WorldWideScience

Sample records for 001-009 cuba 1980-1999

  1. Cuba.

    1985-08-01

    Cuba's population characteristics, geography, history, government, political conditions, and foreign relations were briefly described. Cuba, the largest island in the East Indies, has a tropical climate and is made up of a large area of rolling plains and a smaller mountainous region. Cuba's current population of 9.946 million (1983) is 70% urban and 30% rural. The annual population growth rate is 1.1%. The literacy rate among those aged 10-49 years is 96%, and school is compulsory for 6 years. The infant mortality rate is 21/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 74.7 years. 47% of the work force is engaged in industry and commerce, 28% in services and government, and 25% in agriculture. Since the revolution, Cuba has had a centrally planned, nonmarket economy. Large state enterprises run all segments of the economy, and economic policy is formulated by a central planning board. Farmers are allowed to privately market some of their produce. The government provide a wide range of social services. Most of the services are free, but some entail a minimal fee. Cuba's economy is depressed and overly dependent on the production of sugar. Since the revolution, Cuba's sugar production has increased by only 1.1% annually. In addition to sugar production, the country is engaged in some food processing and other light forms of industry. Cuba has a large reserve of nickle. Cuba's economic indicators are calculated differently than those used in market countries and are not comparable to those used in market countries. In 1983, disposable national income was US$15.8 billion, and per capita income was US$2,590. Cuba's imports exceed her exports. In 1983 exports totalled US$6.5 billion and imports amounted to US$7.2 billion. Cuba's foreign debt is increasing annually, and Cuba is highly dependent on economic assistance from Russia. Between 1961-83, the USSR provided Cuba with US$30 billion in economic aid and US$10 billion in military aid. The country's serious economic

  2. CUBA

    C. F. de la Fé

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Ferias Locales de Agrobiodiversidad en su sentido más amplio se inician en Cuba a finales de 1999, con la celebración de la Primera Feria de Maíz en áreas del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA enmarcada en el Pro- yecto Cubano de Fitomejoramiento Participativo (PCFP. Como respuesta a la importancia que el desarrollo de las Ferias de Agrobiodiversidad tienen en la diversificación de la base varietal sobre la que se sustenta la seguridad alimentaria y de mercado de los agricultores cubanos y sus perspectivas de generaliza- ción en diferentes cultivos y regiones del país es que se ha tenido a bien la elaboración de la presente guía metodológica, con el objetivo de compartir las experiencias adquiridas por un colectivo de investigadores del INCA, de manera que en algu- na medida pueda con ello contribuirse a la conservación y ampliación de la diversidad de los recursos fitogenéticos de los agricultores cubanos. El documento se halla subdividido en dos secciones principales. En la primera, “Generalidades sobre las ferias de agrobiodiversidad’’, se ofrece una informa- ción resumida sobre tópicos tales como: definición y tipos de ferias, experiencias en el desarrollo de ferias en otros países, las ferias de agrobiodiversidad en otros países, las ferias de agrobiodiversidad en Cuba y términos asociados a estas, mien- tras que en su segunda sección, se presenta lo más detallada- mente posible la guía para su organización y desarrollo en Cuba. A lo largo de la misma, el usuario puede hallar informa- ción precisa sobre los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta. En el orden de presentación de cada aspecto contemplado se ha tratado de mantener un orden lógico de organización de modo que facilite aún más el trabajo de los usuarios.

  3. Cuba now

    Catherine A. Sunshine

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Cuba reader: the making of a revolutionary society. PHILIP BRENNER, WILLIAM M. LEOGRANDE, DONNA RICH, and DANIEL SIEGEL (eds.. New York: Grove Press, 1989. xxxv + 564 pp. (Paper US $14.95. Cuba: the test of time. JEAN STUBBS. London: Latin America Bureau, 1989. xvii + 142 pp. (Paper UK £3.95. Cuba: politics, economics and society. MAX AZICRI. London: Pinter Publishers Ltd., 1988. xxiii + 276 pp. (Cloth US $35.00, Paper US $12.50. Cuba libre: breaking the chains? PETER MARSHALL. Boston: Faber & Faber, 1987. viii + 300 pp. (Cloth US $18.95. The closest of enemies: a personal and diplomatic account of U.S.-Cuban relations since 1957. WAYNE S. SMITH. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Co., 1987. 308 pp. (Paper US $8.95. Imperial state and revolution: the United States and Cuba, 1952-1986. MORRIS H. MORLEY. New Rochelle, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987. ix + 571 pp. (Paper US $16.95, Cloth US $59.50. From confrontation to negotiation: U.S. relations with Cuba. PHILIP BRENNER. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1988. x + 118 pp. (Cloth US $30.00, Paper US $9.95. Nineteen eighty-eight marked the completion of the Cuban revolution's third decade. Several events that year suggested that Cubans might finally look forward to a lessening of the island's international isolation, if not its domestic economic woes. The revolution had survived eight years of hostility from the Reagan administration. Washington's attempts to secure international censure of Cuba on human rights grounds had culminated in the visit of a United Nations delegation, at Havana's invitation and with relatively little damage to Cuba's image. Fidel Castro's visits to Ecuador and Mexico to attend the inaugurations of two Latin American presidents underscored Cuba's reinsertion into the hemispheric community. Finally, Cuban military successes against South African troops in Angola and Cuba's role in the subsequent negotiations over Angola and Namibia

  4. Farm Production Growth in the Upper and Middle Parts of the Yellow River Basin, China, During 1980-1999

    LI Xiang-lian; LUO Yu-zhou; GAO Qiong; DONG Suo-cheng; YANG Xiu-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The impact of inputs on farm production growth was evaluated by analyzing the economic data of the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin,China for the period of 1980-1999.Descriptive statistics were employed to characterize the temporal trends and spatial patterns in farm production and five pertinent inputs of cultivated cropland,irrigation ratio, agricultural labor,machinery power and chemical fertilizer.Stochastic frontier production function was applied to quantify the dependence of the farm production on these inputs.The growth of farm production was decomposed to reflect the contributions by input growths and change in total factor productivity,The change in total factor productivity was further decomposed into the changes in technology and in technical efficiency.The gross value of farm production in the region of study increased by 1.6 fold during 1980-1999.Among the five selected farm inputs,machinery power and chemical fertilizer increased by 1.8 and 2.8 fold,respectively.The increases in cultivated cropland,irrigated cropland,and agricultural labor were all less than 0.16 fold.The growth in the farm production was primarily contributed by the increase in the total factor productivity during 1980-1985,and by input growths after 1985.More than 80%of the contributions by input growths were attributed to the increased application of fertilizer and machinery.In the change of total factor productivity,the technology change dominated over the technical efficiency change in the study period except in the period of 1985-1990,implying that institution and investment played important roles in farm production growth.There was a decreasing trend in the technical efficiency in the region of study,indicating a potential to increase farm production by improving the technical efficiency in farm activities.Given the limited natural resources in the basin,the results of this study suggested that,for a sustainable growth of farm production in the area

  5. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  6. Tsunamis in Cuba?

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  7. How Cuba Fought Illiteracy

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    This article describes the successful effort to reduce illiteracy in Cuba by sending young student teachers into the rural areas to teach reading to workers in isolated spots throughout the country. (JD)

  8. Cuba na OEA

    Antônio Carlos Lessa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A Organização dos Estados Americanos abriu caminho para o possível retorno de Cuba à organização, pondo fim à medida que por 47 anos baniu os países comunistas e era o mais importante sinal do isolamento de Cuba na região. 

  9. An Island Called Cuba

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  10. Nuclear cardiology in Cuba

    This paper is a brief summary of the Nuclear Cardiology history in Cuba, mentioning the current main mortality causes, the usefulness and results of nuclear tests among the imaging techniques nowadays used in Cardiology, including gated-SPECT, PET and hybrid imaging combining anatomical and functional information. This paper also reviews our present worldwide performance in Nuclear Cardiology, with emphasis on our development and future trends, and proposes some recommendations. (author)

  11. Cuba on our minds

    Charles Rutheiser

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Conversatons with Cuba. C. PETER RIPLEY. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1999. xxvi + 243 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 Real Life in Castro's Cuba. CATHERINE MOSES. Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 2000. xi + 184 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 The Cuban Way: Capitalism, Communism, and Confrontation. ANA JULIA JATAR-HAUSMANN. West Hartford CT: Kumarian Press, 1999. xvii + 161 pp. (Paper US$21.95 Castro and the Cuban Revolution. THOMAS M. LEONARD. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. xxv + 188 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Cuba has attracted a great deal of attention from both scholarly and popular authors since 1959. The literature that they have produced has generated much heat, but has shed a considerably smaller amount of light. Most accounts have been situated at the polar extremes of ideology, either condemning or celebrating the island's revolutionary experiment and its maximum leader (for the former is often virtually totally collapsed into the personage of Fidel Castro with the same degrees of vociferous, simplistic certitude. However, neither the fulminating diatribes of the anti-Castro Right nor the fulsome paeans of the Euro-American Left have done much justice to making sense of the complex, confounding, and contradictory realities of Cuban society before, during, and after the Revolution. Indeed, contemporary developments have only magnified the distortions rendered by the astigmatic lenses of cold war intellectualism.

  12. Sea level rise threatens Cuba

    The article surveys the results of studies of climatic changes on Cuba and gives views on temperature rise up to the year 2100. The land studies have reviewed effects and adaptations in six sectors: The water resources, the coastal areas and fisheries, agriculture and forestry, biomass and habitation. Potential adaptations to the effects of the climatic changes are discussed. Some facts about Cuba are presented

  13. Contratados peninsulares para Cuba

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Ante las presiones británicas, la metrópoli española y los ideólogos de los hacendados cubanos tuvieron que dar, desde la tercera década del siglo XIX, una respuesta a la previsible escasez de mano de obra esclava. El artículo estudia los sistemas de contrata implantados en la isla para abastecer de mano de obra blanca y barata a Cuba, deteniéndose particularmente la autora en el estudio de las condiciones de semiesclavitud que se escondían en las mencionadas contratas y en el perfil de los inmigrantes (profesiones, sexo, edad, procedencia....

  14. Peat resources in Cuba

    During the last few years the drastic cut in oil supply provoked a critical situation in Cuba. The shortage of domestic oil production and the absence of alternative energy sources, such as wide rivers and coal deposits, drove us to decide that the most promising option was to develop our huge peat deposits. However, there are problems concerning skills and finance. This report reviews the potential for peat development to date in the Cuban territory. The figures and characteristics are partly taken from the surveys done by the Russian and Cuban specialists during the 60's. There is some new data compiled from the work done more recently in some of the Cuban peat deposits. The conditions for draining and harvesting are very challenging and difficult if the peat deposits are to be developed without doing any unnecessary damage to the fragile environment of Cuban wetlands. However, if the required financing and skills are available, the work can be carried out and significant risks avoided

  15. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  16. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its represe...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  17. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  18. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

    Rosario Bernal Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada a cabo de un estudio referativo sobre el envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba, cuyos objetivos son, profundizar en las diferentes aristas del tema así como valorar las dimensiones del mismo, para lo cual se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico y empírico. Entre los resultados obtenidos se encuentra diseño de un trabajo referativo que abarca doce dimensiones del envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba. La realización de este documento facilita el estudio del tema ya que permite profundizar en el contenido sobre Adulto Mayor visto como un sistema desde múltiples aristas.

  19. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  20. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

    Rosario Bernal Sánchez; Blanca R. Tejeda Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada...

  1. Through the looking glass on Cuba

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba. Antonio Carmona Báez. Sterling VA: Pluto Press, 2004. vii + 264 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Miguel A. de la Torre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. xi + 181 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 By Heart/De Memoria: Cuban Women’s Journeys in and out of Exile. María de los Angeles Torres (ed.. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2003. vii + 192 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Looking at Cuba: Essays on Culture and Civil Society. Rafael Hernández. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. vii + 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 In the politically charged world of scholarship on Cuba, it is salutary to comment in one review essay on four quite different volumes, each complementing the others. Three are single-authored, two on island Cuba (by Antonio Carmona Báez and Rafael Hernández and one on Miami (by Miguel A. de la Torre. All three draw on theory and concepts and are male-authored and place-centric (Cuba/Miami. The fourth (by María de los Angeles Torres is an edited collection of the personal testimonies of women seeking a place in between the hardened politics of Cuba and Miami.

  2. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects

  3. Cuba: The Sleeping Caiman of the Caribbean

    Gámez Garcell, Tamila, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Cuban society has for decades been characterized by its egalitarian policies. In recent years, Cuba has initated a process of privitization which has enabled capitalist initiatives in the country. This master thesis has the objective to analyze the general business environment prevalent in Cuba and find opportunities for possible investors in the Cuban market and ways of entry which are available at the moment. Qualitative research, (specifically a desk research) is the primary method use...

  4. Cuba y su Medio Ambiente Marino

    Carrillo C., E.; Contreras, J

    1998-01-01

    Cuba y su archipìélago de islas y atolones representan el complejo de islas más grande del Caribe (110,860 km2). Los recursos marinos, que incluyen las tortugas de ese medio, son una fuente importante de alimento y comercio de exportación para la población casi estable de Cuba de 10.96 millones de habitantes (0.21%, tasa anual de incremento en 1994).

  5. Cuba: A Short Critical Bibliographic Guide

    Basosi, Duccio

    An island with a population of approximately eleven million citizens, Cuba has been the topic of a huge amount of books and articles by scholars, politicians, artists, tourists and—why not?—foreign undercover agents. A random search in a well-known on-line bookshop gives some 118,000 results for the island's name. In brief, to present a selection of basic works on Cuba is a very harsh task that necessarily leads to difficult choices.

  6. Book review: The economic war against Cuba

    Wingrove, Paul

    2013-01-01

    "The Economic War Against Cuba." Salim Lamrani. Monthly Review Press. April 2013. --- Salim Lamrani aims to explains some of the essential background to the U.S. economic sanctions against Cuba: their origins, their provisions, how they contravene international law, and how they affect the lives of Cubans. Although not detailed enough for an academic audience, this book does offer a short chronicle and discussion of some of the key events and consequences of more than fifty years of American ...

  7. Becoming a Chemist in Cuba

    Taft, Hessy L.

    2003-08-01

    Education in Cuba is a national priority. Overall, the population is skilled and motivated to use all available resources; furthermore teachers are dedicated and focused on their mission. This paper reports on information obtained as a result of visits to several secondary schools and three premier institutions of higher learning: the University of Havana, the Higher Polytechnic Institute "Jose Antonio Echevaria", and an Institute for Pedagogy. University tuition is free for all Cubans: students can not work for a salary during the typical five-year program of post-secondary study and instead serve as interns in government, industry, or schools. Experience working abroad is encouraged upon graduation. An overview of Cuban university admissions criteria, some specific programs of study, and placement of students in career jobs upon graduation is presented.

  8. National Program of Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy in Cuba

    It tries on the establishment of a Quality Assurance Nacional System, a Quality Assurance Committee implemented in Cuba, and a Quality Auditory National Program implemented in Cuba to control and assure radiotherapy quality

  9. HISTORICAL ECOTOXICOLOGICALASSESSMENT OF SAN JUAN ECOSYSTEM, SANTIAGO DE CUBA, CUBA

    Argota, George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the environmental decision-making related to watershed preservation is oriented under the precepts of an historical environmental assessment. The objective of this research was to conduct a historical ecotoxicological assessment of the San Juan de Santiago de Cuba ecosystem. This was considered a systematic environmental monitoring which ran from 2010 to 2013, made q?uarterly. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, pH, total solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were determined. All parameters of environmental risk prediction were performed using the GECOTOX program. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd on three target organs (brain, gills and liver in the biomonitor adult Gambusia punctata (Poecilidae were analyzed. In this species, the effect of total protein and enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase as biomarkers were evaluated. In general, the parameters were outside the values set used by the Cuban quality standards. The GECOTOX program said that the waters of the San Juan ecosystem presented a high rate of risk. The highest concentrations of metals were determined in the gills, liver and brain, respectively. Biomarker values w? ere high, being higher for females. Finally, it was concluded that from one year to another all responses were ascending; thus, the San Juan ecosystem presented ecotoxicological effects in time.

  10. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  11. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  12. A Perspective on Physics in Cuba

    Handy, Carlos R.

    The author is Cuban by birth: the son of an Afro-Cuban mother and an Afro-American father. He spent the first 8 years of his life attending schools in Havana and New York City. He left Cuba in 1958 so as to gain a more uninterrupted educational experience. This led to his PhD in theoretical physics from Columbia University in 1978, followed by a post-doctoral appointment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He returned to Cuba in 1980 as a member of an academic tour organized by the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. This provided an introduction to various government-run scientific facilities in Havana and the easternmost city of "Santiago de Cuba" in the province of Oriente.

  13. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  14. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  15. International petroleum agreements : Republic of Cuba

    Foreign investment in the oil and gas sector has had a profound impact on the development of crude oil production in Cuba. In 1982, in order to encourage economic development, the Cuban government adopted a form of Production Sharing Contract (PSC) for international petroleum agreements. In 1990, the first PSC was negotiated with a consortium of European companies. This was followed in 1992 through 1994 with companies from Canada, Europe and Latin America. Then in 1995, a more comprehensive foreign investment law was enacted to further encourage foreign investment in Cuba. Onshore and shallow water regions of Cuba were divided into 45 blocks, 19 of which were under licence in 2001. In addition, in 1999 the government of Cuba offered 53 blocks in the deep water zones of the Cuban sector of the Gulf of Mexico to foreign investment, of which 6 are already under licence. Most exploration for oil and gas since 1991 has been carried out by foreign companies. Crude oil production in 1991 totalled 11,000 bopd of heavy oil production from the north coast of Cuba. By 2001, domestic crude oil production increased to more than 50,000 bopd, mostly due to foreign investment in exploration and development. This paper described the model form for Cuban Production Sharing Contracts with reference to parties, rights granted, terms, relinquishments, minimum exploration commitments, discovery of hydrocarbons and recovery of petroleum operation expenses. The paper also discussed gross production, cost recovery for contractors, and sharing of profits with contractors and the state oil company, CubaPetroleo. 1 fig

  16. Spain and Cuba: A very Special Relationship?

    Joaquín Roy

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of political changes than include the rise and fall of the Franco regime, the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, and the restoration of democracy in Spain, historical links have had and still have an influence on the continuation of a very specialrelationship between Spain and Cuba since the Spanish Civil War.Spain not only did not brake its diplomatic relation Cuba, but during the harshest periods of international isolation and ideological confrontation Madrid still became the primary economic partner of Havana in the capitalist world. Under the PSOE leadership, Spain's role in the pre-transition in Cuba, via aid and cooperation programs,impressive trade figures, and investment, has produced polemical debates with the opposition including threats of termination of aid in the event of a PP victory in the coming elections of March 1996.Spain's foreign policy toward Latin America has experienced an evolution from a policy of substitution and legitimation, to one of pressure. In the case of Cuba, justification for increased trade, aid, and political agreements seems to based on a more traditionalhistorical obligation, plus the added feature of doing fast business. However, the absence of clear accomplishments in the political arena have created a climate of frustration in Spanish diplomatic circles, which has resulted in leaks to the press and resignations.This added to the frequent verbal confrontations and discussions on the U.S. economic embargo, has converted the Cuban topic from a foreign issue to an "internal matter" of Spain. Finally, in spite of the active pressure that Spanish government has applied in Brussels during the second semester of 1995 as president of the European Union,the project of an agreement with Cuba received a delay when political liberalization did not meet European expectations.Only when the final stage of true political and economic transition takes place in Cuba, will the proper evaluation of Spain's role in

  17. Reflections on Educational Reform in Cuba.

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Cuban educational reforms, highlighting 1959, 1976, and 1980s initiatives. Compares Cuba's progress with John Kotter's eight-step process based on establishing a sense of urgency, creating a guiding coalition, developing and communicating the change vision, empowering broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains, and…

  18. Protecting the Marine Environment in Cuba

    The Cienfuegos Environmental Studies Centre (CEAC) in Cuba is a marine environmental research centre with expertise in nuclear and isotopic technologies. Cuba’s food security, transportation and tourism depend upon a healthy marine environment. CEAC scientists master resource challenges to produce the validated data needed for better environmental management

  19. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits. PMID:12292465

  20. The history of physics in Cuba

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  1. El movimiento del Software Libre en Cuba

    Héctor Rodríguez Figueredo; Alain Guerrero Enamorado; Allan Pierra Fuentes; Sergio E. Tamayo Bermúdez

    2011-01-01

    Se describe el movimiento de Software Libre y estándares abiertos de software en Cuba, su surgimiento y evolución hasta la fecha. Se analiza además la necesidad de incorporarlo en el proceso de informatización de la sociedad cubana y lo que ha venido haciéndose en ese sentido.

  2. 15 CFR 746.2 - Cuba.

    2010-01-01

    ... in 31 CFR part 515. OFAC's Terrorism List Government Sanctions Regulations in 31 CFR part 596... of international terrorism. For anti-terrorism controls, see Supplement 2 to part 742 of the EAR. (d... § 746.2 Cuba. (a) License requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export Administration Act...

  3. The normalization of sexual diversity in revolutionary Cuba

    Kirk, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Cuba, once understood to be a highly homophobic country, has been lauded internationally for its attention to sexual diversity rights since 2008. This Thesis examines and analyzes the development of the normalization of attitudes towards sexual diversity in revolutionary Cuba. This includes the evolution of homophobia in Cuba, the Federation of Cuban Women’s development of sexual education, the establishment of the Nation Centre for Sexual Education (CENESEX), and how these elements engage wi...

  4. Cuba and Russia trips enhance geography courses

    Virginia Tech News

    2004-01-01

    No sooner is geography professor Joseph L. Scarpaci back on campus after leading the largest faculty-led study abroad course in the history of Virginia Tech last month than he is already planning another class tour. He took a record-breaking 112 students to Cuba for his urban design and planning class (Geography 4984) and will offer the class again from May 23 to June 7.

  5. Cuba y la OEA: cambio y continuidad

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferio occidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  6. CUBA Y LA OEA: CAMBIO Y CONTINUIDAD

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferiooccidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  7. Nuclear cardiology in Cuba present and perspectives

    Heart Diseases represent the first cause of death worldwide (WHO, 2011); 80% of these deaths in developing countries (WHO, 2011); Coronary Heart Disease is responsible of 69% of all cardiovascular deaths. In Cuba, National programs have been developed to control the most important associated coronary risk factors; Research projects have been also carried out as part of the Ministry of Public Health’s program on non-transmissible chronic diseases; Strengthening of Nuclear Cardiology in Cuba, as well as its adequate integration in a diagnosis algorithm, focusing on improving the quality of medical care, in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Recommendations: Extend Nuclear Cardiology throughout the country; Conduct cost-effectiveness studies comparing different imaging techniques in cardiology; Develop coronary flow and metabolic studies with PET; Introducing studying adrenergic innervation; Develop hybrid imaging in cardiology; Set up committees of experts to analyze the value of different imaging techniques in cardiology in accordance with the possibilities and resources of Cuba, aimed at the implementation of a medicine individualized for patients. (author)

  8. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  9. Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics

    Marx, Werner; Cardona, Manuel

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the development of the physical sciences in Cuba since the revolution of 1959. We analyze, using available databases (Web of Science, Essential Science Indicators, INSPEC), the development of the output (number of publications of authors based in Cuba) and of their impact (number of citations) from 1959 until now. We discuss the productivity of Cuba in comparison to the Latin American sister republics and the collaborative efforts between Cuba and highly developed countries. The most important areas of scientific activity within the field of physics, the preferred journals and the leading affiliations are identified. The most frequently cited Cuban physics publications are given. Finally, the overall scientific ranking of Cuba among the world nations is investigated.

  10. Theological Higher Education in Cuba. Part 4: The Historical Roots and Milestones of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary. The seminary was founded in the city of Santiago de Cuba, on October 10, 1949, by the Eastern Baptist Convention. The seminary exists to provide training for pastors in the Eastern Baptist Convention. The school offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor in…

  11. Nuevos registros de clorofitas marinas para Cuba

    A. Moreira; Fujii, M.T.; Suárez, A. M.; Wynne, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    A partir de muestras colectadas en la bahía de Cienfuegos y de Santa Lucía (Pinar del Río), se identificaron dos nuevos registros de macroalgas marinas (clorofitas) para Cuba: Cladophora blomquistii C. Hoek y Udotea fibrosa D. S. Littler & M. M. Littler. C. blomquistii se registra por primera vez para la región del Caribe ya que se había consignado solo para lagunas costeras de la Florida, y la parte noreste del golfo de México. Se ofrecen además comentarios sobre la taxonomía, ...

  12. Nuclear law in Cuba. Utopia or reality

    The present article is a summary review of the legal basis for the use of nuclear energy in Cuba. Background, historical evolution and the current concept of the Cuban legislation are approached by illustrating the reader on a topic that is practically unknown, in spite of its daily presence in places such as hospitals, factories or airports. The awareness, perception and acceptance of nuclear energy applications consequently should have an impact on the ignorance of their legal edges, the issue we approached presenting a group of weighing elements, in pursue of the answer. Utopia or Reality

  13. An overview of genetic counseling in Cuba.

    Cruz, Araceli Lantigua

    2013-12-01

    This brief report provides an overview of the history and current status of genetic services in Cuba. In 1971, the University of Medical Sciences of Havana began to train doctors in medical genetics according to the medicine development plan in Cuba. With the aim of introducing genetic services to the population, two main issues were identified: the impact of neural tube defects as a cause of infantile mortality, and a founder effect resulting in a high frequency of sickle cell anemia, which increased the mortality rate and impacted the quality of peoples' lives. The impact of consanguinity is variable; it depends on the isolation of the population, with rates of 1 to 11% in different regions for first and second cousin marriages. From 1981, the services of medical genetics began to expand to the entire country, according to a government directive, and the need to design a program for the specialty became evident. From 1995 to 2000, two Masters-level programs were designed by professors of the Department of Medical Genetics, University of Medical Sciences of Havana, and authorized by the Ministry of Higher Education. One program in medical genetics was designed for physicians with other specialties, and the second program was designed to train professionals to become genetic counselors. The majority of graduates from the latter program are working at the primary level of healthcare. PMID:23934326

  14. Oil and gas exploration in Cuba

    Echevarria-Rodriguez, G.; Hernandez-Perez, G.; Lopez-Quintero, J.O.; Lopez-Rivera, J.G.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, R.; Sanchez-Arango, J.R.; Socorro-Trujillo, R.; Tenreyro-Perez, R.; Yparraguirre-Pena, J.L. (Union Del Petroleo, Havana (Cuba))

    1991-07-01

    Oil and gas exploration in Cuba began with the discovery of the Motembo oilfield in 1881, and some 25 oilfields have subsequently been discovered, the largest of which are Boca de Jaruco and Varadero. Two oil-bearing provinces are known: the Northern Cuban Province, which includes the overthrust belt; and the Southern Cuban Province, to the south of the overthrust belt, which includes a number of Cretaceous-Tertiary basins. Rocks in the overthrust belt are intensely faulted and folded, with folds trending NE in western Cuba and NW elsewhere on the island. The Northern Cuban Province is about 1,000-kms long and 80- to 100-kms wide; sediments here are generally 10- to 12-kms thick. Seven overthrust surfaces have been identified by drilling, and correspond to different oil zones; thus, oilfields are characteristically located within different tectonic-stratigraphic units. The Southern Cuban Province covers an area of about 60,000 sq. kms, and is composed of several basins, whose development was different from those to the north. Oil has been located in the Central Basin, where oilfields are present in positive structures, but not so far in any other basins here, although surface and subsurface oil steeps are common in this area. (author)

  15. La guerra de 1895 en Cuba y sus consecuencias

    Tarragó, Rafael E.

    2009-01-01

    On 24 February 1895 most people in Cuba did not want a war of independence, because reforms for the island had been approved by the Madrid parliament. The reaction to the insurrection begun in Cuba on that date by the Spanish government of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was to treat all Cubans as rebels. In 1896 Cánovas sent general Weyler to Cuba, and by the end of 1897 he had stopped the advances of the insurrectionists, but the forced removal of the rural population into urban settlements th...

  16. Biothechnology conferences held in Cuba. Cuba no biotechnology gakkai ni sankashite

    Murata, M. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-04-25

    Three biotechnology conferences including Cuba International Interferon Conference were held at Havana in April 1989, and the author participated in them. The number of participants was about 3,000. Most of them were from the Middle and the Central America, but there were also those from Europe, the USSR and the USA. The three conferences were composed of 16 symposiums and they covered a wide range of field such as medical science, agriculture and industry. High leveled reports were read in the conferences: on the application of interferons to medical treatments, curing effects of infections caused by herpes virus and B type hepatitis virus, anti-tumor effects, and anti-virus effects against AIDS virus; on the production of protein and vaccini by gene engineering, large quantity production of interleukin and epithelium cell multiplication genes. Especially impressing were the efforts the whole nation of Cuba makes to promote biotechnology and its modern facilities. 3 figs.

  17. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its implementation for spatial landslide risk assessment in Cuba, using a multi-scale approach at national, provincial, municipal and local level. At the national level a landslide risk index was generated, ...

  18. Development of a system for landslide risk assessment for Cuba

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.; Westen, C. J. van

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, such as Cuba, landslide-affected areas are not systematically mapped in a national inventory and no “regional to local” approach for landslide hazard and risk assessment has been carried out so far. Most of the conventional landslide studies in Cuba are qualitative in nature and focus on description of phenomena or on landslide susceptibility assessment. Moreover, most of the quantitative landslides risk assessment methodologies that have been developed elsewhere...

  19. Climate vulnerability in Cuba. The role of social networks

    Sygna, L.

    2005-10-01

    The case of Cuba offers a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of climate vulnerability. This paper takes a closer look at recent economic and social developments in Cuba, and how these affect patterns of vulnerability. Faced with the ongoing processes of climate change and economic globalization, Cuban households are carefully trying to sustain livelihood. Findings suggest that social networks are important as means of accessing coping strategies. Their access is on the other hand not equally distributed.

  20. Climate vulnerability in Cuba. The role of social networks

    The case of Cuba offers a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of climate vulnerability. This paper takes a closer look at recent economic and social developments in Cuba, and how these affect patterns of vulnerability. Faced with the ongoing processes of climate change and economic globalization, Cuban households are carefully trying to sustain livelihood. Findings suggest that social networks are important as means of accessing coping strategies. Their access is on the other hand not equally distributed

  1. Santiago de Cuba : la modernización postergada

    Fleitas Monnar, María Teresa

    1995-01-01

    La autora expone las limitaciones que ocasiona la guerra de independencia de 1868-1878 en el progreso cubano de la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba. El paso creciente de mediados del siglo XIX hacia la modernización fue paralizado y, por el contrario, Santiago de Cuba mostraría una imagen decadente. La voluntad civilizadora quedó latiente, pero sería postergada a décadas interbélicas.

  2. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly forgotten by many disaster experts. This paper presents a pragmatic analysis of the evolution of the civil defense system in Cuba and the key factors for their success. The analysis of the system sta...

  3. Radiological monitoring of food in Cuba

    The appearing of the problem for protecting the environment from radioactive contamination is not an accidental matter. The introduction into the earth crust of radioactive material coming from nuclear weapons, accidents, wastes, etc, has caused, as a consequence, the contamination of the biosphere. The extensive trade of food in our country has made necessary the establishment of radiological monitoring in food, which was organized by the Department of Public Health. The structure, functions, characteristics and aspects related to radiological monitoring of food in Cuba are shown in the present paper. The organization and resources for performing the monitoring program, both for normal conditions and for nuclear and/or radiological emergency cases, are detailed. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs

  4. Cuba [Energy indicators for sustainable development

    The ISED framework methodology is an appropriate tool for analysing different energy policies, with respect to their social, economic, environmental and institutional dimensions. The lack of certain data prevented a complete analysis of all the implemented energy policies in Cuba at the necessary level of detail. Nevertheless, with collected data, analyses were performed with acceptable results. The use of the ISED framework methodology contributed significantly to enhancing Cuba's statistical capabilities. It was possible to introduce appropriate changes into the national statistical system within a short period of time. Three new surveys were introduced into the system, and capabilities were enhanced to make the national statistics system compatible with international standards for the first time. Fuel import dependence decreased by rising domestic crude oil and associated gas production, but this dependence could be further lowered if the sugarcane sector recovered from its depressing trend. Nevertheless, the use of associated gas for electricity generation eliminated contamination by sulphur emissions in a major tourism area, and contributed to the enhanced efficiency of electricity generation with the introduction of new technology (i.e., combined cycle units). Increased domestic crude oil and associated gas production provided fuel for the generation of 93% of the electricity produced in the country in 2003. The potential for renewable energy has not been fully realized, since the principal sources from which it is obtained (i.e., biomass, and especially sugarcane biomass) faced considerable constraints - low prices in the international market, lack of funds and fertilizers required for better performance in production, etc. Nevertheless, electrification with PV systems, hydro and wind power have had an important social impact for major social entities (e.g., schools, hospital, etc.). A new programme for the exploitation of reservoirs and 'run of river

  5. La guerra de 1895 en Cuba y sus consecuencias

    Tarragó, Rafael E.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available On 24 February 1895 most people in Cuba did not want a war of independence, because reforms for the island had been approved by the Madrid parliament. The reaction to the insurrection begun in Cuba on that date by the Spanish government of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was to treat all Cubans as rebels. In 1896 Cánovas sent general Weyler to Cuba, and by the end of 1897 he had stopped the advances of the insurrectionists, but the forced removal of the rural population into urban settlements that he decreed in order to prevent their assistance to the insurgents, led to thousands of deaths by hunger and disease, and in the United States public opinion began to clamor for intervention in Cuba to expel Spain, and this was advised by people like the Consul General in Havana, Fitzhugh Lee. The war begun in 1895 for the independence of Cuba had as consecuences the war of the United States with Spain in 1898 and its transformation into a world power with the colonies that it took from Spain in Asia and America.El 24 de febrero de 1895 la mayor parte de los habitantes de Cuba no deseaba una guerra de independencia, porque se acababa de votar en el parlamento de Madrid por reformas liberalizantes para la isla. La reacción del gobierno de Antonio Cánovas del Castillo a la insurrección iniciada en Cuba en esa fecha fue no implementar las reformas y tratar a todos los cubanos como insurrectos. En 1896 Cánovas envió al general Weyler a Cuba, quien logró frenar el avance de los insurrectos, pero la reconcentración de los campesinos en centros urbanos que este decretó para privar de su apoyo a los insurrectos causó miles de muertes por hambre y enfermedad y en los Estados Unidos la opinión pública comenzó a favorecer la intervención en Cuba, acción aconsejada por expansionistas como el Cónsul General de los Estados Unidos en La Habana, Fitzhugh Lee. La guerra comenzada en 1895 para la independencia de Cuba tuvo como consecuencias la guerra de

  6. Sistema de vigilancia de las infecciones intrahospitalarias en Cuba Intrahospital infection surveillance system in Cuba

    Francisco Manuel Izquierdo-Cubas; Andrés Zambrano Cárdenas; Ileana Frómeta Suárez

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: destacar la importancia de la vigilancia y control de las infecciones intrahospitalarias. DESARROLLO: se expuso los antecedentes de los sistemas de vigilancia epidemiológica en el mundo, las características de los principales diseños y se describió el sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica en Cuba que comenzando en 1983, recogía datos de todos los hospitales de más de 100 camas. Se expusieron otros aspectos como actualizaciones, metodología, definiciones, objetivos, premisas y propues...

  7. Reemergence of dengue in Cuba: a 1997 epidemic in Santiago de Cuba.

    Kourí, G; Guzmán, M. G.; Valdés, L.; Carbonel, I.; del Rosario, D.; Vazquez, S; Laferté, J.; Delgado, J.; Cabrera, M. V.

    1998-01-01

    After 15 years of absence, dengue reemerged in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba because of increasing migration to the area by people from disease-endemic regions, a high level of vector infestation, and the breakdown of eradication measures. The 1997 epidemic was detected early through an active surveillance system. Of 2,946 laboratory-confirmed cases, 205 were dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 12 were fatal. No deaths were reported in persons under 16 years of age. Now the epidemic is fully...

  8. Nuclear safety. Concerns about the nuclear power reactors in Cuba

    In 1976, the Soviet Union and Cuba concluded an agreement to construct two 440-megawatt nuclear power reactors near Cienfuegos on the south central coast of Cuba, about 180 miles south of Key West, Florida. The construction of these reactors, which began around 1983, was a high priority for Cuba because of its heavy dependence on imported oil. Cuba is estimated to need an electrical generation capacity of 3,000 megawatts by the end of the decade. When completed, the first reactor unit would provide a significant percentage (estimated at over 15 percent) of Cuba's need for electricity. It is uncertain when Cuba's nuclear power reactors will become operational. On September 5, 1992, Fidel Castro announced the suspension of construction at both of Cuba's reactors because Cuba could not meet the financial terms set by the Russian government to complete the reactors. Cuban officials had initially planned to start up the first of the two nuclear reactors by the end of 1993. However, before the September 5 announcement, it was estimated that this reactor would not be operational until late 1995 or early 1996. The civil construction (such as floors and walls) of the first reactor is currently estimated to be about 90 percent to 97 percent complete, but only about 37 percent of the reactor equipment (such as pipes, pumps, and motors) has been installed. The civil construction of the second reactor is about 20 percent to 30 percent complete. No information was available about the status of equipment for the second reactor. According to former Cuban nuclear power and electrical engineers and a technician, all of whom worked at the reactor site and have recently emigrated from Cuba, Cuba's nuclear power program suffers from poor construction practices and inadequate training for future reactor operators. One former official has alleged, for example, that the first reactor containment structure, which is designed to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material into

  9. Orienete Province, eastern end of Cuba as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

    1965-01-01

    Oriente Province, eastern end of Cuba is photographed by Astronaut Frank Borman and James A. Lovell during the 14th revolution of the Gemini 7 mission. Guantanamo Bay is in the center of picture on southern coast of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba is located about one inch from the bottom edge of the picture, or about three inches westward down the coast from Guantanamo.

  10. La batalla contra el racismo en la Cuba de hoy

    Fernández Robaina, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    En el artículo se reflexiona en torno a la problemática del racismo en Cuba en las últimas décadas y se presenta cuestiones capitales en el debate sobre la integración de las identidades raciales en Cuba. Desde un punto de vista antropológico, Fernández Robaina repasa las cuestiones sociales que ejemplifican la compleja integración racial en la historia de la Isla para relacionarla con las actuaciones políticas que se llevan a término en los últimos años, no solo en Cuba, sino también en otro...

  11. Intelectualidad criolla y nación en Cuba

    Luis Miguel GARCÍA MORA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan las interacciones entre las posiciones intelectuales de los autonomistas cubanos y su idea de la nacionalidad, y la utilización que de la "raza" hicieron los científicos criollos. En una primera parte, se estudian los debates en torno a los pobladores "ideales" con los que constituir una nación moderna y "civilizada", que alejara de Cuba el fantasma de la "africanización". La segunda parte del trabajo se centra en el análisis de la publicación cultural más importante del momento, como fue la Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. Una publicación al servicio de una ciencia criolla, en la que se expuso el concepto de nacionalidad y el proyecto político de los autonomistas, compartido por la mayoría de los científicos cubanos. Palabras Clave: Cuba, ciencia criolla, autonomismo, intelectuales, nacionalidad. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the interactions between the Cuban Autonomists, their intellectual positions and their ideas about "nationality", and the use of the concept of "race" made by the Criollo scientists. The first part studies debates on the "ideal" settlers for the forming of a modern and "civilized" nation, which would remove the spectre of "Africanization" from Cuba. The second part of this work is focused on the analysis of the most important cultural review of the time, the Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. It was in this publi- cation —which acted as the voice of Criollo science— that the concept of nationality and the political project of the Autonomists, which was shared by most of the Cuban scientists, was expressed. Key words: Cuba, Criollo Science, Autonomism, Intellectuals, Nationality.

  12. Controlling AIDS in Cuba. The logic of quarantine.

    Bayer, R; Healton, C

    1989-04-13

    Cuba has initiated a program to control Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that is designed to limit the spread of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by implementing compulsory elements of the public health tradition. Widespread screening for HIV infection began 3 years ago, and persons identified as infected have been sent to a sanatorium located in a Havana suburb. The program also reflects concern over the marked increase in prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Educational effects in Cuba stress that AIDS is not a disease exclusively of homosexuals and can affect any individual. Condoms are recommended for protection. In contrast to virtually every other nation, Cuba has not made education the key focus of its anti-AIDS strategy. Education is relegated to a marginal role. Key to the policy is identifying infected individuals and bringing them under medical control. Cuba's HIV surveillance program has been carried out with use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot assay, and antigen tests that have been developed domestically. The director of the Cuban AIDS Investigations Laboratory reports that nearly 3 million Cubans have been tested. It is estimated that among the 7 low-infection groups tested in Cuba, between 21 and 53 persons may have been inaccurately considered positive as a result of testing. Cuban authorities have expressed much interest in obtaining commercially available HIV screening kits -- both ELISA and Western blot assays -- as a standard against which to measure their own test. Despite the inevitability of continued viral transmission, Cuba's policy of a modified quarantine certainly will limit the toll of HIV infection markedly yet comes at a great price. For other nations, the imperatives of prevention, however important, are not the only values to be considered in the battle against AIDS. PMID:2927477

  13. Nueva especie de Loxostethus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Diaperini) para Cuba

    Garrido, Orlando H.; Gutierrez, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    El género Loxostethus fue descrito por Triplehorn (1962), describiendo las especies fasciatus y opacifrons para Cuba, jamaicensis para Jamaica, y unicolor para Puerto Rico. Todas fueron halladas en hongos, y si bien no han sido reportadas de la Isla de Santo Domingo no es de extrañar que eventualmente aparezcan. Zayas (1989) describió L. quadrimaculata para Trinidad, Cuba-sin embargo, esta última especie cae dentro de la variación individual de L. fasciatus de acuerdo a la descripción de Trip...

  14. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. PMID:26684551

  15. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal indication

  16. Economic evaluation of seawater desalination in Cuba using DEEP

    Full text: DEEP is a Desalination Economic Evaluation Programme developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The version 3 of DEEP (DEEP-3.0) was acquired and implemented in the country as a result of the cooperation between the IAEA and Cuba. The above-mentioned programme has been used in the national project 'Feasibility of seawater desalination in Cuba', which will be implemented in the 2005 - 2007 triennium. This project is aimed at analyzing different technologies of seawater desalination so as to determine the most feasible technology for Cuba from the technical and economic viewpoints. DEEP was used in the economic evaluation of different desalination plants with reverse osmosis (RO) technology. Real data obtained from the RO plant performance such as required capacity, modular unit size, seawater pump efficiency, feed salinity, and design flux as well as data of the RO plant costs was used. The selected energy source was grid electricity (stand-alone RO). The results obtained from the modeling of the desalination plant located at the Cayo Largo Island (at the Southern portion of Cuba) are shown. The RO plant, which uses Italian technology, has a capacity of 1000 m3/day. The paper presents the results of the sensitivity analyses by changing the interest rate, total capacity of the desalination plant, feed salinity, feed temperature and purchased electricity cost. (author)

  17. Ciencia y coleccionismo en Cuba en el siglo XIX

    Valero González, Mercedes

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article a panoramic is exposed about museums and cabinets which existed in Cuba during the nineteenth century, describing functions and characteristics as well as the causes that made some of them disappear. It is also shown the continuity, asumed by the scientific collection over since major nationalized-institute in the nineteenth century. It is likewise intended to give a general and complete chronology about the development of museum in Cuba, taking into account the lasting-long or not of such institute. The authors regret the work shortege that considers the subject and total absence from the comparative standpoint.

    En este artículo se brinda una panorámica de los museos y gabinetes que existieron en Cuba durante el siglo XIX, describiéndose las características y funciones, así como las causas que hicieron desaparecer a algunos de ellos. También se destaca la continuidad asumida por el coleccionismo científico desde el siglo XVIII y su mayor institucionalización en el XIX. Asimismo se intenta dar una cronología muy general sobre el desarrollo de los museos en Cuba, teniéndose en cuenta la perdurabilidad o no de dicha institucionalización. Los autores lamentan la escasez de trabajos que traten el tema y la ausencia total desde el punto de vista comparativo.

  18. A New Look at the Literacy Campaign in Cuba.

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1978-01-01

    Based on interviews in Cuba and publications generally unavailable in the U.S., author examines history and success of Cuban literacy campaign. Outlines logistical/pedagogical challenges; describes recruitment and training of volunteer teachers and development of instructional methods. Concludes with case studies illustrating application of Paulo…

  19. Christmas, Natal, Navidad in Cuba, Mexico, and Portugal.

    Fontes, Maria Joao, Ed.; Fontes, Manuel da Costa, Ed.

    This material is a compilation of junior high school student-developed stories and games about the way Christmas is celebrated in Portugal, Mexico, and Cuba. The material was developed in the classroom by Portuguese, Mexican, and Cuban immigrant students and by American students who do not have a recent immigrant background, all of whom were…

  20. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years. PMID:21506308

  1. From the Outreach Front! IAC Conference in Cuba

    Lerman, Zafra M.

    2003-04-01

    This articles summarizes the 17th Conference of Chemistry, held in Santiago de Cuba, December 4-6, 2002, which was attended by a group of 13 chemical educators. The trip was organized by the International Activities Committee of the Division of Chemical Education.

  2. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  3. [Some general considerations concerning Cuba's population policies].

    Aldana Martinez, L

    1978-01-01

    The policies developed in Cuba after the revolution that influenced population were primarily intended to alter basic structures hindering social and economic development rather than to affect population growth. Fertility has declined rapidly from 35.1/1000 in 1963 to a preliminary figure of 19.8/1000 in 1977, and interprovincial differences have significantly lessened. Factors influencing the decline include the increased participation of women in economic activities, improved access to contraception, the higher cultural level of couples and especially women made possible through adult education, and increased urbanization following the agrarian reform. Infant mortality declined from about 80/1000 live births in the late 1950s to 24.6/1000 live births in 1977, while mortality for 1-4 year olds is now 1.1/1000. Maternal mortality declined from 10.7/10,000 live births in 1965 to 4.6 in 1976. Expectation of life at birth was 70 years for both sexes in 1976. The most significant factors in the mortality decline appear to have been general improvements in material standards and the disappearance of nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers, creation of the National Health System which offers free health care nationwide, and improved educational levels. By the beginning of the century 40% of the urban population resided in places with over 2000 inhabitants. In 1953 the proportion was 51.4% and Havana contained 23% of the national population. The policy of the Revolution has been to exploit the natural resources of the entire country and to reform agriculture and livestock raising. The growth rate of the urban population between 1953 and 1970 of 3.1% was only slightly higher than the growth rate of 2.19% of the entire country. Havana grew by only 2.2% during the same time, and by only 1.3% between 1971-74. Intermediate cities increased their share of the total population from 10.6% in 1958 to 17.3% in 1970. Government programs to orient migration toward

  4. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects. PMID:6715092

  5. La tuberculosis pulmonar, enfermedad reemergente en Cuba

    Margarita González Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades remergentes en Cuba; por ello en todas las provincias cubanas se trabaja con mucha fuerza, dedicación y profesionalidad con respecto a esta problemática. En este contexto, resulta muy acertada la publicación del artículo “Algunas variables clínico-epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Puerto Padre, 2008-2012”, que salió en el Vol.38 No.6.01 del mes de junio de 2013 de la Revista Electrónica Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta; tanto por el significado social que reviste la divulgación de este tema, como por el propio resultado de la investigación realizada. La historia de la tuberculosis es un tema apasionante. En pocas enfermedades es posible documentar su estrecha relación con la historia de la propia humanidad como en la que nos ocupa. Existen evidencias paleológicas de tuberculosis vertebral en momias egipcias que datan aproximadamente del año 2400 a.C. La tuberculosis se ha conocido a través de la historia, con los nombres de: tisis, consunción, escrófula, mal de Pott, plaga blanca y mal del rey.1 En el artículo se plantea como conclusión que la tendencia de la tuberculosis en el quinquenio de estudio es estacionaria, pero en los últimos cuatro años tiende al ascenso. En los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en este quinquenio más de dos tercios correspondieron al sexo masculino y mayores de 45 años, las ocupaciones que más prevalecieron fueron recluso, desocupado, ama de casa y jubilado. Los factores de riesgo que más se relacionaron fueron el albergamiento prolongado en instituciones cerradas, el alcoholismo, y la edad mayor de 65 años; la forma clínica de mayor incidencia en casi la totalidad de los pacientes fue la pulmonar y, dentro de ella, los casos con baciloscopia positiva. Hubo fallas en el diagnóstico, ya que alrededor de la mitad de los casos se diagnosticaron en la atención secundaria y con un tiempo de demora de más de dos meses de

  6. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  7. Hundimiento de las aguas al sur de Cuba Downwelling wa ters in the south of Cuba

    Benigno Hernández

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizan 23 estaciones oceanográficas a bordo del Buque de Investigaciones Científicas BIC "Ulises" en marzo de 1994 y abril de 1996 en el polígono de estudio situado en los 21°00'-21°30'N y 81°50'-83°00'W al sureste de la Isla de la Juventud, Cuba, con el objetivo de estudiar algunas de las relaciones hidrofísicas que controlan la dinámica de las larvas de langosta espinosa Panulirus argus en la interfase del talud con el océano. Se analizan el viento, transporte Ekman, turbulencia, profundidad de inicio de la termoclina, temperatura superficial del mar y estabilidad vertical en el hundimiento de las aguas cercanas al talud en los dos cruceros de primavera. El índice de transporte (IT mostró un movimiento neto hacia la costa, provocando un hundimiento en la zona cercana al talud. El hundimiento produce un efecto de mezcla o falso afloramiento llamado "efecto cascada" que mantiene los nutrientes resuspendidos por un período que varía según la intensidad del viento y las corrientes imperantes en la zona. Este efecto, al parecer, es responsable de la retención larvaria en esta regiónTake account 23 oceanographic stations on Oceanographic Research Vessel BIC "Ulises" in March 1994 and April 1996 in the study polygon located in the 21°00'-21°30'N and 81°50'-83°00'W in southwest of Isla de la Juventud, Cuba, with the main objective to study hydrophysical relationships that control the dynamics of the Panulirus argus spiny lobster larvae in the boundary shelf. Importance of the wind, Ekman transport, turbulence, depth of the top of the thermocline, sea surface temperature, vertical stability in the convergence or downwelling nearshore waters in this important area of spawns, was demonstrated. Transport Index (IT showed a net movement toward the coast causing nearshore downwelling. The downwelling produces a mixture effect or false upwelling called also "cascade effect" that maintains nutrients suspended for one period that

  8. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  9. Cuba's transition to market-based energy prices

    Since 1960 the Soviet Union has been, for all practical purposes, Cuba's exclusive supplier of energy products. For certain time periods, Soviet sales of oil and oil products to Cuba were made at concessional prices; prior to 1991, they were priced using transferable rubles and were essentially bartered for Cuban goods, especially sugar. Effective January 1, 1991, the Soviet Union shifted to world market prices and convertible currency payments for all traded commodities, including energy products. The shift to market prices and convertible currencies in Cuban-Soviet energy trade has already brought - or is likely to bring - a number of adjustments in four areas: (1) the trade balance; (2) the ability to reexport oil and oil products; (3) energy consumption patterns; (4) and the structure of energy supplies. 33 refs., 8 tabs

  10. Development and current state of dosimetry in Cuba

    In Cuba, the application of the radiation technologies has been growing in the last years, and at present there are several dosimetry systems with different ranges of absorbed dose. Diverse researches were carried out on high dose dosimetry with the following dosimetry systems: Fricke, ceric-cerous sulfate, ethanol-chlorobenzene, cupric sulfate and Perspex (Red 4034 AE and Clear HX). In this paper the development achieved during the last 15 years in the high dose dosimetry for radiation processing in Cuba is presented, as well as, the current state of different dosimetry systems employed for standardization and for process control. The paper also reports the results of dosimetry intercomparison studies that were performed with the Ezeiza Atomic Center of Argentine and the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. (author)

  11. La postemancipación y trabajo en Cuba

    Michael Zeuske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procesos de transculturación y fecundación mutua entre los espacios de trabajo en la postemancipación. El caso de Cuba es complejo, pues se dio en una época de desestructuración progresiva de la esclavitud, jalonada por guerras anticoloniales y una modernización tecnológica ininterrumpida. Se argumenta que aunque las condiciones de trabajo no mejoraron en lo sustancial, sí lo hizo la división sexual del trabajo, los patrones de movilidad, y el acceso a la propiedad informal de la tierra. La modernización de Cuba como productor azucarero introdujo fuerzas de inmenso calado en las luchas sociales del período.

  12. China, Global Governance and the Future of Cuba

    Adrian H. Hearn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s deepening engagement with Latin America has been accompanied by concerns about the Chinese government’s regard for international conventions of economic governance. Critics claim that across Latin America and the Caribbean, Chinese aid and trade are characterised by excessive state intervention. This article argues that, for two reasons, the rationale for these misgivings is dissipating. First, since the onset of the global financial crisis, China has gained influence in multilateral institutions, prompting them toward greater acceptance of public spending in developing countries. Second, recent developments in Cuba show that China is actively encouraging the Western hemisphere’s only communist country to liberalise its economy. China sits at the crossroads of these local and global developments, prompting Cuba toward rapprochement with international norms even as it works to reform them.

  13. Occurrence and managing of fruit flies in Cuba

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered to be pests of potential importance because they damage fruits or limit their commercialisation. They therefore constitute one of the principal problems for the fruit industry world-wide. Of particular interest are the species of the genus Anastrepha Schiner widely distributed in the neotropical region where, according to Norrbom and Chung (1988), more than 180 species are known. In Cuba, five members of this genus are reported in addition to Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaeker and up to now, no other species are known (Alayo and Garcia, 1983). Although Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman or pest fruit flies from the genus Anastrepha and Bactrocera do not exist in the country, a defence programme has been operating for many years which includes among other measures, fruit sampling and trapping. The present work was undertaken in order to study the status of these insects in Cuba

  14. Experience in the Management of Disused Radioactive Sources in Cuba

    Disused radioactive sources in Cuba, when they cannot be returned to the provider, are managed as radioactive waste by the Centre for Radiation Protection and Hygiene. They are collected and transported to waste management facilities, where they are characterized, conditioned and stored. The paper describes the different approached followed for conditioning the different types of disused radioactive sources and devices containing radioactive sources, such as lightning rods, smoke detectors and different kind of nuclear gauges. (author)

  15. Nuclear instrumentation in Cuba and for osseous densitometry

    The present job describes the technical characteristics and operation of two clinical equipment designed in Cuba, for the determination in vivo of the osseous mineral content in forearm, based on the of gamma absorption technique of a single photon. The development of these equipment and the measurements done with one of them are the first intents carried out in the country to diagnose osseous illnesses by means of this method. (author)

  16. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Edson Delatorre

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF; but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66, subtype C (n≥10, subtype G (n≥8 and CRF18_cpx (n≥2 viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I and B(CU-II, east Africa (clade C(CU-I and central Africa (clades G(CU, CRF18(CU and CRF19(CU, or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG. Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  17. Catholic Church and State in Cuba: past and present relationships

    Delia CONTRERAS GARCÍA

    2013-01-01

    After centuries of a deep presence in Cuba, the Catholic Church has always been part of a complex relationship with the political establishment. The break between Church and State that occurred after the Revolution, would soon show the institution’s ability to survive in unfavorable conditions. Now, after more than fifty years of revolutionary experience, the Catholic Church has become the sole internal interlocutor with the regime. The aim of this article is to analyze the process by which t...

  18. Modelling urban bus transport emissions in Santiago de Cuba

    Warren, James; Avila, Jordi Mirabent

    2010-01-01

    This study described and focuses on the public transport bus system in Santiago de Cuba. Specifically we explore the fuel consumption of the various diesel buses over a three year period from 2007 to 2009 and with a forecast for the forthcoming years. The study considers the potential for fuel savings through a variety of methods which are each described and then modelled. Pollution is also calculated for a variety of scenarios and some suggestions are made in order to lower the overall...

  19. EL LARGO COMPROMISO DE CANADÁ CON CUBA: PARADOJAS Y POSIBILIDADES

    Thomas LEGLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros actores es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales.

  20. The Bayamo Earthquake (Cuba) of the 18 October 1551

    Diego Córdoba-Barba; Mario O. Cotilla-Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Using contemporary and original documents from the Archivo General de Indias it has been possible to complete the data for the 18 October 1551 earthquake in Cuba. The seism took place at midday, approximately. It had foreshocks and aftershocks. In Bayamo, 7 inhabitants were injured, and the town was severely affected. Maximum seismic intensity was IX degrees on the MSK scale, and the area of perceptibility is estimated at 40,000 km2. Liquefaction processes and soil type in Bayamo contributed ...

  1. An annotated checklist of the cladocera of Cuba

    Gutiérrez, M.E.; Varela, C.

    2008-01-01

    Although Cuba is the most studied Caribbean island with regard to freshwater Cladocera, our knowledge of their species composition and distribution is still limited. In this study, all available published and unpublished, reliable sources were reviewed for all records of this group of crustaceans. Thus, a revised and updated list of 70 species of the orders Ctenopoda and Anomopoda recorded for the island is here presented, including all sources of information. From the total numbe...

  2. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’...

  3. Fire protection system at the Juragua nuclear power plant, Cuba

    The paper describes the general fire protection system at the Juragua nuclear power plant in Cuba. The factors which led to the construction of the first nuclear power plant in Cuba and the planning of others in the near future are outlined. Reference is made to existing Cuban legislation on fire protection, particularly with regard to the protection of facilities which constitute a radiation hazard. Attention is drawn to the fact that, although Cuba does not have much experience in this area, considerable work has been done in a brief span of time on legislation, standardization and monitoring in nuclear facilities in order to guarantee safe operating conditions. The potential risk of fires at the Juragua plant under normal and accident conditions is analysed, and the technical and organizational measures required to minimize existing risks are discussed in the light of this analysis. The basis for determining the manpower and equipment needed by the plant's fire protection service is also defined. Finally, certain criteria concerning the special psychological and technical qualities required of personnel, as well as the necessary qualifications and training, are presented. The point is made that very little has been published at the international level on this subject and that it is a research area which deserves more attention. The serious, responsible attitude adopted in designing the plant's fire protection system, with a view to achieving optimum safety conditions during operation, is also highlighted. (author)

  4. CUBA: TRANSICIÓN, SUCESIÓN, ESTABILIDAD, SEGURIDAD

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones.

  5. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba

    Sarah Seidman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.

  6. Radioactive waste management national policy and strategy in Cuba

    Due to the use of sources of ionizing radiation, radioactive wastes are generated which require an adequate management in conditions of radiological safety and protection during all phases; from their generation to their final disposal, for protecting human health and the environment, both currently and in the future, without imposing undue burden upon the next generations. Therefore there was a need for the establishment of a National Policy and Strategy with regard to the management of the radioactive wastes generated, in a way such that allows long term considerations in conception and vision, having as a reference; the legal framework in force in Cuba, the IAEA's recommendations, as well as the diagnosis and assessment of the current and future situation in Cuba. This work deals with key issues for the safe management of the radioactive wastes such as; objectives and goals, responsibilities and role of the organizations involved in the management, possible management options for each type of radioactive waste generated in the country, manpower and funding for an adequate management, control over the generation of the radioactive wastes, and the need for availability of a facility for their final disposal, among other issues. The Policy and Strategy for the management of radioactive wastes will serve as a basis for the users/facilities, that generate and manage radioactive wastes, to draft their own strategies, and for the achievement of a harmonized level of radioactive wastes in the country. Furthermore, they would contribute to enhance the National Environmental Strategy implemented in Cuba. (author)

  7. Radioactive waste management in Cuba results and perspectives

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of radioactive materials in medicine, research, industry and other fields in the Republic of Cuba in the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply a national policy to assure harmless and ecologically rational management of radioactive wastes. The ruling principles for the application of the established radioactive waste management policy in Cuba are summarized. The elements of the infrastructure existing in the country, the legislative framework and the technical resources for attachment of important tasks related to the radioactive waste including spent sealed source management are further brought. Some results of the studies, which served as a basis for design and construction of a facility for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes, are also given. The main characteristics of the facility are described. The main ideas which govern the improvement of the safety and effectiveness of the radioactive waste management in Cuba in the coming years are finally discussed. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Towards active community participation in dengue vector control: results from action research in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    Toledo, M E; Vanlerberghe, V.; Baly, A.; Ceballos, E.; Valdes, L.; Searret, M.; Boelaert, M; Van der Stuyft, P.

    2007-01-01

    Community participation is advocated as essential for attaining effective dengue prevention, but knowledge of how to foster this is limited. In Santiago de Cuba, multiple small task forces were created at the neighbourhood level that included all stakeholders in the control of Aedes aegypti. The task forces assessed the perceived needs and elaborated action plans to promote specific behavioural change and to reduce environmental risks through social communication strategies and intersectoral ...

  9. MÚSICA CAMPESINA Y CULTURA POPULAR EN CUBA

    Radisbel Galán Rizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La música campesina en Cuba constituye la base fundamental para el estudio de la cultura del país. En ella confluye junto a escasos elementos de la población aborigen las culturas de diferentes etnias que conformaron el amplio mosaico cultural de la Isla siendo la música campesina síntesis inequívoca de este proceso. A través de un análisis crítico, se tomaron en consideración ideas planteadas por varios autores, lo que permite enriquecer los términos y la comprensión del tema. El estudio de la realidad posibilitó analizar la presencia de la música campesina en el contexto nacional a través de sus componentes étnicos, motivaciones, características, rasgos originales, evolución histórica y social como parte indisoluble en la conformación de la nación y su salvaguarda como reafirmación de identidad. De esta forma, el presente texto responde a la insuficiencia de información acerca de los esfuerzos para la salvaguarda y rescate de la tradición musical campesina en Cuba. PALABRAS CLAVE: Música campesina; cultura popular; identidad. THE CONTRY MUSIC AND POPULAR CULTURE IN CUBA ABSTRACT The country music in Cuba is the fundamental for the study of the country's culture base. It converges with few elements of Aboriginal people from different ethnic cultures that shaped the broad cultural mosaic of the island country music being unequivocal synthesis of this process. Through critical analysis, were taken into consideration ideas raised by several authors, allowing enrich the terms and understanding of the subject. The study of reality allowed analyze the presence of country music in the national context through its ethnic components, motivations, characteristics, original features, historical and social evolution as an indissoluble part in shaping the nation and its protection as a reaffirmation of identity. Thus, this text responds to insufficient information on efforts to safeguard and rescue of peasant musical

  10. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008

    Nurys B. Armas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. OBJECTIVE Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. METHODS A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged >25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room and location (jurisdiction of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. RESULTS A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008. In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged >75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies

  11. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    2010-07-01

    ... exportation”) and items not eligible for Department of Commerce GFT or BAG License Exceptions, 15 CFR 740.12..., academic nature; (ii) The research comprises a full work schedule in Cuba; (iii) The research has a.... Example 1 to paragraph (d): A musicologist travels to Cuba to do research on Cuban music pursuant to...

  12. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 2--Origins and Ministry of Protestant Seminaries

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main Protestant theological seminaries in Cuba: Western Cuba Baptist Seminary, Cedars of Lebanon Seminary, The New Pines Evangelical Seminary, Evangelical Theological Seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center, Nazarene Theological Seminary and International School of Theology. The history and…

  13. Present status and trends of petroleum exploration/production in Cuba; Estado actual y perspectivas de la exploracion/produccion de petroleo en Cuba

    Marrero, Manuel [Ministerio de la Industria Basica, La Habana (Cuba)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents the present status and trends of the petroleum exploration and production in Cuba, and demonstrates how the necessity of fast increase in the oil production level (15000 mbp in 1990) became a national high priority. That necessity came up from the abrupt cut in the oil supply due to the breakup of USSR which reached 13 million of tons in 1989. Cuba is presently forecasting new large deposits in the next years 4 figs.

  14. Epidemiology of Suicide in Cuba, 1987-2014.

    Corona-Miranda, Beatriz; Hernández-Sánchez, Mariela; Lomba-Acevedo, Paula

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database. The variables were sex, age, skin color, employment status/occupation, marital status, and method of suicide. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and age-sex specific mortality rates were calculated, all per 100,000 population, as well as the sex ratio. Relative change over the series was calculated as a percentage. Distribution of suicides by variable was calculated and proportions expressed as percentages. RESULTS A total of 51,113 deaths by suicide were reported (annual average 1825), of which 34,671 (67.8%) were among men. The sex ratio was 2.1:1 for the entire study period, and 3.9:1 for 2011-2014. Over the course of the period studied, age-standardized suicide rates decreased from 23.9 to 10.8 per 100,000 population (54.8% reduction). The group aged ≥60 years had the highest average age-standardized rate, 44.6 per 100,000 population. The highest suicide burden by age was in the group aged 20-59 years (60.5%). By skin color, the highest burden was in those recorded as white, 68.9%. By marital status, the highest burden was in persons with a stable partner (46.7%), and by employment status/occupation, in retired (25.9%). The most commonly used method was hanging (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of about three decades, suicide mortality rates have declined by almost half and

  15. Isotopic hydrodynamic of the aquifer systems Jaruco and Aguacate, Cuba

    An isotopic dispersive model is applied to the Jaruco and Aguacate karstic groundwater basins of Western Cuba. The best fit of the model was validated with stable (18O and 2H) and radioactive (3H) isotopes. Modeling showed an aquifer stratification in two basic levels with turnover times of three month to upper level and close to 100 years to the lower level. The last one mainly supplies the base flow of the Ojo de agua and Bello springs and therefore, controls the dry season exploitation yields of the aqueducts of El Gato and Bello. Model results introduces an important constraint in the exploitation of groundwater resource of both aquifer systems

  16. Present situation of regulatory control of radiation sources in Cuba

    The report explains the basis for an effective regulatory control and in particular refers to the system established in Cuba for such purposes. Reference is made to the new Decree-Law No. 207 'On the Use of Nuclear Energy' and the main topics it covers and to the 'Rules for Authorization of Practices Involving the use of Radiation Sources' which have been in force since 1998. Following it, the report illustrates the existing Cuban system of notification, registration and licensing, and of inspection and enforcement, including information of the established classification of radiation practices in the country. (author)

  17. MÚSICA CAMPESINA Y CULTURA POPULAR EN CUBA

    Radisbel Galán Rizo

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La música campesina en Cuba constituye la base fundamental para el estudio de la cultura del país. En ella confluye junto a escasos elementos de la población aborigen las culturas de diferentes etnias que conformaron el amplio mosaico cultural de la Isla siendo la música campesina síntesis inequívoca de este proceso. A través de un análisis crítico, se tomaron en consideración ideas planteadas por varios autores, lo que permite enriquecer los términos y la comprensión del tema. El...

  18. Environmental gamma radiation measurements on providence of Camaguey, Cuba

    The population exposure to those living on the Camaguey Province of Cuba, was estimated by measuring the natural gamma background. Gamma spectra of soils and measurements of absorbed dose rate in air were taken. Radiological measurements carried out with a portable ionization chamber RSS-112 at the sampled sites revealed an average outdoor absorbed dose rate of 63.6 n Gy.h 1 - due to cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma radiation. Computed dose rates obtained through the UNSCEAR(1993) dose coefficients range from 5-136 n Gy.h 1 - , with a mean value of 39.2 n Gy.h 1 - , due to natural terrestrial gamma radiation

  19. Ciência em Cuba: uma aposta pela soberania

    Orfilio Peláez Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No dia 15 de janeiro de 1960, o então primeiro-ministro do Governo Revolucionário, Fidel Castro Ruz, disse que o futuro de Cuba teria que ser necessariamente um futuro de homens de ciência, um futuro de homens de pensamento. Meio século depois de pronunciada tão profética frase, a ilha caribenha é um país de pesquisadores, especialistas e operários altamente qualificados, que dispõe de uma das indústrias biotecnológicas mais importantes do mundo, com resultados comparáveis aos atingidos pelas nações líderes nessa área do conhecimento, e na qual a atividade científica está a caminho de se converter numa potente força produtiva, geradora de significativo ingresso de divisas e de um bem-estar maior para a sociedade.El 15 de enero de 1960 el entonces primer ministro del Gobierno Revolucionario, Fidel Castro Ruz, dijo que el futuro de Cuba tendría que ser necesariamente un futuro de hombres de ciencia, un futuro de hombres de pensamiento. Medio siglo después de pronunciada tan profética frase, la Isla caribeña es un país de investigadores, especialistas y obreros altamente calificados, que dispone de una de las industrias biotecnológicas más pujantes del mundo, con resultados comparables a los alcanzados por las naciones líderes en esta esfera del conocimiento, y donde la actividad científica va en camino de convertirse en una potente fuerza productiva, generadora de significativos ingresos en divisas y de un mayor bienestar para la sociedad.On January 15, 1960, Fidel Castro Ruz, then prime minister of the Revolutionary Government, said that Cuba's future would necessarily have to be a future of men of science, a future of men of thought. Half a century after this prophetic announcement, the Caribbean island is a country of researchers, specialists and highly skilled workers, boasting one of the world's most important biotechnological industries, with achievements comparable to those of leading nations in this field of

  20. El edificio Bacardí en Santiago de Cuba

    Lanuza Jarquín, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Encontrar los criterios que delinearon el proceso de diseño para el proyecto de oficinas de Bacardí y Compañía en Santiago de Cuba de Mies van der Rohe, poniéndolo en relación con trabajos anteriores y estableciendo criterios que se reconocen como propios de su arquitectura, y como las condicionantes que presenta esta ubicación hacen replantear a Mies otras maneras de establecer re-laciones formales, espaciales y estructurales.

  1. Turismo y cambio social en Santiago de Cuba

    Iwaki, Idris M.; Beaton, Hector O.; López, Ernesto A.; Ferrer, Javier M.

    1996-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una aproximación a la influencia del turismo internacional en los cambios en la sociedad cubana. Se centra en el análisis de un espacio público representativo de la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba, el Parque Céspedes, en el que se profundiza sobre la aparición de un nuevo grupo social, «los jineteros», y su influencia sobre el resto de los grupos sociales que conviven en el parque. Por último, se plantean unos interrogantes para la reflexión sobre el fen...

  2. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  3. Notes on the presence of Justicia secunda (Acanthaceae in Cuba.

    Julio Pavel García-Lahera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed and illustrated characterization of the botanical species denominated Justicia secunda, exotic plant cultivated as medicinal and ornamental in Cuba, probably of recent introduction, is presented, in order to facilitate its identification and differentiation from the plants with it is usually confused: Justicia spicigera and Justicia candicans. The work trait to get the attention of the Cuban scientific community about the promissory ethnobotany of the plant, because of the interesting medicinal properties that people attributed, as well as on its possible naturalization in the country and potentialities as an invasive plant.

  4. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro; Opportunity for foreign petroleum investment

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects.

  5. Biological indicators in Cuba. Current trends and forecasting

    The introduction and development of biological indicators of radiation damage began in Cuba in 1986 with the creation of the department of Radiobiology at the Centre for Hygiene and Radiation Protection. The first experiences however began in Cuba in the sixties. The initial task of the work started in the 80 was to introduce the cytogenetic dosimetry. This task finalised with the consolidation of a regular cytogenetic service, currently analyses the cases of presumed overexposures in the country. Additionally a group of research projects are carried out using cytogenetic indicators among them a project with children from territories affected by the Chernobyl accident. The biochemical indicators of radiation damage were developed in a parallel way, at the moment a group of them are available.The nucleic acid concentration and oxidative stress indicators in patients selected for bone marrow transplants are in use in research projects. In the near future a comet assay and the p53 expression will be include in the list of laboratory indicators. In the paper are presented the main results obtained until the moment in the regular services, in the ongoing projects and the works planing for the future. (author)

  6. The role of popular energy education and diffusion in Cuba

    Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Energy Revolution is a national program for developing renewable energy sources to conserve energy, promote sustainable development and address environmental concerns. It includes the Energy Saving Program by the Ministry of Education (PAEME), the Electricity Saving Program in Cuba (PAEC) by the Ministry of Basic Industry (MINBAS) and the National Program for Energy Sustainable Culture developed by CUBASOLAR. The most important programs related to the use of renewable energy sources have been carried out in the field of biomass, hydropower, wind energy, water supply and solar photovoltaic energy in rural areas. This paper presented the Cuban experiences on education, diffusion and publication of energy themes. Mass communication including television, radio and magazines has been used to explain the rationale of using renewable energy, its efficiency and social impact. The positive results thus far indicate that these measures can be applied in other developing countries such as Latin America and Caribbean, and could also serve as a guide for other areas, including developed countries.

  7. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  8. Las finanzas de Cuba en el ocaso colonial

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the repercussions of the War of Independence on the Cuban economy as a Whole. The data provided include costs per sector, their effects on exports, customs figures and collection of taxes. In addition, the author's analysis on property imposts provides the reader with information on Cuba´s financial situation and that of the landowners at the time when the reconstruction of the country began.

    En este artículo se estudian las repercusiones provocadas por la Guerra de Independencia en el conjunto de la economía cubana, así mismo se aporta información del costo por sectores, su repercusión sobre las exportaciones, los ingresos aduaneros y el cobro de impuestos, y se traza en líneas generales la situación financiera de Cuba y de los propietarios al momento de iniciarse la reconstrucción del país, a partir del estudio de los gravámenes que afectaban la propiedad.

  9. Impact of the 1970 Reforms to Cuba's National Tuberculosis Control Program.

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION To reach the goal of eliminating tuberculosis as a public health problem in Cuba, the epidemiological evolution of the disease and of strategies designed to prevent and manage it to date must be well understood. In this context, in 1970, changes were introduced in Cuba's National Tuberculosis Control Program. OBJECTIVE Review background and evolution of Cuba's strategy for tuberculosis control, the changes implemented in the 1970 revision of the Program, and their impact on the subsequent evolution of the disease in Cuba. METHODS Published articles on the history of tuberculosis control in Cuba were reviewed, along with archival documents and medical records. Documents concerning the situation of pulmonary tuberculosis in Cuba, including measures adopted to address the disease and its extent, were selected for study, with an emphasis on the period of the Program. Interviews with key informants were conducted. RESULTS Cuba's fight against tuberculosis began in Santiago de Cuba, with the creation of a local Anti-Tuberculosis League in 1890. Strategic changes introduced by Cuba's public health sector, stressing health promotion and disease prevention, led to the 1959 creation of the Tuberculosis Department, which implemented Cuba's first National Tuberculosis Control Program in 1963. This Program was completely reorganized in 1970. The National Tuberculosis Control Program (1963) covered a network of 27 tuberculosis dispensaries, 8 sanatoriums and 24 bacteriology laboratories. Diagnosis was based on radiographic imaging criteria. Incidence was 52.6/100,000 in 1964 and reached 31.2 in 1970. The Program was updated in 1970 to include two major changes: the requirement for bacteriological confirmation of diagnosis and directly-observed outpatient treatment fully integrated into health services. By 1971, incidence was down to 17.8/100,000, and further reduced to 11.6 in 1979. The decrease is interpreted as the result of the greater specificity of

  10. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba; Control radiologico de las exportaciones de chatarra en Cuba

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: orlando@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  11. Cuba: los entornos cambiantes de la partcipación

    Haroldo DILLA ALFONSO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La participación popular ha sido una permanente invocación del discurso político revolucionario cubano, particularmente en las instancias comunitarias. Este ensayo trata de analizar la evolución de los diseños, instituciones y realidades participativas a partir de su relación con las situaciones políticas y los modelos de reproducción económicos. Por su relevancia, se presta especial atención al sistema municipal cubano. Este fue creado en 1976 y ha experimentado diversas modificaciones, las más importantes de las cuales tuvieron lugar en 1992. Los cambios económicos y sociales que han tenido lugar en Cuba en los últimos diez años imponen a la participación nuevos retos, entre ellos la necesidad de una concepción más autónoma y pluralista del accionar popular en la esfera pública, lo que de alguna manera ya se expresa en algunos esfuerzos oficiales por adecuar los patrones de participación existentes (esencialmente una participación paternalista-clientelista y en la emergencia de movimientos comunitarios que intentan controlar y transformar las vidas cotidianas en los vecindarios.ABSTRACT: Popular participation has been a permanent slogan in the political discourse of revolutionary Cuba, particularly at the community level. This article deals with the design and evolution of institutions and participatory realities starting with its relation with the political situation and economic models of reproduction. Special attention is given to the municipal system created in 1976 and modified severa! times from which the most important modification was the one in 1992. The social and economic changes of Cuba during the last ten years have posed new challenges to participation such as the need for a more autonomous and pluralistic conception of "popular praxis" in the public sphere. This is present in the official efforts to adequate existing participatory norms (particularly the paternalistic-clientelistic participation and

  12. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  13. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on ext

  14. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba. PMID:25947808

  15. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    Albert Deler-Hernandez; Martin Fikácek; Franklyn Cala-Riquelme

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati , remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously ...

  16. Heritage Modern: Cityscape of the Late Socialist Political Economy in Trinidad, Cuba

    Tanaka, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The overall theme of this dissertation is to understand, through the heritage cityscape of Trinidad, aspects of the processes of the reconfiguration of political economy in today's Cuba. In late socialist Cuba, tourism is a key sector sustaining the revolution, and heritage cityscape constitutes one of the main tourist attractions. In this regard, the city of Trinidad provides a vantage point to analyze heritage practices and the tourism economy. I argue that the heritage cityscape of Trinida...

  17. Vodú Chic: Haitian Religion and the Folkloric Imaginary in Socialist Cuba

    Grete Viddal

    2012-01-01

    During the first three decades of the twentieth century, hundreds of thousands of Haitian agricultural laborers arrived in Cuba seeking employment in the expanding sugar industry. Historically, Haitian cane cutters were marginal and occupied the lowest socio-economic status in Cuban society. Until relatively recently, the maintenance of Haitian spiritual beliefs, music, dance, and language in Cuba were associated with rural isolation and poverty. Today however, the continuation of Haitian cus...

  18. Assessment of Human Health Vulnerability to Climate Variability and Change in Cuba

    Bultó, Paulo Lázaro Ortíz; Rodríguez, Antonio Pérez; Valencia, Alina Rivero; Vega, Nicolás León; Gonzalez, Manuel Díaz; Carrera, Alina Pérez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we assessed the potential effects of climate variability and change on population health in Cuba. We describe the climate of Cuba as well as the patterns of climate-sensitive diseases of primary concern, particularly dengue fever. Analyses of the associations between climatic anomalies and disease patterns highlight current vulnerability to climate variability. We describe current adaptations, including the application of climate predictions to prevent disease outbreaks. Finally...

  19. Inventory of land snails from Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Félix Jonathan Pereira-Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A census of mollusks in Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba was carried out. Biodiversity index were studied by vegetal formation, which are: Evergreen Forest, Semideciduous Forest and Mogote Vegetation Complex. The families best represented were Helicinidae, Annularidae, Urocoptidae and Subulinidae, taking the 97.6% of the species some degree of national endemism and being the 45.24% of these local endemic. The most widely distributed species was Farcimen camaguayanum Torre & Bartsch 1941 and the rarest was Euclastaria euclasta Shuttleworth 1852. The highest biodiversity values were observed in the Mogote Vegetation Complex being of 2,856 according to Shannon-Wiener (H´ index. So far species extinction events are not seen but not discarded for the future due to a decline in local rainfall during the last 15 years as well as human activities such as agriculture and local tourism.

  20. Cuba y la cuestión racial

    Velia Cecilia Bobes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes race relations in Cuba within the context of her different historical conjunctures, and aims to demonstrate the existence of a racial cleavage in the present, within the dominant idea of the Nation as a supraracial and homogenous body. The paper demonstrates that the question of race has been present in all political movements in Cuba’s history, since it has always permeated the way in which Cubans perceive both themselves and others. Finally, the problem is analyzed within the framework of the revolutionary transformations from 1959 on, with special attention to the tensions implicit in the disjunction of equality before de low vs. the survival of racial prejudice.

  1. Studies on NORMs in Cuba: Results and perspective

    The following scenarios of exposures to NORM have been studied in Cuba: processing and use of phosphates; extraction, processing and use of oil and gas; production of refractory bricks for industrial ovens; civilian aviation; spas and health resorts and scrap metal recycling. Some of these activities have been characterized exhaustively, and others only partially. Some scenarios of exposure to NORM have associated doses comparable with typical doses received by workers of several practices (in the order of units of mSv/year). In this connection some recommendations were issued to the Regulatory Authority in order to establish a regulatory approach to the problem of exposures to NORM. Some problems associated with NORM in the recycling industry remain unsolved, waiting for a more detailed characterization of the by-products involved. (author)

  2. The regulatory framework for similar biotherapeutic products in Cuba.

    Hechavarría Núñez, Yanet; Pérez Massipe, Rodrigo Omar; Orta Hernández, Santa Deybis; Muñoz, Lázara Martínez; Jacobo Casanueva, Olga Lidia; Pérez Rodríguez, Violeta; Domínguez Morales, Rolando Bárbaro; Pérez Cristiá, Rafael B

    2011-09-01

    Biopharmaceuticals make up a significant proportion of medicinal products used for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiac dysfunctions and AIDS. Access to therapies based on the use of these products has been limited as a result of the high marketing costs. Cuba has a biopharmaceutical industry with great potential for innovation, capable of developing new products and to produce others, like the biosimilars destined to fulfill the needs of its National Health System. The Center for State Control on the Quality of Drugs (CECMED) the Cuban NRA, is facing the challenge of regulating the approval of biosimilar products manufactured locally. Consequently, CECMED has issued a position paper establishing the basic principles for regulation of these products and a specific guideline on this was elaborated. PMID:21930393

  3. Catholic Church and State in Cuba: past and present relationships

    Delia CONTRERAS GARCÍA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After centuries of a deep presence in Cuba, the Catholic Church has always been part of a complex relationship with the political establishment. The break between Church and State that occurred after the Revolution, would soon show the institution’s ability to survive in unfavorable conditions. Now, after more than fifty years of revolutionary experience, the Catholic Church has become the sole internal interlocutor with the regime. The aim of this article is to analyze the process by which the Cuban Catholic Church has managed its relations with the Castro regime, balancing its pastoral mission with its social responsibilities, that has been increasing as new factors emerged, on both the national stage and on the International Relations front.

  4. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba: diagnosis

    Evelyn Lobo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba.

  5. Los intereses sectoriales de la vivienda social en Cuba

    Adriana Rabinovich

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans les premières années qui ont suivi la révolution cubaine, l’Etat embrassa la responsabilité totale dans le domaine du logement social. Cette contribution analyse les modalités de prise en compte des tensions entre critères technocratiques et ceux du « design » ainsi que le rôle attribué à la population dans les politiques et programmes d’habitations collectives depuis 1959. Elle met en lumière le modèle étatique sectoriel lequel a progressivement priorisé la quantité et défini la qualité par des critères de productivité à bas coûts. L’exemple de l’ONG Habitat-Cuba illustre également la fragilité des expériences innovantes des années 1990 qui ont tenté de réconcilier les aspects technocratiques avec les attributs esthétiques, spatiaux et fonctionnels de l’habitat par des approches dites participatives.In the first few years following the Cuban revolution, the State assumed full responsibility for public housing. The present contribution analyzes modalities for dealing with the tensions between technological and design-related criteria, as well as the role set aside for the public in collective housing policies and programmes since 1949. It sheds light on the statist model that has gradually given priority to quantity while defining quality via criteria for low-cost productivity. The example of the NGO Habitat-Cuba also illustrates the fragile nature of the innovative experiments of the 1990s, which attempted to reconcile technocratic aspects with the aesthetic, spatial and functional attributes of housing by means of so-called participatory approaches.

  6. Avocado breeding in Cuba. State of the art biotechnologies

    Genetic diversity studies of avocado germplasm: Genetic diversity among avocado varieties cultivated in Cuba was undertaken considering 22 agronomic and morphological traits, 12 AFLP and 16 SSR primer combinations. Using agromorphological traits, cultivars clustered within racial groups confirming the ecological classification and a catalogue was prepared. AFLP and SSR markers were useful for providing a more accurate estimate of genetic distances between the cultivars. Identification and characterization of soil-borne isolates: A collection of Phytopohthora spp. and Phytium spp. strains isolated from commercial avocado orchards was constructed. Identification and characterization of these isolates was done based on morphological, physiological and molecular markers (ITS and Lpv 3 primers pairs) differentiating both genus and confirming the usefulness of using a combined approach for an accurate identification. A first description about P. palmivora affecting avocado trees in Cuba was reported based on morphological traits, maximum temperature of growing, amplification pattern using ITS primer combinations and sequencing information of the amplified product obtained with Lpv 3 primer pairs. Radiosensitivity curves useful for breeding purposes: Radiosensitivity curves to Gamma rays were determined in 'Duke-7' and 'Hass' cultivars commonly used as rootstocks. LD50 values were calculated to be 28 and 27 Gy for each cultivar, respectively. Selection for salinity conditions using zygotic embryos: Survival curves (LD50) were calculated for 'Duke-7' (56 mM of NaCl), 'Jose Antonio' (66 mM) and 'Catalina' (148 mM). LD20 and LD10 values, useful for breeding purposes, were also determined. Breeding avocado rootstocks using biotechnologies: An in vitro propagation method for avocado breeding purposes was optimized using zygotic embryos, combined with the LD50 values for Gamma rays and LD50 values for NaCl to obtain mutant lines from rootstock 'Duke-7' with improved salt

  7. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  8. Isolation and identification of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus from sugarcane varieties in Cuba

    Marcia Rojas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops in Cuba and other countries in the world. The worldwide occurrence of G. diazotrophicus in sugarcane and other plants suggest a beneficial association between this species and grass species. The potentialities of endophytes in the agricultural biotechnology are very high, that is why the detec-tion of this bacterium inside of sugarcane is so important. The aim of this work was to detect the occurrence of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in 18 varieties of sugarcane growing in Cuba. This species was isolated in 13 varieties on the basis of micromorphological and colonies characteristics. For the first time it was isolated G. diazotrophi-cusfrom varieties Cuba 1616-75, Cuba 751-75, Campos Brasil 44-52 and SP701143 cultivated in Cuba. The 46 isolates from the varieties Jaronú 60-5, Cuba 323-68 and Media Luna 318 were identified as G. diazotrophicusby morphological and biochemical test.

  9. El Sistema de Control Interno para el Perfeccionamiento de la Gestión Empresarial en Cuba (Internal Control System for the Improvement of Corporate Governance in Cuba)

    Dinaidys Gómez-Selemeneva; Blanca Blanco Camping; Juan R. Conde Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Spanish abstract. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre los antecedentes del control interno empresarial, caracterizando el mismo en Cuba y exponiendo los principales postulados para la gestión del cambio empresarial y su aplicación. Así mismo se describe el proceso de cambio para la implementación del control interno en una organización. English abstract. In this study we examine the history of corporate internal control in order to characterize it in Cuba and to expose the main...

  10. Prevalencia de anemia infecciosa equina en el municipio de Santa Clara, Cuba - Prevalence of equine infectious anemia in the municipality of Santa Clara, Cuba

    Castillo Cuenca, Julio C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDada la naturaleza de contagiosidad y fatalidad de la anemia infecciosa equina nos propusimos realizar un estudio serológico con el objetivo de conocer la tasa de prevalencia de la enfermedad en el municipio de Santa Clara, provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba.SummaryGiven the nature of infectiousness and fatality of the equine infectious anemia we intended to carry out a serological study with the objective of knowing the prevalence rate of the disease in the municipality of Santa Clara, Villa Clara province, Cuba.

  11. Aspecto de interés sobre la ciguatera en Cuba (Aspects of interest on the ciguatera in Cuba

    Arencibia Carballo, Gustavo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos pescadores caribeños alardean de poder descubrir cuando un pez esciguato (contaminado con las toxinas del ciguatera usando métodospropios, como llevar a cabo bioensayos como dar un pedazo del pez a ungato, verificando si las escamas se le caen a un peces recién capturado o sisus ojos son voluminosos o con poco brillo y que los pescadores creenvehementemente son pruebas apropiadas. Los archivos epidemiológicosen la muestra de Cuba recogen dos brotes de ciguatera por consumo depeces en la misma región del país asociada con la ingestión de este especie de pez, entonces mal identificado de Caranx fallax. Hay una necesidad urgente de identificar técnicas económicas para detectar diferentes complejos de toxinas del Ciguatera incluida palytoxinas y toxinas de diarreicas en el pez contaminado.SummaryCaribbean fishermen boast of being able to detect when a fish is “ciguato” (contaminated with ciguatera toxins by using folk methods, such as carrying out their own “bioassay” by feeding a piece of the fish to a cat,checking if the scales fall off a freshly caught fish, or if its eyes are bulky, that they vehemently claim to be appropriate tests. Epidemiological records in Cuba show there were in the past two Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP outbreaks in the same region of the country associated with the ingestion of the same kind of fish, then misidentified as Caranx fallax.There is an urgent need for economic techniques to detect different toxins of the CFP complex (which includes palytoxins and DSP toxins in the sameblack box in contaminated fish.

  12. Corrupción, burocracia colonial y veteranos separatistas en Cuba, 1868-1910

    Quiroz, Alfonso W.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative corruption in Cuba during the nineteenth century was a serious problem addressed both by Spanish authorities and the critics of the colonial system in Cuba. In the long run the fiscal, financial, institutional, and ideological costs of corruption undermined Spanish colonial control in Cuba. While the state and Cuban taxpayers had to pay for the increased costs of corruption, corrupt public officials and private contractors and financiers benefited. This study uses both archival manuscript administrative sources and published sources to assess the impact of corruption and its institutional bases during the final phase of Spanish colonialism in Cuba and the early period of post-colonial transition.

    La corrupción administrativa en Cuba durante el siglo XIX constituyó un problema reconocido como muy grave tanto por las autoridades españolas como por los críticos del sistema colonial cubano. Los costos fiscales, institucionales, e ideológicos de la corrupción contribuían a la erosión del dominio español en Cuba. A causa de la corrupción el Estado percibía menos ingresos y los contribuyentes cubanos se veían forzados a llevar a cuestas una creciente deuda pública. Los funcionarios corruptos y los contratistas y financistas privilegiados por el rígido sistema colonial, por el contrario, percibían los beneficios informales a que se creían acreedores por defender el dominio territorial español en Cuba. Utilizando fuentes administrativas manuscritas de archivos cubanos y españoles, así como fuentes públicas impresas, este trabajo evalúa el impacto de la corrupción y sus particulares bases institucionales en la fase final del colonialismo español en la isla y la transición post-colonial temprana.

  13. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  14. Microorganismos indicadores de la calidad del agua potable en cuba

    Marlen Robert Pullés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los agentes patógenos transmitidos por el agua constituyen un problema mundial que demanda un urgente control. Las bacterias, virus y parásitos causan enfermedades que varían en severidad. La determinación de microorganismos en el agua de consumo y su concentración proporcionan herramientas de control, indispensables para la toma de decisiones. Los controles rutinarios de todos los microorganismos, potencialmente riesgosos para la salud, resultan difíciles de llevar a cabo, debido a que ello representa, varios días de análisis y costos elevados. Para hacer una evaluación sencilla, económica y fiable de la presencia de patógenos, la vigilancia de la calidad del agua se efectúa mediante indicadores de contaminación, aplicando diferentes enfoques técnicos, cada uno con sus cualidades, defectos y limitaciones. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar el enfoque actual existente a nivel nacional e internacional, en relación con los indicadores microbiológicos empleados para la evaluación del agua potable, como elementos clave, y a partir de estos, proponer un esquema de monitoreo en Cuba. Los resultados reflejaron, la alternativa de considerar, la aplicación de un esquema para monitoreo complementario en Cuba, que incluya como indicadores de contaminación del agua potable además de las bacterias, algunos agentes biológicos no considerados en la norma, como los virus y los parásitos. Asimismo indicaron la necesidad de establecer un valor de referencia y definir los microorganismos a emplear en los monitoreos de validación, operativo o verificación. Esta propuesta aportaría importante información para la actualización de la norma cubana sobre la base del conocimiento de los estándares internacionales más reconocidos.

  15. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens. PMID:25909251

  16. Nuclear energy in Cuba: its perspectives and the realities of today's world

    This is a study of Cuba's plan for assimilating nuclear energy. It explains that over a period of approximately 15 years, more than 25% of the country's electricity production will be transferred to nuclear power plants and explains the need for and importance of this task. The paper makes a comparative analysis between the Third World countries that are carrying out nuclear programs and Cuba, highlighting Cuba's creation of important bases for infrastructure, education and scientific and technical potential, and points out the fact that as a socialist country Cuba is able to use its resources rationally to promote development and maintain broad, beneficial international cooperation. Cuba's general conditions for facing this task are referred to and the various steps that have been taken since the triumph of the Cuban Revolution are explained, with emphasis on the basic directions in which the country's efforts have been concentrated since 1980, including, concretely: nuclear energy, fundamental and applied research; the application of nuclear technology to medicine, the economy and other branches; the creation of radiological protection measures and systems; the education and training of personnel; international relations and the encouragement of cooperation plans. The crisis of the capitalist energy scheme is raised as well as the Third World's inability to assimilate nuclear energy. The new strategy of the industrialized countries is analyzed. It also raises the struggle and perspectives for the new technologies, as well as the ideological struggle with regard to the Cuban nuclear program. (B.R.D.)

  17. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  18. Seven years of individual monitoring service in Cuba

    The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) has been carrying out from 1987 the individual monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to the ionizing radiations in the Republic of Cuba, excepting those that employ X-rays in diagnostic radiology. In this paper the results of the individual monitoring services during the period 1987-1993 are discussed. For all occupational practices the current system of dose limitation established in the country with 50 mSv as limit of annual dose is satisfied. The distribution in all occupational practices other than nuclear medicine and gamma-therapy is characterized by having more than 95% of the controlled personnel with an effective dose lower than 5 mSv. In the case of nuclear medicine and gamma-therapy more than 80% of the workers were below that dose value. For the practices evaluated in this paper the possibility of assuming the system of dose limitation recommended by ICRP is evident. The evaluations carried out for the introduction of operational quantities Hp(0.07) and Hp(10) in dose assessment procedure are presented. The expressions obtained during the characterization of the film badge dosemeter, in terms of operational quantities guarantees a deviation of response of the dosemeter with depending upon energies, lower than 20 %. (author)

  19. Population effective collective dose from nuclear medicine examination in Cuba

    In an attempt to estimate the effective collective dose imparted to the population of Camagueey-Ciego de Avila territory (Cuba)), we have made use of the statistics from nuclear medicine examinations given to a population of 1.1 million inhabitants for the years 1995-1999. The average annual frequency of examinations was estimated to be 3.82 per 1000 population. The results show that nuclear medicine techniques of thyroid imaging with 43.73% and thyroid uptake with 43.36% are the main techniques implicated in the relative contribution to the total annual effective collective dose, which averaged 54.43 man Sv for the studied period. Radiation risks for the Camagueey-Ciego de Avila population caused by nuclear medicine examinations in the period studied were calculated: the total number of fatal and non-fatal cancers was 16.33 and the number of serious hereditary disturbance was 3.54 as a result of 21,073 nuclear medicine procedures, corresponding to a total detriment of one case per thousand examinations. (authors)

  20. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 ± 5 mBq.l-1 to 39 ±12 mBq.l-1. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 ± 8 mBq.l-1. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 ± 7 mBq.l-1 and 31 ± 9 mBq.l-1 , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 μSv.y-1, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 μSv.y-1. (author)

  1. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El contenido de Níquel (Ni en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas realizadas reflejanun contenido medio de 122,3 mg kg-1de Ni total, muysuperior al señalado por la literatura internacional y valoresextremos de hasta 2850,0 mg kg-1en suelos desarrolladossobre rocas ultrabásicas (serpentinita. Sin embargo, noexisten reportes de valores elevados (tóxicos del elementoen los cultivos. En el trabajo se discute el origen y formasen que se encuentra el Ni en los suelos cubanos; así comosu posible efecto tóxico para las plantas y animales que sealimentan de ellas. Finalmente, se concluyó planteando lanecesidad de establecer Límites Permisibles de Ni en elsuelo, diferenciados de acuerdo al tipo de suelo y su uso.

  2. Dangerous wastes management in Cuba. Current situation and perspectives

    The appropriate handling of the dangerous waste has become a topic of high priority for all the countries and especially for those developing one that in general, they lack solid technical infrastructure, suitable technologies and human resources properly qualified to carry out this work without causing negative impacts on the environment. For these countries, this matter represents a true challenge, requiring you to have financial resources to create capacities and to acquire technologies, that which reality should be made with the support of the developed countries, but that up to now it doesn't stop to be a commitments without in the practice it is materialized in an effective way. The collaboration and the cooperation among the countries in development are also an useful road that should be increased. This work seeks to expose as Cuba it has faced this challenge, presenting the carried out actions, the confronted difficulties and the future actions that will be attacked so that the handling of dangerous waste doesn't constitute an environmental problem to solve

  3. Total arsenic in marine organisms from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba

    Full text: Levels of total arsenic were determined in muscle tissues of species of finnish, crustaceans and molluscs from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba. The arsenic contents in the samples were determined using an Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) method. The highest values of Total arsenic were found in crustaceans. Averages found for fish, crustaceans and molluscs were 10.2, 26.5 and 22 μg g-1 dry wt, respectively. These results are considered to be characteristic for normal or naturally altered areas. Cienfuegos Bay, situated in the Southern part of Cuba, is a semi-enclosed bay with a surface area of 90 km2 and an average depth of 14 m. It is connected to the Caribbean Sea by a narrow channel 3 km long. The bay is divided in two well defined hydrographic basins, due to the presence of a submerged ridge 1m below the surface. The Northern basin receives most of the anthropic impact from the outfall of Cienfuegos city (150,000 inhabitants), industrial pole in the country, and the freshwater input of Damuji and Salado rivers. The Southern basin is subjected to a smaller degree of anthropic pollution originating from the Caonao and Arimao rivers. Part of the Southern basin is a natural park, which represents a niche for protected migratory birds and marine species. The bay represents the most important natural resource in the province, due to fishing activities, maritime transport, tourism industry and natural parks. During the last decade it has acquired an important economic and social development, resulting in an increase of industrial and domestic wastes which are discharged into the bay. Direct input of Arsenic to Cienfuegos bay occurs through the Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory, which was authorized to release Arsenic residuals up to 1981 and where two accidental As spills took place in 1979 and 2001. Marine organisms represent an important component of the diet of the population of Cienfuegos. In particular, people from the coastal areas of Castillo de Jagua

  4. Total arsenic in marine organisms from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba

    Full text: Levels of total arsenic were determined in muscle tissues of species of finnish, crustaceans and molluscs from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba. The arsenic contents in the samples were determined using an Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) method. The highest values of Total arsenic were found in crustaceans. Averages found for fish, crustaceans and molluscs were 10.2, 26.5 and 22 μg g-1 dry wt, respectively. These results are considered to be characteristic for normal or naturally altered areas. Cienfuegos Bay, situated in the Southern part of Cuba, is a semi-enclosed bay with a surface area of 90 km2 and an average depth of 14 m. It is connected to the Caribbean Sea by a narrow channel 3 km long. The bay is divided in two well defined hydrographic basins, due to the presence of a submerged ridge 1m below the surface. The Northern basin receives most of the anthropic impact from the outfall of Cienfuegos city (150,000 inhabitants), industrial pole in the country, and the freshwater input of Damuji and Salado rivers. The Southern basin is subjected to a smaller degree of anthropic pollution originating from the Caonao and Arimao rivers. Part of the Southern basin is a natural park, which represents a niche for protected migratory birds and marine species. The bay represents the most important natural resource in the province, due to fishing activities, maritime transport, tourism industry and natural parks. During the last decade it has acquired an important economic and social development, resulting in an increase of industrial and domestic wastes which are discharged into the bay. Direct input of Arsenic to Cienfuegos bay occurs through the Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory, which was authorized to release Arsenic residuals up to 1981 and where two accidental As spills took place in 1979 and 2001. Marine organisms represent an important component of the diet of the population of Cienfuegos. In particular, people from the coastal areas of Castillo de Jagua

  5. Evolution of Rates of Return to Schooling in Tunisia: 1980-1999

    Salma Zouari- Bouatour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the theory of human capital, we estimate the Mincerian earnings functions based on individual data from national surveys of population and employment in 1980 and 1999. We show that the rates of return to education are, in 1980 and 1999, increasing proportionally with educational level. This growth of return rates means that the incentives for human capital accumulation continue to be strong. This result is general, it is observed for men and women, and in urban and rural areas. However, between 1980 and 1999, the average rate of return to education declined from 9.5% to 5.9%. Furthermore, this decline in the rates of return is general for all levels of education. This phenomenon affects the urban and rural areas as well as men and women. But the decline in the rate of return increases when the education level is low: the less the education level is, the bigger the decline in the rate of return is. This can result in a general deficiency in demand for labor by companies which seriously affects low qualified people. Following Heckman (1979, we re-estimate the earnings functions corrected for selection bias due to Mill's reversed ratio. The new findings of education return rates are superior to those obtained from the standard estimates. The results prove that education return rates increase when the education level increases; moreover, it explained the decline that happened between 1980 and 1999, which touched all education levels. However, the relative decrease in returns to education becomes larger in higher education levels; the lack of demand for labor would be felt more for the more educated.

  6. Medical care and deaths due to coronary artery disease in Brazil, 1980-1999

    Ines Lessa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of medical care preceding deaths due to coronary artery diseases (CAD in different Brazilian regions and capitals and to describe trends in medical care from 1980 to 1999. METHODS: Information on medical care preceding deaths due to coronary artery diseases/acute myocardial infarction in adults > 20 years from 1980 to 1999 was collected in the DATASUS, the databank of the Brazilian Health Ministry. Sex, states, and capitals selected for 1999 were analyzed in the study. Medical care was stratified as follows: with, without, and ignored medical care. The descriptive analysis comprised frequencies, ratios of frequency, test for proportions, and increments or reductions in frequencies. RESULTS: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI represented 75 to 85% of the CAD in the period; the frequency of deaths with medical care ranged from 48.9 to 63%, and that of ignored medical care ranged from 27.2 to 41.5%. The frequency of other CAD with medical care ranged from 56 to 76%. The frequency of deaths preceded by medical care decreased by 17.8%, and that with ignored medical care increased by 36.5% (RF=2. The values for the other CAD were -20.2% and +64.6% (RF=44.4. Deaths preceded by medical care were more frequent in females at all ages and in all Brazilian regions. CONCLUSION: The results show a high frequency of sudden death and suggest errors in diagnosis or codification and overestimation of the statistics about mortality. Validation of the death certificate diagnosis and frequent surveillance are required.

  7. The Reorganization of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools, 1980-1999.

    Mallon, William T.; Biebuyck, Julien F.; Jones, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed a longitudinal database to examine how basic science departments have been reorganized at U.S. medical schools. Found that there were fewer basic science departments in the traditional disciplines of anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology in 1999 than in 1980. But as biomedical science has developed in an…

  8. Cuba’s Academic Advantage: Why Student’s in Cuba Do Better in School

    Michael O’Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba’s Academic Advantage, Martin Carnoy analyses the success of the Cuban school system as measured by the results achieved by Cuban students in international math, science, and language tests. The study includes data from Chile and Brazil whose students consistently test less well than Cuban students on these same tests despite the fact that these two countries enjoy better socio-economic indicators than does Cuba and educational reform efforts have been undertaken by their respective governments. He references studies, the results of which are well known by researchers, which demonstrate that academic success among socially disadvantaged students is far less likely than for students from better-off families (p. 45. Why does this co-relation not hold true for Cuba? Carnoy argues that an important component of student success in Cuba, including students from lower socio-economic circumstances, is the result of what he terms state-generated social capital.

  9. Cuba: the strategic choice of advanced scientific development, 1959-2014

    Baracca, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Cuba is continuing attracting the attention of the international scientific community for some important and unexpected achievements in applied science such as health biotechnology. They represent outcomes of the 1959 decision of Cuba to develop an advanced scientific system in order to address the most urgent problems for the development of the country and to overcome the condition of subalternity. This ambitious objective was tackled in a very original way, making a broad and wide-ranging recourse to every effective support and collaboration, with Soviet but also Western scientists and institutions, in addition to a peculiar Cuban inventiveness. Indeed, immediately after the revolution, Cuba developed an advanced and articulated scientific system, and achieved a level of excellence in leading scientific fields, like biotechnology, quite independently from the Soviet Union, which was behind in this field. Even the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, that could have put the achievements of the Re...

  10. Quality control to the service of diagnostic radiology in policlinics and hospitals of Santiago de Cuba

    The work presents the results obtained in the Quality Control in diagnostic X-ray equipment accomplished in 33 clinics of Santiago de Cuba city. The performed test were, to the X-ray generator, X-ray tube, devices collimation and alignment, as well as to the light boxes, dark rooms, and radiographic screen-film combinations. Moreover the work presents the results of the Entrance Doses for a reference patient in radiographic projections of frequent use in clinics of Santiago de Cuba city (chest, lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis). For the evaluation of the verified technical parameters were used the tolerance criterions recommended by the Technical Guide elaborated by the State Control Centre of Medical of Cuba. In the case of the Entrance Dose were used the dose levels that recommended by the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for safety of radiation sources

  11. Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba (1846-1931).

    Orestes Gárciga Gárciga

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo forma parte de una investigación mayor que estudia la actividad laboral de la población cubana en el periodo de 1846-1931, mediante el procesamiento de los datos estadísticos correspondientes a los censos de 1846, 1862, 1899, 1907, 1919 y 1931. El trabajo está compuesto por cuatro partes: «Método para el estudio de la estructura ocupacional de Cuba»; «La población de Cuba entre 1846 y 1931»; «La evolución de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba de 1846 a 1931» y «Fuerza de trabajo calif...

  12. Masculinities studies in eastern Cuba: imaginaries significations. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios.

    Denise Regina Quaresma da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we approached a study about masculinities imaginaries significations in eastern Cuba. Firstly, we rescued relevant moments of the masculinities studies in the country and some theoretical contributions to understand the social production of the masculinities. Besides, we show the qualitative results from the groups with men.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.

  13. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  14. Cuba: transición, sucesión, estabilidad, seguridad

    Joaquín ROY

    2010-01-01

    Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto ...

  15. Validation and use of an ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in Cuba

    Babesia bovis, the most important etiological agent causing bovine babesiosis, is widely distributed in Cuba and affects mainly adult cattle. A survey of the prevalence of the disease in cattle using an ELISA kit (FAO/IAEA) revealed that 34.2% of the animals between 6 and 18 months of age were positive to Babesia bovis, whereas 69.9% on the cattle older than 18 months were positive. Antibodies to Babesia bovis were detected in 96.9% of calves vaccinated with an attenuated Babesia bovis vaccine. A good correlation was found between the results of ELISA kit with those from indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests developed in Cuba. (author)

  16. Justo de Lara y la evolución del periodismo en Cuba

    Garrell, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Justo de Lara es probablemente un gran desconocido de la historia de Cuba, aunque se le reconocen ciertos méritos literarios y periodísticos que deberían ser suficientes para rescatarlo del baúl de la historia y recordarlo como a uno de los protagonistas con una importancia relativa pero con una validez notable a la hora de sumergirnos tanto en la historia del periodismo como en la historia misma de Cuba. Justo de Lara nos ofrece una ventana, un mirador excepcional desde el cual reseguir los ...

  17. The new 2nd-generation laser station at Santiago de Cuba

    Masevich, A. G.; Chepurnov, B. D.; Fundora, M.; del Pino, J.; Kautzleben, H.

    The new laser-radar station at Santiago de Cuba was equipped in cooperation between the Academies of Sciences of the USSR, Cuba and the G.D.R. The system is based on a modified satellite-tracking camera (SBG). Its basic concept and the technical performance are similar to the laser-radar station of the Central Institute for Physics of the Earth, Potsdam. During a first 6-weeks-observation campaign (Dec. 1985 - Jan. 1986), 70 satellite passes (including 40 passes of the geodynamical satellite LAGEOS) were obtained.

  18. Control Programs of tuberculosis from 1963 to 1970 in Cuba. Historic analysis

    Enrique Ramón Beldarraín Chaple

    2015-01-01

    The fight against tuberculosis began in Cuba at the end of the XIX century, in Santiago de Cuba. At the beginning of the XX century the League Against Tuberculosis was created with a limited action for the lack of funds and an adequated strategy. In 1936 The National Board of tuberculosis was created, that accomplished few activities and they did not cause impact neither in morbidity nor in mortality produced by the disease in the population. In 1959, with the change of strategy introduced by...

  19. Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba 1846-1931 (II)

    Orestes Gárciga Gárciga

    2014-01-01

    En «Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba 1846-1931» se estudia el procesamiento de los datos estadísticos que, acerca de la actividad laboral de la población, presentaron los censos de 1846, 1862, 1899, 1907, 1919 y 1931. Debido a su extensión, la obra ha sido dividida en tres partes para ser publicada en Novedades en Población. El presente artículo examina la evolución de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba de 1846 a 1931, a través de diversas clasificaciones internacionales empleadas en estos ...

  20. Metrology positronic issuers for nuclear medicine in Cuba: current state and development prospects

    At work the current state of metrology positronic issuers for nuclear medicine in Cuba is presented. the main achievements in the implementation of measurement standards and issues affecting the uncertainty of measurements at different levels of hierarchy of the existing chain of traceability for determinations of the activity of F-18 and Ga-68 is described, the main radionuclides expected to be used in the short term in PET and PET / CT applications in the country. Immediate prospects development of measurement standards positronic emitters for use in nuclear medicine in Cuba, in particular the possibilities of establishing equivalence between Cuban standards and national and international standards are also set. (author)

  1. Reading the Revolution: Where Has the Literature Taken Us in Understanding Cuba?

    Antoni Kapcia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available – Cuba. A New History, by Richard Gott. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004. – The Cuban Revolution. Past, Present and Future Perspectives, by Geraldine  Lievesley. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. – People’s Power. Cuba’s Experience with Representative Government, by Peter  Roman. (Updated edition Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford:  Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.  – Cuba. A Revolution in Motion, by Isaac Saney. Black Point, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Books; London: Zed Books, 2003.

  2. Mortalidad por tuberculosis en Cuba, 1902-1997

    Edilberto González Ochoa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describió el comportamiento de la mortalidad por tuberculosis en Cuba desde 1902 hasta 1997. Durante el siglo xx se ha estudiado esta en varias etapas, pero no se han publicado trabajos que reflejen de forma integrada su comportamiento. Se tomaron las notificaciones de tuberculosis y las poblaciones por sexo, edad y provincias disponibles desde 1902 en los archivos de la Dirección Nacional de Estadísticas del Ministerio de Salud Pública. Se analizaron la tendencia y los porcentajes de variación de las tasas crudas y específicas. La tendencia de la mortalidad por tuberculosis resultó descendente, con tasas desde 230,9 × 105 en 1902 hasta 0,7 en 1997. Descendió 71,7 % en el período 1902-1940, 74 % de 1943 a 1959, 85 % de 1960 a 1978 y 0,16 % de 1985 a 1991. De 1991 a 1994 aumentó 40 % y de 1994 a 1997 volvió a descender 30 %. Tanto las pulmonares como extrapulmonares descendieron por igual. En el sexo femenino fueron mayores hasta 1940 y a partir de 1943 predominaron en el masculino. Las tasas más altas estuvieron en el grupo de edad de 65 años y más. En menores de 15 años fue insignificante en los últimos 30 años. La capital del país presentó las tasas más altas. Se concluyó que las tasas de mortalidad por tuberculosis han tenido un gran descenso durante el presente siglo, y deberá desaparecer como problema de salud en los próximos 10 años.The behavior of mortality from tuberculosis in Cuba from 1902 to 1997 was described. During the xx century, tuberculosis has been studied in various stages, but no papers reflecting its behavior in a comprehensive way have been published so far. To this end, the notifications of tuberculosis and the populations by sex, age and provinces available since 1902 in the archives of the National Statistics Division of the Ministry of Public Health were taken into consideration. The trend and the percentages of variation of the gross and specific rates were analyzed. A descending trend of

  3. Radiological Surveillance in the Central Region of Cuba

    This work shows the results of the radiological surveillance of the environment, carried out by the Center of Environmental Studies from Cienfuegos province, in the central region of Cuba during 1994-2014. the environmental equivalent gamma dose rate was daily measured with a Gamma Tracer GF1588 probe. The activity concentrations of 40K, 137Cs and 226Ra were determined in sugar, milk and bananas, and the activity concentrations and the activity fluxes of 7Be, 40K, 137Cs and 210Pb were determined in aerosols by means of high resolution gamma spectrometry. The environmental equivalent gamma dose rate showed a constant tendency with 89 nSvh-1 standard deviation; the activity concentrations of 40K, 137Cs and 226Ra in sugar, milk and bananas were very below the action level for radionuclides in general consumption foods, dedicated to the international trade; the activity concentrations of 137Cs and 226Ra were below the detection limits. The existence of a fundamental pattern in the annual behavior of the radionuclides in aerosols was demonstrated by means of the multivariate statistical analysis. It was mainly determined by the rains, and it was characterized by a maximum of activity concentration and a minimum of activity flux in January-May; a minimum of activity concentration and a maximum of activity flux in June-October and by a transit period in November-December, with low values in both variables. The general decreasing tendency of the atmospheric 137Cs and the quick decreasing behavior of the 131I, coming from the Fukushima accident in Japan were demonstrated. (Author)

  4. Emergency response during the radiological control of scraps in Cuba

    In the last few years, in the international scene, incidents have been reported due to the presence of radioactive materials in the scrap. This reality has motivated the adoption of measures of radiological security, due to the implications that these incidents have for the public and the environment, as well as for the international trade. Among theses actions is the implementation of the radiological control of scrap, with the additional requirement that this control has to be implemented in the framework of a Quality Management Program.Taking into account the international experience, our institution designed and organized in 2002 a national service for the radiological monitoring of scrap, being the clients the main exporting and trading enterprises of this material in the country. During these years, several contaminated materials have been detected, causing incidents that activated the radiological emergency response system. In this sense, since some years ago, our country has been working in the implementation of a national and ministerial system for facing and mitigating the consequences of accidental radiological situations, conjugating efforts and wills from different national institutions with the leadership of the Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) and the Center of Nuclear Security (CNSN) in correspondence with the social responsibility assigned to the them. These incidents propitiate to have not only a system of capacity and quick response oriented to limit the exposure of people, to control the sources, to mitigate the consequences of the accident and to reestablish the conditions of normality, but also a previous adequate planning that guarantees the speed and effectiveness of it. In these work the experiences reached by the specialists of the CPHR from Cuba during the occurrence of an incident in the execution of the service of radiological monitoring of scraps are exposed. (author)

  5. Graham Greene and Cuba: Our man in Havana?

    Peter Hulme

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Graham Greene’s novel Our Man in Havana was published on October 6, 1958. Seven days later Greene arrived in Havana with Carol Reed to arrange for the filming of the script of the novel, on which they had both been working. Meanwhile, after his defeat of the summer offensive mounted by the Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista, in the mountains of eastern Cuba, just south of Bayamo, Fidel Castro had recently taken the military initiative: the day after Greene and Reed’s arrival on the island, Che Guevara reached Las Villas, moving westwards towards Havana. Six weeks later, on January 1, 1959, after Batista had fled the island, Castro and his Cuban Revolution took power. In April 1959 Greene and Reed were back in Havana with a film crew to film Our Man in Havana. The film was released in January 1960. A note at the beginning of the film says that it is “set before the recent revolution.” In terms of timing, Our Man in Havana could therefore hardly be more closely associated with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution. But is that association merely accidental, or does it involve any deeper implications? On the fiftieth anniversary of novel, film, and Revolution, that seems a question worth investigating, not with a view to turning Our Man in Havana into a serious political novel, but rather to exploring the complexities of the genre of comedy thriller and to bringing back into view some of the local contexts which might be less visible now than they were when the novel was published and the film released.

  6. Biogas potential in the meat installation of Santiago de Cuba

    The Meat Processing Center of Santiago is located 13 kilometers from the city of the same name in the National Freeway. There, 61 heads of bovine livestock are sacrificed daily approximately around 325 Kg. of weight average and 197 pigs of 80 kg. of weight average, which has a demurrage average between 2 and 3 days in the corrals of the Meat Processing Center which generates a significant amount of excretes, rumen (food not digested by the bowels), bleed fluff, slops, meat residuals and fatty, as well as tripes, all that which constitutes a waste of a discharge at the present time loads pollutant that besides not taking advantage, for the maintenance of some appropriate norms of hygiene, the Meat Processing Center of meat by products is under the obligation of using big quantities of water, which constitutes an important factor of the elaboration cost. After that, the treatment in the plant and its final discharge in acceptable drains increase the general expenses. The big slaughterhouses can produce waste waters with a biochemical demand of oxygen of five days of 1300 ppm. The treatment of the waste and elimination of the waste waters coming from slaughterhouses and meat processing plants are an economic necessity and of public health. The main objectives of this work were: 1) To calculate the energy potentialities of the residuals of the productions pig, bovine and other residuals to transform them into energy and their effluents like organic fertilizer cleans of pathogen elements, by means of the process of anaerobic fermentation. 2) To Transform the Biomass into energy given by the different economic activities of the entity, taking advantage of the same one in the process. To achieve these results we have used the literature in this respect and the experience that exists in the province of Santiago from Cuba in this direction, as for the use of the residuals for the biogas production and to dedicate it to the cooking of food and the production of electric

  7. Emergency response during the radiological control of scraps in Cuba

    In the last few years, in the international scene, incidents have been reported due to the presence of radioactive materials in the scrap. This reality has motivated the adoption of measures of radiological security, due to the implications that these incidents have for the public and the environment, as well as for the international trade. Among these actions is the implementation of the radiological control of scrap, with the additional requirement that this control has to be implemented in the framework of a Quality Management Program. Taking into account the international experience, our institution designed and organized in 2002 a national service for the radiological monitoring of scrap, being the clients the main exporting and trading enterprises of this material in the country. During these years, several contaminated materials have been detected, causing incidents that activated the radiological emergency response system. In this sense, since some years ago, our country has been working in the implementation of a national and ministerial system for facing and mitigating the consequences of accidental radiological situations, conjugating efforts and wills from different national institutions with the leadership of the Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) and the Center of Nuclear Security (CNSN) in correspondence with the social responsibility assigned to them. These incidents propitiate to have not only a system of capacity and quick response oriented to limit the exposure of people, to control the sources, to mitigate the consequences of the accident and to reestablish the conditions of normality, but also a previous adequate planning that guarantees the speed and effectiveness of it. In these work the experiences reached by the specialists of the CPHR from Cuba during the occurrence of an incident in the execution of the service of radiological monitoring of scraps are exposed. (author)

  8. ¿Dominio público en Cuba?.

    Nerbys Hernández Dorta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La construcción doctrinal del Dominio Público como categoría jurídica nació con la finalidad de articular un sistema de protección de las necesidades colectivas que satisfacían determinados bienes. Esta función de protección se le atribuyó al Estado, su titular. La titularidad de éste sobre los bienes de Dominio Público no podía ir acompañada de las facultades de disposición propias del derecho de propiedad. Sin embargo, la existencia dentro del Dominio Público de bienes creados por el hombre y bienes provenientes de la naturaleza dio lugar a la distinción entre el “Dominio público natural”, integrado por los recursos naturales destinados al uso común de todos, y el “Dominio público artificial”, formado por bienes de uso público construidos para dar respuesta a las necesidades del hombre. Por ello se cuestiona si constituye el Dominio Público un mecanismo de gestión ambiental en Cuba. Pudiendo determinarse que no existe una nominación de dominio público en el país y por consiguiente no se utiliza esta institución como mecanismo de protección ambiental, recomendando prestar una especial atención a este novedoso mecanismo de protección con la finalidad de su aplicación en el territorio nacional.

  9. Biología reproductiva de Polioptila lembeyei (Aves: Polioptilidae) en la Reserva Ecológica Siboney-Juticí, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    Sánchez-Losada, Margarita; Reyes Vázquez, Ángel Eduardo; Rodríguez Santana, Freddy; Viña Dávila, Nicasio; López Iborra, Germán Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Se estudió la biología reproductiva de Polioptila lembeyei en la Reserva Ecológica Siboney-Juticí, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba durante los años 2006 y 2007 en seis formaciones vegetales. Se describieron aspectos de su reproducción en términos de cronología reproductiva, tamaño de puesta, duración del período de incubación, permanencia de los polluelos en el nido, morfometría de nidos y huevos, y caracterización del sitio de nidificación en cuanto a la altura de los nidos y especie y altura de las ...

  10. Cuba y la transición política: tan cerca y... tan lejos. Reflexiones 2009 sobre el futuro político en Cuba

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a partir de la estructura del régimen, las reglas electorales y el diseño institucional, y la definición de actores cuyas decisiones e interacciones puedan afectar los resultados políticos futuros; por tanto, intentamos formalizar las interacciones estratégicas de Raúl y la oposición moderada para valorar el potencial de negociación de una transición política en Cuba. Entonces, ¿es posible una alianza entre reformistas moderados en el gobierno y una oposición moderada en Cuba que permita una transición política?

  11. CUBA Y LA TRANSICIÓN POLÍTICA: TAN CERCA Y... TAN LEJOS. REFLEXIONES 2009 SOBRE EL FUTURO POLÍTICO EN CUBA

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a partir de la estructura del régimen, las reglas electorales y el diseño institucional, y la definición de actores cuyas decisiones e interacciones puedan afectar los resultados políticos futuros; por tanto, intentamos formalizar las interacciones estratégicas de Raúl y la oposición moderada para valorar el potencial de negociación de una transición política en Cuba. Entonces, ¿es posible una alianza entre reformistas moderados en el gobierno y una oposición moderada en Cuba que permita una transición política?

  12. Comparación de 2 poblaciones de mosquitos Aedes aegypti de Santiago de Cuba con diferente conducta de reposo

    Juan A Bisset

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se separaron 2 poblaciones de Aedes aegypti que se colectaron en Santiago de Cuba durante la epidemia de 1997, por manifestar diferentes hábitos de reposo, unos mosquitos reposaban de forma natural en las paredes hasta 1 m de altura (Cepa Santiago de Cuba y otros se encontraron reposando en los techos de las viviendas (Cepa Santiago de Cuba Techo. Ambas cepas no mostraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a sus características morfológicas. Los mosquitos pertenecientes a Santiago de Cuba Techo presentaronn los mismos parches que los de Santiago de Cuba. La resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados es muy similar en ambas poblaciones, sin embargo, difieren en la alta resistencia al piretroide deltametrina en Santiago de Cuba Techo en comparación con Santiago de Cuba. Desde el punto de vista bioquímico y mediante el uso del sinergista DEF se demostró que las esterasas están asociadas con la alta resistencia a clorpirifos en ambas cepas, no resultando así las MFO, lo cual se demostró con el sinergista piperonil butóxido. Sin embargo, la enzima GST parece ser la responsable de la alta resistencia detectada a deltametrina en Santiago de Cuba Techo por el valor elevado de frecuencia de ese gen en esta cepa. Se utilizó la técnica del ADN polimórfico amplificado a la azar para observar la variabilidad genética entre las 2 poblaciones; los resultados revelaron que existió polimorfismo genético entre las poblaciones en estudio, lo cual pudiera tener una implicación en la ecología y epidemiología del vector.Comparison of 2 populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Santiago de Cuba with different rest conduct

  13. ¿Qué estamos haciendo en Cuba en evaluación educativa?

    Torres, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo explica las acciones que hemos venido realizando en Cuba en materia de Evaluación Educativa. Primeramente, describimos los resultados de los Operativos Nacionales para la evaluación del rendimiento de los estudiantes. Posteriormente, revelamos los pasos que hemos venido dando para la implementación de un Sistema Evaluativo Nacional.

  14. Contribution to the study of the genus Helicopsyche (Trichoptera) from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico

    Botosaneanu, L.; Flint, O.S.

    1991-01-01

    Seven new species and one new subspecies of Helicopsyche von Sieboid are described from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico based on adults; additionally four species and one subspecies belonging to the fauna of these islands are redescribed. Both sexes are described when correct association of female

  15. Emerging Interaction of Political Processes: The Effect on a Study Abroad Program in Cuba

    Clarke, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The emerging interaction of political processes sets the stage for the level of macro uncertainty and specific risk events that may occur in an international relationship. Strongly defined social control in Cuba, formal and informal, dominates the dynamics of the relationship, while simultaneously government, formal, action in the U.S. dominates…

  16. The University for Older Adults: On Cuba's Universalization of the University

    Rangel, Clara Lig Long; Proenza, Antonia Zenaida Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we focus on a new program in Cuba, university studies for older adults or seniors. Specifically, we look at the Special Municipality of the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the context of the larger policy of "universalization of higher education." We provide information about Cuban perspectives on adult education, discuss the…

  17. Critical metals (REE, Sc, PGE) in Ni laterites from Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Aiglsperger, T.; Proenza, J. A.; Lewis, J. F.; Labrador, M.; Svojtka, Martin; Rojas-Purón, A.; Longo, F.; Ďurišová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, March 01 (2016), s. 127-147. ISSN 0169-1368 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Caribbean * Cuba * Dominican Republic * Falcondo mining area * Moa Bay mining area * Ni laterite * Platinum Group Elements * Rare Earth Elements * Scandium Impact factor: 3.558, year: 2014

  18. ER-E3 regulation. Minimal instrumentation that must operate nuclear medicine in Cuba

    The purpose of this regulation is to define the instrumentation that must exist in any institution conducting the practice of nuclear medicine in Cuba. This regulation emphasizes two aspects: The minimum equipment necessary to operate a nuclear medicine laboratory for use 'in vitro' and the minimum equipment required to operate a Nuclear Medicine use 'in vivo'

  19. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Cuba: Relationship and mutual benefit

    This paper states the characteristic of the IAEA and Cuba cooperation. This collaboration is a complement and support of the Nuclear Strategy in the IAEA members states. This collaboration guarantees the financial and material resources and manpower training. The benefit balance and the impacts of the IAEA collaboration are exposed

  20. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  1. Extreme non-regular sea level variations in Cuba under the influence of intense tropical cyclones.

    Hernández González, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aimed at analyzing non-regular sea level variations of meteorological origin under the influence of six major tropical cyclones that affected Cuba, from sea level hourly height series in twelve coastal localities. As a result, it was obtained a characterization of the magnitude and timing of extreme sea level variations under the influence of intense tropical cyclones.

  2. Political Essay on the Island of Cuba: A Critical Edition - by Von Humboldt, Alexander [Ressenya

    Sánchez Cobos, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    Review of the book: Political Essay on the Island of Cuba: A Critical Edition / Alexander von Humboldt; edited by Vera M. Kutzinski and Ottmar Ette.- Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. xxvi+519 p. - ISBN 9780226465678. - (Alexander von Humboldt in English)

  3. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba

    D. Quinones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured blaKPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other ß-lactams, a ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor combination, and gentamicin. Two strains were susceptible only to colistin, whereas the other strain showing colistin resistance was susceptible to fluoroquinolones. These blaKPC-2-positive K. pneumoniae strains were classified into ST1271 (CC29, a novel clone harbouring blaKPC-2, and were revealed to be genetically identical by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting. The three patients infected with the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae had common risk factors, and had no overseas travel experience outside Cuba, suggesting local acquisition of the resistant pathogen. This is the first report of a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in Cuba. Although detection of KPC in Enterobacteriaceae is still rare in Cuba, our finding indicated that KPC-producing bacteria are a global concern and highlighted the need to identify these microorganisms in clinical laboratories.

  4. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  5. An option for the disposal system of low and intermediate radioactive waste in Cuba

    The search and selection of an area for the disposal of low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Cuba is presented. The preliminary evaluation shows that there are favourable technical conditions for the safe disposal of this type of wastes. 13 refs., 3 figs

  6. Turning Javanese: The Domination of Cuba's Sugar Industry by Java Cane Varieties (1880-1950)

    Bosma, U.; Curry Machado, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth, two islands had come to dominate global cane-sugar production. For most of the sixty-year period between 1870 and 1930, around half of the world's internationally traded crop came from Cuba and Java. The two islands had many topogr

  7. HIV-1 Genetic Variability in Cuba and Implications for Transmission and Clinical Progression.

    Blanco, Madeline; Machado, Liuber Y; Díaz, Héctor; Ruiz, Nancy; Romay, Dania; Silva, Eladio

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Serological and molecular HIV-1 studies in Cuba have shown very low prevalence of seropositivity, but an increasing genetic diversity attributable to introduction of many HIV-1 variants from different areas, exchange of such variants among HIV-positive people with several coinciding routes of infection and other epidemiologic risk factors in the seropositive population. The high HIV-1 genetic variability observed in Cuba has possible implications for transmission and clinical progression. OBJECTIVE Study genetic variability for the HIV-1 env, gag and pol structural genes in Cuba; determine the prevalence of B and non-B subtypes according to epidemiologic and behavioral variables and determine whether a relationship exists between genetic variability and transmissibility, and between genetic variability and clinical disease progression in people living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS Using two molecular assays (heteroduplex mobility assay and nucleic acid sequencing), structural genes were characterized in 590 people with HIV-1 (480 men and 110 women), accounting for 3.4% of seropositive individuals in Cuba as of December 31, 2013. Nonrandom sampling, proportional to HIV prevalence by province, was conducted. Relationships between molecular results and viral factors, host characteristics, and patients' clinical, epidemiologic and behavioral variables were studied for molecular epidemiology, transmission, and progression analyses. RESULTS Molecular analysis of the three HIV-1 structural genes classified 297 samples as subtype B (50.3%), 269 as non-B subtypes (45.6%) and 24 were not typeable. Subtype B prevailed overall and in men, mainly in those who have sex with men. Non-B subtypes were prevalent in women and heterosexual men, showing multiple circulating variants and recombinant forms. Sexual transmission was the predominant form of infection for all. B and non-B subtypes were encountered throughout Cuba. No association was found between subtypes and

  8. de producción popular de arroz en Cuba

    Maikel Orlando Arrastia Acosta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las prácticas de poscosecha influyen directamente sobre la calidad del arroz molinado, tanto en términos de composición como de apariencia. Dentro de estas se destacan las operaciones de secado y molinado. En Cuba las tecnologías empleadas, actualmente, por el sector de producción popular de arroz en estas etapas del proceso productivo no siempre son las más adecuadas. Generalmente se utiliza el secado solar y el molinado en molinos del tipo Engleberg (o criollos construidos de forma artesanal y con medios propios. A través de este trabajo se evalúa la influencia del equipamiento de molinado sobre la calidad del arroz producido por productores del sector popular de arroz. Para ello se utilizó arroz con cáscara (variedad IACuba-31 producido en el municipio Yaguajay, Sancti Spíritus. El mismo fue sometido a métodos de secado empleados por estos productores y posteriormente se realizó el proceso de molinado por medio de dos tecnologías: a en un molino criollo y b en una descascaradora de rodillos de goma acoplada a un molino criollo. Como resultado de la comparación del producto final obtenido en estas tecnologías de molinado se pudo determinar que no existen diferencias significativas en cuanto a los porcentajes de granos enteros y partidos obtenidos con respecto a las diferentes formas de secado empleadas. La introducción de la descascaradora de rodillos de goma acoplada al molino criollo mejoró la calidad del arroz molinado, dando lugar a un incremento del porcentaje de granos enteros del 7 %. Además, garantiza la producción de arroz molinado con porcentajes de granos partidos inferiores al 25 %, lo que hace al arroz producido por este sector más competitivo y mejora sus posibilidades de comercialización. El uso de este sistema de molinado también mejora los ingresos de los productores y contribuye al establecimiento de precios de acuerdo con la calidad del producto en los mercados agropecuarios.

  9. San José de las Lajas, La Habana, Cuba

    Yanely Mulet del Pozo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha trabajado en demostrar la importancia e incidencia de los abonos orgánicos en el desarrollo de los cultivos, en la obtención de producciones más sanas a partir del mejoramiento de los nutrientes del suelo. Por lo anterior resulta necesario el conocimiento de los factores que determinan su interacción y comportamiento con las plantas, suelos y los procesos mecanizados en que dichos abonos se encuentran presentes. Actualmente el humus de lombriz representa un abono orgánico de mucho interés, dadas las ventajas que posee para la nutrición de las plantas, por eso, resulta interesante y valioso conocer sus propiedades y así facilitar los procesos tecnológicos relacionados con la manipulación, transportación y distribución en el campo, así como su interacción con el suelo y las plantas. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo es la determinación de algunas propiedades físico-mecánicas, químicas y biológicas del humus de lombriz obtenido en condiciones de la vaquería de la finca Guayabal, San José de las Lajas, La Habana, Cuba. Se precisaron las metodologías correspondientes para la separación de muestras y efectuar los análisis físico mecánicos, químicos y biológicos. Las propiedades obtenidas son: peso volumétrico libre, peso volumétrico compactado, coeficiente de compactación, ángulo de caída libre, ángulo de derrumbamiento y humedad del humus, pertenecientes a las llamadas propiedades físico- mecánicas. Las propiedades químicas: contenidos de: N, P, K, Mg, Ca, acidez (pH y cantidad de materia orgánica. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el humus de lombriz estudiado posee condiciones y propiedades que le permiten mejorar la estructura del suelo, su interacción con los plantas y definir parámetros de conjuntos mecanizados para su tratamiento y distribución

  10. Lo público y lo privado en los escritos de Alexander Von Humboldt sobre Cuba

    Rebok, Sandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to collect the comments and judgements that Humboldt makes about Cuba and evaluate their character. The resulting analysis and interpretation will be undertaken on two different levels: One refers to the information that can be found in his unofficial works, which means the letters Humboldt sent during or shortly after of his visits to Cuba, as well as the diaries he used during his expedition. The other is based on the official works, which include his travel description, his famous Essay on Cuba and his autobiographical text written in 1804. Constrasting these descriptions, we will compare the evaluations of this Prussian traveller elaborated in the moment he visited the island, with the works he wrote 22 years after his return to Europe.

    Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envió durante o poco tiempo después de sus visitas a Cuba, y en los diarios que utilizó a lo largo de su expedición. El otro se fundamenta en los escritos oficiales, que comprenden su narración del viaje, el famoso Ensayo sobre Cuba y la memoria autobiográfica escrita en 1804. Mediante el contraste de estas descripciones se pretende comparar las apreciaciones de este viajero prusiano elaboradas en el preciso momento que visita la isla, cotejándolas con las obras que redactó 22 años después de su vuelta a Europa. Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envi

  11. The Roles of Women, Children and Men in Household Food Planning, Purchasing, Preparation and Consumption in Santiago, Cuba

    Garth, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    This work explores the roles of Women, Children and Men in Household food planning, purchasing, preparation and consumption in Santiago de Cuba. The data for this investigation were collected over a 10-week period during the Summer of 2008. This work focuses on Cuba’s second largest city, Santiago, located in the southeastern part of the island, Santiago provides an urban setting through which to view urban food cultivation and food symbolism in Cuba. Little scholarly work has been published ...

  12. What is the role of the pharmacist?: physicians' and nurses' perspectives in community and hospital settings of Santiago de Cuba

    Niurka María Dupotey Varela; Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira; Caridad Sedeño Argilagos; Kisvel Oliveros Castro; Elisveidis Mosqueda Pérez; Yelina Hidalgo Clavel; Nelly Sánchez Bisset

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to understand the perceptions and expectations of the other health care professionals about pharmacists' role in primary health care centers and hospitals in Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, applying a self-administered questionnaire to health care professionals. The sample included 763 professionals (40.9% physicians and 59.1 % nurses) from hospitals and primary health care clinics, chosen by random stratified sampling,. T...

  13. First report of larval stages of Fasciola hepatica in a wild population of Pseudosuccinea columella from Cuba and the Caribbean.

    Gutiérrez, A.; Vázquez, A. A.; Hevia, Y.; Sánchez, J; Correa, A. C.; Hurtrez-Boussès, S.; Pointier, J.-P.; Théron, A.

    2011-01-01

    A wild population of the lymnaeid snail Pseudosuccinea columella infected by larval stages of Fasciola hepatica was discovered in the Pinar del Rio Province, Cuba. One of 100 snails was infected in a rice culture field. This is the first time this species has been found acting as intermediate host of F. hepatica under natural conditions, not only for Cuba but also for the Caribbean area.

  14. Cuba: A country profile on sustainable energy development

    This publication is the product of an international project led by the IAEA to develop and test a suitable approach for the comprehensive assessment of national energy systems within a sustainable development context. This country profile on Cuba is the result of an intensive effort conducted by Cuban experts, primarily from the Centro de Gestion de la Informacion y Desarrollo de la Energia (CUBAENERGIA) with the collaboration of experts from energy related institutions in the country, jointly with the IAEA and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). The framework, approach and guidelines set forth in this study comprise one set of effective mechanisms for incorporating the concepts of sustainable development into practical implementation strategies. The assessment is specifically directed at one of the most important sectors affecting economic and social development - energy. It is part of an initiative, officially registered as a Partnership with the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, that contributes to Agenda 21, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the goals and objectives of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. The study is, to a certain extent, a continuation and implementation at the national level of two worldwide studies exploring the ties between energy and sustainable development: the World Energy Assessment undertaken by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), UNDESA and the World Energy Council; and the Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development undertaken by the IAEA, the International Energy Agency, UNDESA, Eurostat and the European Environment Agency. No study of a national energy system within the context of sustainable development can be final and definitive. To be useful, the assessment process must be adaptable over time to fit ever-changing conditions, priorities and national sustainable energy development criteria. This publication proposes one such approach for

  15. CUBA竞争平衡研究%The Resarch of Competitive Balance in CUBA

    谢科

    2015-01-01

    运用测度联赛竞争性平衡的基尼指数(GINI )、胜率标准差(SDWP )、赫芬达尔指数(HHI )等方法对CUBA竞争性平衡进行统计分析,结果表明:(1)CUBA 男子与女子联赛都存在不同程度的竞争不平衡.随着联赛的发展,男女联赛之间的竞争性平衡差距反而越大,呈现轻度负相关(-0.135);(2)高校高水平运动员的招生、学业管理、经费投入是影响CUBA 竞争平衡的主要因素.根据研究结果与分析,提出以下建议:确保高校构建高水平篮球队的经费;注重运动员训练和学业两方面的表现,借鉴NCAA 关于运动员学业的管理制度(Academic Progress Rate )等.%By testing the methods of measuring competitive balance of league matches, such as the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Gini Coefficient, the Standard Deviation of Winning Percentages, the article analyzes the competitive balance of CUBA statistically. The result shows that:(1) it exists a competitive unbalance problem in men′s and women′s CUBA to some extent. With the development of the league matches, more gaps is growing between men′s and women′s CUBA, and they show a negative correlation(-0.135).(2) High level student sports athlete′s admission, academic management and financial outlay devotion are the key factors of high standard sport teams′ construction which affects the competitive balance of CUBA. According to the research findings, there are several suggestions as follows:(1) Ensure enough budget of establishing high standard basketball team among high schools. (2) Pay attention to athlete′s performance of discipline and study, referring to Academic Progress Rate of NCAA.

  16. Cáncer del páncreas: un acercamiento a la mortalidad en Cuba Pancreas cancer: an approach to mortality in Cuba

    José Hurtado de Mendoza Amat; Carlos Fábregas Rodríguez; Teresita Montero González; Alexis Fuentes Peláez; Reynaldo Alvarez Santana; Reina A. Coello Salazar; Adoración Duarte Vilariño

    2008-01-01

    Se estudiaron 906 autopsias de casos con cáncer de páncreas, como causa básica de muerte, extraídas de la Base de Datos de Autopsias del Centro Nacional del Sistema Automatizado de Registro y Control de Anatomía Patológica, Registro Nacional de Autopsias en Cuba, con el objetivo de demostrar sus características generales, causas directas de muerte, evaluación de los diagnósticos premortem y aspectos evolutivos. Se representaron 40 hospitales de las distintas provincias del país, entre los que...

  17. Cuba y la transición política: tan cerca y... tan lejos. Reflexiones 2009 sobre el futuro político en Cuba

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2010-01-01

    Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a p...

  18. Calidad de vida e indicadores de salud: Cuba, 2001-2002 Quality of life and health indicators. Cuba, 2001-2002

    Rosa Marina García Pérez; Raúl Pérez González; Orlando Landrove Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    En Cuba se han desarrollado instrumentos de medición con el objetivo de evaluar el estado de salud y su relación con la calidad de vida. El 30 de octubre del año 2000 se aprobó el acuerdo 3790 del Comité Ejecutivo del Consejo de Ministros, que crea el programa nacional de salud y calidad de vida y la comisión nacional de salud y calidad de vida. El presente trabajo, con un diseño descriptivo, expone los indicadores de evaluación que se construyeron a partir de un enfoque intersectorial y por ...

  19. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  20. Economic analysis for the electricity production in isolated areas in Cuba using different renewable sources

    Despite the effort and commitment of the Cuban government in more of 50 year, there are houses without electricity in remote areas of the Electricity Network. These houses or communities have the promise and commitment of the local and national authorities to help them in improve his life quality. How the houses and communities are remote of the electricity network, the cost to extend the network is considerably high. For that reason, the use of renewable sources in these areas is an acceptable proposal. This article does an analysis to obtain different configurations depending to the number of houses. It do a proposal with the use of the Hydrothermal Carbonization process in the cases where is not feasible introduce different renewable source; a technology new in Cuba, and advantageous taking into consideration the kind of biomass that exist in Cuba. The study of the chemical process of the Hydrothermal Carbonization with the Cuban biomass should be further researched. (full text)

  1. Racial Geographies, Imperial Transitions: Property Ownership and Race Relations in Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1894–1899

    Bonnie Lucero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores race relations in the provincial city of Cienfuegos, Cuba, during a time of immense political change from 1894 to 1899. In those five years, Cuba was transformed from a Spanish colony struggling for independence to an occupied territory of the United States. This political transformation brought into direct confrontation two models of race relations: one Spanish, characterized by racial integration, and the other American, renowned for Jim Crow segregation. This essay examines the lived significance of this political transformation through interracial property transactions recorded in the notarial protocols of Cienfuegos. The findings suggest that the final war of independence provided opportunities for Afro-descendants to purchase prime properties within the official city bounds. Yet, with US intervention in 1898, a subtle but increasing marginalization of men and women of color from the market in urban property is evident. Lucero contends that this marginalization reflects a shift in race relations due to the American imperial presence.

  2. Enhancement of the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock in a ferralsol from Cuba

    The Ferralsols from Ciego de Avila, Cuba, have a pH near neutrality and very low exchangeable acidity, thus, they are not suitable for direct application of phosphate rock. In laboratory and greenhouse experiments, different P fertilizers were tested in order to assess their agronomic effectiveness through the use of nuclear and conventional methods. The phosphate rocks (PRs) came from different deposits (Higuanojo, La Pimienta and Trinidad de Guedes from Cuba; Riecito, Baja California and North Carolina from other countries). Partial acidulation (PA) of some of these rocks was also evaluated. Trinidad de Guedes PAPRs were found to be highly effective compared to their natural PR when evaluated through dry matter production, P uptake and isotopic parameters. Further field experiments are needed to validate the greenhouse results to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of the local Trinidad de Guedes PR through partial acidulation. (author)

  3. Quality control of X-ray equipment in some hospitals of Las Tunas province in Cuba

    This paper presents the results of the quality controls executed in 33 X-ray rooms of Las Tunas Province in Cuba. Specific tests for the X-ray generators, X-ray Tube, as well as the visualization systems and darkrooms were included. The results also include the estimation of patient doses for some standard radiographic projections (thorax, lumbar spine, abdomen, skull, and pelvis). The results of the evaluation of X-ray equipment was made following the procedures and tolerance included on the technical guidelines elaborated by the National Control Center of Medical Devices, which is the center for regulation of medical devices in the Republic of Cuba. Patient doses obtained were compared with the references levels reported in The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS). (author)

  4. The Chemical Diversity of Lantana camara: Analyses of Essential Oil Samples from Cuba, Nepal, and Yemen.

    Satyal, Prabodh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Monzote, Lianet; Cos, Paul; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Alhaj, Mehdi A; Setzer, William N

    2016-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lantana camara L. were collected from three different geographical locations: Artemisa (Cuba), Biratnagar (Nepal), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 39 L. camara essential oil compositions revealed eight major chemotypes: β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ar-curcumene/zingiberene, γ-curcumen-15-al/epi-β-bisabolol, (E)-nerolidol, davanone, eugenol/alloaromadendrene, and carvone. The sample from Cuba falls into the group dominated by (E)-nerolidol, the sample from Nepal is a davanone chemotype, and the sample from Yemen belongs to the β-caryophyllene chemotype. The chemical composition of L. camara oil plays a role in the biological activity; the β-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol chemotypes showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. PMID:26917060

  5. Construyendo identidades desde la excepcionalidad: mujer, divorciada y maestra en Santiago de Cuba, siglo XIX

    Provencio Garrigós, Lucía

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a complex matter: the construction of female gender identity, and it does so though the figure of a paradigmatic woman: Baldomera Fuentes Segura (Santiago de Cuba 1807-1876, a cultivated, learned schoolteacher, married and divorced. She knew how to make her way in life, both personally and intellectually, from the exceptionality marked by the gender discourse, except for when she used her wit and intelligence both orally and in writing, to defend her autonomy as well as her personal and professional dignity, facing attacks which aimed to discredit her. Henceforth, her accusers (her husband and the Board of Public Instruction in Cuba would turn her attributes as inappropriate for the female gender situation, as a wife and schoolteacher, being thus Baldomera an impossible exception.

    Este trabajo aborda un tema complejo: la construcción de la identidad genérica femenina y lo hace al hilo de una paradigmática mujer. Ella es Baldomera Fuentes Segura (Santiago de Cuba, 1807-1876, culta, ilustrada, maestra, casada y divorciada, caminos vitales e intelectuales que supo andar desde la excepcionalidad posible que marcaban los discursos genéricos, salvo cuando usó su ingenio e inteligencia, a través de la palabra y la escritura, para defender su autonomía y dignidad personal y profesional, frente a ataques que pretendían desprestigiarla. A partir de ese momento, sus acusadores (marido y Junta de Instrucción Pública de Cuba convertirán esos atributos en impropios del espacio genérico femenino, de esposa y maestra, pasando a ser Baldomera una excepción imposible.

  6. Agriculture in the City: A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba

    Caridad Cruz, M.; Sánchez Medina, R.

    2003-01-01

    This book presents the results of a 3-year research project on the history and state of urban agriculture in Havana, Cuba. A multidisciplinary team of 15 professionals, coordinated by the authors, assess the long-term potential for including urban agriculture in the social economies of two areas of Havana, as well as in city-wide environmental management programs. The results will be of particular interest to municipal, local, and community authorities considering how to convert emergency foo...

  7. Multielemental analysis by neutron activation of sediments in the Ana Maria Gulf, Cuba

    In this paper general samples of marine sediments taken from six control stations of the Ana Maria Gulf (Cuba) were analyzed. For this purpose the thermal neutron activation analysis method was used. 18 elements were determinated. They are: Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Mo, Mn, Rb, Sc, Ta, Th, Yb and Zn. The accuracy varied between 5 and 30% for all elements. 10 refs

  8. Perspectivas de la Infotecnología para la Editorial Universitaria (Cuba)

    Torricella Morales, Raul G.; Hernández Monzón, Aldo; Huerta Espinosa, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    The word "Infotecnología" defines the key discipline for reaching the training and the development of the technical-social relationships and the communications infrastructure of the Cuban Higher Education. The use of Information Technology for producing and publishing the graduation theses is highly important for the best use of TICs in Higher Education in Cuba, so, since the 2008-2009 course the decision was make that all the Cuban students should produce their graduation theses in digital f...

  9. Perspectivas de la Infotecnología para la Editorial Universitaria en Cuba

    Torricella Morales, Raul G.; Hernández Monzón, Aldo; Huerta Espinosa, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    The word "Infotecnología" defines the key discipline for reaching the training and the development of the technical-social relationships and the communications infrastructure of the Cuban Higher Education. The use of Information Technology for producing and publishing the graduation theses is highly important for the best use of TICs in Higher Education in Cuba, so, since the 2008-2009 course the decision was make that all the Cuban students should produce their graduation theses in digital f...

  10. TEJEDORAS DE SONIDOS DE LA REGIÓN CENTRAL DE CUBA

    Giselda Hernández Ramírez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on the role of women in the geo-cultural region of Villa Clara, Cuba, in the development of music in the above area, it emphasizes the different roles of a group of women who served or do today as a musician, composers and pedagogues. It uses a metaphor that moves through time stamp of women in the music of Villa Clara

  11. España y Cuba. Cien años de relaciones financieras

    Inés ROLDÁN DE MONTAUD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Desde la pérdida del imperio continental americano, Cuba se convierte en el territorio colonial de mayor importancia para la metrópoli. Mercado preferencial para la producción española y fuente de capitales que ayudó a paliar el déficit del Tesoro peninsular, las páginas siguientes se dedican a estudiar las diferentes etapas por las que atravesaron las relaciones financieras entre metrópoli y colonia a lo largo del siglo XIX. Estudio centrado en el aspecto institucional, es decir, en las relaciones entre los Tesoros y por tanto en la especial configuración de la Hacienda colonial y la concepción y estructura del sistema presupuestario. Palabras Clave: España, Cuba, Siglo XIX, Relaciones financieras, Hacienda colonial, Presupuestos. ABSTRACT: After metropolis lost its empire on the American continent, Cuba became its most important colonial territory and a preferential market for Spanish production as well as a source of capital which helped to mitigate the deficit in the Spanish Treasury. The pages that follow study the different stages through which the financial relations between the metropolis and the colony passed during the 19th century. This study focuses on the institutional aspect, i.e., on the relations between the treasuries and therefore on the special configuration of the colonial Treasuty and the conception and structure of the budgetary system. Key words: Spain, Cuba 19th Century, Financial Relation, Colonial Treasury, Budgets.

  12. Is the 'New Man' dead? Tourism, self-perception and relative deprivation in Cuba

    Halsør, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This study is about the relationship between the growth of tourism in Cuba and the sense of relative deprivation experienced by many Cubans, and about the results of this relationship in the society at large. I argue that by comparing themselves to their compatriots who have better access to CUC (Cuban convertible peso, one of the two official currencies in use in the country), and who thus enjoy a higher standard of living, many Cubans perceive themselves as relatively deprived. This thesis ...

  13. A History of the Ballet Nacional de Cuba: gendered labor and its representations

    Martinez, Andrew Michael

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the ways that the Ballet Nacional de Cuba (BNC) was enfranchised into the 1959 Cuban Revolution. By foregrounding the national projects of the Revolution and examining representations of the homosexual Cuban male experience, I explore how the internationally distinct Cuban ballet technique emerged in dialogue and in response to the new man (el hombre nuevo) and the new nation that was being forged. Part I explores the Cuban ballet technique as a repository of the socio-po...

  14. Comparing environmental issues in Cuba before and after the Special Period: balancing sustainable development and survival.

    Maal-Bared, Rasha

    2006-04-01

    Following the Earth Summit in 1992, Cuba designed and implemented a variety of programs, administrative structures, and public awareness activities to promote sound environmental management and sustainable development. This came shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union and the strengthening of the US blockade in 1990, which resulted in a 35% drop in Cuban GDP. This period, referred to as the Special Period, witnessed a decrease in many environmentally damaging activities both by choice and by necessity, but also resulted in many decisions to resuscitate the Cuban economy. The purpose of this work was to compare and rank the environmental risks Cuba faced before and during the Special Period (1990-2000) using two Comparative environmental risk assessments (CERAs). To do so, an ecosystem integrity risk assessment matrix was constructed with 42 risk end points. The matrix assessed the risk posed by 17 problem areas including air pollution, water contamination, solid waste sites, pesticides and ecosystem degradation. The risks were calculated using five criteria: area affected, vulnerability of affected population, severity of impact, irreversibility of effect and uncertainty. To construct this matrix, both literature reviews and expert interviews in Cuba were conducted in 2000. The results showed a general decrease in risk scores during the Special Period. Before the Special Period, high risks were posed by: terrestrial degradation and industrial wastewater and sludge, followed by freshwater degradation, surface water stressors, and pesticides. After the Special Period, industrial wastewater and sludge and pesticides were no longer high-risk areas, but municipal wastewater and marine coastal degradation ranked higher than previously. Also, the risk endpoints most stressed after 1990 were affected by activities controlled by the government, such as mining and tourism, and lack of infrastructure. Therefore, the claims that public environmental education is the main

  15. Science, Sentiment and the State; community genetics and the pursuit of public health in Cuba

    Gibbon, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    Contributing to an emerging field of social science literature by examining the translation of genomic medicine across global and transnational fields of research and medicine, this article examines how genetics is allied to public health in Cuba. It examines the sociopolitical and cultural discourses and practices that constitute community genetics or challenge or impede the translation and expansion of genomics as public health. Focusing on the experience of health practitioners, the articl...

  16. Public health services, an essential determinant of health during crisis. Lessons from Cuba, 1989-2000

    de Vos, P.; García-Fariñas, A.; Alvarez-Pérez, A.; Rodríguez-Salvá, A.; Bonet-Gorbea, M.; Van der Stuyft, P.

    2012-01-01

    During the 1990s, Cuba was able to overcome a severe crisis, almost without negative health impacts. This national retrospective study covering the years 1989-2000 analyses the country's strategy through essential social, demographic, health process and health outcome indicators. Gross domestic product (GDP) diminished by 34.76% between 1989 and 1993. In 1994 slow recuperation started. During the crisis, public health expenses increased. The number of family doctors rose from 9.22 to 27.03 pe...

  17. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on external inputs and centralized decision-making in the Cuban agricultural model. Low autonomy in farmers’ decision-making (centrally-planned collective farms), scarcity of production inputs and extensiv...

  18. CardioVilla 2011: congratulations to the health of cardiovascular medicine in Cuba

    Raúl Dueñas Fernández; Alberto Morales Salinas; Rubén Tomás Moro Rodríguez; Jesús A. Satorre Ygualada

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial, some of the most relevant issues dealt with in CardioVilla IV Cardiac Congress 2011 are presented. This congress was held in Santa Clara, Cuba, from October 13th to 15th, 2011. It was sponsored by several scientific societies, including the American Society of Cardiology. A video conference was organized with the representatives of this society. At the conference, the 25th anniversaries of Cardiology Centers Saturmino Lora, William Soler and Ernesto Che Guevara were...

  19. Wastewater Treatment Project for Palma Soriano, Cuba: Assessment of Cultural and Ecological Conditions

    Corvillon, Daniela Peña

    2014-01-01

    The Palma Project is an experiment in the use of cultural identity as a social trigger to address ecological degradation. The research methodology draws from environmental, social and urban analyses to unveil the best strategy to address the ecological, river restoration and water treatment challenges in Berkeley, California’s “Sister City” in southeast Cuba, Palma Soriano. The objective is to provide a better quality of life and to create new opportunities for the local community to reconne...

  20. Corrosion of steel reinforced concrete in the tropical coastal atmosphere of Havana City, Cuba

    Abel Castañeda; Juan José Howland; Francisco Corvo; Tezozomoc Pérez

    2013-01-01

    The influence of chloride deposition rate on concrete using an atmospheric corrosion approach is rarely studied in the literature. Seven exposure sites were selected in Havana City, Cuba, for exposure of reinforced concrete samples. Two significantly different atmospheric corrosivity levels with respect to corrosion of steel reinforced concrete were observed after two years of exposure depending on atmospheric chloride deposition and w/c ratio of the concrete. Changes in corrosion current are...

  1. Imposing Capitalism: Japanese and American Colonialism in Taiwan, the Philippines, and Cuba, 1890s-1920s

    Guzman, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation project focuses on the emergence of capitalism in sugar-producing colonies during the early 20th century and seeks to answer two specific questions: how did American and Japanese empires export capitalist modes of production to their respective colonies and how did these new modes of production transform local social class relations. Whereas Japan acquired Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria after defeating China in 1895, the United States acquired the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico...

  2. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in Cuba

    D. Quinones; Hart, M.; F. Espinosa; Garcia, S.; Carmona, Y; Ghosh, S.; N. Urushibara; M. Kawaguchiya; Kobayashi, N.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemase (KPC) has now become a global concern. As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study in Cuba, three K. pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to carbapenems were detected for a 1-month period (September to October 2011). PCR and sequence analysis revealed that the three strains harboured bla KPC-2. They showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, other β-lactams, a β-lactam/β-la...

  3. "Toward Being a Complete Woman": Reflections on Mothering in Santiago de Cuba

    Garth, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief look at how state policy and programming may have achieved the intended consequence of getting more women into the workforce in Santiago de Cuba. It also shows that by accomplishing this, household work was shifted onto grandmothers leaving a generation of women with the notion that womanhood is conflated with motherhood but without the space and skills for their own mothering.

  4. Floraciones algales nocivas en la bahía de Santiago de Cuba

    Gómez, L.; Díaz, U.; Fernández, A.; Licea, Y.; Álvarez, I.

    2006-01-01

    Santiago de Cuba bay is an ecosystem eutrophic and vulnerable to FANs events. This work preset the results of monitoring during three year in eight stations located in the less polluted area of the bay, leading to the determination of the possible seasonal distribution and FANs frequency. 117 Phytoplankton species were identifying, which belong to 5 divisions; 28% of these species are reported as potentially toxic and/ or noxious. This zone of the bay classifies as politrophic,...

  5. Construyendo identidades desde la excepcionalidad: mujer, divorciada y maestra en Santiago de Cuba, siglo XIX

    Provencio Garrigós, Lucía

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with a complex matter: the construction of female gender identity, and it does so though the figure of a paradigmatic woman: Baldomera Fuentes Segura (Santiago de Cuba 1807-1876), a cultivated, learned schoolteacher, married and divorced. She knew how to make her way in life, both personally and intellectually, from the exceptionality marked by the gender discourse, except for when she used her wit and intelligence both orally and in writing, to defend her autonomy as well as ...

  6. Anemia in children under five years old in Eastern Cuba, 2005-2011

    Gisela M. Pita; Santa Jiménez; Beatriz Basabe; René G. García; Consuelo Macías; Lisette Selva; Clarisa Hernández; Margarita Cruz; Roxana Herrera; Regla O'Farrill; Isabel Calderius; Karelia Paulí; Moraima Leyva; Caridad Arocha; Dania Herrera

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Anemia is the main nutritional problem in Cuban preschool children, prompting several interventions to prevent and control it. An enhanced national strategy was established in 2008, and particular attention paid to the eastern provinces, the region with greatest challenges in social determinants of health. OBJECTIVE Determine anemia prevalence in children aged 6-59 months in Cuba's five eastern provinces in three separate years within a decade, as well as association of anemia wi...

  7. Control biológico en el cultivo del arroz en Cuba. (Resultados 1970 – 2005).

    Rafael Meneses

    2007-01-01

    El cultivo del arroz en Cuba está afectado por diversas plagas, fundamentalmente: Tagosodes orizicolus, Lissorhoptrus brevirostris, Oebalus insularis y Spodoptera frugiperda. A partir de 1970 se iniciaron los estudios sobre los principales controles biológicos de estas plagas. Para T. orizicolus se ha determinado que Paranagrus perforator y Tytthus parviceps son los principales enemigos naturales de esta plaga. El porcentaje de huevos de T. orizicolus parasitados por P. perforator ha lleg...

  8. Relationship between geographic distribution and morphological patterns in genus Cerion (Mollusca: Cerionidae) in Cuba

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    The genus Cerion, with 90 species described for Cuba, is highly polytypical and it had been litle studied. The idea of the absence of and spatiall arrage-ment of morphotypes had been mantained even knowing that in other distri-bution areas several patterns had arise. The goal of this paper was to charac-terize morphological variation on the Cuban species of Cerion and to assess relationship between geographic distances between populations and shell shape differences. Geometric morphome...

  9. El largo compromiso de Canadá con Cuba: paradojas y posibilidades

    Thomas LEGLER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros «actores» es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales

  10. Geology, age and tectonic evolution of the Sierra Maestra Mountains, southeastern Cuba

    Bojar, A.V.; García-Delgado, D.E.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Neubauer, F.; Hejl, E.; Handler, R.

    2006-01-01

    We summarize the available geological information on the Sierra Maestra Mountains in southeastern Cuba and report new zircon fission track and biotite Ar-Ar ages for this region. Two different and genetically unrelated volcanic arc sequences occur in the Sierra Maestra, one Cretaceous in age (pre-Maastrichtian) and restricted to a few outcrops on the southern coast, and the other Palaeogene in age, forming the main expression of the mountain range. These two sequences are overlain by middle t...