts geometry), hydro-mechanical modeling (hydraulic modeling, mechanical modeling); 3 - from the hydro-mechanical behaviour under normal stress to the coupling with heat transfers and chemistry: experiment for the study of the chemo-thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling (experimental results, relation with walls morphology), thermo-hydro-mechanical experiments, thermo-hydro-chemical experiments with fractures, conclusions; 4 - hydro-mechanical behaviour during shear: experimental results, geometrical interpretation (relation with the geometry of damaged zones, relation with voids geometry, relation with walls geometry), hydro-mechanical modeling (mechanical modeling, hydro-mechanical modeling of the behaviour during shear). (J.S.)

  13. [Results transferability on RXL, ARX, X-Pand, BN2 (Dade Behring) and modular DP (Roche Diagnostics) analysers: application to component assays of fibrotest and Actitest].

    Imbert-Bismut, F; Messous, D; Raoult, A; Poynard, T; Bertrand, J J; Marie, P A; Louis, V; Audy, C; Thouy, J M; Hainque, B; Piton, A


    The follow up of patients with chronic liver diseases and the data from multicentric clinical studies are affected by the variability of assay results for the same parameter between the different laboratories. Today, the main objective in clinical chemistry throughout the world is to harmonise the assay results between the laboratories after the confirmation of their traceability, in relation to defined reference systems. In this context, the purpose of our study was to verify the homogeneity of haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A1, total bilirubin, GGT activity, ALAT activity results, which are combined in Fibrotest and Actitest, between Dimension Analysers RXL, ARX and X-PAND (Dade Behring Society). Moreover, we verified the transferability of Fibrotest and Actitest results between the RXL, and either the BN2 (haptoglobin and apolipoprotein A1) or the Modular DP (total bilirubin, GGT and ALAT activity concentrations). The serum samples from 150 hospitalised patients were analysed on the different analysers. Specific protein assays were calibrated using solutions standardised against reference material on Dimension and BN2 analysers. Total bilirubin assays were performed by a diazoreaction on Dimension and Modular DP analysers. The GGT and ALAT activity measurements on the Dimension analysers were performed in accordance with the reference methods defined by the International Federation of Clinical Chemisty and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC). On the Modular, enzyme activity measurements were performed according to the Szasz method (L-gamma- glutamyl-4-nitroanilide as substrate) modified by Persijn and van der Slik (L-gamma- glutamyl-3-carboxy- 4-nitroanilide as substrat) for GGT and according to the IFCC specifications for ALAT. The methods of enzymatic activity measurement were calibrated on the Modular only. Liver fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity indices were determined using calculation algorithms, after having adjusted each component's result of Fibrotest and Actitest for gender and age. Our study has shown, for each parameter, harmonious results between the Dimension analysers and between RXL and BN2- Modular DP. Disregarding alpha-2 macroglobulin which cannot be assayed on RXL, the results of Fibrotest and Actitest were similar as performed on BN2- Modular DP and RXL. PMID:15951262

  14. Damage-induced permeability changes around underground excavations; Endommagement des roches argileuses et permeabilite induite au voisinage d'ouvrages souterrains

    Coll, C


    The storage of nuclear waste in deep geological formations is now considered more and more as a potential solution. During excavation, a disturbed zone develops in which damaging can be important and which can lead eventually to the failure of the rock. Fluid flow and permeability in the rock mass can be significantly modified producing a possible security risk. Our work consisted in an experimental study of the hydro-mechanical coupling of two argillaceous rocks: Boom clay (Mol, Belgium) and Opalinus clay (Mont-Terri, Switzerland). Triaxial tests were performed in a saturated state to study the permeability evolution of both clays with isotropic and deviatoric stresses. Argillaceous rocks are geo-materials with complex behaviour governed by numerous coupled processes. Strong physico-chemical interactions between the fluid and the solid particles and their very low permeability required the modification of the experimental set up. Moreover, specific procedures were developed to measure permeability and to detect strain localisation in shear bands. We show that for Boom Clay, permeability is not significantly influenced by strain localisation. For Opalinus clay, fracturing can induce an increase of the permeability at low confining pressure. (author)

  15. Dynamics of stellar wind in a Roche potential: implications for (i) outflows & periodicities relevant to astronomical masers, and (ii) generation of baroclinicity

    Singh, Nishant K


    We study the dynamics of stellar wind from one of the bodies in the binary system, where the other body interacts only gravitationally. We focus on following three issues: (i) we explore the origin of observed periodic variations in maser intensity; (ii) we address the nature of bipolar molecular outflows; and (iii) we show generation of baroclinicity in the same model setup. From direct numerical simulations and further numerical modelling, we find that the maser intensity along a given line of sight varies periodically due to periodic modulation of material density. This modulation period is of the order of the binary period. Another feature of this model is that the velocity structure of the flow remains unchanged with time in late stages of wind evolution. Therefore the location of the masing spot along the chosen sightline stays at the same spatial location, thus naturally explaining the observational fact. This also gives an appearance of bipolar nature in the standard position-velocity diagram, as has ...

  16. Characterization of Rock Wettability Though Dielectric Measurements Caractérisation de la mouillabilité des roches au moyen de mesures diélectriques

    Bona N.; Rossi E; Venturini C.; Capaccioli S.; Lucchesi M.; Rolla P. A.


    The wettability of glass filters and Berea sandstone was investigated using the electric response in the interval 10² - 10 (to the power of 8) Hz. The natural wettability of the materials was modified to get two different sets of samples, one with strong water and the other with strong oil wettability. The samples were saturated to various degrees up to 40% with deionized water or brine. Measurements showed that the electric responses of water-wet and oil-wet samples were markedly different a...

  17. Characterization of Rock Wettability Though Dielectric Measurements Caractérisation de la mouillabilité des roches au moyen de mesures diélectriques

    Bona N.


    Full Text Available The wettability of glass filters and Berea sandstone was investigated using the electric response in the interval 10² - 10 (to the power of 8 Hz. The natural wettability of the materials was modified to get two different sets of samples, one with strong water and the other with strong oil wettability. The samples were saturated to various degrees up to 40% with deionized water or brine. Measurements showed that the electric responses of water-wet and oil-wet samples were markedly different and more complex than those predicted by two standard models. The dispersivity and the loss tangent were found to be the most suitable parameters to check the wettability of the samples. La mouillabilité de filtres de verre et de grès de Béréa a été caractérisée par leur réponse électrique dans l'intervalle 10² - 10 puissance 8 Hz. Au moyen de traitements appropriés, la mouillabilité naturelle des matériaux a été modifiée afin d'obtenir deux séries différentes d'échantillons ayant respectivement de fortes mouillabilités à l'eau et à l'huile. Les échantillons ont été saturés à des degrés variés (pas plus de 40 % avec de l'eau permutée ou de la saumure. Les mesures ont montré que les réponses électriques des échantillons mouillables à l'eau ou mouillables à l'huile étaient nettement différentes et plus compliquées que celles prédites par deux modèles standard. En outre, on a pu constater que la dispersivité et la tangente de pertes constituent les paramètres les plus pertinents pour caractériser la mouillabilité des échantillons.

  18. Creep and damage in argillaceous rocks: microstructural change and phenomenological modeling; Fluage et endommagement des roches argileuses: evolution de la microstructure et modelisation phenomenologique

    Fabre, G


    The underground radioactive waste disposal far exceeds the period of exploitation of common civil engineering works. These specific projects require to predict the irreversible deformations over a large time scale (several centuries) in order to assess the extension and to forecast the evolution of the EDZ (Excavation Damage Zone) around the cavity. In this study, the viscosity of three sedimentary argillaceous rocks has been studied under different conditions of uniaxial compression: static or cyclic creep tests, monotonic and quasistatic tests, performed across various strata orientations. Argillaceous rocks are studied as a possible host layer for radioactive waste disposals. Indeed, they present some of the physical characteristics and mechanical properties, which are essential for being a natural barrier: low permeability, high creep potential and important holding capacity of radioactive elements. The purpose of the experimental study was to shed some light over the mechanisms governing the development of delayed deformations and damage of argillaceous rocks. It relates three rocks: an argillite from East of France, a Tournemire argillite and a marl from Jurassic Mountains. On atomic scale, viscoplastic deformations are due to irreversible displacements of crystalline defects, called dislocations. The experimental study was also supplemented with observations on thin sections extracted from the argillite and marl samples using a SEM. The aim was to identify the mechanisms responsible for the time-dependent behaviour on a microstructural scale. Analytical simulations of the mechanical behaviour of the three rocks gave parameters used in different viscoplastic models. The best modeling was obtained with the viscoplastic model which takes account of the development of volumetric strains and of the damage anisotropy. (author)

  19. Cicatrization of the damaged zone around a tunnel in low permeable rocks; Cicatrisation de la zone endommagee autour du tunnel dans des roches peu permeables

    Hamza, R.O


    Three types of clays have been studied in this work: the Mol clay (plastic clay), the Mont Terri clay (opalinus clay) and the East clay (stiff clay). This work is divided into three parts: an experimental part which has allowed to identify the cicatrization phenomenon and the cracks closing. Through several tests has been determined the evolution of the permeability of the clayey samples which are undamaged or damaged with time and according to the different applied hydro-mechanical loadings. In order to describe the cicatrization phenomenon, a rheological law has been developed from the experimental observations and under some hypotheses. The parameters of the cicatrization model have been determined by numerical simulation. In order to take into account the structures effects at a large scale, the modelling of a tunnel has allowed to better identify the cicatrization phenomenon and to analyze the long term stability of this work. (O.M.)

  20. Approach to underground characterization of a disposal vault in granite; Methode de caracterisation souterraine d`une enceinte de stockage dans la roche granitique

    Everitt, R.A.; Martin, C.D.; Thompson, P.M.


    The concept of disposing of nuclear fuel waste by sealing it in a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield is being investigated as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Engineered and natural barriers would isolate the waste from the biosphere. Underground characterization and testing have been under way since 1983 at the Underground Research Laboratory in support of this program. This report draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization to obtain information to optimize the design of the excavation and the engineered barriers, and to provide a baseline against which to monitor the performance of the facility during and following its operation.

  1. Natural fracturing of rocks: application to the Ahnet basin (Algeria); Fracturation naturelle des roches: application au bassin de l`Ahnet (Algerie)

    Badsi, M.


    In the Ahnet basin, the production seems to be unrelated to lithological variations in the reservoirs. In these large anticline structures, located in the central Ahnet basin, the presence of gas has been proven, but only a few production wells have been moderately successful. This inconsistency is probably related to the spatial distribution of fracturing throughout the reservoir. In order to investigate several hypothesis, we used several approach to solve problems posed by the interpreter: namely understanding the deformation process, predicting the fractured zones and building the discrete model of fracture network. This approach combines several methods, including sand box modelling, numerical modelling and Statistics rules, often related with fractal behaviour of faults families, have been used for extrapolating observations from seismic or from wells. The numerical tools and sand box analysis have allowed us to answer to the questions related to the formation of this large anticlines in the Ahnet basin and suggest a probable origin of the variation in the spatial distribution of natural fractures. The deterministic predictions of small-scale faults use probabilistic approaches for spatial interpolation assuming implicitly relationship between detected large faults and unresolved small faults. The statistical modelling is used to carry out analysis of the spatial variation of mean fracture attributes at the global scale (a few kilometers) and a 3D stochastic modelling of the fracture system at the local scale (a few ten of meters). (author) 139 refs.

  2. Séminaire Risques naturels et Environnement Physico-chimie et propriétés mécaniques des sols et roches



    Echanges sur les liens étroits entre les phénomènes microscopiques (relevant de la physico-chimie) et macroscopiques (relevant des propriétés mécaniques des matériaux naturels) sur le plan des risques naturels.

  3. About the identification of behaviour law parameters of clayey rocks; Sur l'identification des parametres des lois de comportement des roches argileuses

    Lecampion, B


    This work aims at developing identification methods for clayey rock parameters. These methods are necessary for the interpretation of the numerous data obtained at the ANDRA's Meuse/Haute-Marne underground laboratory. Two main rheological aspects have been considered: the poro-elastic behaviour and the elasto-visco-plastic behaviour. The first part of the study focusses on the poro-elastic parameters. Chapter 2 recalls the direct problem and discusses some important points of the identification inverse problem. Chapter 3 deals with the formulation of gradient calculation techniques for the linear poro-elastic case. The resolution using the finite-element method is discussed. The direct and associated state differentiation methods are validated for a 2D numerical example using the finite-element code Cast3M. The identification of poro-elastic coefficients of the Meuse/Haute-Marne argillaceous rocks is discussed in detail in chapter 4. The use of approximate semi-explicit solutions of the direct problems allows to obtain a fast identification method. The second part deals with the identification of elasto-visco-plastic parameters. The visco-plastic behaviour of Meuse/Haute-Marne rocks is discussed in chapter 5 and a visco-plastic model with nonlinear isotropic cold-drawing is proposed which allows to reproduce the tests. The parameters of this behaviour law are identified on a 1D creep test in drained conditions. Thus, the delayed deformations come from the poro-elastic and visco-plastic behaviour of the rock. It is shown that both phenomena can be separated. All poro-elasto-visco-plastic parameters are identified and a semi-explicit solution of the creep test is used. Chapter 6 presents an identification method of the elasto-visco-plastic parameters for the general case. The identification is equivalent to the minimization of a cost functional. The gradient of the functional is calculated by direct differentiation. The direct differentiation method is developed in Cast3M for the Norton-Hoff elasto-visco-plastic law. The identification of the parameters of this law on 1D and 2D configurations of underground facilities is then presented. Measurements are simulated using a direct calculation, eventually disturbed. The unicity and stability of this identification problem are discussed. In chapter 7, the method is applied to a real case: the Chamoise tunnel. 1D and 2D flat deformation modeling is used to solve the direct problem. The modeling hypotheses are justified and the obtained parameters allow to correctly reproduce the data. (J.S.)

  4. Visualisation des propriétés capillaires des roches réservoir Visualizing the Capillary Properties of Reservoir Rocks

    Zinszner B.


    Full Text Available Cet article décrit des expériences de drainage par centrifugation et d'imbibition par ascension capillaire réalisées avec des résines époxy colorées. Après polymérisation, l'observation des lames minces permet de localiser les fluides mouillants et non mouillants. Après avoir décrit les modes opératoires en insistant sur l'analyse des paramètres expérimentaux, on donne des exemples d'applications à la géologie de réservoir. Deux points sont développés : les études de perméabilités et les modèles de réservoir qui permettent d'étudier la répartition du fluide mouillant et des fractions déplaçables ou piégées du fluide non mouillant. This article describes drainage experiments by centrifuge method and imbibition by capillary rise performed with colored epoxy resins. After polymerization, analysis of thin sections serves to situate the wetting and nonwetting fluids. After describing the operating methods with em-phasis on the analysis of experimental parameters, the article gives examples of applications to reservoir geology. The following two points are developed : (i permeability investigations and (ii reservoir modelswhich can be used to analyze the distribution of the wetting fluid and the movable or trapped fractions of the nonwetting fluid

  5. Reduction of Polymer Adsorption on Reservoir Rocks Réduction de l'adsorption des polymères sur les roches réservoirs

    Chauveteau G.


    Full Text Available The adsorption properties of polyacrylamides and xanthans on mineral surfaces carrying silanol and aluminol groups such as sand and kaolinite are described. The influence of the main parameters such as the nature of adsorption sites, surface charge, chemical structure and conformation of polymer and interactions of mono- and divalent ions with polymer and mineral surface has been investigated and interpreted. Some operating parameters in polymer flooding such as pH and salinity of injected solution, the nature of the polymer and its degree of ionicity were found to be determining factors from the adsorption level. The results give key elements for reducing adsorption by a proper choice of polymer nature and ionicity and of injection conditions. Les propriétés d'adsorption des polyacrylamides et des xanthanes sur des surfaces minérales portant des groupements silanols et aluminols comme le sable et la kaolinite ont été examinées. L'influence de différents paramètres est analysée : nature des sites d'adsorption, charge de surface, structure chimique et conformation du polymère, interactions des ions mono et divalents avec la surface. Il apparaît que le pH et la salinité de la solution injectée, la nature du polymère et, en particulier son degré d'ionicité, qui sont les paramètres opérationnels lors d'une injection de polymère destinée à augmenter le taux de récupération du pétrole, sont déterminants en ce qui concerne les niveaux d'adsorption. On en déduit les principaux moyens pour réduire l'adsorption dans un cas d'application donné.

  6. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in 5,072 consecutive cervical SurePath samples evaluated with the Roche cobas HPV real-time PCR assay

    Preisler, Sarah; Rebolj, Matejka; Untermann, Anette;


    New commercially available Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays need to be evaluated in a variety of cervical screening settings. Cobas HPV Test (cobas) is a real-time PCR-based assay allowing for separate detection of HPV genotypes 16 and 18 and a bulk of 12 other high-risk genotypes. The aim...... of the present study, Horizon, was to assess the prevalence of high-risk HPV infections in an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer, where women aged 23-65 years are targeted for cervical screening. We collected 6,258 consecutive cervical samples from the largest cervical screening laboratory...... in Denmark serving the whole of Copenhagen. All samples were stored in SurePath media. In total, 5,072 samples were tested with cobas, Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA test (HC2) and liquid-based cytology. Of these, 27% tested positive on cobas. This proportion decreased by age, being 43% in women aged 23...

  7. Influence aqueous solutions on the mechanical behavior of argillaceous rocks; Influence des solutions aqueuses sur le comportement mecanique des roches argileuses

    Wakim, J


    The hydration of the shale with an aqueous solution induces a swelling deformation which plays an important role in the behaviour of the structures excavated in this type of grounds. This deformation is marked by a three-dimensional and anisotropic character and involves several mechanisms like adsorption, osmosis or capillarity. Several researches were dedicated to swelling and were often much debated due to the complexity of the implied phenomena. The goal of this thesis is therefore to contribute to a better understanding of shale swelling when the rock is confined and hydrated with an aqueous solution. The main part of the work accomplished was related to the Lorraine shale and to the Tournemire shale. To characterize swelling and to identify the main governing parameters, it was necessary to start the issue with an experimental approach. Many apparatus were then developed to carry out tests under various conditions of swelling. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the tests and thereafter the modelling of the behaviour, the experimental procedure adopted consisted of studying first the mechanical aspect and then the chemical aspect of swelling. In the mechanical part, swelling was studied by imposing on the sample a mechanical loading while maintaining during the tests the same aqueous solution. The principal parameters which were studied are the effect of the lateral conditions on axial swelling (impeded strain or constant stress) as well as the influence of the axial stress on radial swelling. The anisotropy of swelling was studied by carrying out, for different orientations of the sample, tests of free swelling, impeded swelling and uniaxial swelling. These various mechanical tests allowed to study the three-dimensional anisotropic swelling in all the conditions and to select the most appropriate test to be used in the second phase of the research. The precise analysis performed to explain the mechanisms behind the swelling of an argillaceous rock when it is in contact of water showed that the mechanical response is ruled mainly by electrochemical phenomena which operate between the solution elements and the clay layers. This important result oriented the research to develop better the role of the chemistry in the behaviour. Swelling was therefore analysed by imposing on the sample a chemical loading while maintaining constant the axial stress. Monovalent and divalent salts which were used with various concentrations are the sodium chloride (NaCl), the potassium chloride (KCl) and the calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). The foreseen objective was to analyze the effect of the chemical path with decreasing or cyclic concentrations and to highlight the role of the solution normality, the type of salt and the anisotropy on the axial swelling. The experimental results obtained allowed the development of a new rheological model which takes into account the time, the anisotropy, the applied loading and the chemistry of the solution. This model was implemented in a finite element code to simulate simple cases and to prove its validity. (author)

  8. Survival of infants born to HIV-positive mothers, by feeding modality, in Rakai, Uganda.

    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data comparing survival of formula-fed to breast-fed infants in programmatic settings are limited. We compared mortality and HIV-free of breast and formula-fed infants born to HIV-positive mothers in a program in rural, Rakai District Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred eighty two infants born to HIV-positive mothers were followed at one, six and twelve months postpartum. Mothers were given infant-feeding counseling and allowed to make informed choices as to whether to formula-feed or breast-feed. Eligible mothers and infants received antiretroviral therapy (ART if indicated. Mothers and their newborns received prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT if they were not receiving ART. Infant HIV infection was detected by PCR (Roche Amplicor 1.5 during the follow-up visits. Kaplan Meier time-to-event methods were used to compare mortality and HIV-free survival. The adjusted hazard ratio (Adjusted HR of infant HIV-free survival was estimated by Cox regression. Seventy-five infants (41% were formula-fed while 107 (59% were breast-fed. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 25% of breast-feeding women at one month postpartum. The cumulative 12-month probability of infant mortality was 18% (95% CI = 11%-29% among the formula-fed compared to 3% (95% CI = 1%-9% among the breast-fed infants (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR = 6.1(95% CI = 1.7-21.4, P-value < 0.01. There were no statistically significant differentials in HIV-free survival by feeding choice (86% in the formula-fed compared to 96% in breast-fed group (Adjusted RH = 2.8[95%CI = 0.67-11.7, P-value = 0.16] CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Formula-feeding was associated with a higher risk of infant mortality than breastfeeding in this rural population. Our findings suggest that formula-feeding should be discouraged in similar African settings.

  9. Les cherts Archéens de la ceinture de roches vertes de Barberton (3.5-3.2Ga), Afrique du Sud. Processus de formation et utilisation comme proxys paleo-environnementaux

    Ledevin, Morgane,


    Archean cherts potentially constrain the primitive environment in which life emerged and evolved. These siliceous rocks formed by three processes : C-cherts (primary cherts) formed by the chemical precipitation of oceanic silica, either as a siliceous ooze (or silica gel) on the seabed, or as cement within still soft sediments at the surface ; F-cherts (fracturefilling cherts) precipitated from circulating fluids in concordant or crosscutting veins in the shallow crust ; S-cherts (secondary c...

  10. An experimental study on mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2} in basics and ultra basics rocks; Etude experimentale des reactions de carbonatation minerale du CO{sub 2} dans les roches basiques et ultrabasiques

    Dufaud, F


    The first part of the thesis is dedicated to dissolution data of siderite FeCO{sub 3} and magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} which have been monitored in situ on the FAME beamline of the european synchrotron radiation facility in Grenoble. Iron in solution close to siderite single crystals is shown to be divalent hydrated. The small size of the experimentally investigated volume of solution (200 *400 micrometer and 3 mm height) allowed to work with single crystals in well defined geometries. No specific interaction was observed between iron (II) and dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting that modelling siderite evolution under high CO{sub 2} pressures by using CO{sub 2}-less very acidic (pH 1-2) solutions is adequate. Using initial reaction rates, we get an activation energy for siderite dissolution of 62 kJ.mol{sup -1}, consistent with existing literature data. Such a value is suggestive of a mineral/solution interface mechanism.. Data from this study and from literature are consistent over a temperature range 25 C - 125 C and a pH range pH 1-7 with an empirical law: pk = pH + E{sub a}/(ln(10)*RT(K)) - log(S/V) - 10,5 where E{sub a} = 62 kJ.mol{sup -1} and S/V is the ratio between solid surface S and fluid volume V. A value of activation energy of 73.5 kJ.mol{sup -1} is obtained in the case of magnetite, also consistent with mineral/solution processes. The second and major part of the thesis work is the realization of analogical experiments for simulating carbonation of basic and ultra basic minerals. Experiments were carried out on consolidated rock cores at 90 C and 280 bar of CO{sub 2} (low temperature experiments) and on powders contained in metallic capsules at 400-500 C and 1000-1700 bars of CO{sub 2} (high temperature experiments). The rate of mineral storage of CO{sub 2} was defined as the molar ratio of solid carbonate formed over total CO{sub 2} injected. It is of about 1% in three months in low temperature experiments whereas it reaches several tens of percents per hour in high temperature experiments. In all cases, carbonation is shown to proceed according to dissolution/precipitation mechanisms. A quasi stoichiometric coupling is evidenced between carbonation and (proto) serpentinization in high-temperature experiments. Newly formed carbonates are mostly magnesite MgCO{sub 3} with Fe and Ca in solid solution. In low temperature samples, the silicates are covered with a thin silica layer and with carbonate spherules consisting of ankerite CaFe(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} - dolomite CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} - siderite cores surrounded by magnesite overgrowth. In CO{sub 2}-saturated water, peridotites are more reactive than serpentinite and basalts, in accordance with thermodynamic modelling whereas serpentinites are the most reactive in the supercritical CO{sub 2} phase, showing stronger reactivities in this latter phase than in CO{sub 2}-saturated water. In high temperature experiments, the rate of mineral storage is larger at 400 C than at 500 C, in agreement with thermodynamic modelling of the system. High water fugacities and high fluid salinities are shown to have a positive effect on mineral storage rates. Isotopic mass balance of carbon have evidenced that about 15% of the mineral storage consist of a reduced carbon phase, also identified by transmission electron microscopy as an ill-organized graphite phase. (author)

  11. Mechanical behaviour and rupture in clayey rocks studied by x-ray micro tomography; Comportement mecanique et rupture dans les roches argileuses etudies par micro tomographie a rayons X

    Lenoir, N


    Within the framework of feasibility studies of underground repositories for radioactive waste, the study of permeability evolution with damage of the host layer is crucial. The goals of this work were: (i) to characterize experimentally the damage of two clayey rocks (BEAUCAIRE MARL and EAST SHALE) with x-ray micro tomography, (ii) to develop a high pressure triaxial set-up adapted to permeability measurement on very low permeability rocks.A number of original triaxial devices have been realised to characterize damage of clayey rocks, under deviatoric loading, with x-ray micro tomography on a synchrotron beamline at the ESRF (Grenoble). Localized damage and its evolution have been characterized at a fine scale (of order of ten microns). Digital image correlation techniques, extended to 3d images, have been used to measure incremental strain fields from tomographic images. we demonstrated that these techniques are very useful in the study of the localized damage of geo-materials and especially for the initiation. A high pressure triaxial device has been realised to measure permeability evolution of the east shale as a function of applied stress (isotropic and deviatoric). The particularity of this set-up is the small size of the test specimen (cylinder of 10 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height) which allows significant reduction of test duration. (author)

  12. Composite microstructural anisotropies in reservoir rocks: consequences on elastic properties and relation with deformation; Anisotropies microstructurales composites dans les roches reservoir: consequences sur les proprietes elastiques et relation a la deformation

    Louis, L.


    From diagenesis to tectonic stress induced deformation, rock microstructures always present some anisotropy associated with a preferential orientation, shape or spatial arrangement of its constituents. Considering the consequences anisotropy has on directional transport properties and compliance, as the geological history it carries, this approach has received a particular attention in numerous works. In this work, the microstructural features of various sedimentary rocks were investigated through direct observations and laboratory measurements in naturally deformed and undeformed blocks, samples being considered as effective media. All investigated samples were found to be anisotropic with respect to the physical properties we measured (i.e. ultrasonic P-wave velocity, magnetic susceptibility, electrical conductivity). Considering that P-wave velocities can be described by a second order tensor, we applied to the velocity data the same inversion procedure as the one routinely used in magnetic studies, which provided an efficient tool to estimate and compare these 3D anisotropies with respect to the original sample geographical position. In each case, we tried to identify as thoroughly as possible the microstructural source of the observed anisotropies, first by the mean of existing models, then through direct observations (optic and electronic microscopy). Depending on the rock investigated, anisotropy was found to be controlled by pore shape, intergranular contact distribution, preferentially oriented microcracks interacting with compaction pattern or pressure solution cleavages interacting with each other. The net result of this work is that P-wave velocity anisotropy can express the interaction between different microstructural features as well as their evolution during deformation. (author)

  13. Geochemical modeling of water-gas-rock interactions. Application to mineral diagenesis in geologic reservoirs; Modelisation geochimique des interactions eau-gaz-roche. Application a la diagenese minerale dans les reservoirs geologiques

    Bildstein, O.


    The Ph.D. report describes a conceptual and numerical model for simulating gas-water-rock interaction during mineral diagenesis of sediments. The main specific features of this model are the following: applicable to open systems, half-implicit resolution numerical method, feedback on the texture evolution (grain model), existence of a gas phase, oxido-reduction phenomena. (author) 217 refs.

  14. Development of a X-ray micro-tomograph and its application to reservoir rocks characterization; Developpement d`un microtomographe X et application a la caracterisation des roches reservoirs

    Ferreira de Paiva, R.


    We describe the construction and application to studies in three dimensions of a laboratory micro-tomograph for the characterisation of heterogeneous solids at the scale of a few microns. The system is based on an electron microprobe and a two dimensional X-ray detector. The use of a low beam divergence for image acquisition allows use of simple and rapid reconstruction software whilst retaining reasonable acquisition times. Spatial resolutions of better than 3 microns in radiography and 10 microns in tomography are obtained. The applications of microtomography in the petroleum industry are illustrated by the study of fibre orientation in polymer composites, of the distribution of minerals and pore space in reservoir rocks, and of the interaction of salt water with a model porous medium. A correction for X-ray beam hardening is described and used to obtain improved discrimination of the phases present in the sample. In the case of a North Sea reservoir rock we show the possibility to distinguish quartz, feldspar and in certain zone kaolinite. The representativeness of the tomographic reconstruction is demonstrated by comparing the surface of the reconstructed specimen with corresponding images obtained in scanning electron microscopy. (author). 58 refs., 10 tabs., 71 photos.

  15. Umbrella structure and channel-wall stoping in the Cambrian St. Roch Formation, Quebec Appalachians: significance for particle support mechanisms and turbulence development in hyper-concentrated sediment gravity flows

    Hesse, Reinhard; Fong, Christopher


    Umbrella structure is a newly recognized sedimentary structure associated with large platy clasts in resedimented boulder-bearing pebble conglomerate with a sandy matrix. It consists of a sand rim that lacks pebbles on parts or the entire underside of platy boulders, whereas on the upper side, pebbles are in direct contact with the boulders. The depositing processes were high- to hyper-concentrated sediment gravity flows in a submarine channel or canyon on the Cambrian continental slope of North America bordering the Iapetus Ocean. The structure occurs predominantly where clasts dip moderately in the down-current direction. Based on the association of the structure with slightly forward dipping slabs, it is proposed that these down-current dipping slabs may have been in the process of counter-clockwise rotation that was aborted and may have generated a pressure shadow on the underside enabling the inrush of fluid and the infiltration of sand into the anomalous low-pressure zone. The structure has implications for particle support mechanisms in high- to hyper-concentrated sedimentary gravity flows, in that it redirects attention to the much debated mechanism of dispersive pressure and alternatives. It provides an observable sediment structure that supports dispersive pressure which so far depended on experimental evidence and theoretical arguments alone. Vrolijk and Southard's (1997) concept of a `laminar sheared layer' is here for the first time interpreted as having an upward-moving `free-surface' layer effect during deposition from hyper-concentrated flows. Channel-wall stoping involves unlithified turbiditic spillover sand in the levee sediment of the canyon wall that was washed out by the upper diluted parts of the high-concentration flows coming down the channel and leaving a niche in the wall that was filled with coarser channel-axis facies by the same flow (or later flows) when its aggradation reached the level of the niche. The contact between turbidite and pebble conglomerate occurs now more than 2 m laterally into the exposed channel wall. Channel-wall stoping tracks turbulence development in hyper-concentrated gravity flows.

  16. Suivi de substitution de fluides dans les roches par corrélation de bruit : Expériences ultrasonores au laboratoire et surveillance continue en cours d’exploitation du sous-sol

    Barbouteau, Sandra


    Seismic interferometry, like optic interferometry, studies the interferences phenomena between couples of seismic signals, with the aim of pointing at differences between those signals (Curtis et al. 2006 for instance). The data processing consists, generally, in correlating the recordings between different stations to retrieve the Green's function between these sensors (Derode et al. (2003), Wapenaar et al. (2004), Larose et al. (2006), Sanchez-Sesma et Campillo (2006)). This principle has a...

  17. NMR studies of the molecules dynamics to the solid-liquid interfaces: from graded porous materials to oil rocks; Etudes RMN de la dynamique des molecules aux interfaces solide-liquide: des materiaux poreux calibres aux roches petroliferes

    Godefroy, S.


    Low field NMR relaxation for laboratory or in-situ applications provides critical information for oil recovery such as porosity, saturation, and permeability of rocks. In addition, pore size distribution and wettability can also be obtained in some cases. The technique relies on the measurement of proton longitudinal (T{sub 1}) or transverse (T{sub 2}) nuclear relaxation times. For better predictions, the surface micro-dynamics and the chemical properties of the liquids entrapped in the pore space are important and must be characterized. It is well known that the NMR relaxation is enhanced by the paramagnetic impurities at the pore surface but many other parameters influence the relaxation time distributions. These parameters are used to derive the petrophysical properties of the rocks. We propose here an original method to probe the dynamics of water and oil at the pore surface. In the present study, we used both nuclear relaxation at 2.2 MHz and field cycling Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD) techniques. We applied these two techniques to different kinds of water or oil saturated macroporous media (grain packings, outcrop and reservoir rocks with SiO{sub 2} or CaCO{sub 3} surfaces). We studied the dependence of NMR relaxation on pore size, magnetic field and temperature. Varying the pore size and the surface density of paramagnetic impurities of water saturated grain packings allowed experimental evidence for the two limiting regimes of the water relaxation in pores (surface- and diffusion-limited regimes). NMRD technique (evolution of 1/T{sub 1} with the magnetic field) allowed us to probe liquid surface dynamics in water or oil fully saturated grain packing, outcrop rocks or reservoir rocks (water- and oil-wet surfaces). We evidenced a two-dimensional molecular surface diffusion and directly estimated important parameters such as correlation times, residence times and molecular self-diffusion on the surface. Finally, we proved that the temperature dependence of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} is directly related to the surface chemistry of the rocks. Such a dependence is clearly important for oil field in-situ measurements (well logging). (author)

  18. Efficacité de la roche phosphatée de Matongo au travers d'un compostage sur une culture de pomme de terre sur un sol acide de Rabiro (Burundi

    Van den Berghe, C.


    Full Text Available Efficiency of phosphatic rock from Matongo applied in the composting process on potatoes on an acid soil of Rabiro. In the frame of the Cooperation between the CVHA (Cultures Vivrieres de Haute Altitute Project and the Program of Fertilisation of the Agro-systems on Altitude (FAVA of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in Burundi, the local phosphatic rock from Matongo has been compared to diammonium-phosphate when added in the composting process. The field trials with potatoes have shown that both phosphate sources have the same fertilizing value when the enriched compost was applied at the dose of 20 t/ha. It is very interesting from agricultural and economical viewpoint to use this phosphatic rock in combination with compost.

  19. Feasibility study for the installation of a small hydro electric power plant; Etude de faisabilite. Petite centrale hydro-electrique au lieu dit 'Sous les Roches' a Sonceboz

    Tissot, N. [MHyLab, Mini-Hydraulics Laboratory, Montcherand (Switzerland); Hausmann, H. [Hans Hausmann, Bevilard (Switzerland)


    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents a technical, economical and ecological analysis of the feasibility of a small hydroelectric power plant at Sonceboz, in the Swiss Jura mountains. The power of the planed plant would typically be 500 kW for a water head of about 10 m. The study shows that, compared to one single turbine, a pair of Kaplan type turbines would be operational over a larger range of the river's water flow rate. This solution would be a little bit more costly but offer more flexibility for maintenance. Two maximum water flow rates are considered, 4.5 and 6 m{sup 3}/s respectively. According to the economical study, done with current electric kWh prices, both configurations are viable while the largest flow rate leads to a larger profit. The report is rounded up by a sensitivity analysis considering variations in annual power generation, electro-mechanical and construction cost as well as turbine efficiency. It indicates that this last factor could be crucial for the overall profitability. [French] Ce rapport est le resultat detaille de l'analyse technico-economique et ecologique de faisabilite de la realisation d'une petite centrale hydroelectrique basse chute qui pourrait exploiter une denivellation d'environ 10 m pour une puissance de l'ordre de 500 kW pres de Sonceboz dans le Jura suisse. L'etude montre que le couplage de deux turbines Kaplan offrirait une possibilite de fonctionnement sur une plus grande plage de flux ainsi qu'une plus grande flexibilite de maintenance, ceci pour un cout legerement superieur a l'option a une seule turbine. Les debits de 4.5 et 6 m{sup 3}/s sont consideres. L'etude economique montre que le debit de 6 m{sup 3}/s est plus rentable au prix de vente actuel du kWh. L'article se termine par une analyse de sensibilite sur les incertitudes concernant la production annuelle, les prix de l'electromecanique et du genie civil et le rendement des turbines.

  20. Detecção do DNA de Chlamydia trachomatis em espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis

    Rafael Navarrete Fernandez


    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis é a bactéria responsável pela doença sexualmente transmissível mais prevalente no mundo. A maioria das infecções em homens e mulheres é assintomática e, quando não diagnosticada e tratada, pode causar artrite e complicações relacionadas ao aparelho reprodutor feminino. OBJETIVO: pesquisar o DNA de C. trachomatis no líquido sinovial e urina de pacientes com espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide (AR, avaliar a presença de anticorpos séricos IgG e IgM anti-C. trachomatis nesses dois grupos de doenças e identificar o antígeno HLA-B27 em pacientes com espondiloartropatias. MÉTODOS: a população do estudo consistiu em 15 pacientes com espondiloartropatias: nove com espondiloartropatia indiferenciada (EI e seis com artrite reativa (ARe (grupo I e 15 pacientes com AR (grupo II. O DNA clamidial foi pesquisado em amostras de líquido sinovial e urina de todos os pacientes, empregando-se a PCR (Amplicor Roche, Suíça. Os anticorpos IgG e IgM anticlamidiais foram quantificados por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI, enquanto o HLA-B27 foi tipado em 15 pacientes do grupo I por citometria de fluxo. RESULTADOS: o DNA da C. trachomatis foi evidenciado apenas em uma amostra de líquido sinovial do grupo I (6,7%, sendo o paciente portador de ARe. Em dois pacientes com AR, o DNA clamidial foi identificado na urina (13,3%. Os anticorpos IgG anticlamidiais estavam presentes em oito pacientes da população estudada, três do grupo I (20% e cinco do grupo II (33,3%. O maior título desse anticorpo (1/256 associou-se com a presença do DNA clamidial na urina de um paciente do grupo II. O anticorpo IgM não foi detectado em nenhuma amostra dos dois grupos. O antígeno HLA-B27 foi positivo em quatro indivíduos do grupo II (26,7% e sua presença relacionou-se com sacroileíte. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados deste estudo indicam que em pacientes com diagnóstico de espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide, com quadro articular

  1. Comparison of in-house and commercial sample preparation and PCR amplification systems for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA in blood samples from Tanzanian adults.

    Lyamuya, E; Bredberg-Rådén, U; Albert, J.; Grankvist, O; Msangi, V; Kagoma, C.; Mhalu, F; Biberfeld, G


    This study compared the performance of several in-house nested PCR systems and the Amplicor human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) PCR kit in the detection of HIV-1 DNA in Tanzanian samples prepared by two different methods. All six of the in-house primer sets evaluated had a higher sensitivity for HIV DNA detection in samples prepared by the Amplicor PCR sample preparation method than in those prepared by the Ficoll-Isopaque (FIP) density gradient centrifugation method. A sensitivity of...

  2. HBV and neurological impairment in HIV-infected patients

    L Manolescu


    Full Text Available Objective: HIV can affect CNS in early stages of disease and determine neurological impairment. HBV DNA was found in CSF of HIV co-infected patients, but little is known about the neurotropic character of this virus. Here we assessed the degree of association between HBV infection and neurological impairment in a large cohort of long-term survivors, HIV-infected patients that experienced multiple therapeutic schemes over time. Methods: A total of 462 HIV-1-infected patients were retrospectively followed up for 10 years for HBV infection and neurological impairment. The patients were tested for immune (flow cytometry and virological parameters of HIV infection (Roche Amplicor, version 1.5/ COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test and for HBV infection markers (HBsAg, anti HBc: Murex Biotech ELISA tests. Many of these patients have experienced between one and six regimens such as: 2 NRTIs, 3 NRTIs, 2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI, 1 NRTI+1 NNRTI+1 PI, 2 NRTIs+2 PIs. Results: After 10 years 29.87% of the patients presented neurological impairment. Out of them 56.52% were HBV-infected. The prevalence of HIV encephalopathy (HE in our studied cohort was 22.7% and 50.4% of these patients were HBV-infected. The median HIV diagnosis age was 7 and the median age of HE diagnosis was 10. In order to establish a possible correlation between HBV infection and HE we first reviewed and excluded the main risk factors associated with HE at the moment of diagnosis: low weight, anemia, constitutional symptoms, low CD4+count, high plasma HIV-RNA load. No patient was infected with HCV. The groups of patients that presented HE and HBsAg and HE without HBsAg were balanced regarding sex, number of deceased patients, number of class C3 patients, but the patients in first group presented lower CD4 values at HE diagnosis vs patients from second group 2: 44.5 vs 95 cells/µL, p=0.3; lower nadir CD4 count: 38 vs 51 cell/µL, p=0.1; and slightly higher HIV viral load: 5.2 vs 5 log10 copies

  3. Ravimid, risk, raha & tervis / Inge Pitsner

    Pitsner, Inge


    Ravimifirma Roche Eesti OÜ tegevjuht Kadri Mägi selgitab ravimiäri toimemehhanisme ning põhjuseid, miks ravimitööstus on riskantne ja kallis valdkond. Lisa: Mis on farmakoökonoomika?; Roche Eesti kontor

  4. Emplacement conditions and age of granitoids from the southern external zone of the French central massif: petro-structural and {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar geochronological study of rocks from their contact aureole and of some magmatic rocks. Geotectonic implications; Conditions et ages de mise en place des granitoides de la zone externe sud du massif central francais: etude petro-structurale et geochronologique {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar des roches de leurs aureoles de contact et de quelques roches magmatiques. Implications geotectoniques

    Najoui, K


    A comparative petro-structural and geochronological {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar study conducted on three granitoids (Mont-Lozere, Sidobre and Aigoual/St-Guiral/Liron) outcropping in the south of the French Massif Central allows us to specify the conditions of their emplacement in the external area of the Hercynian belt. The local gravimetric study shows that the St-Guiral and the Liron have laccolitic shapes and are asymmetric. The paragenetic analysis of the mineralogical associations which occur in the three contact aureoles, the metamorphic gradients and P-T estimates show that the Aigoual, the St-Guiral, the Liron and the Pont-de-Montvert (Mont-Lozere) granodiorites (T: 650-700 deg C; P: 1-1.5 kb) were emplaced in more superficial levels than the early basic and early granodiorite magmas of the St-Guiral, and the Sidobre granite (T: 550-600 deg C; P: 2-2.5 kb). Besides, the structural observations in the host rocks show that emplacement of the St-Guiral granodiorite is synchronous with the deformation and regional metamorphism whereas the Liron granodiorite emplaced later. The laser-probe dating of single biotites and hornblendes corroborate this fact. The {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar data of the St-Guiral hornfels and granodiorites give ages of 324 Ma. The Liron mafic micro-granular enclaves and lamprophyres give ages of 310 Ma. This suggests that the early granodiorite magmas were emplaced in the late Visean compressive events, followed by granodioritic injections synchronous with the Namuro-Westphalian extension 257 refs.

  5. Sequence analysis and genotyping of genital Chlamydia trachomatis among patients with suspected-Neisseria gonorrhoeae%拟诊为淋病患者中泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体基因分型及序列分析

    张娟娟; 卢次勇; 冯铁建; 赵广录; 张丽君; 王峰; 洪福昌; 蓝丽娜; 吴肖冰; 陶小华; 张春来


    目的 了解深圳市拟诊为淋病患者中泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体的合并感染情况及其基因型分布和序列变异特点.方法 采集401例拟诊为淋病患者的泌尿生殖道分泌物样本,应用Roche Amplicor全自动核酸检测系统对样本进行淋球菌和沙眼衣原体双检,提取DNA,应用巢式聚合酶链反应(nested-PGR)扩增沙眼衣原体主要外膜蛋白基因(omp1)中的VS1~VS2片段,并对其进行序列测定,所获得的序列利用Mega4.0软件与标准参考株进行比对,分析确定其基因型及序列变异情况.结果 401例拟诊为淋病患者中淋球菌的感染率为82.3%(330/401),沙眼衣原体的感染率为24.2%(97/401),淋球菌和沙眼衣原体的合并感染率为21.7%(87/401).97份沙眼衣原体阳性样本中获得73份沙眼衣原体基因片段序列,共检出8个基因型,分别为E型(27.4%)、G/Ga型(23.3%)、D/Da型(16.4%)、F型(13.7%)、J型(11.0%)、H型(5.5%)、B和K型(各1.4%).序列分析发现3例(4.1%)菌株发生错义突变,分别为D/Da型、E型、G/Ga型;F型、H型、J型和K型序列虽多见碱基突变,但均为同义突变.结论淋病患者合并感染沙眼衣原体的比例较高,且泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体的基因型以E、G/Ga、D/Da和F型为主.序列分析可以为泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体的分子流行病学研究提供依据.%Objective To understand the prevalence rate of genital Chlamydia trachomatis among a population with suspected-Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection,the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes,assess changes in omp1 sequences among patients with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis coinfections.Methods Four hundred and one swabs were collected.Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were detected by Roche Amplicor System.DNA were extracted from those samples and were amplified by nested PCR.PCR products were sequencing and analyzed by software Mega4.0.Results The prevalence of genital Chlamydia

  6. The phosphatic crusts from basalts of the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, Brazil): rocks formed from guanos during the Late QuaternaryLes croûtes phosphatées des basaltes de l'archipel d'Abrolhos (Bahia, Brésil) : des roches formées au Quaternaire récent à partir de guanos

    Flicoteaux, René; Melfi, Adolpho


    Basalts from the Abrolhos Archipelago are capped (1) by argilloferruginous saprolite formed under intense weathering conditions at the expense of the basalts and (2) by phosphatic leucophosphite and variscite-rich crusts developed at the expense of both saprolite and basalts. Phosphorus, as indicated by the associated organic compounds, is provided by the leaching of nitrogenous guanos. In the Siriba Island, the crusts affecting the basalts are overlain by a conglomerate related to the Quaternary transgressive-regressive phase at 5 100 years BP. Therefore, the leaching of the guanos certainly began before the transgression.

  7. Numerical modeling of damage and permeability interaction in rocks. Application for the radioactive waste storage in deep galleries; Modelisation numerique du couplage entre l'endommagement et la permeabilite des roches. Application a l'etude des ouvrages de stockage souterrain

    Maleki, K


    The relation between damage and permeability in rocks is a very important subject in industrial applications. It is for example the case of cracks around the radioactive waste storage galleries (EDZ) which can rise considerably the permeability and so make a serious problem for the sealing and the safety of these structures. The same phenomena can occur in the surrounding concrete wall of the nuclear power stations and also in the cracking of the oil-bearing rocks reservoirs. The experimental research on this subject, specially in laboratory G.3S-LMS in Ecole Polytechnique made it possible to determine the orders of damage effect on the permeability change. But a numerical modeling of these phenomena for setting a constitutive behavior law was to be done. This is the principal objective of this thesis. In this project, at first the notion of crack damage is defined. This type of damage is modeled by the disc shaped crack distribution in the 3D space. The disc's geometrical characteristics (radius, direction and opening) obey the statistical distribution laws, depending on the type of loading (compression or extension). The upper and lower limits of the characteristics are fixed according to actual observations, carried out on clay-stone (host rock selected for the realization of an underground research laboratory in Bure). In order to modeling the damage in the porous media, the double porosity concept is considered. A method of homogenization is used to simulate the flow through the network of cracks and porosity. It allows to derive the equivalent permeability of the fractured porous media. The study of the correlations between permeability and damage, obtained by this method for various values of fracture density, made it possible to obtain a relation between permeability and crack damage, for classical types of loading as simple extension and simple compression. To generalize this relation in the case of any specified triaxial loading, the crack damage is put in relation with the notion of mechanical damage, resulting from a mechanical model connecting the damage to stress and strain. Finally, the poro-mechanical behavior law with damage is implemented to the finite elements computer program ESAR-LCPC The modeling of an underground gallery proved that damage calculation by this method is feasible and allows to compute the evolution of the permeability and the variation of the flow entering the gallery as a function of this damage. (author)

  8. The natural seismic hazard and induced seismicity of the european HDR (hot dry rock) geothermal energy project at Soultz-sous-Forets (Bas-Rhin, France); Alea sismique naturel et sismicite induite du projet geothermique europeen RCS (roche chaude seche) de Soultz-sous-Forets (Bas-Rhin, France)

    Helm, J.A.


    Development of the Soultz-sous-Forets HDR (Hot Dry Rock) geothermal energy project will involve important fluid injections which will induce micro-seismic events. This thesis discusses the natural seismicity of the region and induced seismicity associated with fluid injections. A catalogue of all historical and instrument seismicity of the Soultz-sous-Forets (SSF) region has been compiled. This seismicity does not correspond to movements along the major tectonic features of the region. The area around SSF has been identified as being one where high heat flow corresponds to low seismicity. The largest well documented seismic event in the region which took place in 1952 had an epicentral intensity of VI. All important data pertaining to the series of seismic events which took place in the region from August to October 1952 have been collected and are presented. This work details the installation and operation of a permanent 3 station network of accelerometers and seismometers around the HDR site. Also the installation and operation of a mobile network of vertical seismometers during fluid injections. 167 micro-seismic events were recorded on the surface network, with magnitudes from -0.5 to 1.9. The preferential alignment of the micro-seismic cloud is N160 deg. Individual focal mechanisms of the larger seismic events correspond to an extensional tectonic regime. Stress inversion of P wave polarities indicates that the maximum stress is vertical and the intermediate and minimum stress axes horizontal. The largest of the horizontal stresses is orientated N124 deg and the smallest N34 deg. Induced seismic movement is taking place on pre-existing fractures controlled by the in situ stress seismic movement is taking place on pre-existing tectonic fractures controlled by the in situ stress field, and the largest of the induced events had a magnitude 1.9. This level of seismicity does not pose any environmental hazard to the region around Soultz-sous-Forets. (author) 151 refs.

  9. Influence of paleo-environment and radiolytic alteration on the geochemistry of organic matter from Autunian shales of the Lodeve uranium deposit, France; Influence du paleoenvironnement et de l'alteration radiolytique sur la geochimie de la matiere organique des roches de l'Autunien du bassin uranifere de Lodeve, France

    Schlepp, L.; Landais, P.; Elie, M.; Faure, P. [Nancy-1 Univ., UMR 7566 G2R, 54 (France)


    Thirty-three samples of shales from the Lodeve Permian uranium deposit were examined by different analytical techniques. Samples were analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction and fractionation. The determination of uranium content was carried out by atomic emission spectrometry. The composition of the organic extracts allows two groups of shales to be distinguished: the first one is marked by a high proportion of aliphatic hydrocarbons and the second by the predominance of aromatic compounds. These two groups exhibit distinctive bio-marker characteristics. One group is characterized by (1) pristane/phytane ratios higher than 1, (2) distributions of terpanes dominated by the tri-cyclic terpanes and (3) the predominance of C{sub 29} and C{sub 28} steranes. The second group is marked by (1) pristane/phytane ratios lower than 1, (2) the predominance of the penta-cyclic terpanes over the tri-cyclic terpanes and (3) the predominance of C{sub 27} and C{sub 29} steranes. It is suggested that the differences observed are mainly related to different depositional environments, although the uranium content may also influence some parameters such as the hydrogen index and the extraction yield. (authors)

  10. Reduction of the greenhouse effect by geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO{sub 2} in basic rocks: bibliographic synthesis and possibilities in France. Final report; Reduction de l'effet de serre par sequestration geologique minerale in-situ de CO{sub 2} au sein de roches basiques: synthese bibliographique et revue des potentialites en France. Rapport final

    Marechal, J.C.; Lachassagne, P


    The report constitutes a first bibliographic study defining the environments the most adapted to the geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO{sub 2}. For each environment the lithology and the rocks permeability and porosity are analyzed. Thus the possible rocks and deposits in France are presented. (A.L.B.)

  11. CO{sub 2} storage in deep aquifers. Study in real conditions of cap-rock confinement properties and of their alteration; Stockage du CO{sub 2} dans les aquiferes profonds. Etude en conditions reellesdes proprietes de confinement des roches de couverture et de leur alteration

    Bachaud, P.


    A promising solution to reduce anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse effect gases consists in the injection and long-term storage of a part of the industrial carbon dioxide discharges in underground formations. These formations must be composed of a reservoir surrounded by tight cap-rocks, which represent the first barrier preventing fluids migration. The characterization of their confining properties and of their evolution in presence of CO{sub 2} is thus a key element regarding a storage site security. This work presents a methodology allowing the measurement of cap-rocks transport parameters and the consequences of an alteration under representative conditions of deep aquifers storage. This methodology was applied to carbonate rocks from the Paris basin. The breakthrough pressure, the diffusion coefficient of CO{sub 2} dissolution products,and the permeability, controlling parameters of leakage mechanisms, were measured before and after alteration of the materials by reaction with a CO{sub 2}-saturated brine under reservoir thermodynamic conditions (about 80 C and 100 bar). Results revealed a satisfactory global behaviour under these aggressive conditions, but also a strong diminution of the confinement potential in presence of initial structural faults (sealed fractures, large-diameter pores...) forming higher-permeability zones. A numeric simulation describing the evolution of a homogeneous rock formation during 1000 years was also realized based on parameters directly measured or obtained by modelling of the alteration experiments. It showed that the transformations brought by the CO{sub 2} storage under a rock formation with no initial faults remain very localized spatially. (author)

  12. Relations entre les types de dépôts évaporitiques et la présence de couches riches en matière organique (roches-mères potentielles Relationship Between Different Types of Evaporitic Deposits and the Occurrence of Organic-Rich Layers (Potential Source Rocks

    Busson G.


    Full Text Available La fertilité exceptionnelle des eaux salées est confirmée par des études récentes sur l'Actuel (marais salants de Méditerranée occidentale. Le benthos est représenté par des mollusques, foraminifères, ostracodes et surtout des cyanophycées et des populations bactériennes ; le plancton par le microphytoplancton (Dunaliella, diatomées, etc, par le zooplancton (flagellés, Arternia salina et par de très nombreuses bactéries hétérotrophes. Si les espèces sont d'autant plus rares que la salinité est élevée, la prolifération des formes adaptées peut atteindre des valeurs supérieures à celles réalisées dans la plupart des autres milieux. On rappelle ensuite l'efficacité des systèmes d'eaux stratifiées pour la conservation de la matière organique originellement élaborée dans l'eau photique et oxygénée. Ces systèmes peuvent s'accompagner de proliférations bactériennes photosynthétiques exposées à des mortalités en masse pouvant être responsables de véritables lamines organiques. Dans les évaporites de plates-formes où la ségrégation des salinités et des dépôts a été synchrone et latérale, la tranche d'eau a dû être faible et, de ce fait, peu favorable à l'établissement de systèmes d'eaux stratifiées et surtout à leur pérennité géologique. Ces accumulations s'avèrent donc en général pauvres en matière organique, de même qu'elles ne s'accompagnent pas d'appareils récifaux abondants. Dans les évaporites de centre de cuvette, les dépôts sont imputables à une succession de phases de salinité croissante dans le temps : calcaires sur les zones hautes, contemporains de minces couches à matière organique dans les dépressions ; sulfate de calcium sur les aires d'épaisseur moyenne pouvant être encore contemporain de couche à matière organique dans les aires déprimées ; enfin, remplissage par la halite des zones centrales profondes et déprimées. A ces phases successives, se superposent - au moins au cours de la formation des carbonates, puis des sulfates - des gradients de salinité verticaux (système d'eaux stratifiées. Cartographiquement, ces dépôts ont une polarité salin croissant centripète . Quand elles sont situées en contexte carbonaté, ces évaporites de centre de cuvette s'accompagnent fréquemment d'appareils récifaux pouvant fourmiller dans toute une ceinture annulaire (cf. Salina du Silurien du Michigan. Grâce aux minces couches à matière organique des zones déprimées, grâce aux appareils récifaux et grâce à la couverture salifère, ces bassins ont souvent une certaine prolificité en hydrocarbures. Le troisième type correspond aux évaporites de marge de bassin. Dans ce dispositif, le centre du bassin est resté affamé - voire insatiable - pendant de longues périodes. La sédimentation y est restée marine, souvent caractérisée par la seule présence du plancton et du necton et par une richesse plus ou moins permanente en matière organique. Autour de la cuvette s'organisent, sur des plates-formes marginales parfois fort étendues, des appareils construits (bancs ou récifs, puis des faciès lagunaires, carbonatés et évaporitiques et enfin des détritiques continentaux. Les dépôts montrent une polarité salin croissant centrifuge irréductiblement opposée à la polarité inverse des dépôts de centre de cuvette. Le déficit en les sels les plus solubles est remarquable voire considérable, impliquant le reflux de saumures en profondeur à partir de ces annexes évaporatoires qu'ont dû constituer ces plates-formes d'arrière-récifs. L'appel d'eau à partir de ces annexes évaporatoires n'a pu qu'amener un afflux permanent de nutriments dans tout le bassin. Le reflux des saumures quant à lui a favorisé la pérennité d'un système à deux corps d'eau. Grâce à cet ajustement et à la pérennité du système, la prolificité de tels bassins en matière organique a pu être extrêmement importante. Les évaporites de marge de bassin avec couches à matière organique au centre correspondent à une période prolongée. C'est l'essentiel de la vie du bassin. Le remplissage de la cuvette centrale par des évaporites de centre de bassin peut être un épisode bref et qui peut entraîner la disparition même du bassin. Les évaporites de plate-forme s'étalant indifféremment sur l'ancien domaine du bassin comme sur celui des anciennes plates-formes marginales peuvent être l'aube d'un nouveau cycle sédimentaire, indifférent au passé. The extraordinary fertility of saline waters has been confirmed by recent studies of salterns in the western Mediterranean. The benthos contains mollusks, foraminifers, ostracodes and especially Cyanophyceae and bacterial populations. Plankton includes microphytoplankton (Dunaliella, diatoms, etc. , zooplankton (flagellates, Artemia salina and numerous heterotrophic bacteria. Where diversity is low when salinity is high, the proliferation of well adapted forms can be greater than the productivity levels observed in most other environments. The effectiveness of stratified water bodies for the preservation of organic matter originally produced in photic and oxygenated water is brought out. Such stratified systems may be accompanied by the proliferation of photosynthetic bacteria that are exposed to sporadic mass mortality, resulting in the formation of organic laminae at the bottom. In shelf (or epeiric evaporites, where the segregation of salinities and deposits has been synchronous and lateral, the water depth must have been shallow and hence unsuitable for the formation of stratified water bodies and especially for their geological duration. Such accumulations thus generally have a low organic content, and they also do not have abundant reef systems. In basin-center evaporites, the deposits are attributed to a succession of phases of increasing salinity in time, i. e. limestone in high areas, contemporaneous with thin organic-rich layers in low areas (hollows, calcium sulfate in medium-thickness areas which may also be contemporaneous with organicrich layers in low areas, followed by infilling by halite in deep and low-lying central areas. Superposed on these successive phases - at least during the formation of carbonates then sulfates - are vertical salinity gradients (stratified water system. When mapped, such deposits have a centripetal increasing saline polarity. When they are situated in a carbonate context, such basin-center evaporites are often associated with reef systems that may have thrived as a ring-like belt (cf. Silurian Salina, Michigan. Because of the thin organic-rich layers in low-lying areas, reef systems and the salt overburden, such basins are often prolific with hydrocarbons. The third type of evaporitic deposits is represented by basin-margin evaporites. In such a system, the basin center remains starved - even insatiable - for long periods of time. Sedimentation remains marine, often characterized by the presence of plankton and nekton alone and by a more or less constantly high organic content. Around the basin, marginal shelves are built and are even sometimes quite wide, accompagnied by built-up systems (banks or reefs, then by lagoonal, carbonate and evaporitic facies, and finally by continental detritals. The deposits have a centrifugal increasing saline polarity that is irreducibly opposed to the reverse polarity of the basin-center deposits. The deficit in the most soluble salts is significant, even considerable, involving brine outflow downward from these evaporitic appendages that must have been formed by the back-reef shelves. The inflow of water from these evaporitic appendages can only be constantly accompanied by nutrients throughout the entire basin. The outflow of brines enhances the continuing existence of a system with two water bodies. Because of this adjustment and the durable nature of the system, the prolificity of such basins in organic matter may have been extremely high. The basin margin evaporites with organic-rich in the center indicate that the process was a long one. This is the main life of the basin. The filling of the central part by basin-center evaporites may be a brief episode and may even result in the very disappearance of the basin. The shelf evaporites spreading on both the former basin area and the former marginal shelves may be the start of new sedimentary cycle without any connection to the past.

  13. Experimental study of chemical-mechanical coupling during percolation of reactive fluid through rocks under stress, in the context of the CO{sub 2} geological sequestration; Etude experimentale du couplage chimie-mecanique lors de la percolation d'un fluide reactif dans des roches sous contrainte, dans le contexte de la sequestration geologique du CO{sub 2}

    Le Guen, Y


    CO{sub 2} injection into geological repositories will induce chemical and mechanical instabilities. The study of these instabilities is based on experimental deformation of natural rock samples under stress, in the presence of fluids containing, or not, dissolved CO{sub 2}. Triaxial cells used for the experiments permitted an independent control and measurement of stress, temperature, fluid pressure and composition. Vertical strains were measured during several months, with a resolution of 1.10{sup -12} s{sup -1} on the strain rate. Simultaneously, fluids were analysed in order to quantify fluid-rock interactions. For limestone samples, percolation of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids increases strain rate by a factor 1.7 up to 5; on the other hand, sandstone deformation remained almost the same. Increase in strain rate with limestone samples was explained by injected water acidification by the CO{sub 2} which increases rock solubility and reaction kinetics. On the opposite, small effect of CO{sub 2} on quartz explains the absence of deformation. X-ray observations confirmed the importance of rock composition and structure on the porosity evolution. Numerical simulations of rock elastic properties showed increasing shear stress into the sample. Measured deformation showed an evolution of reservoir rocks mechanical properties. It was interpreted as the consequence of pressure solution mechanisms both at grains contacts and on grain free surfaces. (author)

  14. POCT血糖仪与罗氏P-800全自动生化仪对血糖测定结果的比对分析%Comparative Analysis on Determination Results of Blood-glucose between POCT Blood Glucose Meter and Roche P-800 Full Automatic Biochemical Analyzer

    罗莞超; 陈斯亮; 龚宇锋


    目的 通过比对实验,验证POCT血糖仪与罗氏p-800检测血糖所得的数据的相关性与偏倚,观察两者差异与POCT血糖仪的结果能否被临床接受.方法 以罗氏P-800测定血清葡萄糖为标准方法,POCT血糖仪测定末稍血全血血糖为实验方法,检测由心内科、肾内科、呼吸内科提供的各20例标本,所得结果进行统计学分析.结果 经过统计学分析,在心内科、肾内科使用的POCT血糖仪符合比对要求,与罗氏P-800的相关性良好,相关系数r>0.95,偏倚符合卫生部要求;呼吸内科使用的POCT血糖仪不符合比对要求.结论 POCT血糖仪虽简便、快速,但需规范管理,以保证检测结果的准确性.

  15. Temperature effect on the poro-mechanical or hydraulic behaviour of a carbonated rock and a mortar: experimental studies; Influence de la temperature sur le comportement poromecanique ou hydraulique d'une roche carbonatee et d'un mortier: etudes experimentales

    Lion, M


    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the temperature effect on the hydraulic and poro-mechanical behaviour of a limestone. Many experimental tests (porosity and permeability measurements, uniaxial and hydrostatic compressions tests) were carried out in order to study the thermal treatments effect and so the thermal microcracking effect on rock behaviour. Moreover, an experimental device for permeability measurements under high temperatures (until 200 C) was realized. This experimental device permitted to study the permeability variation of the limestone under thermal stresses. Finally, the behaviour of cementitious materials was studied; the temperature effect on the permeability of a mortar was examined. (author)

  16. Clinical characterization of a competitive PCR assay for quantitative testing of hepatitis C virus.

    Miskovsky, E P; Carrella, A V; Gutekunst, K; Sun, C. A.; Quinn, T C; Thomas, D L


    Rational clinical application of quantitative assessments of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA depends on an understanding of factors affecting the assay and its intrinsic variability. The effects of three types of blood collection tubes, two storage temperatures, five processing times, and two laboratories on a commercially available quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay (AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR) were evaluated. HCV RNA concentrations were assessed in 356 specimens representing 178 aliquots fr...

  17. Detection of intrahepatic hepatitis B virus DNA and correlation with hepatic necroinflammation and fibrosis

    Wong, Danny Ka-Ho; Yuen, Man-Fung; Tse, Eric; Yuan, Hejun; Sum, Simon Siu-Man; Hui, Chee-Kin; Lai, Ching-Lung


    Assessment of intrahepatic hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B is important in understanding the natural history of the disease and designing antiviral therapy regimens. However, there is no standardized method for the measurement of intrahepatic HBV DNA levels. We describe a convenient novel method for the measurement of intrahepatic HBV DNA levels based on a modified COBAS Amplicor HBV Monitor test for HBV DNA measurement and real-time PCR β-actin gene de...

  18. Comparison of Two Measures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Load in HIV Risk Groups

    Lyles, Cynthia M.; Vlahov, David; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Astemborski, Jacquie; Margolick, Joseph B.; Masters, Beth A.; Schroeder, Jennifer; Quinn, Thomas C


    Levels of viral burden were compared across risk group and gender populations among 485 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected participants consisting of 190 male injection drug users (IDUs), 92 female IDUs, and 203 homosexual men. Viral burden was quantified by a microculture technique to determine cell-associated infectious units per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (IUPM) and by reverse transcriptase PCR (Amplicor) to determine plasma HIV RNA levels. Adjusting for CD4+ ...

  19. The Cobas® EGFR Mutation Test v2 assay.

    Brown, Paul


    Paul Brown speaks to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor: Paul Brown has served as the Head of Roche Molecular Diagnostics at Roche Diagnostics Corporation since February 2010 having previously held a variety of positions within Roche Pharma. After completing his doctorate in organic chemistry he was awarded a post-doctoral fellowship at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, CA, USA, but soon returned to his native UK to join Roche Pharma Research. Paul's first post within Roche was as group leader, doing drug discovery and making new small molecule drugs, but later moved into the business part of the company. Since then, he has enjoyed roles such as lifecycle leader for brands such as Tamiflu(®) and Xenical, vice president of sales and marketing of the pharmaceutical division and most recently general manager of Roche Pharma, Sweden. PMID:26838018

  20. Détermination et origine géologique de la matière première de l'industrie lithique du site magdalénien du Rocher de la Caille.

    Alix, Philippe; De Beaune, Sophie A.; Deloge, Huguette; Santallier, Danielle


    Les matières premières sélectionnées par les occupants du site magdalénien du Rocher de la Caille appartiennent aux deux grandes catégories des roches sédimentaires et des roches cristallines. Quelques analyses micrographiques sur lames minces ont été effectuées sur des roches volcaniques. Elles étaient majoritairement d'origine locale, ramassées à proximité du site ou dans un rayon d'une dizaine de kilomètres (galets en roches cristallines et granitiques provenant des alluvions de la Loire, ...

  1. Integrative Modeling of Caprock Integrity in the Context of CO2 Storage: Evolution of Transport and Geochemical Properties and Impact on Performance and Safety Assessment Modélisation intégrée de l’intégrité des roches de couverture dans le contexte du stockage du CO2 : évolution des propriétés de transport et impact sur les performances et la sûreté du stockage

    Bildstein O.


    Full Text Available The objective of the “Géocarbone-Intégrité” project (2005-2008 was to develop a methodology to assess the integrity of the caprock involved in the geological storage of CO2. A specific work package of the project (WP5 was dedicated to the integration of (1 the phenomenology describing the evolution of the storage system with a focus on the mechanisms occurring in the caprock and at the interface with the caprock, and (2 the data obtained from the investigation of petrographical, geomechanical, and geochemical properties, before and after reaction with CO2-rich solutions, performed in the other work packages (WP1 to WP4. This knowledge was introduced in numerical models and specific safety scenarios were defined in order to assess the performance of the CO2 storage system. The results of the modeling show that the injection of CO2 can potentially have a significant effect on the caprock by changing the porosity due to the dissolution and precipitation of minerals, but that the impact is limited to a zone from several decimeters to several meters of the caprock close to the interface with the reservoir depending on whether the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 plume enters into the caprock and if fractures are present at this location. The methodology used in this project can be applied to a pilot site for the injection of CO2 in the Paris Basin. A key aspect of the safety of such a facility will be to look at the coupling of geochemical alteration and the evolution of geomechanical properties in the short and medium terms (several hundreds of years. The challenge for the future will be to structure and apply the safety assessment methodology with an operational finality, in order to support the robustness of the transition step to CGS projects at the industrial scale. Le Volet 5 du projet « Géocarbone-Intégrité » visait à intégrer l’ensemble des mécanismes étudiés dans les quatre premiers volets du projet pour une évaluation de performance des couvertures et une étude de sûreté afin de s’assurer de leur préservation et de leur intégrité sur le long terme (de l’ordre du millénaire. L’objectif est, d’une part, d’aboutir à la construction d’un modèle phénoménologique multi-échelle global, puis à un modèle numérique décrivant le confinement du CO2 par les couvertures, et, d’autre part, de déterminer les performances du confinement en identifiant les processus clés et les paramètres les plus influents. Une première partie du programme a consisté en une intégration spatiale de l’ensemble des données phénoménologiques et structurales disponibles à la suite des travaux réalisés dans les différents volets (WP1 à WP4 et à la définition des scénarios types d’évolution du site de stockage (niveaux réservoirs et encaissants. Ce travail a permis de définir les cas tests à prendre en compte et de réaliser les calculs de performance par rapport aux scénarios d’injection et par rapport aux hétérogénéités majeures identifiées dans les niveaux de confinement (notamment les fractures. Les résultats montrent que l’injection de CO2 peut avoir un effet significatif, en altérant la porosité par dissolution et précipitation de minéraux, mais que l’impact est limité dans l’espace, de quelques décimètres à quelques mètres de l’interface réservoir-couverture, selon que la bulle de CO2 supercritique pénètre ou non dans la couverture et selon la présence ou l’absence de fractures. La prise en compte des résultats issus de l’analyse de sensibilité et l’analyse des incertitudes permettra de conduire des calculs de sûreté plus précis. Appliqués au futur site d’injection, ces calculs permettront d’évaluer la pérennité des propriétés de confinement des couvertures et de valider la qualité de confinement du site de stockage de CO2. Il conviendra notamment d’évaluer l’impact du couplage entre les phénomènes géochimiques et géomécaniques sur le court et moyen terme (de l’ordre de la centaine d’années. Le défi pour l’avenir est de structurer et d’appliquer la méthodologie de l’analyse de sûreté, en mettant en avant la finalité opérationnelle, de manière à assurer la robustesse de la transition vers les projets de CGS à l’échelle industrielle.

  2. Mise en place et cristallisation des massifs grenus et pegmatitoïdiques des volcans de l'Archipel de la Société, Polynésie française: étude texturale, minéralogique et géochimique des roches à texture grossière des îles de Tahiti Nui, Raiatea, Bora Bora et Maupiti

    Clement, Jean Philippe


    This first synthetic study of the coarse grained magmatic rocks from the Society islands results in forming two groups within the five sampled granular and pegmatoidic intrusions: i) the wide and lithologically complex plutonic bodies of Tahiti Nui and Raiatea; ii) the three small intrusions of Bora Bora and Maupiti. In Tahiti Nui, the emplacement of the coarse grained body could have been the cause of the volcano destabilisation, which has preceded the gravity landslide collapse of its north...

  3. ELi eesistujamaa Iirimaa ei tee Moskvale järeleandmisi / Erkki Bahovski

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-


    Iiri euroministri Dick Roche'i sõnul laieneb EL-i partnerlus- ja koostööleping Venemaaga kõigile uutele liikmesriikidele ning on oluline jõuda EL-i põhiseadusliku leppe osas üksmeelele. Vt. samas: Dick Roche'ile antakse Maarjamaa Risti I klass

  4. EPL-i ümarlaud : kõige olulisem on vähi varajane avastamine / Ille Grün-Ots

    Grün-Ots, Ille, 1960-2016


    Ümarlaual osalesid TÜ kliinikumi hematoloogia-onkoloogiakliiniku professor Hele Everaus, ravimifirma Roche Eesti OÜ tegevjuht Kadri Mägi, ravifirma GlaxoSmithKline Eesti filiaali juhataja Akshay Mody ja PERH-i keemiaravispetsialist Helis Pokker

  5. Book Reviews

    Bart Bechtel


    Full Text Available Fair Play: The Moral Dilemmas of Spying. By James M. Olson. The Corporate Spy: Industrial Espionage and Counterintelligence in the Multinational Enterprise with Case Studies (Abridged Version by Edward M. Roche.

  6. Equilibrium Configurations of Synchronous Binaries: Numerical Solutions and Application to Kuiper-Belt Binary 2001 QG298

    Gnat, Orly


    We present numerical computations of the equilibrium configurations of tidally-locked homogeneous binaries, rotating in circular orbits. Unlike the classical Roche approximations, we self-consistently account for the tidal and rotational deformations of both components, and relax the assumptions of ellipsoidal configurations and Keplerian rotation. We find numerical solutions for mass ratios q between 1e-3 and 1, starting at a small angular velocity for which tidal and rotational deformations are small, and following a sequence of increasing angular velocities. Each series terminates at an appropriate ``Roche limit'', above which no equilibrium solution can be found. Even though the Roche limit is crossed before the ``Roche lobe'' is filled, any further increase in the angular velocity will result in mass-loss. For close, comparable-mass binaries, we find that local deviations from ellipsoidal forms may be as large as 10-20%, and departures from Keplerian rotation are significant. We compute the light curves ...

  7. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  8. Tere tulemast tagasi, uue põlvkonna utopistid! / Veronika Valk

    Valk, Veronika, 1976-


    Francois Roche ja Eva Castro tulevikuarhitektuuri käsitlevatest ettekannetest Tallinna arhitektuuribiennaali raames toimunud sümpoosionil. Maketinäitus "Viini eksiilid. Helisev arhitektuur" Heliose kinos. Eksponeeritakse Viini Die Angewandte arhitektuurikoolis (juht Hani Rashid) õppivate eestlaste loomingut

  9. Vanemuine otsib teed head teatrit hindava vaatajani / Sven Karja ; interv. Margot Visnap

    Karja, Sven, 1968-


    Vanemuise eesseisvast hooajast. 27. sept. Tartu Sadamateatris esietendunud Donald Margulies' draamast "Kogutud teosed", lavastaja Eva Klemets; novembris esietendusvast Billy Roche'i "Vaene loom vihma käes", lavastaja Liisa Smith ja teistest uuslavastustest lühidalt

  10. 1st HPV Test for Use with Preservative Fluid

    ... 1st HPV Test for Use With Preservative Fluid Human papillomavirus ... Food and Drug Administration has approved Roche's cobas HPV Test -- the first diagnostic to be used with ...

  11. A clinical, epidemological, laboratorial, histological and ultrasonographical evaluation of anti-HCV EIA-2 positive blood donors Avaliação clínica, epidemiológica, laboratorial, histológica e ultrassonográfica de doadores de sangue anti-HCV EIA-2 positivos

    Fernando L. GONÇALES JR


    RIBA-2 positive subjects, in 37.5% of the indeterminate RIBA-2 donors and in 9% of the negative RIBA-2 donors. Chronic hepatitis has also been observed in 50% of the histopathological exams of the anti-HCV EIA-2 reagent donors which were indeterminate RIBA-2. Among 18 blood donors with minimal changes histopathological exam 11 (61% were HCV-RNA positive. Our blood donors anti-HCV reagent generally had clinical, laboratorial and histopathological features observed in patients with chronic HCV hepatitis and a high proportion could be identified in interviews and medical evaluation realized in blood blanks. Generally, these HCV infected donors are identified and discharged only by the serological tests results.Entre 1992 e 1997 foram avaliados, ambulatorialmente, 790 doadores de sangue com teste anti-HCV EIA-2 fortemente reagente (relação entre a densidade ótica da amostra / "cut-off" > 3, que haviam sido detectados na triagem sorológica do banco de sangue. Todos eram negativos para doença de Chagas, sífilis, hepatite B (HBsAg e AIDS. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas, na primeira consulta ambulatorial, para a realização de hemograma, exames bioquímicos e novos testes sorológicos para a HVC (anti-HCV EIA-2. Em 226 doadores anti-HCV EIA-2 repetidamente reagentes, realizou-se o teste suplementar de "immunoblot" para a HVC (RIBA-2. Em 209 doadores, pesquisou-se a presença do RNA do VHC pelo teste do PCR, através de exame automatizado (HCV-AMPLICOR, ROCHE. A ultra-sonografia abdominal foi realizada em 366 doadores e a biópsia hepática em 269 concordantes. Notou-se que 95,6% eram EIA-2 repetidamente reagentes, 94% eram assintomáticos e que apenas 2% referiram icterícia pregressa. Em 47% detectou-se, pelo menos, um fator de risco para a transmissão do VHC, sendo o uso de drogas E.V. o principal deles (27,8%. A transfusão de sangue foi o segundo fator na transmissão da HVC (27,2%. Hepatomegalia foi encontrada em 54%. Esplenomegalia e sinais de hipertens

  12. Agonistic behaviour of the termite Prorhinotermes canalifrons (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Roisin, Y.

    La Roche-en-Ardenne : -, 2008. s. 154. [IUSSI 2008. European Meeting of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects /4./. 30.08.2008-04.09.2008, La Roche-en-Ardenne] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600550614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : intercastes * defensive behaviour * pseudergates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Large-scale survey to describe acne management in Brazilian clinical practice

    Seité S; Caixeta C; Towersey L


    Sophie Seité,1 Clarice Caixeta,2 Loan Towersey3 1La Roche-Posay Dermatological Laboratories, Asnières, France; 2La Roche-Posay Dermatological Laboratories, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; 3AIDS Division, Hospital Municipal Carlos Tortelly, Niterói, RJ, Brazil Background: Acne is a chronic disease of the pilosebaceous unit that mainly affects adolescents. It is the most common dermatological problem, affecting approximately 80% of teenagers between 12 and 18 years of age. Dia...

  14. Large-scale survey to describe acne management in Brazilian clinical practice

    Seite, Sophie


    Sophie Seité,1 Clarice Caixeta,2 Loan Towersey3 1La Roche-Posay Dermatological Laboratories, Asnières, France; 2La Roche-Posay Dermatological Laboratories, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; 3AIDS Division, Hospital Municipal Carlos Tortelly, Niterói, RJ, Brazil Background: Acne is a chronic disease of the pilosebaceous unit that mainly affects adolescents. It is the most common dermatological problem, affecting approximately 80% of teenagers between 12 and 18 years...

  15. Comparison of commercial diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori antibodies.

    Schembri, M. A.; Lin, S K; Lambert, J R


    A number of serological tests measuring the presence of Helicobacter pylori-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) are now commercially available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical accuracy of five commercial H. pylori antibody tests: GAP-IgG (Biomerica), HELpTEST (AMRAD, Kew, Victoria, Australia), HELICO-G (Porton Cambridge), Pyloriset (Orion Diagnostica), and ROCHE (Roche Diagnostics). A total of 162 subjects presenting for routine upper endoscopy were studied. H. pylori was...

  16. The influence of juvenile hormone analogue upon inner anatomy in Prorhinotermes simplex

    Šobotník, Jan; Hanus, Robert; Weyda, František

    La Roche-en-Ardenne : -, 2008. s. 9. [IUSSI 2008. European Meeting of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects /4./. 30.08.2008-04.09.2008, La Roche-en-Ardenne] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : juvenile hormone analogue * intercastes * labial glands Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  17. Comparative ultrastructure of labial glands in artificial intercastes of Prorhinotermes simplex

    Šobotník, Jan; Hanus, Robert; Weyda, František

    La Roche-en-Ardenne : -, 2008. s. 175. [IUSSI 2008. European Meeting of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects /4./. 30.08.2008-04.09.2008, La Roche-en-Ardenne] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : juvenile hormone analogue * intercastes * soldier Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  18. Linear series on metrized complexes of algebraic curves

    Amini, Omid; Baker, Matthew


    A metrized complex of algebraic curves is a finite metric graph together with a collection of marked complete nonsingular algebraic curves, one for each vertex, the marked points being in bijection with incident edges. We establish a Riemann-Roch theorem for metrized complexes of curves which generalizes both the classical Riemann-Roch theorem and its graph-theoretic and tropical analogues due to Baker-Norine, Gathmann-Kerber, and Mikhalkin-Zharkov. We also establish generalizations of the se...

  19. Disentangling a complex tropical termite food web using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes

    Bourguignon, T.; Lepoint, G.; Šobotník, Jan; Roisin, Y.

    La Roche-en-Ardenne : -, 2008. s. 19. [IUSSI 2008. European Meeting of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects /4./. 30.08.2008-04.09.2008, La Roche-en-Ardenne] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1643 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termites * wood-feeding * humus-feeding * soil-feeding Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  20. Formation of Regular Satellites from Ancient Massive Rings in the Solar System

    Crida, A.; Charnoz, S.


    When a planetary tidal disk -like Saturn's rings- spreads beyond the Roche radius (inside which planetary tides prevent aggregation), satellites form and migrate away. Here, we show that most regular satellites in the solar system probably formed in this way. According to our analytical model, when the spreading is slow, a retinue of satellites appear with masses increasing with distance to the Roche radius, in excellent agreement with Saturn's, Uranus', and Neptune's satellite systems. This ...

  1. High-throughput sequencing offers insight into mechanisms of resource partitioning in cryptic bat species

    Razgour, Orly; Clare, Elizabeth L.; Zeale, Matt R. K.; Hanmer, Julia; Schnell, Ida Baerholm; Rasmussen, Morten; Gilbert, Thomas P.; Jones, Gareth


    Sympatric cryptic species, characterized by low morphological differentiation, pose a challenge to understanding the role of interspecific competition in structuring ecological communities. We used traditional (morphological) and novel molecular methods of diet analysis to study the diet of two cryptic bat species that are sympatric in southern England (Plecotus austriacus and P. auritus) (Fig. 1). Using Roche FLX 454 (Roche, Basel, CH) high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and uniquely tagged gen...

  2. Espionage French in Algeria in the modern and contemporary era: spy León Roch الجوسسة الفرنسية في الجزائر في العصر الحديث والمعاصر: الجاسوس ليون روش

    Djidel Aziz


    Full Text Available ليون روش الذي سنتناول جانباً من حياته في الجزائر قبل التحاقه بجيش الأمير (1832 - 1837 هو شخصية مغامرة يمتلك ذكاءً حادً وجرأة في نشاطه المستمر، ومما سهل له الأمر هو معرفته الجيدة للغة العربية التي تمكن من خلالها من فهم ذهنيات وعادات المسلمين، وأن يكون من ألمع الذين مروا على هيئة المترجمين العسكريين، والذين ساهموا في تقديم خدمات جليلة للجيش الإفريقي، وزيادة على تلك الخدمات التي قام بها في مجال الدبلوماسية في المغرب على أحسن وجه.

  3. Systematic review of the performance of HIV viral load technologies on plasma samples.

    Kimberly A Sollis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral load (VL monitoring is the standard of care in developing country settings for detecting HIV treatment failure. Since 2010 the World Health Organization has recommended a phase-in approach to VL monitoring in resource-limited settings. We conducted a systematic review of the accuracy and precision of HIV VL technologies for treatment monitoring. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A search of Medline and Embase was conducted for studies evaluating the accuracy or reproducibility of commercially available HIV VL assays. 37 studies were included for review including evaluations of the Amplicor Monitor HIV-1 v1.5 (n = 25, Cobas TaqMan v2.0 (n = 11, Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (n = 23, Versant HIV-1 RNA bDNA 3.0 (n = 15, Versant HIV-1 RNA kPCR 1.0 (n = 2, ExaVir Load v3 (n = 2, and NucliSens EasyQ v2.0 (n = 1. All currently available HIV VL assays are of sufficient sensitivity to detect plasma virus levels at a lower detection limit of 1,000 copies/mL. Bias data comparing the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, TaqMan v2.0 to the Amplicor Monitor v1.5 showed a tendency of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 to under-estimate results while the TaqMan v2.0 overestimated VL counts. Compared to the Amplicor Monitor v1.5, 2-26% and 9-70% of results from the Versant bDNA 3.0 and Abbott RealTime HIV-1 differed by greater than 0.5log10. The average intra and inter-assay variation of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 were 2.95% (range 2.0-5.1% and 5.44% (range 1.17-30.00% across the range of VL counts (2log10-7log10. CONCLUSIONS: This review found that all currently available HIV VL assays are of sufficient sensitivity to detect plasma VL of 1,000 copies/mL as a threshold to initiate investigations of treatment adherence or possible treatment failure. Sources of variability between VL assays include differences in technology platform, plasma input volume, and ability to detect HIV-1 subtypes. Monitoring of individual patients should be performed on the same

  4. CMV DNA e MRNA Pp67 nel monitoraggio del paziente sottoposto a trapianto di midollo osseo

    Maria Bonaria Goffi


    Full Text Available Primary infection of immunocompetent individuals does not lead to complication, but CMV is a major clinical problem in transplant recipients.Thus, it is important to use sensitive and specific diagnostic techniques to rapidly and accurately detect CMV infection and identify patients at risk of developing CMV disease. In the present study, CMV infection after bone marrow transplantation was monitored by two molecular biology assays: COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR and NUCLISENS CMV m-RNA pp67. CMV m-RNApp67 assay was found to show positivity later than CMV-DNA MONITOR. The increment of number of copies/ml agreed with the clinical symptoms of CMV infection. The quantitative results of the CMV MONTOR assay was more helpfull to select an antiviral strategy than the qualitative results of NUCLISENS m-RNA pp67 assay.

  5. Effect of Antiviral Therapy on Serum Activity of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    Husic-Selimovic, Azra; Sofic, Amela; Huskic, Jasminko; Bulja, Deniz


    Introduction: Renin-angiotenzin system (RAS) is frequently activated in patients with chronic liver disease. Angiotenzin - II (AT-II), produced by angiotenzin converting enzyme (ACE), has many physiological effects, including an important role in liver fibrogenesis. Combined antiviral therapy with PEG-IFN and ribavirin besides its antiviral effect also leads to a reduction in liver parenchyma fibrosis. Aim of the study: Determining the value of ACE in serum of patients with chronic hepatitis C before and after combined antiviral therapy, as well as the value of ACE activities in sera of the control group. Materials and methods: We studied 50 patients treated at Gastroenterohepatology Department, in the time-period of four years. Value of ACE in serum was determined by Olympus AU 400 device, with application of kit “Infinity TN ACE Liquid Stable Reagent”. HCV RNA levels in sera were measured by real time PCR. HCV RNA test was performed with modular analysis of AMPLICOR and COBAS AMPLICOR HCV MONITOR test v2.0, which has proved infection and was used for quantification of the viruses and monitoring of the patients’ response to therapy. Liver histology was evaluated in accordance with the level of necroinflammation activity and stage of fibrosis. Results: Serum activities of ACE in chronic hepatitis C patients is statistically higher than the values in the control group (p=0.02). Antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients statistically decreases serum activities of ACE (p= 0.02) and indirectly affects fibrogenesis of the liver parenchyma. Correlation between ACE and ALT activity after the therapy was proved (0.3934). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the activity of ACE in serum is a good indirect parameter of the liver damage, and could be used as an indirect prognostic factor of the level of liver parenchyma damage. Serum activity of ACE can be used as a parameter for non-invasive assessment of intensity of liver damage. PMID:27147779

  6. Viral blips during long-term treatment with standard or double dose lamivudine in HBe antigen negative chronic hepatitis B


    AIM: To evaluate safety and effect on hepatitis B virus (HBV) suppression of a long-term treatment with lamivudine (LAM) at standard (100 mg/d) or double (200 mg/d) dose in chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: This was a case study with matched controls (1:3) in patients with chronic hepatitis B with anti-Hbe antibodies. RESULTS: Twelve patients received LAM 200 mg/d and 35 LAM 100 mg/d, for a median of 28 mo. A primary response (PR; I.e. Negative HBV-DNA with Amplicor assay) was achieved in 100% of LAM-200 patients and 83% of LAM-100 patients. A virological breakthrough occurred in 16.7 and 24.7%, respectively, of the PR-patients, with the appearance of typical LAM resistance mutations in all but one patient. Viremia blips (I.e. Transient HBV-DNA below 80 IU/Ml in patients who tested negative at Amplicor assay) were detected using a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and occurred in seven out of nine patients with subsequent BT and in four out of 32 patients with end-of-study response (77.7% vs 12.5%; P = 0.001) at chi-square test). At the end of the study, 51.4% of LAM-100 patients and 83.3% of LAM-200 patients had remained stably HBV-DNA negative. Double-dose LAM was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Long-term treatment of anti-Hbe positive chronic hepatitis B with double dose lamivudine causes a more profound and stable viral suppression as compared to conventional treatment.

  7. Hepatitis C virus RNA assays: a comparison of SuperQuant and Monitor.

    Hadziyannis, E; Hadziyannis, A; Yen-Lieberman, B; Kiwi, M L; Hodnick, S; Spanou, F; Starkey, C; Younossi, Z M


    Hepatitis C RNA testing has been used extensively to assess the efficacy of antiviral therapy and has increasingly become an integral part of clinical management of patients with chronic hepatitis C. A variety of commercially available hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA tests are used to detect HCV RNA qualitatively or quantitatively. These commercial tests have fundamental differences that are reflected on the values they generate. We compared two widely used assays, HCV SuperQuant (SQ) and Amplicor HCV Monitor (M1 and M2), in sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C. A total of 506 sera from 79 patients were tested with both assays. The data were logarithmically transformed and analyzed by linear regression and measurement of agreement. Two hundred thirty-eight sera had HCV RNA values within the dynamic range of both assays. The correlation between the assays was fair, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.699. Overall, SQ generated higher values than M1 with a mean difference of 0.558 log (SD = 0.624). One hundred ninety-four (38%) and 121 (24%) of the sera were below the dynamic range of M1 and SQ, respectively. Seventy-three sera, undetectable by M1, were positive by SQ. The Amplicor HCV Monitor 2.0 (M2) was performed in 66 sera. All were positive by SQ and M2, but only 38 were within the dynamic range of M1. The correlations between these tests were good (r = 0.68-0.78), but the agreement was rather poor. In conclusion, this study confirms that both SQ and M2 are more sensitive than M1. Additionally, our results show rather poor agreements between these assays. The recent attempts in standardizing the reporting of these assays should make their results more easily interchangeable. PMID:11418790

  8. Tidal disruption of satellites and formation of narrow rings

    Leinhardt, Zoe M; Latter, Henrik N; Kokubo, Eiichiro


    In this paper we investigate the formation of narrow planetary rings such as those found around Uranus and Saturn through the tidal disruption of a weak, gravitationally bound satellite that migrates within its Roche limit. Using $N$-body simulations, we study the behaviour of rubble piles placed on circular orbits at different distances from a central planet. We consider both homogeneous satellites and differentiated bodies containing a denser core. We show that the Roche limit for a rubble pile is closer to the planet than for a fluid body of the same mean density. The Roche limit for a differentiated body is also closer to the planet than for a homogeneous satellite of the same mean density. Within its Roche limit, a homogeneous satellite totally disrupts and forms a narrow ring. The initial stages of the disruption are similar to the evolution of a viscous fluid ellipsoid, which can be computed semi-analytically. On the other hand, when a differentiated satellite is just within the Roche limit only the ma...

  9. The Size of the Emitting Region in the Magnetic Eclipsing Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Andrych, Kateryna D


    We discuss a method for determination of the size of the emitting region close to the compact star in a binary system with eclipses by a secondary, which fills its Roche lobe. The often used approach is to model the Roche lobe by a sphere with the "effective radius" corresponding to the volume of the Roche lobe. This approach leads to a 4-6% overestimate of the radius, if taking into account the angular dimensions of the Roche lobe seen form the compact star. Andronov (1992) had shown that the projection of the Roche lobe onto the celestial sphere is close to an ellipse and had tabulated these dimensions as a function of the mass ratio. Also he published the coefficients of the approximation similar to that of the Eggleton (1983) for the "sphere corresponding to the same volume". We compare results obtained for the "circle+circle", "ellipse+circle" and "ellipse+point" approximations of the projections of the red dwarf and a white dwarf, respectively. Results are applied to the recently discovered eclipsing po...

  10. Conditions d'apparition et formes de rebond d'un outil de forage tricône Conditions of Appearance and Forms of Lift-Off Dynamics (Bit Bouncing) for a Roller Cone Drill Bit

    Putot C.; Mabile C.


    Le mode de vibration longitudinal du train de tiges peut, dans certaines conditions de forage, dégénérer en rebond avec séparation périodique à l'interface outil tricône, roche; il va de soi que ce comportement doit être évité. En présence de roches compactes, on a coutume d'associer le rebond à la présence d'un motif à l'interface roche-outil, dit motif trilobé en raison de sa symétrie ternaire. Il se matérialise par une ondulation périodique, sensiblement sinusoïdale, du front d'abattage. E...

  11. Formation of the Double Neutron Star System PSR J1930$-$1852

    Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong


    The spin period (185 ms) and period derivative ($1.8\\times10^{-17}\\,\\rm s\\,s^{-1}$) of the double neutron star (DNS) system PSR J1930$-$1852 recently discovered indicate that the pulsar was mildly recycled through the process of Roche-lobe overflow. This system has the longest orbital period (45 days) of the known DNS systems, and can be formed from a helium star-NS binary if the initial mass of the helium star was $ \\lesssim 4.0M_{\\odot} $; otherwise the helium star would never fill its Roch...

  12. Multilaboratory Comparison of Hepatitis C Virus Viral Load Assays

    Caliendo, A M; Valsamakis, A.; Zhou, Y.; Yen-Lieberman, B; Andersen, J; Young, S.; Ferreira-Gonzalez, A; Tsongalis, G. J.; Pyles, R.; Bremer, J W; Lurain, N. S.


    We report a multilaboratory evaluation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load assays to determine their linear range, reproducibility, subtype detection, and agreement. A panel of HCV RNA samples ranging in nominal concentration from 1.0 to 7.0 log10 IU/ml was constructed by diluting a clinical specimen (genotype 1b). Replicates of the panel were tested in multiple laboratories using the Abbott TaqMan analyte-specific reagent (Abbott reverse transcription-PCR [RT-PCR]), Roche TaqMan RUO (Roche...

  13. Improved method for recovery of peritonitis-causing microorganisms from peritoneal dialysate.

    Ryan, S.; Fessia, S


    The efficacy of recovery of peritonitis-causing microorganisms from peritoneal dialysate fluid by using the Septi-Chek blood culture system (Roche Diagnostics, Div. Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, N.J.) was compared with those of other conventional techniques, such as the 20-ml culture and the filtration methods. The recovery of microorganisms by using the Septi-Chek system was found to be as effective as the filtration of 250 ml of dialysate that used a modified Millipore filtration techniqu...

  14. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by facilities that use the energy of aquifers or of underground rocks and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to electricity; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie des nappes aquiferes ou des roches souterraines et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite



    This model of contract comprises 2 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (payment and payment indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from March 13, 2002, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). (J.S.)

  15. Validation of a norovirus multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of norovirus GI and GII from faeces samples.

    Jones, S


    Norovirus is a leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis. The virus is highly contagious and has multiple modes of transmission, presenting a growing challenge to hospital-based healthcare. In this study, a total of 120 stool samples are tested for the presence of norovirus GI and GII by the Roche two-step Lightcycler 2.0 assay incorporating primers and probes produced by TIB Molbiol, and the results are compared with results from the National Virus Reference Laboratory. The Roche\\/TIB Molbiol assay produced 51 positive results and 69 negative results. Discrepancy analysis was performed for six conflicting results using a second real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (Roche\\/TIB Molbiol) and this confirmed that four of the five discrepant positive results were true positives. A single discrepant negative result generated by the Roche assay remained negative using the second assay. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to be 98%, 98.6%, 98.0% and 98.6%, respectively. Melting curve analysis was used to differentiate genogroups I and II and this showed that 92% of strains belonged to genogroup II.

  16. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    Keek, L.


    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes

  17. Fast and robust methods for full genome sequencing of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Type 1 and Type 2

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Fahnøe, Ulrik;

    on primary material and cell culture adapted viruses and the protocols were shown to perform well on all three NGS platforms tested (Roche 454 FLX, Illumina HiSeq 2000, and Ion Torrent PGM™ Sequencer). To complete the sequences at the 5’ end, 5’ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5’ RACE) was conducted...

  18. Les Basaltes de l’Atlas de Béni-Mellal (Haut Atlas Central, Maroc : un Volcanisme Transitionnel Intraplaque Associé aux Stades de L’évolution Géodynamique du Domaine Atlasique

    Jaouad Guezal


    Full Text Available Les roches basaltiques de l’Atlas de Béni-Mellal (Haut-Atlas Central, Maroc, mises en place, dans les différents bassins synclinaux de la région, se manifestent en deux horizons volcaniques B1 et B2. Les deux événements éruptifs sont d’âge Jurassique moyen pour les coulées de l’horizon B1 et d’âge Crétacé inférieur pour celles de l’horizon B2. Les roches sont caractérisées par un faciès des basaltes à olivines. La composition de leurs clinopyroxènes est marquée par deux tendances : augite au niveau des basaltes à olivine du B1 et diopside au niveau de ceux du B2. La composition géochimique sur roche totale dévoile le caractère transitionnel de ces roches. La relative dissimilitude géochimique signalée au niveau des basaltes des deux horizons peut être expliquée par un début du changement de la nature du magmatisme de la région en relation avec l’évolution géodynamique du domaine atlasique.

  19. Complete plastid genome sequence of Vaccinium macrocarpon: structure, gene content and rearrangements revealed by next generation sequencing

    The complete plastid genome sequence of the American cranberry was reconstructed using next-generation sequencing data by in silico procedures. We used Roche 454 shotgun sequence data to isolate cranberry plastid-specific sequences of the cultivar ‘HyRed’ via homology comparisons with complete seque...

  20. Nonlinear Time Series Analysis via Neural Networks

    Volná, Eva; Janošek, Michal; Kocian, Václav; Kotyrba, Martin

    This article deals with a time series analysis based on neural networks in order to make an effective forex market [Moore and Roche, J. Int. Econ. 58, 387-411 (2002)] pattern recognition. Our goal is to find and recognize important patterns which repeatedly appear in the market history to adapt our trading system behaviour based on them.

  1. Arakelov theory of noncommutative arithmetic surfaces

    Borek, Thomas


    The purpose of this paper is to initiate Arakelov theory in a noncommutative setting. More precisely, we are concerned with noncommutative arithmetic surfaces. We introduce a version of arithmetic intersection theory on noncommutative arithmetic surfaces and we prove an arithmetic Riemann-Roch theorem in this setup.

  2. Genome Wide Characterization of Simple Sequence Repeats in Cucumber

    The whole genome sequence of the cucumber cultivar Gy14 was recently sequenced at 15× coverage with the Roche 454 Titanium technology. The microsatellite DNA sequences (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) in the assembled scaffolds were computationally explored and characterized. A total of 112,073 SSRs ...

  3. Brill–Noether theory of squarefree modules supported on a graph


    We investigate the analogy between squarefree Cohen- Macaulay modules supported on a graph and line bundles on a curve. We prove a Riemann–Roch theorem, we study the Jacobian and gonality of a graph, and we prove Clifford’s theorem.


    Fish usually show increased tolerance to metals in solution if proviously given an opportunity to acclimate to near lethal concentrations of the metal (Dixon and Sprngue 1981a; McCarter and Roch 1983; Bradley et al. 1985; Chapman 1985), and tolerence has been correlated with an i...

  5. Vplyv sieťovania na kompatibilitu zmesí PHB/PCL

    Janigová, I.; Miková, G.; Lednický, František

    Bratislava : Ústav polymérov, 2004, s. 45-47. [Slovensko-české dni o polyméroch /3./. Smolenice (SK), 26.09.2004-29.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : peroxidative crosslinking * polymer compatibility * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. Disease: H01221 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available the epithelium are the hallmarks of EBMD. Most patients are asymptomatic before ...roche L, Abitbol M, Schorderet DF A subset of patients with epithelial basement membrane corneal dystrophy have mutations in TGFBI/BIGH3. Hum Mutat 27:553-7 (2006) ...

  7. The American cranberry mitochondrial genome reveals the presence of selenocysteine (tRNA-Sec and SECIS) insertion machinery in land plants

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) mitochondrial genome was assembled and reconstructed from whole genome 454 Roche GS-FLX and Illumina shotgun sequences. Compared with other Asterids, the reconstruction of the genome revealed an average size mitochondrion (459,678 nt) with comparat...

  8. Sandy Point Fun Run: A Context for Understanding and Using Scale

    Roche, Anne


    In the middle years of school, it is important that mathematics is challenging, engaging and focuses on worthwhile mathematics. In this article, Anne Roche describes a lesson that seemed to have all three of these characteristics, as students grappled with issues of scale to create a fun run, given a range of challenging mathematical constraints.…

  9. First-line chemoimmunotherapy with bendamustine and rituximab versus fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab in patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL10)

    Eichhorst, Barbara; Fink, Anna-Maria; Bahlo, Jasmin;


    . The final analysis was done by intention to treat. The study is registered with, number NCT%2000769522. FINDINGS: 688 patients were recruited between Oct 2, 2008, and July 11, 2011, of which 564 patients who met inclusion criteria were randomly assigned. 561 patients were included......: Roche Pharma AG, Mundipharma, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research....

  10. Pharmaceutical quality of nine generic orlistat products compared with Xenical(r).

    Taylor, P.W.; Arnet, I; Fischer, A; Simpson, I N


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the pharmaceutical quality of Xenical (chemically produced orlistat) with nine generic products, each produced by fermentation processes. METHODS: Xenical 120 mg capsules (Roche, Basel, Switzerland) were used as reference material. Generic products were from India, Malaysia, Argentina, Philippines, Uruguay, and Taiwan. Colour, melting temperature, crystalline form, particle size, capsule fill mass, active pharmaceutical ingredient content, amount of impurities, and disso...